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CLOSURE AND POST-CLOSURE OF LANDFILLS IN MALAYSIA ­ CASE STUDIES

Fauziah S.H., Noorazamimah Aiza A. and Agamuthu, P. Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia email: [email protected]

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Introduction

Land filling is the cheapest and simplest waste disposal option. Since 1960s Malaysian MSW was being managed by local municipalities ­ siting of landfill in `unwanted' land Currently, 90% of 19100 tonnes of MSW are disposed of into 130 dumping sites. Most are not sanitary landfill except 10%.

Producing Leaders Since 1905 www.um.edu.my

PERLIS

KEDAH

PENANG

KELANTAN PERAK TERENGGANU

PAHANG

SELANGOR

N

KUALA LUMPUR NEGERI SEMBILAN MELAKA JOHOR

Map of Peninsular Malaysia

PERAK

Producing Leaders Since 1905 www.um.edu.my SUNGAI BESAR KERLING

BUKIT BERUNTUNG KUALA SELANGOR

2

ULU YAM LAMA

KUNDANG

SELANGOR

3 4

KUALA LUMPUR

KAJANG

1

BANTING

N

SEPANG

NEGERI SEMBILAN

Map of Selangor

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A typical MSW Landfill in Malaysia

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Issues

Re-development of ex-dumping ground

Increase in land price Scarcity of suitable land especially in urban areas.

Most lacked pre-planning strategy for closure and post-closure

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Objective

Explore issues pertaining to the closure and post-closure of landfills using four case studies:

Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill Kundang Landfill Ex-dump site Ex-mining area used as dumping site

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1. Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill

An engineered landfill- proper leachate and gas treatment facilities Accommodated approx. 6 million tonnes of MSW Began operation in 1995, planned for closure in 2007- exhausted earlier Closed 2006 also due to increased population density within the area.

Waste disposal activity at Air Hitam Sanitary landfill in Selangor, Malaysia

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Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill Closure and Post-closure

No serious issues due to proper closure and post-closure planning Existing leachate treatment system ­ chemical and biological treatment.

Quality of discharged effluent within the Standard (Malaysian EQA 1985) limit allowed

Landfill gas treatment facility ­ CH4 conversion to energy

Total of 2 MW

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Current practice

Capping of waste cell with non-permeable liner Bio-cover layering Rehabilitation of the area with grasses

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2. Closure Issues at Kundang Landfill

Covering 80 acres; originally an ex-mining pond with natural clay liner. Received 300 tonnes of MSW daily Lacked leachate and gas treatment facility. Closed in 2006 (original plan 2008) due to the landfill leachate contamination into the adjacent river.

Kundang Landfill during operation

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Closure Issues at Kundang Landfill (cont'd)

During operation:

waste were filled into waste cells, compacted and covered daily. lack of leachate treatment - leachate accumulates in low-lying spots and eventually entered the river system.

Leachate flowing to the lower ground

Leachate accumulated on the "leachate collection ponds"

Discharge of landfill leachate into adjacent river

Characteristics of leachate from Kundang Landfill

Parameter BOD5 (mg/l) COD (mg/l) pH TSS (mg/l) Zn (mg/l) Cu (mg/l) Cr (mg/l) Pb (mg/l) Kundang leachate 27.5 ± 0.7 6232 ± 1824 7.48 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.04 0.003 ± 0.002 0.19 ± 0.02 0.03 ± 0.01 EQA 1974 Std A 20 50 6­9 50 0.2 0.2 0.1 Std B 50 100 5.5 - 9 100 1.0 1.0 0.05 0.5

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Daily leachate contamination from Kundang Landfill into Kundang river system

Parameter (g/day)

BOD5 COD TSS Hardness (CaCO3) Cr Cu Pb Zn Mg

Level of pollutants

1 238 280 440 2.7 19 320 8.7 0.135 1.215 2.7 191.0

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Current Scenario

Leachate accumulated in the `leachate pond' Covering of the waste cells significantly reduces the leachate generation due to less direct contact with rain The volume of leachate flowing into the river also reduces, however it is still contaminating the river system.

