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Street child by Berlie Doherty

This unit lasts three weeks Setinthesecondhalfofthenineteenthcentury,StreetchildtellsthestoryofaboycalledJimwho, afteraseriesofmisfortunes,spendstimeintheworkhouseasachildlabourerandlivesonthe streets.ThebookisbasedonthetruestoryofanorphanwhoseplightinspiredDoctorBarnadoto trytohelpstreetchildren,andledtothefoundingofhischildren'shomes. Exploringthenovelenableschildrentodiscusschallengingthemesincludingcruelty,injustice, resilienceandhumanity.Italsoenableschildrentodevelopanunderstandingofissuessuchas povertyandchildlabour. Teachersshouldreadthebookandtheteachingsequencebeforestartingworkontheunitwiththe class.Readingthetextaloudorrereadingsectionsofitcansometimestakeplaceduringteaching sessionsbutshouldalsotakeplaceinseparatereadaloudtimesinordertoreachparticularpoints inthenarrativeinpreparationforsessions.Wherethisisimportant,ithasbeensignalledintheunit. Sessionsareforguidanceonly.Thelengthoftimeeachaspectofthesequencetakesdependson thewaystheyaredevelopedbytheteacher,theamountoftimeallowedfordifferentactivitiessuch asdiscussionandalsothepriorexperienceoftheclass,forexamplewithdramatechniques.

Phase 1

Phase1oftheunit(Sessions1­5)focusesonintroducingchildrentothehistoricalsettingofthe story,themaincharacterJimandthediresituationofhisfamily.Discussion,visualisation,drawing, dramaandperformancereadingarethemainactivitiesinthissection.

Phase 2

Phase2oftheunit(Sessions6­9)developschildrensunderstandingofJim'sexperiencesinthe workhouseandafterheescapes.Themainactivitiesarediscussion,drama,poetrywritingand writinginrole.

Phase 3

Phase3oftheunit(Sessions10­16)focusesondevelopinganunderstandingofthejourneythe maincharacterhastakenduringthenarrativeandhisfeelingsabouthisexperiencesthroughstory mapping,storytellingandwritinginrole. Guided reading Althoughtheunitisdesignedforusewiththewholeclass,teacherscouldalsoselectaspectsofitto usewithguidedreadinggroups.Alternatively,individualsessionscouldbefollowedupduringguided readingsessions,takingacloserlookatparticularsectionsofthetext­looking,forexample,atthe languageorwhathasbeenrevealedaboutplotorcharacter. Allchildrenwillbenefitfromregularopportunitiesforsmall-groupreading,discussionandwritingwith ateacherorteachingassistant. Related core objectives TheoverarchingcorelearningoutcomesfortheKeystageareindicatedinitalics.Relevantobjectives fromYears5and6areindicatedunderthestrands.

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Speaking Speakcompetentlyandcreativelyfordifferentpurposesandaudiences,reflectingonimpactand response Explore,developandsustainideasthroughtalk Y5 Tellastoryusingnotestocuetechniques,suchasrepetition,recapandhumour Drama Usedramatictechniquesincludingworkinginroletoexploreideasandtexts Create,shareandevaluateunderstandingthroughdrama Y5Reflectonhowworkinginrolehelpstoexplorecomplexissues Y5Performascriptedscenemakinguseofdramaticconventions Y6Improviseusingarangeofdramastrategiesandconventionstoexplorethemessuchashopes, fearsanddesires Understanding and interpreting texts Retrieve,selectanddescribeinformation,eventsorideas Deduce,inferandinterpretinformation,eventsorideas Y5Makenotesanduseevidencefromacrossatexttoexplaineventsandideas Y5Explorehowwritersuselanguageforcomicanddramaticeffects Y6Understandunderlyingthemes,causesandpointsofview Engaging and responding with texts Respondimaginatively,usingdifferentstrategiestoengagewithtexts Evaluatewriters'purposesandviewpointsandtheoveralleffectofthetextonthereader Y5Comparetheusefulnessoftechniquessuchasvisualisation,predictionandempathyinexploring themeaningoftexts Y6Sustainengagementwithlongertexts,usingdifferenttechniquestomakethetextcomealive Creating and shaping texts Useandadaptavarietyofformssuitedtodifferentpurposesandreaders Makestylisticchoices,includingvocabulary,literaryfeaturesandviewpointsorvoice Y5Adaptnon-narrativeformsandstylestowritefictionorfactualtexts,includingpoems

