Read Timken_Practical_Data_For_Metallurgists.pdf text version

Practical Data for Metallurgists

Practical Data for Metallurgists

Seventeenth Edition

Welcome to the Practical Data for Metallurgists, the guide that technical experts, operations managers and engineering personnel have turned to for more than 50 years for the latest metallurgical information. Our guide--which conforms with information published by AISI and SAE--includes an updated listing of standard steels and their chemical compositions, hardening abilities and tolerances. At Timken, we use a combination of materials science, application engineering and processing capabilities to add value and improve the performance of our customers. Providing you with the information you need to make informed decisions about your alloy steel needs is just one way we help you reach your fullest potential.

1

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Steel Chemistries Chemical Compositions, etc. Miscellaneous Steel Properties USA-European-Japanese Grades European Industrial Standards Japanese Automotive Standards Japanese Industrial Standards Hardenability Band Data Restricted Hardenability Band Data Jominy Correlation with Round Bars Combined Hardenability Charts Martensite Percent vs. Carbon Content and Hardness Relationship of Fatigue Strength to Tensile Strength Carburizing Rates of Carbon and Alloy Steels Critical Transformation Temperatures and Ms/Mf Points Hot Working Temperatures Tubing General Tolerances Length Tolerances Straightness Tolerances Seamless Steel Tubing Shapes Tube Size Calculations OD Cleanups Formulas for Calculating Surface Cleanup Formulas for Calculating Camber (Straightness) Cleanup Bar General Tolerances Straightness Tolerances Weight Table ­ Rounds and Squares Reduction Ratios for Round and Square Bars Cold Shearing Metric Equivalents and Limitations Estimated Mechanical Properties for Bars Miscellaneous Information Iron Carbon Phase Diagram Statistical Process Control (SPC) Information Handy Physical Constants Engineering Conversion Factors Metric-English Stress Conversion Tables Work-Energy Conversion Tables Decimal Equivalent Chart Temperature Conversion Tables Hardness Conversion Tables Useful Equations for Hardenable Alloy Steels Glossary of Metallurgical Terms Glossary of Forging Terms

Page Number 4 ­ 32 33 34 ­ 37 38 ­ 42 43 ­ 48 49 ­ 59 60 ­ 62 63 ­ 66 67 ­ 80 81 82 83 ­ 87 88 ­ 90 91 ­ 92 93 ­ 97 98 99 ­ 100 101 ­ 102 103 ­ 106 107 108 108 109 ­ 110 110 111 ­ 114 115 116 ­ 122 123 ­ 124 125 ­ 126 127 ­ 128 129 130 ­ 132 133 134 135 ­ 136 137 ­ 138 139 ­ 140 141 142 ­ 147 148 ­ 152

3

STANDARD CARBON STEELS

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

C .06 max .08 max .10 max .08/.13 .08/.14 .10/.15 .11/.16 .13/.18 .13/.18 .15/.20 .15/.20 .18/.23 .18/.23 .18/.23 .20/.25 .22/.28 .22/.28 .25/.31 .28/.34 .32/.38 .35/.42 .37/.44 .37/.44 .40/.47 .40/.47 .43/.50 .43/.50 .43/.50 .46/.53 .48/.55 .48/.55 .50/.60 .55/.65 .60/.70 .65/.75 .70/.80 .72/.85 .75/.88 .80/.93 .85/.98 .90/1.03 Mn .35 max .25/.40 .30/.50 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.60 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .30/.60 .30/.60 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .30/.60 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .50/.80 .30/.60 .60/.90 .30/.50 .60/.90 .30/.50 P Max .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .030 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 SAE No. 1005 1006 1008 1010 1011 1012 1013 1015 1016 1017 1018 1020 1021 1022 1023 1025 1026 1029 1030 1035 1038 1039 1040 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1049 1050 1053 1055 1060 1065 1070 1074 1078 1080 1086 1090 1095 S Max .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050

4

FREE CUTTING RESULPHURIZED STEELS

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

C .14/.20 .14/.20 .23/.29 .27/.34 .32/.39 .34/.40 .37/.44 .37/.45 .40/.48 .42/.49 .48/.55 Mn 1.00/1.30 1.30/1.60 .70/1.00 1.35/1.65 1.35/1.65 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.35/1.65 1.35/1.65 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 P Max .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 SAE No. 1117 1118 1126 1132 1137 1138 1140 1141 1144 1146 1151 S .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .24/.33 .08/.13 .08/.13

FREE CUTTING REPHOSPHORIZED AND RESULPHURIZED STEEL

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

C .13 max .13 max .09 max Mn .70/1.00 .70/1.00 .75/1.05 P .07/.12 .07/.12 .04/.09 SAE No. 1212 1213 1215 S .16/.23 .24/.33 .26/.35

NOTE: 12XX grades are customarily furnished without specified silicon content because of adverse effect on machinability.

HIGH MANGANESE CARBON STEEL

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

C .18/.24 .19/.25 .22/.29 .22/.29 .36/.44 .43/.51 .44/.52 .47/.55 .60/.71 Mn 1.10/1.40 1.35/1.65 1.10/1.40 1.20/1.50 1.35/1.65 1.35/1.65 1.10/1.40 1.20/1.50 .85/1.15 P Max .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 SAE No. 1522 1524 1526 1527 1541 1547 1548 1552 1566 S Max .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050

5

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

SAE No. C Mn Cr Ni Mo Other

STANDARD ALLOY STEELS

1.60/1.80 1.60/1.90 1.60/1.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.20 .40/.60 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .45/ .65 .60/.80 .65/.85 .45/.65 .50/.70 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .60/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .25/.45 .25/.45 .25/.45 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .40/.60 .40/.60 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .40/.60 .70/.90 .70/.90 .............. .............. .20/.35 .70/.90 .80/1.10 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.15 1.30/1.60 1.35/1.60

1330 1335 1340 4023 4027 4037 4047

.28/.33 .33/.38 .38/.43 .20/.25 .25/.30 .35/.40 .45/.50 .18/.23 .18/.23 .28/.33 .35/.40 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .48/.53 .17/.22 .38/.43 .38/.43 .17/.22 .18/.23 .44/.49 .17/.22 .28/.33 .30/.35 .38/.43 .48/.53 .56/.64 .56/.64

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 3.25/3.75 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15 .13/.20 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30

............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. P 5 .025 S 5 .025 P 5 .025 S 5 .015

4118 4120(1) 4130 4137 4140 4142 4145 4150 4320 4340 E4340 4620 4820 50B46(2) 5120 5130 5132 5140 5150 5160 51B60(2)

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............. ............. ............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............ ............ ............

51100 .98/1.10 E52100 .98/1.10 52100

(1) (2)

.93/1.05

Formerly PS 15 B 5 .0005/.003

6

STANDARD ALLOY STEELS ­ continued

SAE No. 6150 8615 8617 8620 8622 8630 8640 8645 8720 8822 9259 9260

C .48/.53 .13/.18 .15/.20 .18/.23 .20/.25 .28/.33 .38/.43 .43/.48 .18/.23 .20/.25 .56/.64 .56/.64

Mn .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00

Cr .80/1.10 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .45/.65 .............

Ni ............. .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 ............. .............

Mo ............ .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .30/.40

Other V .15 min ............. ............. ............. ............. ............ ............. ............. .............

............. Si ............. .70/1.10 ............. 1.80/2.20

Unless specified: Si 5 .15/.35, P 5 .035 max (SAE J1268), S 5 .040 max, Ni 5 .25 max, Cr 5 .20 max, Mo 5 .06 max These standard grades can have modifications in chemistry when agreed upon by user and supplier.

7

PS GRADES (Formerly EX Grades)

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Mn .95/1.25 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .70/.90 .70/.90 .85/1.25 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .70/1.05 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.25 max 1.00/1.30 1.00/1.30 1.00/1.30 .75/1.10 1.00/1.30 1.00/1.30 .40/.70 .80/1.20 Cr .25/.40 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .45/.65 .45/.65 .20 min .40/.60 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .40/.70 .45/.65 .45/.65 17.00/19.00 .45/.65 .70/.90 .70/.90 .45/.65 .70/.90 .70/.90 .45/.75 .85/ 1.20 Ni Mo PS No. 10 16 17 18 19 20 21 31 32 33 34 36 38 39 40 54 55 56 57(1) 58 59 61 63 64 65 66 67 C .19/.24 .20/.25 .23/.28 .25/.30 .18/.23 .13/.18 .15/.20 .15/.20 .18/.23 .17/.24 .28/.33 .38/.43 .43/.48 .48/.53 .51/.59 .19/.25 .15/.20 .08/.13 .08 max .16/.21 .18/.23 .23/.28 .31/.38 .16/.21 .21/.26 .16/.21 .42/.49 Other

.20/.40 .05/.10 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 B .............. .08/.15 .0005-.003 .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .70/1.00 .45/.60 .............. .70/1.00 .45/.60 .............. .20 min .05 min .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .13/.20 .............. .............. .05 min .............. 1.65/2.00 .65/.80 .............. 1.65/2.00 .65/.80 .............. .............. 1.75/2.25 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. B .............. .............. .0005-.003 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. V 1.65/2.00 .08/.15 .10/.15 .............. .25/.35 ..............

Unless Specified: Si 5 .15/.35, P 5 .035 max, S 5 .040 max

(1)

P 5 .040 max, S 5 .15/.35, Si 5 1.00 max

Note: PS Nos. 15, 24 and 30 are now standard grades. (See SAE Nos. 4120, 4121 and 4715)

8

STANDARD H STEELS

Chemical Composition Ranges

Mn Cr Ni 1330 H 1335 H 1340 H 1345 H 4027 H 4028 H 4032 H 4037 H 4042 H 4047 H 4118 H 4130 H 4135 H 4137 H 4140 H 4142 H 4145 H 4147 H 4150 H 4161 H 4320 H 4340 H E4340 H 4620 H 4621 H 4626 4718 H 4720 H 4815 H 4817 H 4820 H 50B40 H 50B44 H 5046 H 50B46 H 50B50 H 50B60 H SAE No. .27/.33 .32/.38 .37/.44 .42/.49 .24/.30 .24/.30 .29/.35 .34/.41 .39/.46 .44/.51 .17/.23 .27/.33 .32/.38 .34/.41 .37/.44 .39/.46 .42/.49 .44/.51 .47/.54 .55/.65 .17/.23 .37/.44 .37/.44 .17/.23 .17/.23 .23/.29 .15/.21 .17/.23 .12/.18 .14/.20 .17/.23 .37/.44 .42/.49 .43/.50 .43/.50 .47/.54 .55/.65 C 1.45/2.05 1.45/2.05 1.45/2.05 1.45/2.05 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .30/.70 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .40/.70 .55/.90 .60/.95 .35/.75 .60/1.00 .40/.70 .60/.95 .45/.75 .30/.70 .30/.70 .40/.80 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .30/.70 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .75/1.20 .65/.95 .35/.65 .65/.95 .65/.95 ............. ............. ............. .30/.60 .30/.60 ............. ............. ............. .30/.70 .30/.70 .13/.43 .13/.43 .30/.70 .30/.70 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 1.55/2.00 1.55/2.00 1.55/2.00 1.55/2.00 1.55/2.00 .65/1.05 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 3.20/3.80 3.20/3.80 3.20/3.80 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............ ............ ............ ............ .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .25/.35 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .15/.25 .30/.40 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ Mo ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. S .035/.050 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. Si .15/.35 Si .15/.35 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. B .0005/.003 B .0005/.003 ............. B .0005/.003 B .0005/.003 B .0005/.003 Other

9

STANDARD H STEELS ­ continued

SAE No. C Mn Cr Ni Mo Other

5120 H 5130 H 5132 H 5135 H 5140 H 5147 H 5150 H 5155 H 5160 H 51B60 H 6118 H 6150 H 81B45 H 8617 H 8620 H 8622 H 8625 H 8627 H 8630 H 86B30 H 8637 H 8640 H 8642 H 8645 H 86B45 H 8650 H 8655 H 8660 H 8720 H 8740 H 8822 H 9259 H 9260 H 9310 H 94B15 H 94B17 H 94B30 H

.17/.23 .27/.33 .29/.35 .32/.38 .37/.44 .45/.52 .47/.54 .50/.60 .55/.65 .55/.65 .15/.21 .47/.54 .42/.49 .14/.20 .17/.23 .19/.25 .22/.28 .24/.30 .27/.33 .27/.33 .34/.41 .37/.44 .39/.46 .42/.49 .42/.49 .47/.54 .50/.60 .55/.65 .17/.23 .37/.44 .19/.25 .56/.64 .55/.65 .07/.13 .12/.18 .14/.20 .27/.33

.60/1.00 .60/1.00 .50/.90 .50/.90 .60/1.00 .60/1.05 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .40/.80 .60/1.00 .70/1.05 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .60/.95 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .65/1.10 .65/1.10 .40/.70 .70/1.05 .70/1.05 .70/1.05

.60/1.00 .75/1.20 .65/1.10 .70/1.15 .60/1.00 .80/1.25 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .40/.80 .75/1.20 .30/.60 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .45/.65 .............

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. B .............. .............. .0005/.003 V .............. .............. .10/.15 .............. .............. .15 min. .15/.45 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .35/.75 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .30/.40 B .0005/.003 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. B .0005/.003 .............. .............. .............. .............. B .0005/.003 .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ............. ..............

.............. Si .70/1.20 Si .............. .............. 1.70/2.20 .............. .............. .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .............. B .0005/.003 B .0005/.003 B .0005/.003

1.00/1.45 2.95/3.55 .25/.55 .25/.55 .25/.55 .25/.65 .25/.65 .25/.65

Unless specified: Si 5 .15/.35, P 5 .030 max (SAE J1268), S 5 .040 max, Cu 5 .35 max, Ni 5 .25 max, Cr 5 .20 max, Mo 5 .06 max

10

STANDARD CARBON AND CARBON BORON H STEELS

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

C .34/.43 .42/.51 .17/.25 .18/.26 .21/.30 .35/.45 .17/.24 .25/.34 .27/.35 .31/.39 .30/.39 .35/.45 .43/.53 .54/.67 Mn .50/1.00 .50/1.00 1.00/1.50 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.50 1.25/1.75 .70/1.20 1.00/1.50 .70/1.20 .70/1.20 1.00/1.50 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 P Max .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 S Max .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 SAE No. 1038 H 1045 H 1522 H 1524 H 1526 H 1541 H 15B21(1) 15B28H 15B30H 15B35H(1) 15B37H(1) 15B41H(1) 15B48H(1) 15B62H(1) Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.60

For electric furnace steels P & S 5 .025 max and the prefix E is added. (1) B 5 .0005/.003

RESTRICTED HARDENABILITY STEELS

Chemical Composition Ranges

Mn .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .40/.60 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.20 .40/.60 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .45/.65 .50/.70 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .45/.65 Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 Ni SAE No. 15B21RH 15B35RH(1) 3310RH 4027RH 4118RH 4120RH 4130RH 4140RH 4145RH 4161RH 4320RH 4620RH 4820RH 50B40RH(1) 5130RH 5140RH 5160RH 8620RH 8622RH 8720RH 8822RH 9310RH

(1)

C .17/.22 .33/.38 .08/.13 .25/.30 .18/.23 .18/.23 .28/.33 .38/.43 .43/.48 .56/.64 .17/.22 .17/.22 .18/.23 .38/.43 .28/.33 .38/.43 .56/.64 .18/.23 .20/.25 .18/.23 .20/.25 .08/.13

Cr

Mo

............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 3.25/3.75 1.40/1.75 ............. ............. ............. .20/.30 ............. .40/.60 .08/.15 ............. .40/.60 .13/.20 ............. .80/1.10 .15/.25 ............. .80/1.10 .15/.25 ............. .80/1.10 .15/.25 ............. .70/.90 .25/.35 1.65/2.00 .40/.60 .20/.30 1.65/2.00 ............. .20/.30 3.25/3.75 ............. .20/.30 ............. .40/.60 ............. ............. .80/1.10 ............. ............. .70/.90 ............. ............. .70/.90 ............. .40/.70 .40/.60 .15/.25 .40/.70 .40/.60 .15/.25 .40/.70 .40/.60 .20/.30 .40/.70 .40/.60 .30/.40 3.00/3.50 1.00/1.40 .08/.15

Unless specified: Cu 5 .35 max, Ni 5 .25 max, Cr 5 .20 max, Mo 5 .06 max (1) B 5 .0005 /.003

11

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

C .15 max .30/.36 .32/.38 .32/.38 .55/.65 .54/.65 .60/.70 .65/.75 .70/.80 .80/.93 .80/.93 .80/.94 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .13 max .13 max .13 max .10/.16 .13/.18 .14/.20 .14/.20 .18/.23 .20/.27 .35/.43 .42/.49 .48/.55 .13 max .18/.23 .43/.48 .10/.16 .15/.21 .23/.29 .30/.37 .30/.37 .30/.37 .40/.47 .43/.50 .44/.52 .45/.56 .48/.55 .55/.65 .65/.75 .65/.76 .75/.88 .85/.98 Mn .60 max .70/1.00 .50/.80 .70/1.00 .50/.80 .85/1.15 .50/.80 .40/.70 .40/.70 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .30/.50 .50/.80 .60/.90 .30/.60 .60/.90 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.00/1.30 .60/.90 1.10/1.40 1.00/1.30 .70/1.00 1.20/1.50 1.35/1.65 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 .60/.90 1.60/1.90 1.60/1.90 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 .80/1.10 1.10/1.40 1.20/1.50 1.20/1.50 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 1.00/1.30 .85/1.15 .80/1.10 .75/1.05 .80/1.10 1.00/1.30 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 P Max .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .07/0.12 .07/0.12 .07/0.12 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .07/.12 .040 .035 .030 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 SAE No. 1009 1033 1034 1037 1059 1062 1064 1069 1075 1084 1085 1086 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1119 1120 1123 1139 1145 1152 1211 1320 1345 1513 1518 1525 1533 1534 1536 1544 1545 1546 1551 1553 1561 1570 1572 1580 1590 S Max .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .08/.13 .08/.13 .08/.13 .10/.15 .16/.23 .24/.33 .08/.13 .08/.13 .16/.23 .24/.33 .08/.13 .06/.09 .13/.20 .04/.07 .06/.09 .10/.15 .040 .040 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050 .050

12

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

SAE No. 2317 2330 2340 2345 2512 2515 2517 3115 3120 3130 3135 X3140 3140 3145 3150 3215 3220 3230 3240 3245 3250 3310 3311 3312 3316 3325 3335 3340 3415 3435 3450 4012 4024(1) 4028(1) 4032 4042 4053 4063 4068 4119 4121(2) 4125 4131 4135 4147 4161 4317 4337 4419

(1)

(2)

C .15/.20 .28/.33 .38/.43 .43/.48 .09/.14 .12/.17 .15/.20 .13/.18 .17/.22 .28/.33 .33/.38 .38/.43 .38/.43 .43/.48 .48/.53 .10/.20 .15/.25 .25/.35 .35/.45 .40/.50 .45/.55 .08/.13 .10/.16 .08/.13 .14/.19 .20/.30 .30/.40 .35/.45 .10/.20 .30/.40 .45/.55 .09/.14 .20/.25 .25/.30 .30/.35 .40/.45 .50/.56 .60/.67 .63/.70 .17/.22 .18/.23 .23/.28 .28/.33 .33/.38 .45/.50 .56/.64 .15/.20 .35/.40 .18/.23

Mn .40/.60 .60/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .45/.60 .40/.60 .45/.60 .40/.60 .60/.80 .60/.80 .60/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .45/.60 .30/.50 .45/.60 .45/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .50/.70 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .60/.80 .45/.65

Cr .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .55/.75 .55/.75 .55/.75 .55/.75 .70/.90 .55/.75 .70/.90 .70/.90 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 .90/1.25 1.40/1.75 1.30/1.60 1.40/1.75 1.40/1.75 1.25/1.75 1.25/1.75 1.25/1.75 .60/.95 .60/.95 .60/.95 ............. ............. .............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .40/.60 .45/.65 .40/.60 .90/1.20 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .70/.90 .40/.60 .70/.90 ..............

