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E l e v a t e d F l a re s

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

DECLARATION OF THE QUALITY POLICY OF THE COMPANY The first engagement for THERMOENGINEERING The main principal which inspires the activity of THERMOENGINEERING is to provide the clients with solutions, products and services which are coherent to the market maximum standards and in full respect to all the defined characteristics and the foreseen periods. In order to assure that our responses are aligned with the quality expectation of the customers, THERMOENGINEERING has determined a quality management system which intend to incorporate the quality itself in all processes which represent the base of the activity and the company life: from the preliminary definition of the specifications up to the delivery of the products, the offered services, and the supply control. Throughout the measurements and the monitoring of the processes, it is intended to obtain a continuous improvement of the own performance, following always a major quality. Quality, for THERMOENGINEERING, means involving all the management in such a way that all are quite engaged to reach the un-renounced targets of safety, reliability, and maintainability of the proposed solutions. The clients of THERMOENGINEERING will find in the Manual of the Quality Management System of the company a reference point which, in addition to testifying our concrete involvement for providing the required quality level through well-defined processes, confirm our target of "satisfy the client" as well. Making use of methodologies validated by the market, applying controlled processes, defining formally the responsibilities, the roles and the necessary skills, THERMOENGINEERING quality could be considered a guarantee for whoever have the necessity to obtain for himself an advanced combustion system to get rid of the gas of the hydrocarbons. The Management

since 1979 is a company specialized in the combustion technology field. Our company is capable to deliver complete package consisting of design, fabrication, field installation and start up of the supplied equipment. Thermoengineering is basically an engineering company that is capable to design combustion systems to meet clients' specific requests. In the design of all our equipment, very special attention is brought to matters as air pollution, Nox, noise, safety and energy conservation. Flares, originally used in the oil and petrochemical industries, from initial oil and gas exploration, through transport, storage, refining, processing and distribution, are also applied in coal gasification plants, steel production mills, nuclear power plants, sewage treatment installations, chemical plants and offshore. Besides, computerized programs are available to help our customers in finding out the best solutions they are looking for, in a very short time. The performance of our products is the most modern and technologically advanced you can find today on the market and our equipment are generally realized to meet all European and American rules. The ability to develop, test, demonstrate and prove burners, flares, boilers and incineration systems alleviates many customers concerns regarding new equipment or applications. A worldwide organization of our agents and representatives is at our customers' disposal for the quickest and best service or assistance that might be required.

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

has a wide range of advanced Flare Systems products. Such products could be classified as per the following scheme The three basic structural support systems are: · Self supporting · Guy wire · Derrick system

EMERGENCY COMBUSTION SYSTEM

SelfSupporting

This system is applied for flares with a height less than 50 meters. The self-supporting flare is economical and easy to erect, and requires relatively less installation space.

Elevated Flares

Derrick Guy Wired

Combined

Guy wired support systems are designed for flare applications having a height up to 150 meters. This is necessary for large diameter emergency relief flares, requiring extreme height because of high radiation levels. Investment for guy-wired flare systems is generally less than other types of structural support, however the installation requires a greater ground space.

Flare supported by a derrick structure can be the optimum arrangement for installations within the confines of a plant, where higher elevation is necessary in order to reduce the effects of radiation. Limited ground space and clearance distances from other equipment, may also require a derrick type of structure. The height of this type of flare can reach 200 meters or higher.

Flare Tip

Flare tips are available in various versions in smokeless and non-smokeless execution. The following tips are standardized to a large extent. The Flare Tips main characteristics are : · Realized with high-temperature resistant materials · Equipped with high-efficiency ignition and flame detection devices · Equipped with a special flame retention ring suitable to guarantee the flame stability at very elevated exit gas velocities (up to 1 mach) · Equipped with a connection flange for an easy substitution. The flare tips could be classified as per the following scheme :

FLARE TIPS

Suitable for the low molecular weight flared gas

Standard

Smokeless Functioning Principals Cooling Effect Kinetically Effect

Suitable for medium and heavy molecular weight flared gas using the system to reduce or avoid the smoke production

Forced draft

Steam

Partialization Effect Light gas Air Natural draft Air Forced draft

Water

Standard Flare Tip SFT Type

Smokeless Flare Tip PFT Type

By applying this uniquely designed flare tip, complete combustion of high molecular weight gases, with a molecular weight up to 50 is guaranteed without the use of steam or additional air. Maintenance costs are low due to the special gas nozzle slot design. Utility consumption is low and a smokeless combustion is achieved.