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Teaching approaches Readingaloudandrereading Respondingtovisualimages Visualisation Drawingandannotating Freeze-frame,thoughttracking,hotseating,role-play,roleonthewall Forinformationondramaapproaches,seeresources Readers'theatre/scripting Writinginrole Textmarkingandwordcollections Storymapping Discussion Resources AcopyofStreetchildbyBerlieDoherty ImagesofVictorianBritain Flipchartandinteractivewhiteboard(IWB)ifavailable Alargeclassreadingjournal Cross-curricular links ThisnovellinksverywellwithahistoricalstudyofVictorianBritain.ItalsoprovideslinkstothePSHEandcitizenship curriculum,encouragingchildrentousetheirimaginationtounderstandotherpeople'sexperiences,discusstheir opinionsanddeveloptheirsenseofsocialjusticeandmoralresponsibility.Childrencouldinvestigatestreetchildrenin theworldtodaybylookingatthiswebsite.http://www.streetkids.org/.

The teaching sequence

Phase 1

Session 1 Focus objectives Tobeabletotakepartinawhole-classorgroupdiscussion,contributingideas Tobeabletouseawrittentextorillustrationtocollectinformation Key teaching approaches Readingaloud Rereading Respondingtoavisualimage Duringsharedreading,readthepreface`Tellmeyourstory,Jim'aloudtothechildren.Askthem toworkwithapartnerand,givingthemacopyofthissectionofthestory,askthemtothinkabout whatthistellsthemaboutJim.Whodowethinkthisis?Whenandwheredotheythinkthisstory istakingplace?Modelusingthetexttofindinferentialevidencetosupportideasandresponses. Collectthechildren'sideastogetherandscribethemonaflipchart/IWBfileorontothefirstpageof aclassreadingjournal.ExplainthatthisextractisfromabooksetinVictorianBritain.

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Organisethechildrenintomixed-abilitygroupsandgiveeachgroupacopyofanimagedepicting VictorianBritain,e.g.ofthehomesofthepoor,working-classstreetsorpoorchildren.Askthemto lookcloselyanddiscusstheimagesingroupsandmakenotesaboutwhattheycanseeandwhatit mighthavebeenliketohavelivedthen.Thiscouldbedoneonlargesheetsofpaperwiththeimage inthecentre,oronstickynotes,orusinganIWB.ThiswebsiteprovideshelpfullinkstoVictorian resourcematerial:http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/primarylinks/victorian.html Duringtheplenary,askeachgrouptoreportbacktotheclassabouttheirimage,sayingwhatthey noticed. Session 2 Focus objectives Tolearnhowtomakenotestoshowwhathasbeendeducedfromatext Tobeabletorespondimaginativelytoatext Key teaching approaches Readingaloud Visualisation Drawing Annotation BeginthesessionbyreadingaloudChapter1`TheShillingPie'.Askthechildrenwhatwehave foundoutsofaraboutthefamilyfromthischapterandmakenotesonaflipchartaschildrenmake contributions.Thenrereadthelastsectionfrom`Butthepiehasgrowncold...'.Askthechildrento closetheireyesandtrytovisualisethesceneasyoureadit.Talkwiththemaboutthethingsthat Jimcouldhearandhowtheythinkhemighthavebeenfeeling.Thenaskthechildrentoworkwith apartneranddrawapictureofascenefromthischapter.Theymightchoosethelastsceneof thefamilyatnightorperhapsdrawJimrunningthroughthestreetswithhispennypie.Whenthey havedrawntheirpicture,askthemtoannotateittoshowwhatishappeningandhowJimisfeeling. Encouragethechildrentousethetexttosupporttheirresponsesandideas. Session 3 Focus objective Tousedramatechniquestoexploreakeymomentinaplot Key teaching approaches Readingaloud Drama:freeze-frame Captions Discussion BeginthesessionbyreadingChapter2`TheStickMan'.Haveawhole-classdiscussionabout whatishappeninginthischapter.IsMrSpinkrightorwrongtoaskthefamilytoleave?Organise thechildrenintogroupsoffiveandaskthemtochooseascenefromthischaptertoportrayusing `freeze-frame'andaskthemtothinkofacaptionfortheirfreeze-frame,forexample`Norent,no room...'or`TheStickManarrives.'Thechildrencouldwritetheircaptiononalargesheetofpaper andplaceitinfrontoftheirfreeze-frame.Askeachgrouptoshowtheirfreeze-frametotherestof theclassanddiscussthewaystheyhaveportrayedhowthemembersofthefamilyarefeeling. Youmaychoosetotakedigitalimagesandannotatetheseforlateruse.Then,workinginthesame groups,askthechildrentotalkaboutwhatthefamilycoulddotoescapetheirsituationandwhat theythemselvesmightdoinasimilarposition.Endthesessionbygivingeachchildastickynoteand askingthemtowritedowntheirideaaboutwhatJimandhisfamilyshoulddonext.Thestickynotes canbecollectedandstuckintheclassreadingjournal.