Ni 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 4.75/5.25 4.75/5.25 4.75/5.25 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 1.50/2.00 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 2.75/3.25 2.75/3.25 2.75/3.25 ............. ............. .............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............. ............. .............. ............. .............. ............. 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 ..............

Mo ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .15 max ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .25/.35 .20/.30 .20/.30 .45/.60

Other ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............ ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

S 5 .035/.050 Formerly PS 24

13

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

SAE No. C Mn .35/.75 .70/.90 .70/.90 .25/.45 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .50/.70 .70/.90 .60/1.00 .45/.65 .60/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .50/.70 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .30/.50 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .60/.80 .70/.90 .60/1.00 .70/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .25/.45 .30/.60 .70/.90 .50/.70 .70/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .70/.90 .20/.45 .30 max .30 max .30 max Cr .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .45/.65 .35/.55 .35/.55 .............. .............. .............. .30/.50 .40/.60 .40/.60 .55/.75 .20/.35 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .70/.90 .70/.90 .80/1.05 .70/.90 .60/1.00 .85/1.15 .90/1.20 .70/.90 .40/.60 .80/1.10 .70/.90 .50/.70 .70/.90 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 3.00/4.00 3.00/4.00 .50/1.00 Ni .............. .............. .............. 1.40/1.75 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.55/2.00 .70/1.00 1.65/2.00 .70/1.00 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 3.25/3.75 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Mo .45/.60 .35/.45 .35/.45 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .15/.25 .20/.30 .45/.60 .30/.40 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Other .............. .............. .............. ............. ............. .............. ............. ............. ............. .............. .............. ............. ............. .............. ............. ............. ............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. V .15 min .10 min .10/.15 .10 min .15 min .15 min .15 min .15 min .15 min .15 min W

4419H .17/.23 4422 .20/.25 4427 .24/.29 4608 .06/.11 46B12(3) .10/.15 4615 .13/.18 4617 .15/.20 .18/.23 X4620 4621 .18/.23 4621H .17/.23 4626 .24/.29 4640 .38/.43 4715(4) .13/.18 4718 .16/.21 4720 .17/.22 4812 .10/.15 4815 .13/.18 4817 .15/.20 5015 .12/.17 (3) 50B40 .38/.43 50B44(3) .43/.48 5045 .43/.48 5046 .43/.48 50B50(3) .48/.53 5060 .56/.64 50B60(3) .56/.64 5115 .13/.18 5117 .15/.20 5135 .33/.38 5145 .43/.48 5145H .42/.49 5147 .46/.51 5152 .48/.55 5155 .51/.59 50100 .98/1.10 6115 6117 6118 6120 6125 6130 6135 6140 6145 6195 71360 71660 7260

(3) (4)

.10/.20 .15/.20 .16/.21 .17/.22 .20/.30 .25/.35 .30/.40 .35/.45 .43/.48 .90/1.05 .50/.70 .50/.70 .50/.70

.............. 12.00/15.00 .............. 15.00/18.00 .............. 1.50/2.00

B 5 .0005/.003 Formerly PS 30

14

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

SAE No. 8115 81B45(3) 8625 8627 8632 8635 8637 8641(5) 8642 86B45(3) 8647 8650 8653 8655 8660 8715 8717 8719 8735 8740 8742 8745 8750 9250(6) 9254(7) 9255(6) 9261(6) 9262(6) 9310 9315 9317 94B15 94B17 94B30(3) 9437 9440 94B40(3) 9442 9445 9447 9747 9763 9840 9845 9850 C .13/.18 .43/.48 .23/.28 .25/.30 .30/.35 .33/.38 .38/.43 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .45/.50 .48/.53 .50/.56 .51/.59 .56/.64 .13/.18 .15/.20 .18/.23 .33/.38 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .48/.53 .45/.55 .51/.59 .51/.59 .55/.65 .55/.65 .08/.13 .13/.18 .15/.20 .13/.18 .15/.20 .28/.33 .35/.40 .38/.43 .38/.43 .40/.45 .43/.48 .45/.50 .45/.50 .60/.67 .38/.43 .43/.48 .48/.53 Mn .70/.90 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .60/.80 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .60/.90 .60/.80 .70/.95 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .75/1.00 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .50/.80 .50/.80 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .45/.65 Cr .30/.50 .35/.55 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .50/.80 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 ............. .60/.80 ............. .10/.25 .25/.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.60 .30/.50 .30/.50 .30/.50 .10/.25 .10/.25 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .40/.60 .40/.60 Ni .20/.40 .20/.40 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .40/.70 .40/.70 .85/1.15 .85/1.15 .85/1.15 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 Mo .08/.15 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15 Other ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. V .03 min .03 min

438V12(3) .08/.13 438V14(3) .10/.15

B 5 .0005/.003 S 5 .04/.60 Si 5 1.80/2.20 (7) Si 5 1.20/1.60

(3) (5) (6)

15

SELECTED MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS

Nearest Equivalent Si Cr Ni Mo AMS SAE No. P Max S Max

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

MIL(1)

Solid or Tube

C

Mn

16

S-5000 S-50783(3) S-5626 S-6049 S-6050(7) S-6709(4) S-6758 S-7108(5) S-7393(7) .025 .035 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .040 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .040 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .040 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .15/.35 .70/1.00 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.40 .15/.35 1.30/1.70 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .70/.90 .20 max .80/1.10 .40/.60 .40/.60 1.40/1.80 .80/1.10 .40 max. 1.25/1.75 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.40 1.30/1.60 .75/1.20 1.65/2.00 .25 max .25 max .40/.70 .40/.70 .............. .25 max 1.65/2.00 3.25/3.75 3.25/4.00 3.00/3.50 .............. ..............

S-7420 S-8503(6)

S S S S S S S S S S S S S

.38/.43 .65/.85 1.00/1.15 1.60/1.90 .38/.43 .75/1.00 .38/.43 .75/1.00 .28/.33 .70/.90 .38/.43 .50/.70 .28/.33 .40/.60 .23/.28 1.20/1.50 .08/.13 .45/.60 .14/.19 .45/.60 .07/.13 .40/.70 .98/1.10 .25/.45 .48/.53 .70/.90

.20/.30 6415 E4340 .06 max .15/.25 6382/6349 4140 .20/.30 6322/6325/6327 8740 .15/.25 6280 8630 .30/.40 6470/6472 .............. .15/.25 637 4130 .35/.45 6425 4625M4(2) .............. 6250 3310 .............. .............. 3316 .08/.15 .............. 9310 .............. 6440/6444/6447 52100 .............. 6448 6150

(1)

(2)

Some MIL numbers cancelled. Replaced by AMS numbers. Timken Company mill type.

Aircraft Quality Steels Except Where Indicated Cu 5 .35 max unless specified

(3)

(4)

(5)

Al 5 .020 max Al 5 .95/1.35 P & S 5 .025 max if Basic Electric Furnace Steel is specified (6) V 5 .15 min (7) Inactive/Cancelled

SELECTED MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Nearest Equivalent Si .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .15/.35 1.45/1.80 .30 max .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .20/.35 .80/1.10 .80/1.15 .80/1.15 .95/1.25 ............. ............. ............. ............. .15/.25 .15/.25 .30/.40 .55/.70 .40/.60 ............. .75/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.95 ............. .40/.70 ............. 1.65/2.00 .85/1.15 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 ............. .15/.25 .20/.30 .35/.50 .20/.30 .20/.30 .35/.45 ............. Cr Ni Mo AMS SAE No. 6274 8620 6300 4037 6411/6427 4330M4V1(1) ............. 984 6414 4340 6257 300M T5066 1025 ............. ............. ............. ............. 4150 41R50 4142M3V2(1) .............

MIL(1) .025 .040 .040 .040 .010 .010 .025 .040 .040 .040 .025 .040 .05/.09 .040 .020 .025 .040 .040 .040 .010 .010 .025

Solid or Tube P Max S Max

C

Mn

S-8690(8) S S S-8695(5) S-8699(5), (9) S S-8707(7) S S-8844-1 S or T S-8844-2(9) S or T T-5066 T

18/.23 .34/.41 .28/.33 .38/.43 .38/.43 .40/.44 .22/.28

.70/1.00 .60/1.00 .80/1.00 .70/.90 .65/.90 .65/.90 .30/.60

17

S-11595(10) S-11595(10) S-11595(10), (11) S-46047(11)

S S S S

.48/.55 .47/.55 .41/.49 .38/.45

.75/1.00 .70/1.00 .60/.90 .75/1.00

(1)

(2)

Some MIL numbers cancelled. Replaced by AMS numbers. Timken Company mill type.

Aircraft Quality Steels Except Where Indicated Cu 5 .35 max unless specified

(5)

(7)

(8)

P & S 5 .025 max if Basic Electric Furnace Steel is specified Inactive/Cancelled P & S 5 .015 max if consumable vacuum melted steel is specified (9) V 5 .05/.10 (10) Al 5 .040 max (11) V 5 .20/.30

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS

Si Cr Ni Mo V SAE Designations

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

AMS Number

C

Mn

18

6250 6260(1) 6263 6264 6265(2) 6266(3) 6270 6272 6274 6275(3) 6280 6281 6282 6290 6292 6294 6299 6300(4) .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .20/.40 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 1.25/1.75 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 1.00/1.40 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .35/.65 .30/.50 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .20 max .20 max .20 max .35/.65 .20 max 3.25/3.75 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 3.00/3.50 1.65/2.00 .40/.70 .40/.70 .35/.75 .30/.60 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.55/2.00 .25 max .06 max .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .20/.30 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .08/.15 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .03/.08 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.07/.13 .07/.13 .11/.17 .14/.20 .07/.13 .08/.13 .13/.18 .15/.20 .17/.23 .15/.20 .28/.33 .28/.33 .33/.38 .11/.17 .15/.20 .17/.22 .17/.23 .35/.40

.40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .40/.70 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .70/.90 .60/.95 .60/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .40/.70 .70/.90

3310 9310 9315 9317 CV9310 43BV12 8615 8617 .............. 94B17 8630 8630 8735 4615 4617 4620 4320H 4037

P & S 5 .025 max, Cu 5 .35 max unless specified

(1)

(3)

(2)

B 5 .001 max P & S 5 .015 max

(4)

B 5 .0005/.005 P & S 5 .040 max

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Si Cr Ni Mo V SAE Designations 17-22-AS® 17-22-AV®

AMS Number

C

Mn

19

6302 6303(5) 6304 6312 6320 6321(6) 6322 6323 6324 6328 6342 6370 6371 6372 6381 6382 6407 6409(7) .55/.75 .55/.75 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.70 .15/.35 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 .80/1.10 .20 max .40/.60 .30/.55 .40/.60 .40/.60 .55/.75 .40/.60 .70/.90 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 .80/1.10 1.00/1.35 .70/.90 .25 max. .50 max. .25 max. 1.65/2.00 .40/.70 .20/.40 .40/.70 .40/.70 .55/.85 .40/.70 .85/1.15 .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max 1.85/2.25 1.65/2.00 .40/.60 .40/.60 .45/.65 .20/.30 .20/.30 .08/.15 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .15/.25 .35/.55 .20/.30 .20/.30 .75/.95 .25/.35 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.28/.33 .25/.30 .40/.50 .38/.43 .33/.38 .38/.43 .38/.43 .38/.43 .38/.43 .48/.53 .38/.43 .28/.33 .28/.33 .33/.38 .38/.43 .38/.43 .27/.33 .38/.43

.45/.65 .60/.90 .40/.70 .60/.80 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .70/.90 .40/.60 .40/.60 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .75/1.00 .60/.80 .65/.85

4640 8735 81B40 8740 8740 8740 Mod 8750 9840 4130 4130 4135 4140 4140 HS220-07 4340(8)

P & S 5 .025 max, Cu 5 .35 max unless specified

(5)

(6)

(7)

Cu 5 .50 max B 5 .0005/.005 P 5 .015 max, S 5 .008 max (8) Special Aircraft Quality ­ Normalized and Tempered

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Si Cr Ni Mo V SAE Designations

AMS Number

C

Mn

20

6412 6414(9) 6415 6418 6419(10) 6421(11) 6422(11) 6424 6427 6428 6430(9) 6431(10) 6439(9) 6440 6444(9) 6445(9) 6448 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 1.30/1.70 1.45/1.80 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.60 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.35 .15/.35 .50/.70 .15/.35 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .20/.40 .70/.95 .70/.90 .70/.90 .70/.90 .75/1.00 .65/.90 .65/.90 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 1.35/1.60 1.30/1.60 .90/1.15 .80/1.10 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 .70/1.00 .70/1.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 .40/.70 .40/.70 .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .20/.30 .20/.30 .20/.30 .35/.45 .30/.50 .15/.25 .15/.25 .20/.30 .35/.50 .30/.40 .30/.40 .90/1.10 .90/1.10 .10 max .08 max .08 max .06 max .............. .............. .............. .............. .05/.10 .............. .01/.06 .............. .05/.10 .17/.23 .17/.23 .08/.15 .68/.15 .............. .............. .............. .15/.30

.35/.40 .38/.43 .38/.43 .23/.28 .40/.45 .35/.40 .38/.43 .49/.55 .28/.33 .32/.38 .32/.38 .45/.50 .42/.48 .93/1.05 .98/1.10 .92/1.02 .48/.53

.65/.85 .65/.90 .65/.85 1.20/1.50 .60/.90 .65/.85 .65/.85 .65/.85 .75/1.00 .60/.80 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .25/.45 .25/.45 .95/1.25 .70/.90

4337 CV4340 4340 4625M4 CV300M 98B37 Mod 98BV40 Mod 4350M 4330M4V1 4335 Mod 4335M4V2 D6-AC 4140 52100 CV52100(12) CV51100 Mod 6150

P & S 5 .025 max, Cu 5 .35 max unless specified

(9)

(10)

(11)

P & S 5 .015 max P & S 5 .010 max B 5 .0005/.005 (12) Premium Aircraft Quality

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Si .20/.40 .20/.40 .20/.40 .20/.40 1.40/1.80 1.40/1.80 1.40/1.80 1.00/1.25 .25 max .25 max .25 max 3.25/3.75 .30/.40 .30/.40 .30/.40 .20/.30 .95/1.30 .95/1.30 .95/1.30 1.10/1.40 Cr Ni Mo Al Other Designations 135M or #3 CV Nit #3 N

NITRIDING STEELS

AMS Number

C

Mn

6470 6471 6472(1) 6475

.38/.43 .38/.43 .38/.43 .21/.26

.50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.70

(1)

P 5 .035 max, S 5 .040 max

21

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

Si Max Cr Ni Others P Max S Max

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Type Number

C Max

Mn Max

22

.75 .75 .040 .045 .030 .030 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00

201 202 301 302 302B 303 304 TP304 304L TP304L TP304H 305 308 309 310 TP310 314 316 .060 .060 .045 .045 .045 .200 .045 .040 .045 .040 .040 .045 .045 .045 .045 .040 .045 .045 11.00/14.00 10.00/14.00 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .15 min .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 16.00/18.00 17.00/19.00 16.00/18.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/19.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 18.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 19.00/21.00 22.00/24.00 24.00/26.00 24.00/26.00 23.00/26.00 16.00/18.00 3.50/5.50 4.00/6.00 6.00/8.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/10.50 8.00/11.00 8.00/12.00 8.00/13.00 8.00/11.00 10.50/13.00 10.00/12.00 12.00/15.00 19.00/22.00 19.00/22.00 19.00/22.00 10.00/14.00

.15 .15 .15 .15 .15 .15 .08 .08 .03 .035 .04/.10 .12 .08 .20 .25 .15 .25 .08

5.5/7.5 7.5/10.0 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

1.00 1.00 1.00 .75 2.00/3.00 1.00 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 1.00 1.00 1.50 .75 1.50/3.00 .75

TP316 316L

.08 .03

2.00 2.00

N 5 0.25 max N 5 0.25 max N 5 0.10 max N 5 0.10 max ............. Zr, Mo 5 .60 max(1) ............. .............. N 5 0.10 max .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. Mo 5 2.00/3.00 N 5 0.10 max Mo 5 2.00/3.00 Mo 5 2.00/3.00 N 5 0.10 max

(1)

At producers option, reported only when intentionally added.

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

P Max Cr 16.00/18.00 .............. 18.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/19.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 15.00/17.00 11.50/13.50 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 17.00/19.00 14.00/16.00 10.00/15.00 11.00/14.00 11.00/14.00 9.00/12.00 9.00/13.00 Ni Others Mo 5 2.00/3.00 Mo 5 2.00/3.00 Mo 5 3.00/4.00 Ti 5 5 3 C min, .60 max Ti 5 5 3 C min, .60 max .040 .040 .040 .045 .040 .040 .045 .040 .040 .045 .040 .040 .045 .045 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 S Max

Type Number

C Max

Mn Max

Si Max

TP316L TP316H TP317 321 TP321

.035 .04/.10 .08 .08 .08

2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

.75 .75 .75 1.00 .75

TP321H 347 TP347

.04/.10 .08 .08

2.00 2.00 2.00

.75 1.00 .75

23

TP347H

.04/.10

2.00

.75

348

.08

2.00

1.00

TP348

.08

2.00

.75

TP348H

.04/.10

2.00

.75

384 385

.08 .08

2.00 2.00

1.00 1.00

Ti 5 4 3 C min, .60 max Cb 1Ta 5 10 3 C min Cb 1 Ta 5 10 3 C min 5 1.00 max Cb 1 Ta 5 8 3 C min 5 1.00 max Cb 1 Ta 5 10 3 C min Ta 5 .10 max Cb 1 Ta 5 10 3 C min Cb 1 Ta 5 1.00 max Cb 1 Ta 5 8 3 C min Ta 5 .10 max Cb 1 Ta 5 1.00 max .............. ..............