The emergency flare tip ranges in sizes from 2" to 72" with smokeless operation on flared gases with a molecular weight up to 27 Kmoli/Kg. Under emergency conditions this type of flare tip can handle all kind of hydrocarbons gases. Thermoengineering SFT flare tip, even not smokeless type, is equipped with a special drilled windshield realized from perforated plate to avoid the flame return, for wind effect, on the external part of shell under wind direction.

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

Smokeless Flare Tip SSFT Type

Smokeless Flare Tip QSSFT Type

lf a flare system has to be located nearby a populated area and the flare tip should operate under smokeless conditions, this type of flare tip is strongly indicated. The tip is executed with an acoustical shield to reduce the noise production. This model includes an external and an internal steam delivery system. The internal steam tips are designed to inject air-steam mixture into the flare tip improving the smokeless capacity of the tip, and the saving of steam.

A method to achieve smokeless flaring is the injection of steam. The external steam ring with its injectors promotes the gas and air mixing at the top of the tip. For Flare tips with a size of 24" or larger it is recommended to install an additional internal steam jet. The central steam jet produces a turbulence and a steam and gas mixing. This flare tip is designed to handle all kind of hydrocarbons.

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

Smokeless Flare Tip PAFT Type

Air Smokeless Flare

When smokeless operation and energy saving are required, the use of this type of flare is recommended for the oxidation of gases which normally need media as steam, water or high pressure gas for a smokeless combustion. With this type of flare tips, smokeless operation is guaranteed by means of an external axial fan suitable to deliver, through coaxial flare stacks, part of the air necessary to the combustion. The design of Thermoengineering Flare Tip, through the shape of its arms, allows a swirling motion to the flare gas providing a high velocity mixing and turbulence with the primary air generated by fan and the secondary air from atmosphere.

The new and particular configuration of this type of flare tip improve the combustion efficiency and the smokeless effect with all hydrocarbon flared gas types in all the particular situations when it is essential to guarantee a good flaring efficiency. The primary combustion air can be addressed to the flare tip through a concentrical air-gas riser or with a separated risers. The air distributor gaps are strategically located to allow forced air-gas mixing. The air gas mixing is very important for the smokeless effect and for combustion efficiency. The important factor, for the tip life, is that the air-gas mixing point is out of the tip top The fan is supplied with variable speed motor controls to operate automatically at the lowest possible cost. The low operating costs of this type of flare are evidenced by the relative cost of power in comparison with steam or gas required by other smokeless flaring systems.

Ignition and continuous pilot system

The pilot burners are available in various executions, depending on operation and weather conditions, availability of utilities and composition of gas. The number of pilot burners is determined by the diameter of the flare tip.

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

Labyrintic Seal

The molecular or labyrinthic seal is a static seal and utilizes the density differential of the purge gas and air to create a barrier. Under static conditions this type of seal does not require purge gas.

Spiral Venturi Seal

The Spiral Venturi Seal is a dynamic seal, where air penetration is prevented by the exit velocity of the flare gases. Due to the spiral construction the velocity pattern inside the tip is flattened. To minimize air penetration and back flow into the flare system the exit velocity of the flare gases is increased over the spiral venturi seal. The allowable pressure drop in the system determines the size of the Spiral Venturi Seal and thereby also the purge gas consumption.

COMPARISON TABLE FOR SEAL TYPE SELECTION

MOLECULAR SEAL

Equipment Scheme

VENTURI SEAL

SPIRAL VENTURI SEAL

Purge gas quality required

Fixed-Function of nominal diameter

Fixed-Function of nominal diameter

Fixed - Function of nominal diameter. Due to the diagram of the inside gas velocity distribuction improve the seal functionality. YES The seal configuration, reduces the purge gas quantity needed in function of the seal restriction. An additional purge gas quantity reduction is obtained with the gas swirling effect inducted by the seal. YES

Needs a constant puge gas flow rate

NO With normal atmospheric condition. In case of the strongly wind effect, we suggest to maintain a constant purge gas quality in order to guarantee the oxygen concentration under 6% in the riser. NO

YES The seal configuration, reduces the purge gas quantity needed in function of the seal restriction.

Combustion efficiency improvement Draining line required Installation type Configuration Usuall construction materials Maintenance

NO

YES Between flare riser and flare tip. Vessel flanged type. Carbon steel. The seal conformation can produces a retaining of solid and liquid particles. Necesary a periodical inspection and cleaning operation. Platform at handhole level for maintenance operations.

NO Inside of the tip Welded Stainless steel No maintenance required

NO Inside of the tip Welded Stainless steel NO maintenance required.