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ReadChapter3`RosieandJudd'beforethenextsession(eitherasaclassorindependently). Session 4 Focus objectives Tolearntousedramatechniquestoexplorefeelings Toshowthattheyunderstandpointsofviewbywritinginrole Key teaching approaches Role-play Modelled,sharedandsupportedcomposition Writinginrole DiscusswithchildrenthereasonswhyJim'smotherlefthissistersatthebighouse. Workingcollaboratively,askthechildrentoimaginethattheyareEmilyandLizzie,leftbehindat thebighouse,androle-playanimaginaryconversationbetweenthetwogirls.Howwouldtheyfeel aboutbeingleftthere?Whatmighttheybethinkingabouttheirmotherandbrother?Thengiveeach childapieceofnotepaperandusemodelled,sharedandsupportedcompositiontechniquesto supportthechildreninwritinganote,inroleasoneofthesisters,totheirmum,showinghowthey feelaboutnotbeingabletolookafterherwhensheisill,andtheirfearsforthefuture. ReadChapter4`TheWorkhouse'beforethenextsession. Session 5 Focus objectives Tocontributetodecisionsaboutwaystoperformatext Tolearntoperformatextandmakeitcomealive Key teaching approaches Readerstheatre/scripting GiveeachchildacopyofthefirstthreepagesofChapter3from`Jimandhismotherwalkedfor mostofthatday'until:`Theboypushedhiscartoutandslammedthedoorshut'. Duringsharedreading,useanenlargedversionofthetextdisplayedonaflipchartorIWBto demonstratehowtomarkthisupasascript.Givingindividualchildrensectionsofdialogueor narrationtoread.Askchildrentoworkcollaborativelytomarktheirownscriptstoshowtheparts thattheywillbereading.Rehearsethereadingandthendiscusswiththeclasswaysthiscouldbe improved,forexamplebyreadingsomepartsalltogether,somepartsloudlyandsomesoftly,or byaddingsoundeffects.Provideguidedsupportasappropriate.Thenperformthescriptagain. DiscusswithchildrenwhattheyknowabouthowJimwasfeelingatthispointinthestory. Beforethenextsession,readChapter5`BehindBars',Chapter6`Tip'andChapter7`TheWild Thing'.