H 5 Grades for high temperature service. TP 5 Tubular Products

CHROMIUM STAINLESS STEELS

P Max Cr Ni Others S Max

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Type Number

C Max

Mn Max

Si Max

24

403 405 TP405 410 TP410 414 416 420 TP420 430 430F 431 440A 440B 440C TP443 501 502 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .060 .040 .030 .040 .060 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .150 min .030 .030 .030 .150 min .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 11.50/13.00 11.50/14.50 11.50/13.50 11.50/13.50 11.50/13.50 11.50/13.50 12.00/14.00 12.00/14.00 12.00/14.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 15.00/17.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 16.00/18.00 18.00/23.00 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 .............. .60 max .50 max .75 max .50 max 1.25/2.50 .............. .............. .50 max .............. .............. 1.25/2.50 .............. .............. .............. .50 max .............. .............

.15 .08 .08 .15 .15 .15 .15 Over .15 Over .15 .12 .12 .20 .60/.75 .75/.95 .95/1.20 .20 Over .10 .10

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

.50 1.00 .75 1.00 .75 1.00 1.00 1.00 .75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .75 1.00 1.00

Turbine Quality AI 5 .10/.30 AI 5 .10/.30 .............. .............. .............. Zr, Mo 5 .60 max(1) .............. .............. .............. Mo 5 .60 max(1) .............. Mo 5 .75 max Mo 5 .75 max Mo 5 .75 max Cu 5 .90/1.25 Mo 5 .40/.65 Mo 5 .40/.65

Prefix TP denotes tubular products. Suffixes A, B and C denote differing carbon ranges for the same grade. F denotes a free machining grade. (1) At producer's option, reported only when intentionally added.

SELECTED ASTM SPECIFICATIONS

Mn Si Cr Ni Mo V

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

ASTM Number

Grade

C

A106(1)

A182

A192 A209

A B C F11 F12 A T1 T1a T1b

.25 max .30 max .35 max .10/.20 .10/.20 .06/.18 .10/.20 .15/.25 .14 max

.27/.93 .29/1.06 .29/1.06 .30/.80 .30/.80 .27/.63 .30/.80 .30/.80 .30/.80

.10 min .10 min .10 min .50/1.00 .10/.60 .25 max .10/.50 .10/.50 .10/.50

.40 max .40 max .40 max 1.00/1.50 .80/ 1.25 ............. ............. 1.00/1.50 .............

.40 max .40 max .40 max ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

.15 max .15 max .15 max .44/.65 .44/.65 ............. .44/.65 .44/.65 .44/.65

.08 max .08 max .08 max ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

25

See current ASTM specifications for P & S limitations. (1) The combined elements of Cr, Ni, Mo, V and Cu must not exceed 1%

SELECTED ASTM SPECIFICATIONS ­ continued Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Si ............. ............. Ti 5 4 3 C min, .70 max ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .18/.25 Cr Ni Mo Others

ASTM Number

A210

Grade

C

Mn

A213

26

A1 C T4 T5(2) T5b T5c T7(2) T9(2) T11(2) T12 T21(2) T22(2) T91(3) TP304H(4) TP310H(4) TP316H(4) TP321H(4) TP347H(4) TP348

.27 max .35 max .05/.15 .15 max .15 max .12 max .15 max .15 max .05/.15 .05/.15 .05/.15 .05/.15 .08/.12 .04/.10 .04/.10 .04/.10 .04/.10 .04/.10 .08 max

.93 max .29/1.06 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.61 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max

.10 min .10 min .50/1.00 .50 max 1.00/2.00 .50 max .50/1.00 .25/1.00 .50/1.00 .50 max .50 max .50 max .20/.50 .75 max .75 max .75 max .75 max .75 max .75 max

............. ............. 2.15/2.85 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 6.00/8.00 8.00/10.00 1.00/1.50 .80/1.25 2.65/3.35 1.90/2.60 8.00/9.00 18.00/20.00 24.00/26.00 16.00/18.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00 17.00/20.00

............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .40 max 8.00/11.00 19.00/22.00 11.00/14.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00 9.00/13.00

............. ............. .44/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .90/1.10 .44/.65 .44/.65 .80/1.06 .87/1.13 .85/1.05 ............. ............. 2.00/3.00 ............. ............. .............

Ti 5 4 3 C min, .60 max Cb 1 Ta 5 8 3 C min,1.00 max Cb 1 Ta 5 10 3 C min, Ta 5 .10 max Cb 1 Ta 5 1.00 max

See current ASTM specifications for P & S limitations (2) These grades also included in ASTM Specifications A213 and A335. (3) Cb 5 .06/.10, N 5 .03/.07, Al 5 .04 max (4) These grades also included in ASTM Specifications A312 and A376.

TIMKEN® TUBULAR HOLLOW DRILL STEELS

Mn .............. .15/.30 .40/.70 .50/.80 .15/.30 .............. .40/ .60 1.00/1.35 1.90/2.40 3.00/3.50 .............. 1.65/2.00 1.85/2.25 .25 max. .............. Si Cr Ni .............. .20/.30 .35/.55 .25/.35 .45/.60 Mo

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

TDS-10® TDS-30® TDS-50® TDS-70® TDS-90®

Type

.72/.85 .17/.22 .27/.33 .25/.31 .23/.28

C

.30/ .60 .45/ .65 .60/ .80 .80/1.20 .40/ .60

27

Si .............. .20/.40 .15/.35 .25/1.00 1.00 max 1.00 max 12.00/14.00 12.50/14.00 1.20/1.50 1.00/1.50 .70/.90 8.00/10.00 .............. .15 max .50/.70 .............. .............. .............. Cr Ni Mo

TIMKEN® OIL COUNTRY STEELS

Cb .65/.75 .75/.85 .65/.75 .90/1.10 .............. .............. .02/.05 .02/.05 .02/.05 .............. .............. .............. Other

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Type

C

Mn

Impact 7 Impact 8 Impact 10 9Cr1Mo

.26/.32 .26/.32 .26/.32 .15 max

.60/.90 .90/1.10 .90/1.10 .30/.60

410 420 Mod

.15 max .18/.22

1.00 max 1.00 max

P 5 .030 max S 5 .030 max P 5 .040 max P 5 .020 max

P 5 .015 max, S 5 .005 max

Duplex Stainless Steel Ranges and Limits (Not Manufactured by Timken)

Mn max 2.0 1.0 1.2-2.0(1) 2.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.00 0.75 1.40-2.00(1) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.60 24.0-26.0 24.0-26.0 18.0-19.0 21.0-23.0 21.5-24.5 20.5-22.5 24.0-27.0 26.0-29.0 5.50-6.50 5.50-7.50 4.25-5.25 4.50-6.50 3.00-5.50 5.50-8.50 4.50-6.50 3.50-5.20 Si max Cr Ni

CORROSION RESISTANT ALLOYS

Designation

C max

44LN DP-3 3RE60 2205 2304 Uranus 50 Ferralium 255 7-Mo PLUS

.03 .03 .03 .03 .03 .04 .04 .03

(1)

Range indicates min to max mass functions.

28

TIMKEN® WELDABLE HIGH STRENGTH STEELS

Si .15/.30 .15/.30 .65/.90 .70/.90 .40/.70 1.55/2.00 .15/.25 .20/.30 .03/.08 .............. Cr Ni Mo V B .003 added ..............

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Type

C

Mn

WHS 100TM WHS 130TM

.13/.21 .20/.27

1.00/1.30 .60/ .80

TM - Trademark of The Timken Company

29

Si .40/.70 1.30/1.70 .15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.60 1.00/1.35 .20/.40 .75/1.00 .65/.90 .65/.90 Cr Ni

TIMKEN® HIGH STRENGTH STEELS

Mo 1.85/2.25 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 1.65/2.00 .35/.55 .35/.45 .35/.50 .30/.40 .30/.40 V ............ ............ .05/.10 .17/.23 .17/.23

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Type

C

Mn

HS-220-07 HS-220-18 HS-220-27 HS-220-28 HS-220-30

.27/.33 .23/.28 .28/.33 .32/.38 .32/.38

.60/.80 1.20/1.50 .75/1.00 .60/.80 .60/.90

TIMKEN® MICROALLOY STEELS

Mn 1.20/1.60 1.20/1.40 1.40/1.60 1.30/1.70 0.90/1.30 1.00/1.30 0.90/1.20 1.30/1.60 1.30/1.50 1.35/1.45 1.35/1.45 1.30/1.50 1.20/1.40 1.10/1.30 1.10/1.30 1.30/1.50 1.35/1.45 0.70/0.85 0.70/1.00 1.05/1.25 1.15/1.35 0.08/0.12 0.05/0.20 0.08/0.18 0.10/0.20 0.020/0.035 0.025/0.035 0.040/0.060 0.040/0.060 0.08/0.18 0.08/0.18 0.06/0.10 0.07/0.09 0.10/0.14 0.04/0.10 0.10/0.18 0.10/0.18 0.08/0.12 0.08/0.12 .............. 0.025/0.050 0.010 max. 0.005/0.020 0.030/0.050 0.030/0.050 .............. 0.030/0.050 0.045 max. 0.030/0.045 .............. .............. 0.40/0.50 0.20/0.30 .............. 0.30/0.50 .............. .............. 0.50/0.70 0.50/0.65 .............. 0.15/0.35 0.45/0.65 0.45/0.65 0.05/0.10 0.06/0.10 0.07/0.11 0.10/0.20 0.07/0.18 0.13/0.23 0.13/0.18 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. N = .008/.015 N = .008/.015 V S Si Other

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Type

C

MicroTec 2W60 MicroTec 2W65 MicroTec 2W70 MicroTec 2W75 MicroTec 3W70 MicroTec 3W75 MicroTec 3W75A

0.10/0.18 0.16/0.20 0.16/0.20 0.16/0.22 0.28/0.33 0.26/0.30 0.28/0.32

30

MicroTec 3M80 MicroTec 3M80A MicroTec 3M80B MicroTec 3M80C MicroTec 3M85 MicroTec 4M85 MicroTec 4M90 MicroTec 4M90A MicroTec 4M95 MicroTec 4M95A

0.28/0.33 0.28/0.33 0.32/0.36 0.32/0.36 0.31/0.35 0.36/0.40 0.36/0.41 0.36/0.41 0.36/0.40 0.38/0.43

MicroTec 5H85 MicroTec 5H90 MicroTec 5H95 MicroTec 5H95A

0.53/0.57 0.52/0.57 0.52/0.57 0.52/0.57

Cr = .15/.45

TIMKEN® ALLOY STEELS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE

P Max Si Cr Mo S Max ASTM No

Chemical Composition Range and Limits

Type

C

Mn

31

Ti 5 4 3 C min, .70 max

(3)

.50Mo(1) DM® DM-2 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo 5 Cr 1/2 Mo 5 Cr 1/2 Mo+Ti(2) 5 Cr 1/2 Mo+Si 5 Cr 1 Mo+Si 7 Cr 1/2 Mo 9 Cr 1 Mo T9(3) .045 .030 .............. .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .020 .045 .030 .............. .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .010 .10/.50 .50/1.00 .50 max .50 max .50 max .50 max 1.00/2.00 1.00/1.50 .50/1.00 .25/1.00 .20/.50 .............. 1.00/1.50 .80/1.25 1.90/2.60 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 4.00/6.00 6.00/8.00 8.00/10.00 8.00/9.50 .44/.65 .44/.65 .44/.65 .87/1.13 .45/.65 .45/.65 .45/.65 .09/1.10 .45/.65 .90/1.10 .85/1.05

.10/.20 .15 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .12 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .15 max .08/.12

.30/.80 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60

1 11 .............. 22 5 5c 5b .............. 7 9 91

(1)

.50 Mo steel also available with .08/.14 C.

(2)

Ni 5 .40 max, V 5 .18/.25, Cb 5 .06/.10, N 5 .03/.07, Al 5 .04 max

TIMKEN® HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING STEELS

Chemical Composition Ranges

P Max Si .55/.75 .55/.75 .55/.75 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 S Max Cr 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 1.00/1.50 Mo .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 V .20/.30 .20/.30 .75/.95 AMS No .............. 6302 6303

Type

C

Mn

17-22-A® 17-22-AS® 17-22-AV®

.41/.48 .28/.33 .25/.30

.45/.65 .45/.65 .60/.90

TIMKEN® TUBING FOR POLYETHYLENE PRODUCTION

Chemical Composition Ranges

Mo .35/.45 .50/.65 Mn .70/1.00 .70/1.00 .70/.90 .80/1.20 1.65/2.00 2.00/2.50 Cr Ni

Type

C

4333M4 4333M6

.30/.38 .30/.38

TIMKEN® SPECIAL BEARING STEELS

Mn .25/.45 .90/1.20 1.40/1.70 .65/.90 1.05/1.35 .60/.80 .40/.70 .40/.60 .15/.35 1.05/1.35 .35 max. 1.00 max. .50/.80

(7)

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Type .15/.35 .45/.75 .50/.80 .15/.35 .15/.35 .85/1.20 .90/1.25 .40/.60 .10/.25 .15/.35 .25 max. 1.00 max. .15/.35 1.30/1.60 .90/1.20 1.40/1.80 1.10/1.50 1.10/1.50 1.25/1.65 1.25/1.65 .90/1.20 4.00/4.25 .90/1.20 3.75/4.25 16.00/18.00 .40/.60 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 2.75/3.25 3.20/3.60 1.30/1.65 .10 max. .............. .25 max.

C

Si

Cr

Ni

Mo .............. .............. .............. .20/.30 .45/.60 .25/.35 .90/1.10 4.00/5.00 4.00/4.50 1.20/1.40 4.00/4.50 .75 max. .08/.15

V .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .25/.50 1.13/1.33 .............. .90/1.10 .............. ..............

32

Through hardening steel for service up to 600 F. Carburizing steel for service up to 600 F. Carburizing steel for service up to 1000 F.

52100(1) ASTM-A485-1(#1 Mod.)(3) ASTM-A485-2(#2 Mod.) ASTM-A485-3(T-1)(3) ASTM-A485-4(T-2)(3) TBS-600TM (4) CBS-600TM (5) CBS1000MTM (6) CBS-50NiL(2) TBA-2(7) M-50 440C TBS-9®

.93/1.05 .90/1.05 .85/1.00 .95/1.10 .95/1.10 .95/1.10 .16/.22 .10/.16 .11/.15 .70/.80 .77/.85 .95/1.20 .89/1.01

(1)

(4)

(2)

(5)

Through hardening steel can be air quenched.

(3)

52100 shown for reference purposes only Max Cu .10, Co .25, W .25, P .015, S .010 Deep hardening steels.

(6)

USA - EUROPEAN - JAPANESE NEAR EQUIVALENT GRADES

USA 1045 4118 European C45 20CrMo5 Japanese S45C SCM418 SCM430 SCM440

4130

4140 8620

25CrMo4

4340

52100

5140

5130

5120

8640

40NiCrMo22 28Cr4 20Cr4

21NiCrMo2

40NiCrMo6

42CrMo4

SNCM439 SNCM240 SCr430 SUJ2 SCr420 SNCM220

100Cr6

41Cr4

SCr440

33

EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS CARBON STEELS AND ALLOY STEELS

DIN 17200 Chemical Composition, %

Ni V Mn P Max S Max Cr Mo

Steel Grade

C

Si Max

34

C 10 C 15 C 20 C 22(1) C 25(1) C 30(1) C 35(1) C 40(1) C 45(1) C 50(1) C 55(1) C 60(1) 28 Mn 6 32 Cr 2 32 CrS 2 38 Cr 2 38 CrS 2 46 Cr 2 46 CrS 2

.07/.13 .12/.18 .17/.23 .17/.24 .22/.29 .27/.34 .32/.39 .37/.44 .42/.50 .47/.55 .52/.60 .57/.65 .25/.35 .28/.35 .28/.35 .35/.42 .35/.42 .42/.50 .42/.50

.40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40

.30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .40/.70 .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.80 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 1.30/1.65 .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.80 .50/.80

.045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035

.045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .045 .03 .03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60 .40/.60

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

(1)

Ck has same chemical composition except %S is .03 max. Cm has same chemical composition except %S is .020/.035 max.

(1)

Ck has same chemical composition except %S is .03 max. Cm has same chemical composition except %S is .020/.035 max.

EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS CARBON STEELS AND ALLOY STEELS ­ continued

Mn P Max S Max Cr Mo Ni V

Steel Grade

C

Si Max

35

28 Cr 4 28 CrS 4 34 Cr 4 34 CrS 4 37 Cr 4 37 CrS 4 41 Cr 4 41 CrS 4 25 CrMo 4 25 CrMoS 4 34 CrMo 4 34 CrMoS 4 42 CrMo 4 42 CrMoS 4 50 CrMo 4 36 CrNiMo 4 34 CrNiMo 6 30 CrNiMo 8 50 CrV 4 30 CrMoV 9

.24/.31 .24/.31 .30/.37 .30/.37 .34/.41 .34/.41 .38/.45 .38/.45 .22/.29 .22/.29 .30/.37 .30/.37 .38/.45 .38/.45 .46/.54 .32/.40 .30/.38 .26/.34 .47/.55 .26/.34

.40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40 .40

.60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .50/.80 .50/.80 .40/.70 .30/.60 .70/1.10 .40/.70

.035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035

.03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035 .03 .020/.035 .03 .03 .03 .03 .03 .03

.90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 1.40/1.70 1.80/2.20 .90/1.20 2.30/2.70

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .30/.50 .............. .15/.25

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .90/1.20 1.40/1.70 1.80/2.20 .............. ..............

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .10/.20 .10/.20

(1)

Ck has same chemical composition except %S is .03 max. Cm has same chemical composition except %S is .020/.035 max.

EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS

DIN 17210 Chemical Composition, % (1)

Mo Ni Mn P Max S Max Cr

Steel Grade

C

Si Max

36

C 10 C 15 Ck 10 Ck 15 15 Cr 3 16 MnCr 5 20 MnCr 5 20 MoCr 4 25 MoCr 4 15 CrNi 6 17 CrNiMo 6

.07/.13 .12/.18 .07/.13 .12/.18 .12/.18 .14/.19 .17/.22 .17/.22 .23/.29 .12/.17 .14/.19

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.40 .15/.40 .15/.40 .15/.40 .15/.40 .15/.40 .15/.40

.30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .40/.60 1.00/1.30 1.10/1.40 .60/.90 .60/.90 .40/.60 .40/.60

.045 .045 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035

.045 .045 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035 .035

.............. .............. .............. .............. .40/.70 .80/1.10 1.00/1.30 .30/.50 .40/.60 1.40/1.70 1.50/1.80

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .40/.50 .40/.50 .............. .25/.35

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 1.40/1.70 1.40/1.70

(1)

Alloy steels intended for direct quenching shall contain at least 0.02% by weight of metallic (acid soluble) aluminum.

EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS THROUGH HARDENING BEARING STEELS

DIN 17230 Chemical Composition %

Mo .10 max .10 max .10 max .15/.25 .20/.35 .50/.60 Mn .25/.45 .25/.45 1.00/1.20 .25/.45 .60/.80 .80/1.10 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .030 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .025 .40/.60 1.35/1.60 1.40/1.65 1.65/1.95 1.65/1.95 1.80/2.05 P Max S Max Cr Ni Max .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30

Steel Grade

C

Si

100 Cr2 100 Cr6 100 CrMn6 100 CrMo7 100 CrMo7 3 100 CrMnMo 8

.90/1.05 .90/1.05 .90/1.05 .90/1.05 .90/1.05 .90/1.05

.15/.35 .15/.35 .50/.70 .20/.40 .20/.40 .40/.60

37

JAPANESE AUTOMOTIVE STANDARDS CARBON STEELS AND BORON STEELS

Chemical Composition, %

Ni Cr Ni + Cr Mn P S B Cu

No.

Steel Grade

C

Si

38

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max

S 10 C S 12 C S 15 C S 17 C S 20 C S 22 C S 25 C S 28 C S 30 C S 33 C S 35 C S 38 C S 40 C S 43 C S 45 C S 48 C

.08/.13 .10/.15 .13/.18 .15/.20 .18/.23 .20/.25 .22/.28 .25/.31 .27/.33 .30/.36 .32/.38 .35/.41 .37/.43 .40/.46 .42/.48 .45/.51

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

.30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90

.20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max

.35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max

JAPANESE AUTOMOTIVE STANDARDS CARBON STEELS AND BORON STEELS ­ continued

Mn P S B Cu Ni Cr Ni + Cr

No.

Steel Grade

C

Si

39

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .............. .............. .............. .............. .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max .20 max

S 50 C S 53 C S 55 C S 58 C ASBo 20 ASBo 25 ASBo 28 ASBo 30 ASBo 33 ASBo 35 ASBo 38 ASBo 40 ASBo 43 ASBo 45 ASBo 48 ASBo 50 ASBo 53

.47/53 .50/.56 .52/.58 .55/.61 .18/.23 .22/.28 .25/.31 .27/.33 .30/.36 .32/.38 .35/.41 .37/.43 .40/.46 .42/.48 .45/.51 .47/.53 .50/.56

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

.60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .30/.60 .30/.60 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90

.35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max

JAPANESE AUTOMOTIVE STANDARDS H STEELS

Mn P S Ni Cr Mo B Cu

No.

Steel Grade

C

Si

40

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

ASMn420H ASMn425H ASMn430H SMn433H ASMn435H SMn438H ASMn440H ASMn443H ASMn448H ASMn453H ASMnB220H ASMnB233H ASMnB422H ASMnB425H ASMnB433H ASMnB443H ASMnC420H SMnC443H

.17/.23 .22/.28 .27/.34 .29/.36 .32/.39 .34/.41 .37/.44 .40/.47 .45/.52 .50/.57 .17/.23 .29/.36 .19/.25 .22/.28 .29/.36 .40/.47 .17/.23 .39/.46

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

1.15/1.55 1.15/1.55 1.15/1.55 1.15/1.55 1.15/1.55 1.30/1.70 1.30/1.70 1.30/1.70 1.30/1.70 1.30/1.70 1.10/1.40 1.10/1.40 1.20/1.50 1.20/1.50 1.20/1.50 1.20/1.50 1.15/1.55 1.30/1.70

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max

.35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35 max .35/.70 .35/.70

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .0005 min .............. ..............

.30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max

JAPANESE AUTOMOTIVE STANDARDS H STEELS ­ continued

Mn P S Ni Cr Mo B Cu

No.

Steel Grade

C

Si

41

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

ASMnC520H ASMnC543H ASMnCB440H SCr415H ASCr418H SCr420H ASCr423H ASCr425H SCr430H SCr435H SCr440H ASCr445H ASCB435H ASCB440H ASCM115H ASCM118H ASCM120H ASCM125H ASCM315H

.17/.23 .39/.46 .37/.44 .12/.18 .15/.21 .17/.23 .20/.26 .22/.28 .27/.34 .32/.39 .37/.44 .42/.49 .32/.39 .37/.44 .12/.18 .15/.21 .17/.23 .22/.28 .12/.18

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

1.15/1.55 1.30/1.70 .80/1.20 .80/1.20 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .65/1.00

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max .25 max

.85/1.25 .85/1.25 .30/.70 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .35/.65 .85/1.25

.............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .0005 min .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .............. .30 max .............. .0005 min .30 max .............. .0005 min .30 max .08/.15 .............. .30 max .08/.15 .............. .30 max .08/.15 .............. .30 max .08/.15 .............. .30 max .08/.15 .............. .30 max

JAPANESE AUTOMOTIVE STANDARDS H STEELS ­ continued

Mn P S Ni Cr Mo B Cu

No.

Steel Grade

C

Si

42

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

ASCM318H ASCM320H ASCM325H SCM415H SCM418H SCM420H ASCM430H SCM435H SCM440H SCM445H SCM822H SNCM220H SNCM420H

.15/.21 .17/.23 .22/.28 .12/.18 .15/.21 .17/.23 .27/.34 .32/.39 .37/.44 .42/.49 .19/.25 .17/.23 .17/.23

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

.65/1.00 .65/1.00 .65/1.00 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .55/.90 .60/.95 .40/.70

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .25 max .030 max .35/.75 .030 max 1.55/2.00

.85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .85/1.25 .35/.65 .35/.65

.08/.15 .08/.15 .08/.15 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .35/.45 .15/.30 .15/.30

.............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

.30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max .30 max

JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS CARBON STEELS

JIS G 4051 Chemical Composition, %

Mn P P S Steel Grade C Si S

Steel Grade

C

Si

Mn

43

S 10 C S 12 C S 15 C S 17 C S 20 C S 22 C S 25 C S 28 C S 30 C S 33 C S 35 C S 38 C

.08/.13 .10/.15 .13/.18 .15/.20 .18/.23 .20/.25 .22/.28 .25/.31 .27/.33 .30/.36 .32/.38 .35/.41

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

.30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.035 max S 40 C .035 max S 43 C .035 max S 45 C .035 max S 48 C .035 max S 50 C .035 max S 53 C .035 max S 55 C .035 max S 58 C .035 max S 09 CK .035 max S 15 CK .035 max S 20 CK .035 max

.37/.43 .40/.46 .42/.48 .45/.51 .47/.53 .50/.56 .52/.58 .55/.61 .07/.12 .13/.18 .18/.23

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

.60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .30/.60 .30/.60 .30/.60

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .025 max .025 max .025 max

.035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .035 max .025 max .025 max .025 max

NOTE: As impurities Cu, Ni, Cr and Ni + Cr for grades S 09 CK, S 15 CK, S 20 CK shall not exceed respectively 0.25%, 0.20%, 0.20% and 0.30% and Cu, Ni, Cr and Ni + Cr for other grades shall not exceed respectively 0.30%, 0.20%, 0.20% and 0.35%.

JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS HIGH CARBON CHROMIUM BEARING STEELS

JIS G 4805 Chemical Composition, %

Mo .............. .............. .............. .10/.25 .10/.25 Mn .50 max .50 max .90/1.15 .50 max .90/1.15 .025 max .025 max .025 max .025 max .025 max .025 max .025 max .025 max .025 max .025 max .90/1.20 1.30/1.60 .90/1.20 1.30/1.60 .90/1.20 P S Cr

Symbol

C

Si

SUJ 1 SUJ 2 SUJ 3 SUJ 4 SUJ 5

.95/1.10 .95/1.10 .95/1.10 .95/1.10 .95/1.10

.15/.35 .15/.35 .40/.70 .15/.35 .40/.70

44

JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS NICKEL MOLYBDENUM CHROMIUM STEELS

JIS G 4103 Chemical Composition, %

Cr Mn P S Ni Mo

Steel Grade

C

Si

45

SNCM 220 SNCM 240 SNCM 415 SNCM 420 SNCM 431 SNCM 439 SNCM 447 SNCM 616 SNCM 625 SNCM 630 SNCM 815

.17/.23 .38/.43 .12/.18 .17/.23 .27/.35 .36/.43 .44/.50 .13/.20 .20/.30 .25/.35 .12/.18

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

.60/.90 .70/1.00 .40/.70 .40/.70 .60/.90 .60/.90 .60/.90 .80/1.20 .35/.60 .35/.60 .30/.60

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.40/.70 .40/.70 1.60/2.00 1.60/2.00 1.60/2.00 1.60/2.00 1.60/2.00 2.80/3.20 3.00/3.50 2.50/3.50 4.00/4.50

.40/.65 .40/.65 .40/.65 .40/.65 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 .60/1.00 1.40/1.80 1.00/1.50 2.50/3.50 .70/1.00

.15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .40/.60 .15/.30 .50/.70 .15/.30

NOTE: As impurities, Cu shall not exceed 0.30% for all grades.

JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS CHROMIUM STEELS

JIS G 4104 Chemical Composition, %

S .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max Cr .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .60/.85 .60/.85 .60/.85 .60/.85 .60/.85 .60/.85 .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max Mn P

Steel Grade

C

SCr 415 SCr 420 SCr 430 SCr 435 SCr 440 SCr 445

.13/.18 .18/.23 .28/.33 .33/.38 .38/.43 .43/.48

46

NOTE: As impurities Ni and Cu shall not exceed 0.25% and 0.30%, respectively, for all grades.

JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM STEELS

JIS G 4105 Chemical Composition, %

Cr Mo Mn P S

Steel Grade

C

Si

47

SCM 415 SCM 418 SCM 420 SCM 421 SCM 430 SCM 432 SCM 435 SCM 440 SCM 445 SCM 822

.13/.18 .16/.21 .18/.23 .17/.23 .28/.33 .27/.37 .33/.38 .38/.43 .43/.48 .20/.25

.15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35

.60/.85 .60/.85 .60/.85 .70/1.00 .60/.85 .30/.60 .60/.85 .60/.85 .60/.85 .60/.85

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max

.90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 1.00/1.50 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20 .90/1.20

.15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .15/.30 .35/.45

NOTE: As impurities, Ni and Cu shall not exceed 0.25% and 0.30%, respectively, for all grades.

JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS MANGANESE STEELS AND MANGANESE CHROMIUM STEELS

JIS G 4106 Chemical Composition, %

Si .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 .15/.35 1.20/1.50 1.20/1.50 1.35/1.65 1.35/1.65 1.20/1.50 1.35/1.65 .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max .030 max Mn P S Cr .............. .............. .............. .............. .35/.70 .35/.70

Steel Grade

C

SMn 420 SMn 433 SMn 438 SMn 443 SMnC 420 SMnC 443

.17/.23 .30/.36 .35/.41 .40/.46 .17/.23 .40/.46

48

NOTE: As impurities Ni and Cu shall not exceed 0.25% and 0.30%, respectively, for all grades. SMn 420, SMn 433, SMn 438 and SMn 443 shall not contain Cr exceeding 0.35%.

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

1522 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. GRADE 1524 H 1526 H 1541 H 15B21 H Max.

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 1038 H to 15B21 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Min. Max.

Max.

1038 H

Min.

Max.

1045 H

Min.

49

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

58 56 55 53 49 43 37 33 30 29 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 23 21 ... ... ... ...

51 42 34 29 26 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

62 61 59 56 52 46 38 34 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 27 26 25 23 22 21

55 52 42 34 31 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 25 24 24 23 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ...

50 48 47 46 45 42 39 37 34 32 30 28 27 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

41 41 32 27 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

51 49 48 47 45 43 39 38 35 34 32 30 29 28 27 26 25 23 22 20 ... ... ... ...

42 42 38 34 29 25 22 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

53 50 49 47 46 42 39 37 33 31 30 28 27 26 26 24 24 23 22 21 20 ... ... ...

44 42 38 33 26 25 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

60 59 59 58 57 56 55 53 52 50 48 46 44 41 39 35 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 26

53 52 50 47 44 41 38 35 32 29 27 26 25 24 23 23 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ...

48 48 47 47 46 45 44 42 40 38 35 32 27 22 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

41 41 40 39 38 36 30 23 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

15B35 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. 15B37 H GRADE 15B41 H 15B48 H 15B62 H Max. 1330 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 15B28 H to 1330 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

15B28 H

Min.

Max.

15B30 H

Min.

Min.

50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

53 53 52 51 51 50 49 48 46 43 40 37 34 31 30 29 27 25 25 24 23 22 21 20

47 47 46 45 42 32 25 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

55 53 52 51 50 48 43 38 33 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

48 47 46 44 32 22 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

58 56 55 54 53 51 47 41 ... 30 ... 27 ... 26 ... 25 ... 24 ... 22 ... 20 ... ...

51 50 49 48 39 28 24 22 ... 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

58 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 ... 45 ... 40 ... 33 ... 29 ... 27 ... 25 ... 23 ... 21

50 50 49 48 43 37 33 26 ... 22 ... 21 ... 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 46 42 39 36 34 33 31 31

53 52 52 51 51 50 49 48 44 37 32 28 26 25 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 ... ... ...

63 62 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 53 51 48 45 41 38 34 32 31 30 29 29 28 28

56 56 55 54 53 52 42 34 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 ... ...

... ... ... ... 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 63 62 62 61 60 58 54 48 43 40 37 35 34

60 60 60 60 59 58 57 52 43 39 37 35 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 26

56 56 55 53 52 50 48 45 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 31 31 30 30

49 47 44 40 35 31 28 26 25 23 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

3310 H(1) Min. Max. 3316 H(1) Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Min. 4028 H 4032 H 4037 H GRADE 4042 H Max.

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 1335 H to 4037 H

"J" Distan Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

1340 H

Min.

Max.

1345 H

Min.

Min.

51

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

60 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 52 51 50 48 46 44 42 41 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 34

53 52 51 49 46 40 35 33 31 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20

63 63 62 61 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 49 48 47 46 45 45 45 45

56 56 55 54 51 44 38 35 33 32 31 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24

43 43 42 42 42 42 41 41 41 40 40 40 39 39 38 38 37 37 37 36 36 36 35 35

36 36 35 35 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 25 25 25 25

47 47 47 46 46 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 43 43 43 42 42 42 41

40 39 38 38 37 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 32 32 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 30 30 30

52 50 46 40 34 30 28 26 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ...

45 40 31 25 22 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

57 54 51 46 39 34 31 29 28 26 26 25 24 24 23 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 ... ...

50 45 36 29 25 23 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

59 57 54 51 45 38 34 32 30 29 28 27 26 26 26 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 23 23

52 49 42 35 30 26 23 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

62 60 58 55 50 45 39 36 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 27 26 26

55 52 48 40 33 29 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 23 22 22 22 21 20 20 ... ... ... ...

(1)

Formerly Standard Steels

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

4120 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. GRADE 4130 H 4135 H 4137 H 4140 H Max. 4142 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 4042 H to 4142 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

4047 H

Min.

Max.

4118 H

Min.

Min.

52

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

64 62 60 58 55 52 47 43 40 38 37 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 30 30 29 29 29

57 55 50 42 35 32 30 28 28 27 26 26 25 25 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21

48 46 41 35 31 28 27 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

41 36 27 23 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

48 47 44 41 37 34 32 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22

41 37 32 37 23 21 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

56 55 53 51 49 47 44 42 40 38 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 32 31 31 30 30 29

49 46 42 38 34 31 29 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ...

58 58 57 56 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 42 41 40 39 38 38 37

51 50 49 48 47 45 42 40 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 27 27 26 26 26

59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 46 45 44 43 42 42 41 41

52 51 50 49 49 48 45 43 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 30 29 29 29

60 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 56 55 55 54 54 53 52 51 49 48 47 46 45 44

53 53 52 51 51 50 48 47 44 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30

62 62 62 61 61 61 60 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 54 53 53 52 51 51 50

55 55 54 53 53 52 51 50 49 47 46 44 42 41 40 39 37 36 35 34 34 34 33 33

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

4150 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. 4161 H GRADE 4320 H 4340 H E 4340 H 4620 H Max.

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 4145 H to 4620 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

4145 H

Min.

Max.

4147 H

Min.

Min.

53

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

63 63 62 62 62 61 61 61 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 55 55 55 54

56 55 55 54 53 53 52 52 51 50 49 48 46 45 43 42 40 38 37 36 35 35 34 34

64 64 64 64 63 63 63 63 63 62 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 57 57 57 56 56

57 57 56 56 55 55 55 54 54 53 52 51 49 48 46 45 42 40 39 38 37 37 37 36

65 65 65 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 64 63 63 62 62 62 61 60 59 59 58 58 58 58

59 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 56 55 54 53 51 50 48 47 45 43 41 40 39 38 38 38

65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 64 64 64 63 63 63 63 63 63 63

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 59 58 58 57 56 55 63 50 48 45 43 42 41

48 47 45 43 41 38 36 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24

41 38 35 32 29 27 25 23 22 21 20 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 56 56 56

53 53 53 53 53 53 53 52 52 52 51 51 50 49 49 48 48 46 45 44 43 42 41 40

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 57

53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 52 52 52 52 51 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44

48 45 42 39 34 31 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 22 21 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ...

41 35 27 24 21 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

4720 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. GRADE 4815 H 4817 H 4820 H 50B40 H 50B44 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 4626 H to 50B44 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

4626 H(1)

Min.

Max.

4718 H

Min.

Min.

54

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

51 48 41 33 29 27 25 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

45 36 29 24 21 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

47 47 45 43 40 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 29 28 27 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 24

40 40 38 33 29 27 25 24 23 22 22 21 21 21 20 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

48 47 43 39 35 32 29 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 21 21 21 20 ... ... ... ...

41 39 31 27 23 21 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

45 44 44 42 41 39 37 35 33 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 25 24 24 24 23 23 23

38 37 34 30 27 24 22 21 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

46 46 45 44 42 41 39 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 26 25 25 25 25 24 24

39 38 35 32 29 27 25 23 22 21 20 20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

48 48 47 46 45 43 42 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 25

41 40 39 38 34 31 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 ... ... ... ... ... ...

60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 53 51 49 47 44 41 38 36 35 34 33 32 30 29

53 53 52 51 50 48 44 39 34 31 29 28 27 26 25 25 23 21 ... ... ... ... ... ...

63 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 54 52 50 48 44 40 38 37 36 35 34 33

56 56 55 55 54 52 48 43 38 34 31 30 29 29 28 27 26 24 23 21 20 ... ... ...

(1)

Formerly Standard Steels

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

50B50 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. 50B60 H GRADE 5120 H 5130 H 5132 H 5135 H Max.

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 5046 H to 5135 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

5046 H

Min.

Max.

50B46 H

Min.

Min.

55

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

63 62 60 56 52 46 39 35 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 23

56 55 45 32 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 54 51 47 43 40 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28

56 54 52 50 41 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... ....

