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" Carbon Intensity ()"

Carbon Intensity

:

..

()

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Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

Carbon Intensity ()

3 (Up Stream) (Middle Stream) (Down Stream)

Finished goods

BF

BOF EAF

1

:

2 (Integrated process) (: Shama, 2008)

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

2

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

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3

Carbon Intensity ()

4 (: Hidalgo et al., 2003)

3 (Pig iron) (Steel) .. 2550 (: U.S. Geological Survey,

2008)

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

4

Carbon Intensity ()

()

Slab

Billet

5

(: , 2553)

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

5

Carbon Intensity ()

BOF (integrated BF based steel)

80%

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1960 1995

EAF (scrap based steel)

EU ()

OH (open hearth steel)

250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0

2020

6 7 BOF EAF EU (: Tara and Carolyn, 2001)

BOF EAF

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

(: , 2553)

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

6

CO2 ( )

Billet Bloomm CO2

CaCO3 + HeatCaO + CO2

C + O2 CO2 CO2 + C 2CO Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2 C + 0.5O2 CO + heat CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O + heat

Slab

CO2

· · · ·

· · ·

· ·

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

· ·

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()

Emission factor

1 Emission Factor CO2 CH4 (IPCC, 2006) Process/Technology Sinter Production Coke Oven Iron Production Direct Reduced Iron production Pellet production Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Open Hearth Furnace (OHF) Emission factor CO2 (tonne/tonne of product) CH4 (g/tonne of product) 0.2 70 0.56 100 1.35 0.7 0.03 1.46 0.08 1.72

()

1,000 8

Carbon Intensity

India China US

Carbon Intensity ()

CO 2 (IPCC 1996) 1.71.7 t COsteel t CO2/t 2/t 1996) steel (IPCC CO2 1.5 t CO /t steel

2

Tata Steel Gr. Vision Specific CO2 emissions

8 Carbon intensity (: Persson et al., 2007)

2

(Chaparral steel) (Tokyo steel) (BSW)

(EAF)

EAF (kWh/ton) - Oxygen - Electrode - Yield (%) EAF (Nm3/ton) EAF (kg/ton)

547 44 3.6 88.5

450

460

363 40 2.0 89.0

46 34 547 kWh/ton x 0.58 kg CO2/kWh 2.3 = 0.317 ton CO2 / 2.1 ton 93.5 92.7

9 () : ; 2547

Carbon Intensity ()

Carbon intensity

Gate-to-Gate Carbon intensity

1.

Input

2. · Process · Electricity · Fuel

3. · Process · Electricity · Fuel

· Process · Electricity · Fuel

Output

Carbon intensity

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

Carbon intensity

()

Carbon intensity

10

Carbon Intensity ()

1.

CO2 Emission, Electricity = Electricity Consumption x Emission Factor

: CO2 Emission,,Electricity = (CO2) kgCO2 Electricity Consumption = (kWh) Emission Factor = (CO2)

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

: (kWh) : (CO2)

Emission Factor : Carbon Intensity

..

2547

2548 2549 2550 2551 Emission Factor (kgCO2/Wh)

0.581

0.578 0.550 0.579 0.572

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

2.

:

CO2 Emissions, fuel

= (CO2) (kg CO2) Fuel Consumption fuel = ( MJ/Unit) Emission Factor = IPCC (2006)

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

Emission Factor

: IPCC 2006

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

3. IPCC (2006)

Tier 1 () emission

factor ( CO2 )

: ECO2= (CO2) Emission Factor = (CO2) BOF = BOF EAF = EAF OHF = OHF

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

Tier 2 CO2 ( CH4)

ECO2, non-energy = IPPU () PC = () COBa = () CI = () L = () D = () CE = ()

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

Ob

COG

S IP BG Cx

= b () = / () = () = () = / () GJ = x, x

Tier 3

CO2 CH4

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon intensity IPCC 2006

Carbon Intensity ()

: CO2 Tier 2

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

Carbon Intensity Energy Intensity (gate-to-gate) 5 5 .. 2547 2551 (.. 2004-2008)

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

3 Carbon intensity Energy intensity

()

1,514,784a 632,497a 821,092a

Carbon intensity (tonneCO2/tonne product)

38 53 78 0.182 0.172 0.029

Energy intensity (GJ/tonne product)

1.93 1.58 0.46

Emission/Energy (tonneCO2/GJ)

0.09 0.11 0.06

/

(Billet)

(Slab)

422,151b

480,373a 1,006,134c

72

60 67

0.620

0.064 0.651

3.21

0.40 4.89

0.20

0.15 0.13

0.279 : a b c () Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization 4,877,031

2.20

0.13

20

Carbon intensity Energy intensity (: Persson et al., 2006)

Carbon intensity = 0.279 tonne CO2/tonne 61.2 % 26.6 % 12.2%

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

Energy intensity = 2.20 GJ/tonne 55.4% 46.6%

21

()

4 Energy intensity Energy intensity (GJ/tonne steel) EAF/continuous casting/hot rolling Hot rolling (Price et al., 2002) 9.3 2.3-5.4 4.89 1.93

Carbon Intensity ()

Energy efficiency index (EEI)

Cold rolling

1.6-2.8

1.58

5 Energy intensity World Best Practice Energy intensity (GJ/tonne) World Best Practice (Worrell et al., 2007) EAF EAF *

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

Energy intensity, ref = Energy intensity World Best practice Energy intensity,TH = Energy intensity

EEI

0.67 1.0 0.3 0.5

22

2.1 1.98 0.47 2.4

3.12 1.93 1.58 4.89

()

Carbon Intensity ()

5 Energy intensity CO2 World Best Practice

(GJ/tonne steel) 1.02 1.11 2.49

CO2 (tonne CO2/ tonne steel)

CO2 (tonneCO2/ tonne steel) 0.118 0.078 0.249

0.146 0.118 0.308

0.028 0.040 0.059

4.62

0.572

0.099

0.445

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

(Fuel switching)

World Steel Association (2010) 1. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)- technology roadmap (USA) Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrate Molten Oxide Electrolysis

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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Carbon Intensity ()

() 2. POSCO-CO2 Breakthrough Framework CO2 absorption using ammonia solution Carbon-lean FINEX process 3. COURSE50 (JISF, Japan) CO2 separation, capture and storage CO2 fixation by plants and its effective uses 4. ULCOS-Ultra-Low Carbon dioxide Steelmaking (EU) Top gas recycling blast furnace with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) ISARNA with CCS Bath-smelting Advanced Direct Reduction with CCS Electrolysis

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization

()

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FINEX Process

Source: Posco CO2 breakthrough framework, 2008

26

..

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Email: [email protected]

27

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