Phase 2

Session 6 Focus objectives Tobeabletoworkcollaborativelycollectinginformationfromavisualimage Tobeabletodemonstratetheirunderstandingofatextthroughdrawingandannotation

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Key teaching approaches Drawing Annotation Discussion Haveawhole-classdiscussionaboutwhattheyhavefoundaboutJim'slifeintheworkhouseand notetheinformationtheyfindonalargesheetofpaper.Modelhowtouseevidencefromacrossa texttosupportideasandretrievehelpfulinformation. Organisethechildrenintogroupsofthreeorfourandgiveeachgroupanillustrationshowinga sceneoflifeintheworkhouse,stuckontoalargesheetofpaper.Seeresourcesforimagesoflifein theworkhouse.Askthechildrentotalkintheirgroupsaboutwhattheycanseeintheimageorhow itmakesthemfeelandthenaskthemtomakenotesaroundtheimageonthepaper.Sharethese asaclass.ThenaskchildrentomaketheirownannotateddrawingofJimintheworkhouse.Ask themtowriteacaptionfortheirdrawing.Encouragediscussionofthefinisheddrawings,focusingon whatJimwouldhavebeenmissingabouthislifebeforeenteringtheworkhouse.Finishthelessonby askingthechildrentowriteonastickynoteoneofthethingsthatJimwouldbemissingabouthislife beforeheenteredtheworkhouse.Thestickynotescanbecollectedandstuckintotheclassreading journal. InaseparatePSHEorphilosophysession,youcouldposethequestion`Whatisahome?'and encouragethechildrentoexplorethisidea.Inahistorysession,thechildrencouldfindoutmore aboutlifeintheworkhouse. Session 7 Focus objective Tousedramatechniquestoexploreacharacterorakeymomentinaplot Key teaching approaches Consciencealley BeginthesessionbyreadingaloudChapter8`TheCarpetBeaters'.Duringthesharedpartofthe lesson,talkwiththeclassaboutreasonswhyJimshouldtrytoescapefromtheworkhouseand reasonswhyheshouldstay.Thenorganisetheclassintotwolinesfacingeachotherand,withone childinroleasJimwalkingalongtheconsciencealley,askthechildrentocalloutfromoneside reasonswhyheshouldescapefromtheworkhouseand,fromtheother,reasonswhyheshould stay.Forexample,theymightsay,`Stay,you'vegotaroofoveryourhead!'or`Go,thisisnoway tolive!'.Finishthesessionbyaskingthechildrentowritetheiropinionsonstickynotes.Collectthe ideastogetherandkeeptheminaclassjournal. Session 8 Focus objectives Torecognisethewaysthatthewriterhasusedlanguagetocreateatmosphere Tolearntousethelanguageinanarrativetextasastartingpointforpoetrywriting Key teaching approaches Rereading Visualisation Textmarking Modelled,sharedandguidedwriting Wordcollections Collaborativepoetrywriting RereadthelastparagraphofChapter8`TheCarpetBeaters',whichbegins`Jimcreptforward', askingthechildrentoclosetheireyesandvisualisethescenewhileyouread.Thenaskthemwhich