65 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 54 50 47 44 41 39 38 37 36

59 59 58 57 56 55 52 47 42 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 22 21 20

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 63 62 60 58 55 53 51 49 47 44

60 60 60 60 60 59 57 53 47 42 39 37 36 35 34 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 25

48 46 41 36 33 30 28 27 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

40 34 28 23 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

56 55 53 51 49 47 45 42 40 38 37 36 35 34 34 33 32 31 30 29 27 26 25 24

49 46 42 39 35 32 30 28 26 25 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

57 56 54 52 50 48 45 42 40 38 37 36 35 34 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25

50 47 43 40 35 32 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

58 57 56 55 54 52 50 47 45 43 41 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 34 33 32 32 31 30

51 49 47 43 38 35 32 30 28 27 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

5150 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. GRADE 5155 H 5160 H 51B60 H 6118 H Max. 6150 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 5140 H to 6150 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

5140 H

Min.

Max.

5147 H

Min.

Min.

56

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

60 59 58 57 56 54 52 50 48 46 45 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 34 33 33 32

53 52 50 48 43 38 35 33 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 24 23 21 20 .... .... .... ....

64 64 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48

57 56 55 54 53 52 49 45 40 37 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 29 27 26 25 24 22 21

65 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 56 55 53 51 50 48 47 45 43 42 41 40 39 39 38

59 58 57 56 53 49 42 38 36 34 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22

.... 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 60 59 57 55 52 51 49 47 45 44 43 42 41 41 40

60 59 58 57 55 52 47 41 37 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 31 31 30 29 28 27 26 25

.... .... .... 65 65 64 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 56 54 52 48 47 46 45 44 43 43 42

60 60 60 59 58 56 52 47 42 39 37 36 35 35 34 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 63 61 59 57 55 53 51 49 47

60 60 60 60 60 59 58 57 54 50 44 41 40 39 38 37 36 34 33 31 30 28 27 25

46 44 38 33 30 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... ....

39 36 28 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

65 65 64 64 63 63 62 61 61 60 59 58 57 55 54 52 50 48 47 46 45 44 43 42

59 58 57 56 55 53 50 47 43 41 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 32 31 30 29 27 26 25

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

8620 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. GRADE 8622 H 8625 H 8627 H 8630 H 86B30 H Max.

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 81B45 H to 86B30 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

81B45 H

Min.

Max.

8617 H

Min.

Min.

57

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

63 63 63 63 63 63 62 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 57 56 55 53 52 50 49 47 45 43

56 56 56 56 55 54 53 51 48 44 41 39 38 37 36 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 28 27

46 44 41 38 34 31 28 27 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... ....

39 33 27 24 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

48 47 44 41 37 34 32 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22

41 37 32 27 23 21 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

50 49 47 44 40 37 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24

43 39 34 30 26 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

52 51 48 46 43 40 37 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 25 25 25

45 41 36 32 29 27 25 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

54 52 50 48 45 43 40 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 28 28 27 27 27 27 27

47 43 38 35 32 29 27 26 24 24 23 22 21 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

56 55 54 52 50 47 44 41 39 37 35 34 33 33 32 31 30 30 29 29 29 29 29 29

49 46 43 39 35 32 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 .... .... .... .... ....

56 55 55 55 54 54 53 53 52 52 52 51 51 50 50 49 48 47 45 44 43 41 40 39

49 49 48 48 48 48 48 47 46 44 42 40 39 38 36 35 34 32 31 29 28 27 26 25

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

8642 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. GRADE 8645 H 86B45 H 8650 H 8655 H Max. 8660 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 8637 H to 8660 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

8637 H

Min.

Max.

8640 H

Min.

Min.

58

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

59 58 58 57 56 55 54 53 51 49 47 46 44 43 41 40 39 37 36 36 35 35 35 35

52 51 50 48 45 42 39 36 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 24 24 24 23 23

60 60 60 59 59 58 57 55 54 52 50 49 47 45 44 42 41 39 38 38 37 37 37 37

53 53 52 51 49 46 42 39 36 34 32 31 30 29 28 28 26 26 25 25 24 24 24 24

62 62 62 61 61 60 59 58 57 55 54 52 50 49 48 46 44 42 41 40 40 39 39 39

55 54 53 52 50 48 45 42 39 37 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26

63 63 63 63 62 61 61 60 59 58 56 55 54 52 51 49 47 45 43 42 42 41 41 41

56 56 55 54 52 50 48 45 41 39 37 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 27 27

63 63 62 62 62 61 61 60 60 60 59 59 59 59 58 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 56 56

56 56 55 54 54 53 52 52 51 51 50 50 49 48 46 45 42 39 37 35 34 32 32 31

65 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 61 60 60 59 58 58 57 56 55 53 52 50 49 47 46 45

59 58 57 57 56 54 53 50 47 44 41 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 29

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 53

60 59 59 58 57 56 55 54 52 49 46 43 41 40 39 38 37 35 34 34 33 33 32 32

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 60 60

60 60 60 60 60 59 58 57 55 53 50 47 45 44 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 35

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

8822 H Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. 9260 H GRADE 9310 H 94B15 H 94B17 H 94B30 H Max.

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 8720 H to 94B30 H

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

8720 H

Min.

Max.

8740 H

Min.

Min.

59

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

48 47 45 42 38 35 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 23 23 22 22

41 38 35 30 26 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

60 60 60 60 59 58 57 56 55 53 52 50 49 48 46 45 43 42 41 40 39 39 38 38

53 53 52 51 49 46 43 40 37 35 34 32 31 31 30 29 28 28 27 27 27 27 26 26

50 49 48 46 43 40 37 35 34 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 27 27 27 27 27 27

43 42 39 33 29 27 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

.... .... 65 64 63 62 60 58 55 52 49 47 45 43 42 40 38 37 36 36 35 35 35 34

60 60 57 53 46 41 38 36 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28

43 43 43 42 42 42 42 41 40 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 35 35 34 34 34 34 33 33

36 35 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 26 25 25 25 25 25 24 24

45 45 44 44 43 42 40 38 36 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 22

38 38 37 36 32 28 25 23 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

46 46 45 45 44 43 42 41 40 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23

39 39 38 37 34 29 26 24 23 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

56 56 55 55 54 54 53 53 52 52 51 51 50 49 48 46 44 42 40 38 37 35 34 34

49 49 48 48 47 46 44 42 39 37 34 32 30 29 28 27 25 24 23 23 22 21 21 20

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

3310 RH Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. GRADE 4027 RH 4118 RH 4120 RH 4130 RH

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 15B21 RH to 4130 RH

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Min. Max.

Max.

15B21 RH

Min.

Max.

15B35 RH

Min.

60

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

47 46 44 42 37 30 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

42 41 39 33 24 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ..... ....

57 55 54 53 50 46 42 36 32 28 .... 25 .... 24 .... 23 .... 22 .... 20 .... .... .... ....

52 51 50 49 41 33 28 24 23 21 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

42 42 42 41 41 41 40 40 39 39 39 39 38 38 37 37 36 36 35 35 35 34 34 34

37 37 37 36 36 35 33 33 32 32 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 27 27 27 26 26 26

51 48 43 37 32 28 26 24 23 22 22 21 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

46 42 34 28 24 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

47 44 38 33 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

42 38 30 25 22 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

47 45 41 38 34 31 29 28 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

42 39 35 30 26 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

55 54 52 49 46 44 41 39 37 35 33 32 32 31 31 31 30 30 30 29 29 28 28 27

50 48 44 40 36 34 32 30 28 27 26 26 26 25 25 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 20

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

4161 RH Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. GRADE 4320 RH 4620 RH 4820 RH 50B40 RH Max.

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 4140 RH to 50B40 RH

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Min. Max.

Max.

4140 RH

Min.

Max.

4145 RH

Min.

61

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

59 59 59 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 52 51 50 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41

54 54 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 35 34 33

62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 56 56 55 54 53 52 51 51 50 50 49

57 57 56 56 55 55 54 53 52 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 40 40 39 38 37

65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 60 59 58 57 57

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 58 57 56 54 53 51 49 47 46 45

47 46 44 41 39 36 34 32 31 29 28 26 25 24 24 23 22 22 21 21 21 21 21 21

42 40 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

47 44 40 37 32 29 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

42 37 30 27 24 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

47 47 46 45 43 41 40 38 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 25 25 24 23

42 42 41 40 36 33 32 30 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 20 .... .... ....

59 59 58 58 57 56 55 54 52 50 49 47 45 44 41 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 29 28

54 54 53 53 52 50 47 43 38 35 33 32 31 30 29 28 26 24 23 22 21 20 .... ....

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

5160 RH Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. 8620 RH GRADE 8622 RH 8720 RH 8822 RH Max. 9310 RH

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell "C" point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits ­ 5130 RH to 9310 RH

"J" Distance Sixteenths of an Inch Max.

Max.

5130 RH

Min.

Max.

5140 RH

Min.

Min.

62

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

55 53 51 49 46 44 42 39 37 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21

50 47 44 41 37 35 33 31 29 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

59 58 57 55 53 51 48 46 44 43 41 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 30 29 29

54 53 51 49 45 41 38 36 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 ....

65 65 65 65 64 63 62 60 58 56 55 53 51 50 48 47 44 43 42 41 40 39 39 38

60 60 60 59 58 57 54 50 45 42 40 39 38 37 36 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 29

47 45 41 38 34 31 29 28 26 25 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

42 39 35 30 26 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

49 47 45 41 38 35 32 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

44 41 37 32 29 27 24 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

47 45 43 40 36 33 31 29 28 27 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... ....

42 39 37 32 28 26 24 23 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

49 48 47 43 40 37 35 33 32 31 30 30 29 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 25 25 25

44 43 40 35 31 29 27 26 25 25 24 23 23 23 22 22 21 20 .... .... .... .... .... ....

42 42 42 41 41 40 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 32 32 32 31 31

37 36 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 29 28 28 28 28 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 25 25

INTRODUCTION TO JOMINY CORRELATION WITH ROUND BARS

The following correlation of Jominy values with quenching severity and surface to center hardnesses obtainable in round bars is based on calculated and practical experience data. Since practical heat treatment results are subject to several variables that are always difficult to determine, i.e., surface condition of piece being quenched, furnace atmosphere, and quenching severity of the coolant, the metallurgist or heat treater may find some differences in applying this correlation to his particular heat treatment setup. However, as experience is gained by their use, it is believed that these charts will be found helpful as a guide to the selection of steel of proper hardenability based on Jominy end quench results. As a valueadded service, Timken Company hardenability data will be supplied upon request, with each heat of steel.

63

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF CHART

CHART FOR PREDICTING APPROXIMATE CROSS SECTION HARDNESS OF QUENCHED ROUND BARS USING JOMINY TEST RESULTS

1. 2. 3. 4.

BAR SIZE

Select proper round bar size to be quenched. Select the curve most representative of quenching conditions (H value) to be used. Read the curve to the Jominy Distance. Insert Rockwell "C" hardness values corresponding to the Jominy Distance. These are obtained from The Timken Company

1.5

0.50 0.35

0.20

CENTER

1/2" RD

1/2 RADIUS

H VALUE

QUENCH

AGITATION

1.0 0.70

SURFACE

2.0

0.50

0.35

1.0

1.5

0.70

1.0

0.50

0.35

0.20

5.0

0

1.5 2.0

0.70

64

CENTER 1/2 RADIUS 12 SURFACE 16 20 24 28

0.20

CENTER

0.20 0.35 0.50 0.70 1.0 1.5 2.0 5.0 ­ Oil ­ Oil ­ Oil ­ Oil ­ Water ­ Water ­ Brine ­ Brine ­ Ideal Quench ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ No Moderate Good Strong No Strong No Strong

3/4" RD

1/2 RADIUS

Hardenability Data available with each shipment of steel. These hardness values represent the approximate surface-to-center hardness obtainable for the type of steel being heat treated.

SURFACE

1" RD

4 8 JOMINY DISTANCE

32

BAR SIZE

0.20

5.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.70

0.50

0.35

CENTER

1-1/2" RD

1/2 RADIUS SURFACE

0.35 0.20

H VALUE

QUENCH

AGITATION

5.0

2.0

1.0

0.70

0.50

CENTER

0.20 0.35 0.50 0.70 1.0 1.5 2.0 5.0

2" RD

1/2 RADIUS SURFACE

0.70 0.50 0.35 0.20

­ Oil ­ Oil ­ Oil ­ Oil ­ Water ­ Water ­ Brine ­ Brine ­ Ideal Quench

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­

No Moderate Good Strong No Strong No Strong

1.5

5.0

2.0

1.5

3" RD

1.0

5.0

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.70

0.50

0.35

0.20

65

12 16 20 24 28

CENTER

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE

CENTER

4" RD

1/2 RADIUS

0

4 8 JOMINY DISTANCE

32

SURFACE

BAR SIZE

5.0 0.50 0.35 1.5 1.0 0.70

CENTER

5" RD

1/2 RADIUS SURFACE CENTER

1.5 0.70 0.35

5.0

6" RD

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE CENTER

66

1.5 0.35

7" RD

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE CENTER

8" RD

1.5 0.35

1/2 RADIUS

0

4 8 JOMINY DISTANCE

12

16

20

24

28

32

SURFACE

EXPLANATION OF COMBINED HARDENABILITY CHARTS

The following charts present hardenability data for thirteen popular steels. They may be used to determine the approximate mid-radius hardness which is developed, in various sized rounds up to 9" in diameter using a good oil quench (.4-.5 Hv), or rounds up to 15" in diameter when air cooling. The effect of a subsequent 1000°F 2 hour temper is also illustrated. The relationship between hardness and section size was determined using data from the Jominy end quench test, and air hardenability test, and controlled cooling tests. It must be remembered that the results for a particular steel type are based on one chemical analysis and one austenitizing temperature. Variations of these will affect hardenability, as shown by the Jominy hardenability bands (shaded area). Therefore, the charts should be used to determine estimated, rather than exact, hardness values.

1. Select steel type.

USE OF CHARTS

2. Find desired diameter for the quenching medium employed. 3. Read the approximate as-quenched or tempered hardness using the appropriate curve; read hardness range using hardenability band.

For example, a 2-inch round made of 1045 type steel will develop the following mid-radius hardnesses:

Mild Water As-Cooled Tempered 1000 °F-2 Hours 28(25/32) Rc 22.5 Rc

Oil .4-.5 Hv 25(22/29) Rc 21 Rc

Air 91Rb 91Rb

67

TYPE

1045

P .019 Al -- V -- W -- B -- S .023 Si .22 Cr .11 Ni .18 Mo .04 Cu .04 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 12°F/S 7°F/S 80°F/M 32°F/M 19°F/M 27°F/M 290°F/M 200°F/M 5" 6" 7" AIR QUENCH 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 10" 15" 4" 5" 6" ~9"

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1600° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .42

Mn .79

1"

2"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 13°F/M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55°F/S

25°F/S

614

60

484

50

283

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27 48

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

68

4" 11/2" 11/4"

3

372

40

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

/4"

5

10

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

1340

P .011 Al .019 V -- W -- B -- S .013 Si .24 Cr .08 Ni .09 Mo .02 Cu .11 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 12° /S

F F F F F F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1600° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .40

Mn 1.87

1" 5" 7° /S 290° /M 200° /M 80° /M 27° /M 19° /M 32° /M

F

2" 6" 7" AIR QUENCH 1" 2" 3" 4" 5"

4"

5"

6"

~9" 6" 10" 15"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

614

60

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

69

48 4" 11/2" 11/4"

484

50

372

40

283

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

3

5

10

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

3310

P .012 Al .032 V -- W -- B -- S .012 Si .25 Cr 1.56 Ni 3.42 Mo .05 Cu .10 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 12° /S

F F F F F F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1700° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .08

Mn .54

1" 5" 7° /S

F

2" 6" 290° /M 200° /M 80° /M 32° /M 19° /M 27° /M 7" AIR QUENCH 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 10" 15"

4"

5"

6"

~9"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

614

60

484

50

230

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27 48

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

70

4" 11/2" 11/4"

3

372

40

283

30

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550° F .

(FROM ASM HANDBOOK) /4"

INTERFACE

5

10

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

4027

P .011 Al .032 V -- W -- B -- S .027 Si .29 Cr .05 Ni .09 Mo .22 Cu .07 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 12° /S

F F F F F F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1650° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1600° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .26

Mn .86

1" 5" 7° /S 290° /M 200° /M 80° /M 27° /M 19° /M 32° /M

F

2" 6" 7" AIR QUENCH 1" 2" 3" 4" 5"

4"

5"

6"

~9" 6" 10" 15"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

614

60

484

50

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

71

48 4" 11/2" 11/4"

372

40

283

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1600° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

3

5

10

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

4130

P .013 Al -- V -- W -- B -- S .020 Si .30 Cr .96 Ni .20 Mo .21 Cu .12 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1650° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1600° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .31

Mn .51

1" 5" 3" 27° /M 19° /M 4" 5"

F F F F

2" 6" 7° /S

F

4" 7" 80° /M AIR QUENCH 1" 6" 10" 15"

5"

6"

~9"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S 290° /M 200° /M 13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

614

60

484

50

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27 48

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

72

4" 11/2" 11/4"

3

372

40

283

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1600° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

/4"

5

10

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

4140

P .031 Al -- V -- W -- B -- S .021 Si .31 Cr .96 Ni .13 Mo .20 Cu .08 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1600° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .39

Mn .82

1" 5" 3" 27° /M

F

2" 6" 4" 19° /M

F

4" 7" 5"

F F F

5" AIR QUENCH 1" 80° /M

6"

~9" 6" 10" 15"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S

F F

1" 7° /S 290° /M 200° /M

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

614

60

484

50

230

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

73

48 4" 11/2" 11/4"

372

40

283

30

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550° F .

3

5

10

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

4320

P .010 Al .021 V -- W -- B -- S .014 Si .29 Cr .50 Ni 1.79 Mo .23 Cu .09

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1700° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1700° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .18

Mn .61

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F F F

1" 5" 3" 27° /M 19° /M 4" 5"

F F F F

2" 6" 7° /S

F

4" 7" 80° /M AIR QUENCH 1" 6" 10" 15"

5"

6"

~9"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S 290° /M 200° /M 13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

614

60

484

50

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27 48

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

74

4" 11/2" 11/4"

3

372

40

283

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1700° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

/4"

5

10

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

4340

P .014 Al -- V -- W -- B -- S .015 Si .30 Cr .72 Ni 1.75 Mo .26 Cu .13 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1600° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .41

Mn .74

1" 5" 3" 27° /M

F

2" 6" 4" 19° /M

F

4" 7" 5"

F F F

5" AIR QUENCH 1" 80° /M

6"

~9" 6" 10" 15"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S

F F

1" 7° /S 290° /M 200° /M

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

614

60

484

50

230

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

75

48 4" 11/2" 11/4"

372

40

283

30

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550° F .