Waste cell has been covered with soil and grass after landfill closure

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3. Contamination at an Ex- landfill in Selangor

Located in Kelana Jaya; closed in 2000 Formerly was an ex-mining area Received a total volume of approximately 1.57 million m3 of MSW during its operational period. Lack a liner system - contamination from waste residue, leachate and landfill gases.

Waste on the ex-landfill site

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Environmental aspects of the area

Currently mixed development had been established on the ex-landfill including residential area and commercial zones. Soil contamination:

Highest As (64.4 mg/kg) and Hg (11.5 mg/kg). warrants remediation to prevent risk to occupants on the ex-landfill area.

Development of the ex-landfill area

Results of surface soil and deep soil analysis

Parameter Phosphate Flouride Sulfate pH Chloride Nitrate Nitrite Zn Sb Cd Cr Cu Pb Ni Ag Tl As Hg unit mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg na mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg surface soil 4 3.7 280 7.3 63.2 31.6 1.65 53.3 2.4 0.6 6.8 10.25 36 3.06 1.2 49.45 30.3 1.4 5 m deep soil 4 0.7 9.03 7.8 3.7 1.6 nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 9 nd nd 1.25 10 Dutch Intervention Standard 720 15 12 380 190 530 210 15 15 55 10

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Problem Identified and Remediation

Surface soil contamination- agricultural activities should be prevented, residents should not plant edible trees Intermittent gas release- "Bio-cover" recommended to minimise the landfill gas impacts,

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4. Malodour problem at the ex-mining area

Located in the southern zone of Petaling Jaya Originally an ex-mining area Covered approximately 114 acres. Reclamation by filling with construction and municipal wastes Waste contained high percentage of gypsum

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Concerned Issues

Unregulated dumping of construction waste into the mining pond Release of high volume of H2S gas (200 ppm) - major health issue to the existing residents and property damages due to corrosion. Leachate contamination

H2S Monitoring Result 2004-2007 at The Retention Pond

800

200 180 160 140

Average Highest Rainfall (ml)

700 600 500

120

ppm

100 80 60

400 300 200

40 20 0 Apr May Jun Mar Apr May Jun Feb Mar Apr May Sep Oct Nov Dec Nov Dec Jan Jan Feb Aug Sep Oct Nov Jul Aug Jul Aug Jun Jul Dec Jan Mar Feb Mar Feb Sep Oct

100 0

2004 2005 2006 2007

Year

Level of H2S in the atmosphere at different sampling station in PJS 3.

Corrosion on metal based material

Corrosion is also evident on concrete

Leachate analysis from study area

Parameter BOD COD pH Sulphide Ammoniacal-N Phosphate Sulfate Chloride Nitrate Cd Cr Pb Fe Ag As Hg Se Ba Unit mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l Range 23.5 - 42.0 51.5-128.0 4.7-7.1 0.9- 10.4 13.4-17.8 1.6 - 315.6 55.0 - 132.5 22.1 - 37.8 0- 2,687.1 Not detected Not detected Not detected 0.1- 16.3 0- 0.6 0 ­ 0.3 Not detected Not detected 0.2-0.3 Average 33.0 82.9 6.5 3.8 16.1 80.2 101.6 27.3 671.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 Standard B 50 100 5.5-9.0 0.5 Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available 0.02 0.05 0.5 5 Not available 0.1 0.05 Not available Not available

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Leachate flowing into the drain system through cracks

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Proposed Treatment Facilities

Proper gas collection, transportation and treatment system to minimize the impact of CH4 and H2S. Leachate will be diverted to a treatment plant for total management.

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Conclusion

Landfill closure and post-closure issues are very serious in Malaysia. Proper closure post-closure is important ensure the safety of the environment (Air Hitam landfill) Ad-hoc decision and lack of planning turned landfill as a major source of pollution (Kundang landfill) Redevelopment of an ex-landfill is possible but requires high capital to remediate contaminating areas Appropriate enforcement and regulations is crucial Indicates the urgent need of proper policies and guidelines on closure and post-closure to minimize environmental impacts

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Acknowledgement

Alam Flora (P) Ltd. KUB Berjaya (P) Ltd. GAD Waste Management Company Bussum University of Malaya PJP Grant (VOT F0203/2004B)

THANK YOU

from SOLID WASTE LAB UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA 50603 KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA TEL: +6037967 4631 FAX: +60379676756

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