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wordsorphraseshelpedthempicturewhatwashappening.Usinganenlargedversionofthetext displayedonaflipchartoranIWB,highlightthesewordsandphrasesasthechildrenidentifythem. TalkwiththemabouthowthesewordchoiceshelpusimaginehowJimisfeeling.Askthechildrento turntoapartnerandthinkofotherwordsandphrasestoaddtothislisttoshowwhatishappening andhowJimisfeeling.Notethesewordsandphrasesontheflipchart.Modelhowthewords collectedcanbeusedtocreatealistpoem,forexample: Escape Invisible, Gliding, Weakandpanting, Darting Hiding Breathbursting Usesharedtechniquestoexplorewaystoimprovetheorderofthewordsandphraseslisted.Then askthechildrentoworkcollaborativelyand,usingthewordcollectiontohelpthem,writelistpoems aboutJim'sescape.Withresponsepartners,thechildrencouldworktoimprovetheirpoems.Use guidedwritingtosupportgroupsofchildrenwritingandredraftingpoems. Inaseparatedancesession,thechildrencouldexploreJim'sfeelingsoffearandreliefashe escapesfromtheworkhouse. ReadontoChapter11`TheSpittingCrow'beforethenextsession. Session 9 Focus objectives Tousehotseatingtoexploreacharacter'sstory Tothinkaboutthewaysthatdramahelpsyouthinkaboutcomplexideas Tounderstandacharacter'spointofviewandinfertheirmotivation Key teaching approaches Hotseating Writinginrole Sharedandguidedwriting ReadChapter10`LameBetsy'andChapter11`TheSpittingCrow'.Talkwiththechildrenabout Rosie'sstory:WhatmighthavehappenedafterthenightJim'smotherarrived?WhydidRosieand Juddlosetheirjobs?IsRosietellingthetruthaboutwhathappenedtoEmilyandLizzie?Whymight shelie? ModelthinkingandcomposingquestionsthattheymightwanttoaskRosieaboutthatnightand thenaskthechildrentoworkwithapartnertocomposequestions.Withonechildinthe`hotseat'as Rosie,askindividualstoposetheirquestions.Afterthis,giveeachchildasmallpaper-foldedbook torepresentRosie'sdiary,andusesharedandguidedwritingtosupportchildrentowriteanentryin roleasRosie,describingwhathappenedtoherafterJim'sfamilyarrivedattheBigHouse:whyshe lostherjob,whathappenedtoJim'ssistersandhowshefeelsaboutseeingJimagain. Endthesessionbydiscussingwiththeclassthewaysthattheactivityhelpedthemtowriteinrole.

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Phase 3

Session 10 Focus objectives Touseevidencefromthetexttocollectinformationaboutacharacterandinfertheirfeelings Key teaching approaches Rereading Textmarking Roleonthewall Drawingandannotation AskthechildrentotalkwithapartneraboutwhattheyhavefoundoutaboutShrimps.Givethem acopyoftheextractfromChapter12whichstarts`Oneofthemwasaredhairedpokeysortof boy'andends`I'lltalktohimtodayI'llfindoutwhathe'scalledthat'swhat'.Askthemtoreread thissectiontogetherandhighlighttheinformationtheyfindaboutShrimps.Thentellthemtodraw anoutlinesketchofShrimps'writing,notingwhattheyhavefoundoutabouthimsofararoundthe edgeoftheirsketch.Thiscouldincludewhathelookslikeandhowhetriestoearnmoney.Thenask themtothinkaboutwhattheyknowabouthowShrimps'sfeelsabouthismotherandhiswishfora brother,andwritecommentsonhisfeelingsinsidetheoutlinesketch.Ensurethatthechildrenare abletobackuptheiropinionwithinferentialanddeductiveevidencefromthetext. ReadChapter13`TheLily',Chapter4`TheWaterman'sArms'andChapter15`Josh'beforethenext session. Session 11 Focus objectives Tousedramatechniquestoexploreacharacter'sfeelings Toshowtheirunderstandingofacharacter'ssituationbywritinginrole Key teaching approaches Freeze-frame Thoughttracking(seeresourcesforinformationondramatechniques) Booktalk Writinginrole TalkwiththeclassaboutwhatitwaslikeforJimonboardTheLily.Workinginpairs,askthechildren tofreeze-frameascenefromthischapter,perhapsshowingJimshovellingcoal.Asksomepairsto voicetheirthoughtsinrole.Thenwritetheseonthoughtbubbles.Thenaskallthechildrentowrite theirthoughtsinroleasJimonthoughtbubbles.Thesecouldbedisplayedonthewallorputina classreadingjournal. Inanartsession,thechildrencoulddrawcharcoalsketchesofJimworkingforGrimyNickonboard TheLily. Inahistorysession,thechildrencouldfindoutaboutchildlabour.Visitthefollowingwebsite: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRchild.htm.Onthesewebpages,itispossibletoread first-handaccountsandinterviewswithVictorianworkingchildren. Note:Itisimportanttocheckthesuitabilityofanyextractgiventochildrenfromthissite,because thecontentisvariable. Beforethenextsession,readontoChapter20`TheGreenCaravan'.