3

5

10

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

4620

P .013 Al -- V -- W -- B -- S .019 Si .32 Cr .20 Ni 1.75 Mo .22 Cu .05 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1700° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1700° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .19

Mn .60

1" 5" 3" 27° /M 19° /M 4" 5"

F F F F

2" 6" 7° /S

F

4" 7" 80° /M AIR QUENCH 1" 6" 10" 15"

5"

6"

~9"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S 290° /M 200° /M 13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

614

60

484

50

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27 48

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

76

4" 11/2" 11/4"

3

372

40

283

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1700° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

/4"

5

10

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

5130

P .022 Al .019 V -- W -- B -- S .026 Si .26 Cr .98 Ni .09 Mo .02 Cu .14 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1650° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1600° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .30

Mn .79

1" 5" 3" 27° /M

F

2" 6" 4" 19° /M

F

4" 7" 5"

F F F

5" AIR QUENCH 1" 80° /M

6"

~9" 6" 10" 15"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S

F F

1" 7° /S 290° /M 200° /M

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

614

60

484

50

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

77

48 4" 11/2" 11/4"

372

40

283

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1600° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

3

5

10

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

5160

P .014 Al .023 V -- W -- B -- S .016 Si .29 Cr .78 Ni .07 Mo .01 Cu .05 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1600° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .58

Mn .91

1" 5" 3" 27° /M 19° /M 4" 5"

F F F F

2" 6" 7° /S

F

4" 7" 80° /M AIR QUENCH 1" 6" 10" 15"

5"

6"

~9"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S 290° /M 200° /M 13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

614

60

484

50

230

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27 48

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

78

4" 11/2" 11/4"

3

372

40

283

30

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

LEGEND AS COOLED 400° F TEMPER . 1000° F TEMPER . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550° F .

/4"

INTERFACE

5

10

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

8620

P .010 Al .031 V -- W -- B -- S .014 Si .30 Cr .50 Ni .51 Mo .19 Cu .09 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1700° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1700° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .20

Mn .85

1" 5" 3" 27° /M 19° /M

F

2" 6" 4" 5" 7° /S

F F F F

4" 7" 80° /M AIR QUENCH 1"

5"

6"

~9" 6" 10" 15"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S

F

1" 290° /M 200° /M

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

614

60

484

50

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

79

48 4" 11/2" 11/4"

372

40

283

30

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1700° F .

230

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

3

5

10

/4"

INTERFACE

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

TYPE

9310

P .012 Al .044 V -- W -- B -- S .015 Si .30 Cr 1.26 Ni 3.26 Mo .11 Cu .11 ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS 3" 4" 2" 32° /M

F F F F

HEAT TREATMENT

NORMALIZED 1700° F. -- AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

C .10

Mn .58

1" 5" 3" 27° /M 19° /M 4" 5"

F F F F

2" 6" 7° /S

F

4" 7" 80° /M AIR QUENCH 1" 6" 10" 15"

5"

6"

~9"

OIL QUENCH .4-.5 Hv MILD WATER QUENCH 12° /S 290° /M 200° /M 13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

1"

2"

3"

COOLING RATE

55° /S

F

25° /S

F

614

60

484

50

230

ROCKWELL "C" HARDNESS

BRINELL HARDNESS ­ 3000 KG.

107 15 20 27 48

ROCKWELL "B" HARDNESS

80

4" 11/2" 11/4"

3

372

40

283

30

20

185

90

150

80

128

70

60

LEGEND AS COOLED 1000° F TEMPER-2 HOURS . SAE HARDENABILITY BAND AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE 1550° F .

/4"

INTERFACE

5

10

21/2" 6" AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

AVERAGE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CARBON CONTENT, HARDNESS AND PERCENTAGE OF MARTENSITE IN QUENCHING

99.9% MARTENSITE 95% MARTENSITE 90% MARTENSITE 80% MARTENSITE 50% MARTENSITE

60

50

ROCKWELL C HARDNESS

81

.40 PERCENT CARBON .50 .60 .70

40

30

Hodge, J. M. and Orehoski, M. A. Relationship between hardenability and percentage of martensite in some low-alloy steels. Transactions. AIME, 1946, v. 167, pp. 627-642. Note: Fine divisions added to simplify use of the graph.

20

10

.10

.20

.30

414 160 140

ENDURANCE LIMIT, 1000 psi

552

690

828

TENSILE STRENGTH, MPa 966 1104 1241 1379 1517

1655 1793 1931

EFFECTS OF SURFACE CONDITIONS AND MECHANICAL NOTCHES ON ENDURANCE OR FATIGUE LIMITS

1140 966

ENDURANCE LIMIT, MPa

120

POLISHED

828 690 552 414 276

HOT ROLLED, SEVERLY NOTCHED, AS FORGED

100

GROUND

80 60 40 20

MACHINED

138

60

80

100

120

140 160 180 200 220 TENSILE STRENGTH, 1000 psi

240

260

280

Note: Endurance limits for surfaces exposed to corrosive environment fall below the band for hot rolled, severly notched, and as forged surfaces.

CONDITIONS WHICH AFFECT FATIGUE STRENGTH

The fatigue strength of a material depends on many factors of which the following are considered among the most important: (1) the strength of the material and the magnitude of the stress being applied to the material in its application, (2) the surface integrity of the material including its finish and method of manufacture, magnitude of residual stress present, and the presence of decarburization, (3) the environment in which the material is exposed in service. It must be noted that fatigue data such as that represented by the curves shown above are averages obtained from laboratory tests which approach ideal conditions and should not be considered more than a guide.

F.B. Stulen and W.C. Schulte, Metals Engineering Quarterly (Am. Soc. Metals), Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug. 1965 SAE Fatigue Design Handbook (AE4) - 1968 Proceedings of the International Conference on Fatigue of Metals, (IME-ASME) - 1956

82

For .10% Carbon (Approx.) Higher Alloy Carburizing Steels, i.e., 3310, 9310, etc. "EFFECTIVE" CASE DEPTH for VARIOUS CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES (Calculated in Inches to .40% CARBON LEVEL) Carburizing Time, Hours Carburizing Temperature (°F) 1600° 1650° 1700° 1750°

CARBURIZING INFORMATION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 16 20 24 30

.011" .015" .019" .021" .024" .026" .028" .030" .032" .034" .036" .037" .043" .048" .052" .059"

.013" .019" .023" .026" .030" .033" .035" .038" .040" .042" .044" .046" .053" .059" .065" .073"

.016" .023" .028" .033" .037" .040" .043" .046" .049" .052" .054" .057" .065" .073" .080" .089"

.019" .027" .034" .039" .044" .048" .052" .056" .059" .062" .065" .068" .078" .088" .096" .108"

Note: Case depth tables are based on data published in Metals Progress Data Sheet in May 1974 by F. E. Harris.

83

For .20% Carbon (Approx.) Lower Alloy Carburizing Steels, i.e., 4017, 4620, 8620, etc. "EFFECTIVE" CASE DEPTH for VARIOUS CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES (Calculated in Inches to .40% CARBON LEVEL) Carburizing Time, Hours Carburizing Temperature (°F)

CARBURIZING INFORMATION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

.013" .018" .022" .025" .029" .031" .034" .036" .038" .040" .042" .044" .051" .057" .062" .070"

1600°

.015" .022" .027" .031" .034" .038" .041" .044" .046" .049" .051" .053" .061" .069" .075" .085"

1650°

.019" .026" .032" .037" .042" .045" .049" .053" .056" .059" .062" .065" .075" .084" .092" .103"

1700°

.022" .031" .039" .045" .050" .055" .059" .063" .067" .071" .073" .077" .088" .099" .109" .122"

1750°

12 16 20 24 30

Note: Case depth tables are based on data published in Metals Progress Data Sheet in May 1974 by F. E. Harris

84

PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS DEW POINT, °F

-20 2 Austenite cementite Low-carbon steel 0 20 40 60 80 100

SURFACE CARBON CONCENTRATION, %

1 760° C 0.6 815° C 870° C 925° C 980° C 0.2 Workpiece temperature 1150° C 0.1 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 1040° C 1095° C Austenite + ferrite

0.4

DEW POINT, °C

Variation of carbon potential with dew point for an endothermic-based atmosphere containing 20% CO and 40% H2 in contact with plain carbon steel at various workpiece temperatures.

85 74

PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS

Austenite cementite Low-carbon steel

2

1 760° C 815° C Austenite + ferrite

0.6

0.4 980° C 925° C 870° C 1095° C 1040° C

SURFACE CARBON CONCENTRATION, %

86

0.06 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 1

Workpiece temperature 1150° C

0.2

0.1 2 4

0.01

0.02

0.04

CARBON DIOXIDE IN ATMOSPHERE, %

Variation of carbon potential with carbon dioxide concentration for an endothermic-based atmosphere containing 20% CO and 40% H2 in contact with plain carbon steel at various workpiece temperatures.

DETERMINING CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES

100 80

1, 50 0 1, 60 0 1, 70 0 1, 80 0 1, 90 0 F F F F

60 40

20

10 8 6 4

F

400

2

200

1

100 80 60 40

20

11

12

13 PARAMETER, P

14

15

10

TO USE THE CHART In the upper grid, select a point (time and temperature) for which the case depth results are known. Go vertically down from that point to the known case depth and plot the point. Pass a line through this point parallel to the dashed line shown. Projecting a line vertically upward from any point on this line into the grid will give the combinations of time and temperature that will result in the same depth of case. For instance, a vertical line drawn upward from the dashed line at 100 thousandths indicates that a 0.100 in. case will be produced by 6 hr. at 1900°F, 11 hr. at 1800°F, or 22 hr. at 1700°F. Shop experience of the Cook Heat Treat Co., Houston, is depicted by this line and its related points. Adapted from information provided by Charles F. Lewis, Cook Heat Treating Co., Div. Lindberg Corp.

87

CASE DEPTH, 0.001 in.

TIME AT HEAT, Hr

APPROXIMATE CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS OF CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS

1545 1515 1465 1440 1420 1405 1390 ............. ............. 1340 1340 1310 1300 1265 1205 1185 1125 1150 1160 1480 1445 1360 1275 1300 1275 1240 1230 1220 1225 1215 1215 1060 1090 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1550 ............. ............. 1065 910/1050 1060 1040 ............. ............. 1450 ............. ............. ............. 580 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 630 ............. ............. 1160 1165 1160 1160 ............. 1550 ............. ............. ............. 640 ............. ............. ............. 450 ............. ............. ............. ............. 400 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 440 ............. .............

SAE No. Ar3

1270 1270 1270 1270 1270 1270 1270 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 1500 1625 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 525 420 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 300 175

1015 1020 1030 1035 1040 1045 1050 1065 1090

1370 1350 1350 1350 1350 1350 1340 ............. .............

Ac1

Heating (°F) Ar1 Quench Temp °F Ms (°F) Mf (°F) SAE No.

1015 1020 1030 1035 1040 1045 1050 1065 1090

1565 1555 1485 1475 1460 1440 1420 ............. .............

Ac3

Cooling (°F)

88

1330 1335 1340 1345

1325 1315 1340 1325

1470 1460 1420 1420

1330 1335 1340 1345 2317 2330 2340 2345 2512 2515 3115 3120 3130 3140 3141 3150

2317 2330 2340 2345

1285 1280 1285 1265

1435 1360 1350 1335

2512 2515

1290 1260

1400 1400

3115 3120 3130 3140 3141 3150

1355 1350 1345 1355 1355 1355

1500 1480 1460 1410 1410 1380

CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS ­ continued

Ar3

1235 1235 1160 1160 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. .............

SAE No. Ar1 Ms (°F) Mf (°F)

3310 3316

Ac1

Heating (°F) Quench Temp °F SAE No.

Ac3

Cooling (°F)

3310 3316

1335 1335

1440 1425

89

1305 1305 1460 1345 1255 1285 1305 1230 ............. ............. ............. 1550

4027 4032 4042 4053 4063 4068 4118 4130 4140 4147 4150 4160 4320 4340 4342 4615 4620 4640 4695(1) 4718 4815 4820 1400 1350 1340 1320 1220 1215 1410 1350 1370 ............. 1290 ............. 1330 1220 ............. 1400 1335 1220 ............. 1410 1310 1260 ............. ............. ............. 630 ............. ............. ............. 460 1230 1250 1210 1200 1190 1195 1275 1250 1280 ............. 1245 ............. 840/1170 725/1210 ............. 1200 1220 875/1130 ............. 1200 860/1110 825/1110 ............. ............. 1500 ............. 1500 ............. ............. 1600 1500 1500 ............. 1575 ............. 1550 1500 ............. ............. 1550 1550 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 610 ............. 445 ............. ............. 710 640 590 ............. 500 ............. 550 530 ............. ............. 640 255 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 550 425 ............. ............. ............. ............. 330 ............. ............. ............. 490 ............. ............. ............. .............

1360 1340 1340 1310 1360 1365 1385 1380 1380 ............. 1390 ............. 1355 1350 ............. 1340 1300 1325 ............. 1285 1285 1290

1500 1500 1460 1400 1390 1395 1500 1475 1460 ............. 1450 ............. 1485 1425 ............. 1485 1490 1400 ............. 1510 1450 1440

4027 4032 4042 4053 4063 4068 4118 4130 4140 4147 4150 4160 4320 4340 4342 4615 4620 4640 4695(1) 4718 4815 4820 5045 5060 5120 5140

5045 5060 5120 5140

1360 1370 1380 1360

1430 1410 1525 1450

(1)

Represents the case of 4600 grades of carburizing steels

CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS ­ continued

Ar3

1300 1270 52100 52100 6117 6120 6140 6150 1270 1300 ............. 1275 1650 1740 1550 ............. 305 260 620 ............. ............. ............. 460 ............. ............. 1560 1650 1740 ............. 345 305 260 ............. ............. ............. ............. 51100

51100 52100 52100 52100 1320 1320 1430 1440 ............. 1375

SAE No. Ar1 Ms (°F) Mf (°F)

1385 1340

Ac1

Heating (°F) Quench Temp °F SAE No.

1415 1415

Ac3

Cooling (°F)

6117 6120 6140 6150

1400 1410 ............. 1380

1560 1530 ............. 1450

90

1400 1300 1265 1305 1290 ............. 1280 1430 1350 1460 1525 1365 1260 1350 1245 1280 1230 1275 1150 ............. ............. ............. ............. 1450 1460 830/1080 800 ............. 1190 ............. ............. 1700 1575 1200 1180 1190 ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. 170 620 ............. ............. ............. ............. 410 325

8615 8620 8630 8640 8650 8695(2) 1455 1400 1340 1275 1240 ............. 1265 1200 1210 1170 1195 ............. ............. ............. 1600 ............. ............. 1500 ............. ............. 690 ............. ............. 275

1360 1350 1350 1350 1325 .............

1550 1525 1480 1435 1390 .............

............. ............. 540 ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 410 ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............

8615 8620 8630 8640 8650 8695(2) 8720 8740 8750 9310 9317 9395(2) 9442 9 Cr 1 Mo 17-22-A® 17-22-AS® 17-22-AV® Graph Mo® Graph Air®

8720 8740 8750

1380 1350 1350

1520 1450 1410

9310 9317 9395(2) 9442

1315 1300 ............. 1350

1490 1455 ............. 1435

9 Cr 1 Mo 17-22-A® 17-22-AS® 17-22-AV® Graph Mo® Graph Air®

1515 1370 1440 1435 1380 1275

1645 1480 1600 1700 1415 1415

(2)

Represents the case of 8600 and 9300 grades of carburizing steels, respectively.

RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM HOT WORKING TEMPERATURES FOR STEELS

SAE No. 1008 1010 1015 1040 1118 1141 1350 2317 2340 2512 3115 3135 3140 3240 3310 3316 3335 4017 4032 4047 4063 4130 4132 4135 4140 4142 Temperature (°F) 2250 2250 2250 2200 2250 2200 2200 2250 2200 2250 2250 2200 2200 2200 2250 2250 2250 2300 2200 2200 2150 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 SAE No. 4320 4337 4340 4422 4427 4520 4615 4620 4640 4718 4820 5060 5120 5140 5160 51100 52100 6120 6135 6150 8617 8620 8630 8640 8650 Temperature (°F) 2200 2200 2200 2250 2250 2250 2300 2300 2200 2250 2250 2150 2250 2200 2150 2050 2050 2250 2250 2200 2250 2250 2200 2200 2200

Represents the case of 8600 and 9300 grades of carburizing steels, respectively.

91

RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM HOT WORKING TEMPERATURES FOR STEELS ­ continued

SAE No. 8720 8735 8740 9310 302 303 304 309 310 316 317 321 347 410 416 420 430 440A 440C 443 446 C-Mo DM DM-2 Temperature (°F) 2250 2200 2200 2250 2200 2200 2200 2150 2050 2150 2150 2150 2150 2200 2200 2200 2100 2100 2050 2100 1900 2300 2300 2300 Timken Type Temperature (°F) 2250 2250 2250 2250 2100 2200 2250 2200 2200 1950 1925 2050 2300 2050 2200 2200 2200 2250 2050 2050 2100 2100 2050 2250 2200

2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo 5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.05C) 5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.15C) 5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.25C) 5 Cr 1/2 Mo + Ti 5 Cr 1/2 Mo + Si 7 Cr 1/2 Mo 9 Cr 1 Mo 8 1/2 Ni Graph-Mo® Graph-Air® 5 Cr Mo (1.00C) 5Cr Mo W (1.00W) 10105 Nitriding #3 17-22A® 17-22AS® 17-22AV® A 485-1 A 485-2 A 485-3 A 485-4 TBS-600 CBS-600 CBS-1000M

NOTE: Information obtained from hot-twist test data published in "Evaluating The Forgeability of Steels" (3rd edition,The Timken Company) occasionally modified by actual Forge Shop experience.

92

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES

Standard Timken Company Tolerances

HOT ROLLED, ROUND(1) OD Tolerances As rolled or single thermal treatment: · inches TOD 5 6 (.0045 OD 1 .005) or 6.015 min. · mm TOD 5 6 (.0045 OD 1 .13) or 6.38 min. · over 10.75 inches (273mm) to 12.0 inches (305mm) inches TOD 5 6.095 mm TOD 5 62.41 · greater than 12.00 inches (305mm) to 13 inches (330mm)--refer to mill Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered: · inches TOD 5 61.5 (.0045 OD 1 .005) or 6.023 min. · mm TOD 5 61.5 (.0045 OD 1 .13) or 6.58 min. · over 10.75 inches (273mm) to 12.00 inches (305 mm) inches TOD 5 6.113 mm TOD 5 62.87 Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) OD to wall ratio over 10:1 or over 10.75 inches (273 mm) to 13.00 inches (330 mm) OD

OD to wall ratio of 10:1 or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67.5% Note: Minimum wall tolerance is 6.020 inch (.51mm).

(all OD to wall ratios). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610%

OD - Outside Diameter T - Tolerance ID - Inside Diameter W - Wall Thickness (1) Hot rolled and rough turned tubes can be purchased to outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness (W) only. Timken Company guaranteed tube sizes are calculated using Timken Company tolerances.