Accessories

NO

NO

air flare tip wind direction wind direction internal gas velocity diagram air infiltration

air flare tip wind direction

air flare tip internal gas velocity diagram

pure gas pure gas pure gas functioning without seal functioning with venturi seal functioning with spiral venturi seal

Knock-out drum

Generally a knock-out drum (vertical type) is an integral part of a flare system, located at the base of the flare riser. The equipment, can be realized externally (vertical or horizontal type) as a separate pressure vessel connected to the flare and vent through a pipeline.

vertical knock-out drum

The objectives of a flare and vent knock-out drum are : · to separate the liquid from the gas before it is relieved to the atmosphere · to hold the maximum amount of liquid which can be relieved during an emergency situation The maximum gas relief case not necessarily coincide with the maximum liquid relief case. This means that the size of the knockout drum shall be determined by both the maximum gas relief case as well as the relief case at which a maximum amount of liquid is relieved.

orizontal knock-out drum

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

Water seal drum

Like the knock-out drum, the liquid seal drum (vertical type) normally is located at the base of the flare stack. The equipment, can be realized externally (vertical or horizontal type) as a separate pressure vessel connected to the flare and vent through a pipeline.

The purpose of the water seal vessel is: 1) to prevent any flashback, initiated from the vent or flare tip and propagated further upstream of the water seal vessel; 2) to prevent air ingress due to a sudden temperature change of the flare and relief system; 3) to maintain a slight overpressure in the flare system to ensure that air will not enter the system and also, this may be necessary if a flare gas recovery system is in use.

The design of the water seal vessel normally, shall be based on the maximum vapor quantity to be released. The seal vessel shall be equipped with a anti-pulsation device to avoid the flare intermittent operation. Where it is possible to foreseen a cold flared gas release, we don't suggest to install the water seal drum in order to avoid the creation of the accidental obstruction in the flare relief system. An usual water seal application is for two parallel flare systems or combined Ground/ Elevated Flare Systems that use a liquid seal to supply the flare gases to the Ground Flare up to a selected system pressure drop. In case the supply pressure of the flare gas exceeds the water seal level, the gas will be directed to the elevated flare.

FLAME FRONT GENERATOR CONTROL PANEL

This panel can be adapted to specific area classification requirements and is suitable for ignition and control of one or more pilots. The pilots are ignited through an ignition tube alongside the flare riser. The tube is filled with a mixture of gas and air, which is spark-ignited to generate a flame front, that rises through the ignition tube to the pilot. The Thermoengineering FFGCP panel can be supplied with automatic system of ignition and re-ignition of pilots.

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

OUR GROUP

is an international group which deals with a wide range of advanced combustion systems for all the applications needed in the petrochemical field. On the basis of a turnkey concept, our supply includes the design, engineering, fabrication, and quality control of the different systems. Our specialization and constantly improving know-how permits us to satisfy even the most particular request of our Clients. Since the foundation of Thermoengineering on 1979 at Milan (Italy), our main philosophy is to spare no efforts to satisfy Clients requirements and try continuously to achieve the Quality/Cost magic formula for international market. Maintaining this policy, Thermoengineering succeed to obtain the absolute confidence of the most major petrochemical firms all over the world operating in this sector. Aiming always for high-technology innovations and laboratory researches, we can always guarantee the utmost degree of efficiency and reliability of our various products. Our organization includes : main managing functions for the whole group technical office, technical and engineering services, mechanical and structural calculations technical and engineering office for our group where all detailed and workshop drawings to be elaborated. associated mechanical and steelwork workshop for the fabrication of all the special items of our group. is the associated electrical and instrumental workshop for the supply, mounting, and assembling of all the control panels and instrumental skids of Thermoengineering group. associated company which is strictly specialized on all plants based on biogas concept. burners and fittings for industrial plants

OUR MAIN PRODUCTS

Having an elevated and vast experience in designing, fabricating, and supplying a wide range of liquid and gaseous fuel combustion systems worldwide, Thermoengineering products can be classified as follows: · Elevated Flare Systems · Ground Flare Systems · Incinerators · Burning Pits · Burners & Combustors · Flame Arrestors · Snuffing Systems · Molecular Gas Seals · Water Seals · Knock-Out Drums · Silencers · Coal Gasification Units · Venting Systems · Inert Gas Generators · Fuel and utilities supply line systems · Oil pumping and heating units · Indirect Heater

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

Safety Systems

E l e v a t e d F l a re

G ro u n d F l a re

ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

Incinerator Systems

A D VA N C E D C O M B U S T I O N S Y S T E M

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Imp. Grafica L. THEVENET - TV - ITALY - Printed in Italy by ARTI GRAFICHE CONEGLIANO

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