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Session 12 Focus objectives Tolearntoretrievethemainlocationsandeventsfromatext Tolearnthewaysthatastorymapcanhelptrackacharacter'sjourneythroughanarrative Key teaching approaches Storymapping Insharedwriting,talkwiththeclassaboutalltheplacesthatJimhasbeentoduringthestory. Makealistoftheselocationsandthendemonstratehowacharacter'sjourneythroughabookcan bedepictedwithamapofthestory.AskthechildrentomaketheirownstorymapstoshowJim's journeyfromhisroomintheovercrowdedhousehesharedwithhismotherandsisters,tothecircus. Beforethenextsession,readontoChapter26`GoodbyeBruvver'. Session 13 Focus objective Toshowacharacter'sfeelingsbywritinginrole Key teaching approaches Discussion Modelled,sharedandguidedwriting Individualwriting DiscusswiththeclasswhatJimwouldhavelikedtohavetoldShrimpsaboutwhattheycoulddo togetherinthefuturetobelike`bruvvers'andwhathecouldtellhimthatwould`makehisears tingle'.Throughmodelled,sharedandguidedwriting,writethelettertoShrimpsthatJimwouldhave written(ifhecouldwrite!),showinghowhefeelsabouthim. Session 14 Focus objectives Totellastoryusingstorymapsasnotes Tousedramastrategiestoexplorekeymomentsinaplot Key teaching approaches Storytelling Role-play Freeze-frame Askthechildrentoworkinpairs,withoneinroleasJimandoneasBarney,asJimtellshisstory duringasharedreadingsession.Thechildrencanusetheirstorymapstohelpthem.Discusswith thechildrenhowBarneymightfeelhearingthisstory.Then,askingthechildrentoworkingroupsof fiveorsix,askthemtofreeze-framethesceneontherooftopswhenBarneyseesthestreetboysfor thefirsttime.Askthechildren,inroleasBarney,tovoicetheirthoughtsandmakeanoteoftheseto refertointhenextsession.Modelthisprocesstothechildren. Session 15 Focus objectives Toinferacharacter'sfeelingsatkeypointsinatext Toshowacharacter'sviewpointandfeelingsbywritinginrole

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Key teaching approaches Discussion Sharedandguidedwriting Writinginrole Beginthesessionbyreadingtheendofthestory.Discusswiththechildrenwhattheyknowabout howBarneyfeelsabouthearingJim'sstoryandseeingthestreetchildren,referringtothedrama andstorytellinginthelastsession.AskthemtowriteDoctorBarnado'sdiarywithafullaccountof thestoryheheardfromJim,whathesawonthestreetsandwhathethinkshemightdoaboutthis situation.Thiscouldbedonethroughsharedwritingandwhenthechildrenworkindependently, withyoufocusingonaguidedgroup. Session 16 Focus objective Touseinformationfromaninformationsourceandfromafictiontexttomakeaposter Key teaching approaches Sharedreading Collaborativewriting Readtheauthor'snoteandshowthechildreninformationaboutDoctorBarnadoandhiswork. Givethechildrencopiesofinformationfromthefollowingwebsitepage,orencyclopaediasand informationbooks,andaskthemtoworkwithapartnertomakeaposteradvertisingDoctor Barnado'shomesfordestituteboys:`Nodestitutechildeverturnedaway'.http://www.barnardos.org. uk/who_we_are/history.htm

Opportunities for assessment in this unit

StreetChildisparticularlystrongintheareaofplotandcharacterdevelopment,themesandissues. ItsupportschildrenwhoaremovingfromLevel3toLevel4inempathisingwiththemaincharacters andinferringfeelings,thoughtsandmotivationoverthecourseofthenarrative.Thechildrenareable toexplorethemainthemesandthinkabouttheeffectofthetextonthereader. Intheunitofwork,thechildrenareaskedtosearchthetexttolocateevidence,toreadthetext closelyforimplicitmeaningsandtosupporttheiropinionsbyreferringtothetext.Someofthese discussionstakeplaceinwhole-classdiscussions;otherdiscussionstakeplaceinpairsandgroups. TeachersorTAscanlisteninandmakediscreetnotesonthediscussions.Assessmentscanbe madeduringguidedreadingandwritingsessions.Thechildrenarealsofrequentlyaskedtomake notes,whicharecollectedinaclassjournal­thisoffersafurtheropportunityforassessment.