93

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCE ­ continued Standard Timken Company Tolerances

ROUGH TURNED, ROUND (1) OD Tolerances As turned or single thermal treatment: · under 6.75 inches (171.5mm) inches TOD 5 6.005 mm TOD 5 6.13 · 6.75 inches (171.5mm) and over inches TOD 5 6.010 mm TOD 5 6.25 Straightened and/or tempered or stress relieved after rough turning: inches mm TOD 5 6.010 TOD 5 6.25

Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered: · Under 6.75 inches (171.5mm) Heat Treated Before Rough Turned TOD 5 6.010 inches (6.25mm) Heat Treated After Rough Turned TOD 5 6.015 inches (6.38mm) · 6.75 inches (171.5mm) and over Heat Treated Before Rough Turned TOD 5 6.020 inches (6.51mm) Heat Treated After Rough Turned TOD 5 6.030 inches (6.76mm) Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) OD to wall ratio over 10:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612.5% OD to wall ratio of 10:1 or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610.0%

Note: Minimum wall tolerance is 6.020 inch (.51mm).

OD - Outside Diameter T - Tolerance ID - Inside Diameter W - Wall Thickness (1) Hot rolled and rough turned tubes can be purchased to outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness (W) only. Timken Company guaranteed tube sizes are calculated using Timken Company tolerances.

94

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCE ­ continued Standard Timken Company Tolerances

COLD DRAWN, ROUND (2) OD Tolerances As drawn: inches TOD/ID 5 6 (.0023 OD 2 .003) or 6.004 min. mm TOD/ID 5 6 (.0023 OD 2 .08) or 6.10 min.

Drawn and annealed, normalized, tempered or stress relieved: inches TOD/ID 5 61.8 (.0023 OD 2 .003) or 6.007 min. mm TOD/ID 5 61.8 (.0023 OD 2 .08) or 6.18 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & wall or ID & wall dimensions only): inches TOD/ID 5 62.5 (.0023 OD 2 .003) or 6.010 min. mm TOD/ID 5 62.5 (.0023 OD 2 .08) or 6.25 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & ID dimensions only): inches TOD/ID 5 63.75 (.0023 OD 2 .003) or 6.015 min. mm TOD/ID 5 63.75 (.0023 OD 2 .08) or 6.38 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) OD to wall ratio over 10:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67.5% OD to wall ratio 10:1 to 4:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66% OD to wall ratio under 4:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67.5% Note: (1) Minimum wall tolerance is 6.012 inch (.30mm) (2) When ID is under 1.000 inch (25.4mm), inquiry basis (3) Walls 6% of OD and lighter, inquiry basis (4) When OD & ID dimensions, use 67.5% wall

OD - Outside Diameter T - Tolerance ID - Inside Diameter W - Wall Thickness (2) Tubes with a final OD/W ratio less than 4:1 or a nominal finish wall size greater than 1.250 inches (31.75mm) will have a hot rolled ID and will be produced to cold drawn OD tolerances and hot rolled wall tolerances. ASTM A-519 tolerances are acceptable except for cold finished sizes smaller than 2.500 inches (63.50mm) diameter, where Timken Company tolerances apply.

95

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCE ­ continued Standard Timken Company Tolerances

ROTOROLLED®, ROUND OD Tolerances As Rotorolled®: inches TOD/ID 5 6 (.0024 OD 1 .0016) or 6.005 min. OD 6.010 min. ID mm TOD/ID 5 6 (.0024 OD 1 .041) or 6.13 min. Rotorolled® and annealed, normalized, tempered or stress relieved: inches TOD/ID 5 6 (.0024 OD 1 .007) or 6.010 min. mm TOD/ID 5 6 (.0024 OD 1 .18) or 6.25 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & wall or ID & wall dimensions only): inches TOD/ID 5 62 (.0024 OD 1 .0016) or 6.010 min. mm TOD/ID 5 62 (.0024 OD 1 .041) or 6.25 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered (OD & ID dimensions only): inches TOD/ID 5 63 (.0024 OD 1 .0016) or 6.015 min. mm TOD/ID 5 63 (.0024 OD 1 .041) or 6.38 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) All wall thicknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65% Note: Minimum wall tolerance is 6.012 inches (.30mm)

OD - Outside Diameter

T - Tolerance

ID - Inside Diameter

W - Wall Thickness

96

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES

Special Processed Tubing Tolerances

COLD DRAWN, SHAPED (Square, Rectangular or Oval) OD Tolerances As drawn or tempered: inches TOD/ID 5 6.005 OD or 6.020 min. mm TOD 5 6.005 OD or 6.51 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered: inches TOD/ID 5 6.01 OD or 6.040 min. mm TOD/ID 5 6.01 OD or 61.02 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) All wall thicknesses 610% at center of flats COLD DRAWN, SHAPED3 (Dissimilar OD and ID Configuration) OD Tolerances As drawn or tempered: inches TOD/ID 5 6.005 OD or 6.010 min. mm TOD/ID 5 6.005 OD or 6.25 min. Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered: inches TOD/ID 5 6.01 OD or 6.020 min. mm TOD/ID 5 6.01 OD or 6.51 min. Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions) All wall thicknesses 610% at center of flats

OD - Outside Diameter T - Tolerance ID - Inside Diameter W - Wall Thickness 3 When corner radii and twist are important, they must be reviewed by our mill before we accept the order.

97

All Conditions ­ Seamless Steel Tubing

Random Lengths Tubing shipped on random-length orders has a length spread of 7 feet (2.1 meters) with a mean length 10 feet to 26 feet (3 to 8 meters) unless otherwise specified. Multiple Lengths For tubing ordered in multiple lengths, it is standard practice for the customer to make their own allowances for loss of steel due to cutting operations. These allowances will vary from one customer to another due to their cutting practices and the amount of facing required on the ends of the part. Therefore, tubing is furnished to the multiple length as specified by the individual customer. In Inches Specified Size Outside Diameter Up to 2 inches incl. Over 2 inches to 4 inches incl. Over 4 inches Up to 2 inches incl. Over 2 inches All All All

LENGTH TOLERANCES

Specified Length 4 feet and under 4 feet and under 4 feet and under Over 4 feet to 10 feet, incl. Over 4 feet to 10 feet, incl. Over 10 feet to 24 feet, incl. Over 24 feet to 34 feet, incl. Over 34 feet to 44 feet, incl. In Meters

Over

Permissible Variations 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Under

1/16 inch 3/32 inch 1/8 inch 3/32 inch 1/8 inch 3/16 inch 5/16 inch 7/16 inch

Specified Length 1 meter and under 1 meter and under 1 meter and under Over 1 meter to 3 meters Over 1 meter to 3 meters Over 3 meters to 7 meters Over 7 meters to 10 meters Over 10 meters to 13 meters

Specified Size Outside Diameter Up to 50mm incl. Over 50mm to 100mm incl. Over 100mm Up to 50mm incl. Over 50mm All All All

Over 1mm 2mm

Permissible Variations 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Under

3mm 2mm 3mm 5mm 8mm 11mm

98

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES

All Conditions ­ Seamless Steel Tubing

Straightness tolerances (T) should not exceed those shown in the tables below. The tolerance (T) for any 3-foot (1 meter) length is measured as shown in Figure 1. The total tolerance, the maximum curvature in the total length, is measured as shown in Figure 2. The table applies to lengths not exceeding 22 feet (6.7 meters). The tolerances shown apply to conventional steel grades of as rolled, annealed, and heat treated tubing up to 302 Brinell maximum or micro alloy grades with a hardness of 229 Brinell or below. Heat treated tubes with a Brinell hardness of 302 maximum up to 401 maximum or micro alloy grades with a Brinell hardness exceeding 229 will have tolerance (T) twice the values shown in the table. Tubes with lighter walls, or with hardness exceeding 401 Brinell maximum, or weighing greater than 140 pounds per foot, require agreement on tolerances at time of order.

FIGURE 1

Measuring technique for straightness in any three feet

T max Three foot (one meter) straight-edge FIGURE 2

Measuring technique for overall straightness

L

Surface plate

T max

99

In Inches Maximum Curvature in Total Lengths of 5 feet or more Ratio of .010 inch per foot Maximum Curvature for Lengths Under 5 feet

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES ­ continued Seamless Steel Tubing(1)

Specified Size .030 inch

OD 5 inches and smaller. Wall thickness, over 3% of OD .045 inch .060 inch

Maximum Curvature in any 3 feet

OD over 5 inches to 8 inches inclusive. Wall thickness, over 4% of OD .045 inch 3 length in feet 3

.020 inch 3 length in feet 3 .030 inch 3 length in feet 3

Ratio of 0.015 inch per foot Ratio of 0.020 inch per foot

100

Maximum Curvature in 1 meter .85mm .55mm 3 length in meters .85mm 3 length in meters 1.25 mm 3 length in meters Maximum Curvature in Total Lengths of 1.5 meters or more 1.25mm 1.65mm

OD over 8 inches to 12 ¾ inches inclusive. Wall thickness, over 4% of OD

In Meters

OD 125mm and smaller. Wall thickness, over 3% of OD

Specified Size

Maximum Curvature for Lengths Under 1.5 meters Ratio of .85mm per meter

OD over 125mm to 200mm inclusive. Wall thickness, over 4% of OD

OD over 200mm to 280mm inclusive. Wall thickness, over 4% of OD

Ratio of 1.25mm per meter Ratio of 1.65mm per meter

(1)

Refer to the previous page for exception to the straightness tolerance.

SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING SHAPES

W M A

10.68 (D t) t .02466 (D t) t (D t) t

W M et ed

10.68 (D et) et .02466 (D et) et D 1.050 d 2 1.050 d

W M eD ed

11.27 (D t) t .02601 (D t) t 1.027 D 1.027 d

W M et eD

10.68 (eD et) et .02466 (eD et) et 1.050 D d 2 1.050 D

W M e

e

Refer to the previous page for exception to the straightness tolerance.

W M eD ed

11.78 (D t) t .02719 (D t) t 1.050 D 1.050 d

W M et ed

10.68 (D et) et .02466 (D et) et D 1.128 d 2 1.128 d

W M eD ed

13.60 (D t) t .03138 (D t) t 1.128 D 1.128 d

W M et ed

10.68 (D et) et .02466 (D et) et D 1.027 d 2 1.027 d

(1)

101

SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING SHAPES ­ continued

t

W M eD ed

13.60 (D t) t .03138 (D t) t 1.128 D 1.128 d

W M et eD

10.68 (eD et) et .02466 (eD et) et 1.027 D d 2 1.027 D

t

W M eD ed

5.34 (D1 D2 2t) t .01233 (D1 D2 2t) t D1 D2 2 d1 d2 2

W M et ed

10.68 (D et) et .02466 (D et) et D .7425 d 2 .7425 d

Legend

A 5 Tubing cross sectional area. Round OD and ID. W 5 Weight in pounds per foot M 5 Mass in kilograms per meter D 5 Outside diameter or distance across flats in inches (or millimeters) d 5 Inside diameter or distance across flats in inches (or millimeters) t5 Wall thickness in inches (or millimeters) ed 5 Equivalent round inside diameter in inches (or millimeters) et 5 Equivalent wall thickness in inches (or millimeters) D1 5 Major outside diameter of oval tube in inches (or millimeters) d1 5 Major inside diameter of oval tube in inches (or millimeters) D2 5 Minor outside diameter of oval tube in inches (or millimeters) d2 5 Minor inside diameter of oval tube in inches (or millimeters)

t

t

eD 5 Equivalent round outside diameter in inches (or millimeters)

102

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS

How Mechanical Tube Sizes Are Calculated

The Timken Company has pioneered a method to determine the most economical tube size, which insures that all part dimensions will clean up during machining. This program has the capability to determine what we call a "guaranteed" tube size for either full or bright metal cleanup on the outer diameter and/or the inner diameter, based on the condition of the tube. The guaranteed tube size is based on the part's critical finished dimensions and critical machining position. The required critical dimensions are: 1) maximum finished OD, 2) minimum finished ID, and 3) maximum finished part length. All applicable tolerances and surface finishes ("machined" or "ground") should be included. The critical machining position is based on whether the tube is chucked on the tube OD or the tube ID during the initial machining operation. Critical finished part dimensions and machining position influence the amount of cleanup, the size tolerances and the tube eccentricity variables. These variables are then factored into the tube size calculation.

Cleanup Allowance

"Cleanup allowance" must be added to the finished OD dimension or subtracted from the finished ID dimension to provide for the elimination of surface imperfections, decarburization and camber (out-of-straightness). Other allowances specific to the application may be needed. (See table, page 98.)

4.995 inches 6.005 inch OD 3 4.005 inches 6.005 inch ID 3 7 inches. Part is cut to length and held on one end. Allowance for camber is made for parts over 3 inches, measured from the end of the part to the face of the chuck. Examples on page 96 are for a hot rolled tube using Timken Company cleanup allowances.

Examples of Tube Size Calculation Finished Part Dimensions

7 inches

103

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS ­ continued

Figure 1 Cross section of finished part requiring full cleanup of OD and ID surfaces.

Figure 2 Finished part with addition of cleanup stock to OD. (Refer to Example 1, Operation 1, page 96.)

Figure 3 Finished part showing cleanup stock added to ID. (Refer to Example 1, Operaton 2.)

Figure 4 Finished part with cleanup allowance added to OD and ID determines minimum wall required for part to clean up. (Refer to Example 1, Operation 3.) Were it not for eccentricity, this would be the recommended tube size.

Figure 5 Same tube size machined true to OD showing effect of tube eccentricity. Tube ID is eccentric in relation to tube OD. Note that cleanup stock (dashed line) has been eliminated at A due to tube eccentricity. Part would not clean up at this point.

Figure 6 Here enough stock has been added to ID to protect cleanup stock required at minimum wall point A. (Refer to Example 1, Operations 4 and 5.)

When machining true to the ID, similar considerations apply except that stock to compensate for eccentricity is added to the tube OD. (See Example 2, page 97.)

104

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS ­ continued

Formula 1 1 1 5.000 in .054 in .027 in .028 in 5.109 in 4.000 in .042 in .027 in 3.931 in 1 1 1 Example

Example 1 ­ Machined True to OD

1. Determine nominal tube OD (see Figure 2, page 95)

Operation

Maximum machined OD Plus cleanup stock Plus camber allowance Plus OD negative tolerance Nominal tube OD 2 2

127.00mm 1.37mm .69mm .71mm 129.77mm 2 2 101.60mm 1.07mm .69mm 99.84mm 2

2. Determine maximum tube ID (see Figure 3)

Minimum machined ID Minus cleanup stock Minus camber allowance Maximum tube ID 2 4

105

4 2

3. Determine minimum wall required (see Figure 4)

Tube OD (Operation 1) Minus tube ID (Operation 2)

Divide by 2 Minimum tube wall

5.109 in 3.931 in 1.178 in 2 .589 in .589 in .925 .637 in 5.109 in 1.274 in 3.835 in

4

129.77mm 99.84mm 29.93mm 2 14.96mm 4 14.95mm .925 16.17mm 2 129.77mm 32.34mm 97.43mm

4. Determine average wall required (see Figure 6)

Minimum tube wall Divide by the complement of minus tolerance Average tube wall

5. Determine nominal tube ID (see Figure 6)

Tube OD (Operation 1) Minus average wall doubled Required tube ID

Guaranteed Tube Size: 5.109 inches OD 6.028 inches 3 .637 inches 67.5%

Theoretical Foot Weight: 30.42 lbs.

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS ­ continued

Example 2 ­ Machined True to ID

Formula 1 1 5.000 in .042 in .027 in 5.069 in 1 1 2 2 2 2 Example

When machining true to the ID, similar considerations apply, except that stock to compensate for tube eccentricity is added

127.00mm 1.07mm .69mm 128.76mm

to the tube OD. This will result in a larger recommended tube size.

1. Determine minimum tube OD

Operation

Maximum machined OD Plus ID cleanup stock Plus camber allowance Minimum tube OD 2 2 2 2

2. Determine nominal tube ID

106

2 4 4 1

Theoretical Foot Weight: 31.48 lbs.

Minimum machined ID Minus minimum OD cleanup Minus camber allowance Minus OD tolerance Minus (if hot rolled) Nominal tube ID

4.000 in .054 in .027 in .028 in .030 in 3.861 in

101.60mm 1.37mm .69mm .71mm .76mm 98.07mm 2 4

3. Determine minimum wall required

Minimum tube OD (Operation 1) Minus nominal tube ID (Operation 2)

Divide by 2 Minimum tube wall

5.069 in 3.861 in 1.208 in 2 .604 in .604 in .925 .653 in 3.861 in 1.306 in 5.167 in

128.76mm 98.07mm 30.69mm 2 15.35mm 4 15.35mm .925 16.59mm 1 98.07mm 33.19mm 131.26mm

4. Determine average wall required

Minimum tube wall (Operation 3) Divide by the complement of minus tolerance Average tube wall

5. Determine nominal tube OD

Nominal tube ID (Operation 2) Plus average wall doubled Nominal tube OD

Guaranteed Tube Size: 5.167 inches OD 6.028 inches 3 .653 inches 67.5%

HOT ROLLED AND COLD DRAWN MECHANICAL TUBING CLEANUPS FOR FULL SURFACE INTEGRITY AND BASE METAL

Outside Diameter (mm)

101.60 4.572 4.318 HR-OD Clean-up 3.810 3.556 CD-OD Cleanup 3.302 3.048 2.794 2.540 HR-CD-ID Cleanup 2.286 2.032 1.778 1.524 1.270 1.016 0.762 0.508 0.254 4.0 6.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 4.064 127.00 152.40 177.80 203.20 228.00 254.00 279.40 304.80

25.40

50.80

76.20

0.18

0.17

0.16

0.15

0.14

0.13

0.12

0.11

Cleanup (inches)

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

1.0

2.0

3.0

Outside Diameter (inches)

Note: Total stock removal is calculated for the tube diameter

Cleanup (mm)

107

0.10

0.09

FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING SURFACE CLEANUP

Hot Rolled OD Cleanup 5 [.022e.18 OD] Cold Drawn OD Cleanup 5 .86[.022e.18 OD] Hot Rolled and Cold Drawn ID Cleanup 5 .78[.022e.18 OD]

FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING CAMBER (STRAIGHTNESS) CLEANUP

Chucked on one end: · Part length 3 inches or less--no camber added · Part length over 3 inches--double the part length to calculate camber. Chucked on both ends: · Length 6 inches or less--no camber added · Length over 6 inches--use formulas below (do not double part length). Formulas (Calculate all length dimensions in inches):

A) OD , 5.000 inches 5 (171 3 length) 2 444 2 (1.03 3 length squared) 100,000 B) OD $ 5.000 inches 5 (222 3 length) 2 222 2 (1.13 3 length squared) 100,000 C) OD , 5.000 inches and Part Length . 60 inches 5 450 1 (25 3 length) 30,000 D) OD 5.000 inches and Part Length . 60 inches: Use formula C 1 .030 inches

108

BAR CROSS SECTIONAL TOLERANCES FOR HOT ROLLED STEEL BARS(1)

Specified Size of Rounds or Squares (inches) To 5/16 incl. Over 5/16 to 7/16 incl. Over 7/16 to 5/8 incl. Over 5/8 to 7/8 incl. Over 7/8 to 1 incl. Over 1 to 1-1/8 incl. Over 1-1/8 to 1-1/4 incl. Over 1-1/4 to 1-3/8 incl. Over 1-3/8 to 1-1/2 incl. Over 1-1/2 to 2 incl. Over 2 to 2-1/2 incl. Over 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 incl. Over 3-1/2 to 4-1/2 incl. Over 4-1/2 to 5-1/2 incl. Over 5-1/2 to 6-1/2 incl. Over 6-1/2 to 8-1/4 incl. Over 8-1/4 to 9-1/2 incl. Over 9-1/2 to 10 incl.