Ongoing assessment opportunities Class and group discussions Duringthefrequentopportunitiesforclassdiscussionswithintheunit,theteachercouldmakebriefnotesafterthe sessionoraTA,ifpresent,couldmakenotesduringasession. TeachersorTAscouldsetupguidedreadingorwritingactivities,usingsomeoftheactivitiesintheunit,tomake morecloselyfocusedassessmentswithparticularchildrenwhoareworkingtowardsLevel4. Notescanalsobemade,forexampleusingthefollowingframework,duringgroupdiscussionsandpartnerwork. SeeresourcesforaframeworkthatsupportsthemonitoringofchildrenwhoaremovingfromLevel3toLevel4.

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Written work Children'sunderstandingscanalsobenotedfromtheirwrittenwork.Inadditiontotheopportunitieslistedinthegrid onpage10: · thechildren'snotesrecordedintheclassreadingjournalwilldemonstratetheirunderstandingofcharacter's motivationsandfeelingsatkeymomentsintheunit · annotateddrawings(Sessions2and6)willindicatechildren'sabilitytoretrieveinformationfromtext · childrenareaskedtowriteinroleatvariouspointsthroughouttheunit(e.g.Sessions9and11);thiswillindicate theirabilitytomakeinferencesaboutacharacter'sfeelingsormotivation. Assessment opportunities WithaparticularfocusonchildrenmovingfromLevel3toLevel4 Tobegintomakeinferences(readingbetweenthelines) anddeductions(pullingevidencetogether)including empathisingwithcharactersandtheirfeelings,thoughts, motivationsandchangesoverthecourseofthe narrative Phase 1 Session 4 Children'sabilitytoinferthefeelingsofthemain characterswillbeevidentastheywriteinrole. Note:Additionalopportunitiesforwritinginrolelaterin theunitwillalsoindicatetheabilitytoinfercharacters' feelingsandmotivations. Todiscusstheauthor'suseoflanguage,e.g.todescribe charactersandsettings.Identifytheintendedeffectof particularlanguagechoice(AF5) Tobeabletosearchtextcloselyandtorefertothetext whenexplainingideas Phase 2 Session 8 TheteacherorTAcouldlisteninonchildren's discussionsabouttheuseoflanguage. Phase 2 Session 10 Childrenareaskedtocollectevidencefromthetext whichtellsthemaboutShrimps.TheteacherorTA coulddiscussthesedrawingswithindividualchildren, askingthemtoexplaintheirideas. Totalkabouttheauthor'spurposesandviewpoints andtheoveralleffectofthetextonthereader,e.g. overarchingthemes,events,charactersandplot structures Phase 3 Session 14 Children'sstorytellinginpairswillindicatetheir understandingofthemaineventsinthestory. Phase 3 Session 15 Children'sdiarywritinginroleasDrBarnadowill indicatetheirunderstandingofthemainthemesandthe effectonthereader. Sources:NCleveldescriptions QCA'sSATsanalysisattheendofKeyStage2,publishedinImplicationsforteachingandlearning(QCA2004,2005, 2006),showskeypointersinhelpingchildrentomovefromLevel3toLevel4inreading.

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National Curriculum Level descriptions

Level 3 Pupilsreadarangeoftextsfluentlyandaccurately.Theyreadindependently,usingstrategies appropriatelytoestablishmeaning.Inrespondingtofictionandnon-fiction,theyshowunderstanding ofthemainpointsandexpresspreferences.Theyusetheirknowledgeofthealphabettolocate booksandfindinformation. Level 4 Inrespondingtoarangeoftexts,pupilsshowunderstandingofsignificantideas,themes,eventsand characters,beginningtouseinferenceanddeduction.Theyrefertothetextwhenexplainingtheir views.Theylocateanduseideasandinformation

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