(1)

Variation from Size Over (inches) .005 .006 .007 .008 .009 .010 .011 .012 .014 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 Under (inches) .005 .006 .007 .008 .009 .010 .011 .012 .014 1/64 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Out-of-Round or Square (inches) .008 .009 .010 .012 .013 .015 .016 .018 .021 .023 .023 .035 .046 .058 .070 .085 .100 .120

Tolerances are in accordance with ASTM A29 Rev. 5 revision.

STANDARD TIMKEN COMPANY TOLERANCES

Specified Size of Rounds or Squares (inches) Over 10 to 12 incl. 12-1/2 or 13 round 14, 15 or 16 round Over 12 square or rectangular. All other sizes not listed. If forged Variation from Size Over (inches) 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/2 1/2 Under (inches) 0 .............. 1/8 1/2 1/2 Out-of-Round or Square (inches) 0.150 .............. .............. ..............

109

BAR LENGTH TOLERANCES FOR HOT ROLLED STEEL BARS

Specified Sizes of Rounds, Squares, Hexagons, Octagons (inches) 10' to 20' Excl. 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 20' to 30' Excl. 1-3/4 2-1/4 2-3/4 30' to 40' Excl. 2-1/4 2-5/8 3 40' to 60' Excl. 2-3/4 3 3-1/4

Up to 3-1/2, incl. Over 3-1/2 to 5, incl. Over 5 to 12 incl.

No Tolerance Under

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCE HOT ROLLED STEEL BARS

Rounds, Squares, Hexagons, Octagons, Flats, and SpringFlats

Measurement is taken on the concave side of the bar with a straight edge. Normal Straightness

1/4"

Special Straightness

1/8"

in any 5 ft. and length in ft. 5 length in ft. 5

in any 5 ft. and length in ft. 5

14

/"3 /8 " 3

18

/"3

(1) 3

Inquire with mill.

Note: Because of warpage, straightness tolerances do not apply to bars if any subsequent heating operation or controlled cooling has been performed. Note: Tolerances shown are based upon ASTM A29. (1) Note: As applicable to rounds greater than 12".

MACHINING ALLOWANCE FOR HOT ROLLED BARS

Standard Grades Resulfurized Grades

Minimum Stock Removal (diameter)

1.6% per side 2.4% per side

Note: Based on bars within special straightness tolerance. Since straightness is a function of length, additional machining allowance may be required for turning on centers.

110

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds

1/8" 9/64" 5/32" 11/64" 3/16" 13/64" 7/32" 15/64" 1/4" 17/64" 9/32" 19/64" 5/16" 21/64" 11/32" 23/64" 3/8" 25/64" 13/32" 27/64" 7/16" 29/64" 15/32" 31/64" 1/2" 33/64" 17/32" 35/64" 9/16" 37/64" 19/32" 39/64" 5/8" 41/64" 21/32" 43/64" 11/16" 45/64" 23/32" 47/64"

.0531 .0672 .0830 .1004 .1195 .1403 .1627 .1868 .2125 .2399 .2689 .2997 .3320 .3661 .4018 .4391 .4781 .5188 .5611 .6051 .6508 .6981 .7471 .7977 .8500 .9040 .9596 1.0168 1.0758 1.1364 1.1986 1.2625 1.3281 1.3954 1.4643 1.5348 1.6070 1.6809 1.7564 1.8336

.0417 .0528 .0652 .0789 .0939 .1102 .1278 .1467 .1669 .1884 .2112 .2354 .2608 .2875 .3155 .3449 .3755 .4075 .4407 .4753 .5111 .5483 .5867 .6265 .6676 .7100 .7536 .7986 .8449 .8925 .9414 .9916 1.0431 1.0959 1.1500 1.2054 1.2622 1.3202 1.3795 1.4401

3/4" 49/64" 25/32" 51/64" 13/16" 53/64" 27/32" 55/64" 7/8" 57/64" 29/32" 59/64" 15/16" 61/64" 31/32" 63/64" 1" 1-1/32" 1-1/16" 1-3/32" 1-1/8" 1-5/32" 1-3/16" 1-7/32" 1-1/4" 1-9/32" 1-5/16" 1-11/32" 1-3/8" 1-13/32" 1-7/16" 1-15/32" 1-1/2" 1-17/32" 1-9/16" 1-19/32" 1-5/8" 1-21/32" 1-11/16" 1-23/32"

1.9125 1.9930 2.0752 2.1590 2.2445 2.3317 2.4205 2.5110 2.6031 2.6969 2.7924 2.8895 2.9883 3.0887 3.1908 3.2946 3.400 3.616 3.838 4.067 4.303 4.546 4.795 5.050 5.313 5.581 5.587 6.139 6.428 6.724 7.026 7.335 7.650 7.972 8.301 8.636 8.978 9.327 9.682 10.044

1.5021 1.5653 1.6299 1.6957 1.7629 1.8313 1.9011 1.9721 2.0445 2.1182 2.1931 2.2694 2.3470 2.4259 2.5061 2.5876 2.6704 2.8399 3.0146 3.1945 3.3797 3.5700 3.7656 3.9664 4.1724 4.3836 4.6001 4.8218 5.0486 5.2807 5.5180 5.7606 6.0083 6.2612 6.5194 6.7838 7.0514 7.3252 7.6043 7.8885

"Round Cornered" squares differ in weight from above schedule.

111

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES ­ continued

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds

1-3/4" 1-25/32" 1-13/16" 1-27/32" 1-7/8" 1-29/32" 1-15/16" 1-31/32" 2" 2-1/32" 2-1/16" 2-3/32" 2-1/8" 2-5/32" 2-3/16" 2-7/32" 2-1/4" 2-9/32" 2-5/16" 2-11/32" 2-3/8" 2-13/32" 2-7/16" 2-15/32" 2-1/2" 2-17/32" 2-9/16" 2-19/32" 2-5/8" 2-21/32" 2-11/16" 2-23/32" 2-3/4" 2-25/32" 2-13/16" 2-27/32" 2-7/8" 2-29/32" 2-15/16" 2-31/32"

10.413 10.788 11.170 11.558 11.953 12.355 12.763 13.178 13.600 14.028 14.463 14.905 15.353 15.808 16.270 16.738 17.213 17.694 18.182 18.677 19.178 19.686 20.201 20.722 21.250 21.785 22.326 22.874 23.428 23.989 24.557 25.131 25.713 26.300 26.895 27.496 28.103 28.717 29.338 29.996

8.1780 8.4726 8.7725 9.0776 9.3880 9.7035 10.0243 10.3502 10.6814 11.0178 11.3595 11.7063 12.0583 12.4156 12.7781 13.1458 13.5187 13.8968 14.2802 14.6687 15.0625 15.4615 15.8657 16.2751 16.6898 17.1096 17.5346 17.9650 18.4004 18.8410 19.2870 19.7382 20.1946 20.656 21.123 21.595 22.072 22.555 23.042 23.535

3" 3-1/32" 3-1/16" 3-3/32" 3-1/8" 3-5/32" 3-3/16" 3-7/32" 3-1/4" 3-9/32" 3-5/16" 3-11/32" 3-3/8" 3-13/32" 3-7/16" 3-15/32" 3-1/2" 3-9/16" 3-5/8" 3-11/16" 3-3/4" 3-13/16" 3-7/8" 3-15/16" 4" 4-1/16" 4-1/8" 4-3/16" 4-1/4" 4-5/16" 4-3/8" 4-7/16" 4-1/2" 4-9/16" 4-5/8" 4-11/16" 4-3/4" 4-13/16" 4-7/8" 4-15/16"

30.600 31.241 31.888 32.542 33.203 33.871 34.545 35.225 35.913 36.606 37.307 38.014 38.728 39.449 40.176 40.910 41.650 43.151 44.678 46.232 47.813 49.420 51.053 52.713 54.400 56.113 57.853 59.620 61.413 63.232 65.078 66.951 68.850 70.776 72.728 74.707 76.713 78.745 80.803 82.888

24.033 24.537 25.045 25.559 26.078 26.602 27.131 27.666 28.206 28.751 29.301 29.856 30.417 30.983 31.554 32.130 32.712 33.891 35.090 36.311 37.552 38.814 40.097 41.401 42.726 44.071 45.438 46.825 48.233 49.662 51.112 52.583 54.075 55.587 57.121 58.675 60.250 61.846 63.463 65.100

"Round Cornered" squares differ in weight from above schedule.

112

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES ­ continued

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds

5" 5-1/16" 5-1/8" 5-3/16" 5-1/4" 5-5/16" 5-3/8" 5-7/16" 5-1/2" 5-9/16" 5-5/8" 5-11/16" 5-3/4" 5-13/16" 5-7/8" 5-15/16" 6" 6-1/16" 6-1/8" 6-3/16" 6-1/4" 6-5/16" 6-3/8" 6-7/16" 6-1/2" 6-9/16" 6-5/8" 6-11/16" 6-3/4" 6-13/16" 6-7/8" 6-15/16" 7" 7-1/16" 7-1/8" 7-3/16" 7-1/4" 7-5/16" 7-3/8" 7-7/16"

85.000 87.138 89.303 91.495 93.713 95.957 98.228 100.526 102.850 105.20 107.58 109.98 112.41 114.87 117.35 119.86 122.40 124.96 127.55 130.17 132.81 135.48 138.18 140.90 143.65 146.43 149.23 152.06 154.91 157.79 160.70 163.64 166.60 169.59 172.60 175.64 178.71 181.81 184.93 188.08

66.759 68.438 70.139 71.860 73.602 75.364 77.148 78.953 80.778 82.62 84.49 86.38 88.29 90.22 92.17 94.14 96.13 98.15 100.18 102.24 104.31 106.41 108.53 110.66 112.82 115.00 117.20 119.43 121.67 123.93 126.22 128.52 130.85 133.19 135.56 137.95 140.36 142.79 145.24 147.71

7-1/2" 7-9/16" 7-5/8" 7-11/16" 7-3/4" 7-13/16" 7-7/8" 7-15/16" 8" 8-1/16" 8-1/8" 8-3/16" 8-1/4" 8-5/16" 8-3/8" 8-7/16" 8-1/2" 8-9/16" 8-5/8" 8-11/16" 8-3/4" 8-13/16" 8-7/8" 8-15/16" 9" 9-1/16" 9-1/8" 9-3/16" 9-1/4" 9-5/16" 9-3/8" 9-7/16" 9-1/2" 9-9/16" 9-5/8" 9-11/16" 9-3/4" 9-13/16" 9-7/8" 9-15/32"

191.25 194.45 197.68 200.93 204.21 207.52 210.85 214.21 217.60 221.01 224.45 227.92 231.41 234.93 238.48 242.05 245.65 249.28 252.93 256.61 260.31 264.04 267.80 271.59 275.40 279.2 283.1 287.0 290.9 294.9 298.8 302.8 306.8 310.9 315.0 319.1 323.2 327.4 331.6 335.8

150.21 152.72 155.26 157.81 160.39 162.99 165.60 168.24 170.90 173.58 176.29 179.01 181.75 184.52 187.30 190.11 192.93 195.78 198.65 201.54 204.45 207.38 210.33 213.31 216.30 219.3 222.4 225.4 228.5 231.6 234.7 237.8 241.0 244.2 247.4 250.6 253.9 257.1 260.4 263.7

"Round Cornered" squares differ in weight from above schedule.

113

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR ROUNDS AND SQUARES ­ continued

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs. Size Sq. Cor. Squares Rounds

10" 10-1/16" 10-1/8" 10-3/16" 10-1/4" 10-5/16" 10-3/8" 10-7/16" 10-1/2" 10-9/16" 10-5/8" 10-11/16" 10-3/4" 10-13/16" 10-7/8" 10-15/16" 11" 11-1/16" 11-1/8" 11-3/16" 11-1/4" 11-5/16" 11-3/8" 11-7/16" 11-1/2" 11-9/16" 11-5/8" 11-11/16"

340.0 344.3 348.5 352.9 357.2 361.6 366.0 370.4 374.9 379.3 383.8 388.4 392.9 397.5 402.1 406.7 411.4 416.1 420.8 425.5 430.3 435.1 439.9 448.8 449.6 454.6 459.5 464.4

267.0 270.4 273.8 277.1 280.6 284.0 287.4 290.9 294.4 297.9 301.5 305.0 308.6 312.2 315.8 319.5 323.1 326.8 330.5 334.2 337.9 341.7 345.5 349.3 353.1 357.0 360.9 364.8

11-3/4" 11-13/16" 11-7/8" 11-15/16" 12" 12-1/16" 12-1/8" 12-3/16" 12-1/4" 12-5/16" 12-3/8" 12-7/16" 12-1/2" 13" 13-1/2" 14" 14-1/2" 15" 15-1/2" 16" 16-1/2" 17" 17-1/2" 18" 18-1/2" 19" 19-1/2" 20"

469.4 474.4 479.5 484.5 489.6 494.6 499.8 505.0 510.2 515.4 520.6 525.9 531.2 575 620 666 715 765 817 871 926 982 1040 1102 1164 1227 1293 1360

368.7 372.6 376.6 380.5 384.5 388.5 392.5 396.6 400.7 404.8 408.9 413.0 417.2 451 487 523 561 601 642 684 727 772 818 865 914 964 1015 1068

"Round Cornered" squares differ in weight from above schedule.

114

REDUCTION RATIOS FOR ROUND BARS

Product Diameter (inches) As Cast Size 28" Square 14" x 11.75" Product Diameter (inches) As Cast Size 28" Square 14" x 11.75"

16.000 15.000 14.500 14.000 13.500 13.000 12.500 12.000 11.500 11.000 10.500 10.000 9.500 9.000 8.500 8.000 7.500 7.000

3.9 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.4 6.9 7.5 8.2 9.1 10.0 11.1 12.3 13.8 15.6 17.7 20.4

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.3

6.500 6.000 5.500 5.000 4.500 4.000 3.500 3.000 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.000

23.6 27.7 33.0 39.9 49.3 62.4 81.5 110.9 159.7 249.6 443.7 998.2

5.0 5.8 6.9 8.4 10.3 13.1 17.1 23.3 33.5 52.4 93.1 209.4

REDUCTION RATIOS FOR SQUARE BARS

Product Diameter (inches) As Cast Size 28" Square 14" x 11.75" Product Diameter (inches) As Cast Size 28" Square 14" x 11.75"

16.000 15.000 14.500 14.000 13.500 13.000 12.500 12.000 11.500 11.000 10.500 10.000 9.500 9.000 8.500 8.000 7.500 7.000

3.1 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.9 6.5 7.1 7.8 8.7 9.7 10.9 12.3 13.9 16.0

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.9 3.4

6.500 6.000 5.500 5.000 4.500 4.000 3.500 3.000 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.000

18.6 21.8 25.9 31.4 38.7 49.0 64.0 87.1 125.4 196.0 348.4 784.0

3.9 4.6 5.4 6.6 8.1 10.3 13.4 18.3 26.3 41.1 73.1 164.5

115

EQUIVALENT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAS AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS FOR COLD SHEARING TABLES

Square Size in. 1 1½ 2¼ 3 2 mm 25.4 38.1 Equivalent Cross Sectional Area Square in. 1.0 2.25 5.06 9.0 4.0 mm 645.2 1451.6 3264.5 2580.6

50.8 63.5 57.2

2½ 3¼

76.2 88.9 82.6

6.25

4032.2 6812.9 5806.4

3¾ 4¼ 4½ 4¾ 5½ 6½ 6 5 4

108.0 120.6 114.3

101.6

95.2

14.06 18.06 22.56 30.25 42.25 36.0 25.0 16.0

12.25

10.56

10322.6 13064.5 11651.6

9071.0

7903.2

20.25

127.0 152.4 139.7

14554.8 19516.1 27258.0 23225.8 16129.0

165.1

116

RECOMMENDED COLD SHEARING LIMITATIONS HOT ROLLED ALLOY AND CARBON STEEL BILLETS AND BARS

When Maximum of Specified Carbon Range is, percent Over 0.20 thru 0.25 4½ 4 4 4 4 3 2 ½** 3½ 2½ 3 2** 2 ½** 3½ 3½ 2½ 3 2** 2** 3½ 2½ 2 1½ 4 8 2½ 2 Over 0.25 thru 0.33 Over 0.33 thru 0.44 Over 0.44 thru 0.49 Over 0.49 thru 0.55 Over 0.55 thru 0.76 1½ 1 Over 0.76 thru 1.05 1

(Standard AISI and SAE Grades and Formerly Standard SAE Grades) Maximum Square or Equivalent Cross-Sectional Area Without Heat Treatment

Grade Series Designation

Thru 0.20

10XX 12XX 11XX Thru 1.00 Max. Mn

117

11XX Over 1.00 Max. Mn 15XX 13XX 23XX 25XX 31XX 32XX 33XX 34XX

4 4 4 3½

4

Note: For standard H grades, the maximum carbon content of the comparable standard steel is used when considering cold shearing limitations. **Size 1 in. square and smaller should be cold shearing quality or thermally treated before cold shearing. Producers should be consulted for flat sizes under 3/4 in. thickness. All sizes in this carbon range should be cold shearing quality or thermally treated before cold shearing.

RECOMMENDED COLD SHEARING LIMITATIONS WITHOUT HEAT TREATMENT ­ continued

When Maximum of Specified Carbon Range is, percent Over 0.20 thru 0.25 4 3½ 3 2 ½** 1 ½** 2** 2 ½** 2 Over 0.25 thru 0.33 Over 0.33 thru 0.44 Over 0.44 thru 0.49 Over 0.49 thru 0.55 Over 0.55 thru 0.76 Over 0.76 thru 1.05

Grade Series Designation

Thru 0.20

4 4 4 4 3½

4

4 4 4 4 3 2½ 4 2 3 2 2** 2

4 4 4 4 4 4 3

118

4 3 2½ 2** 2½ 2½ 2**

4

40XX 41XX 43XX 44XX 46XX 47XX 48XX 50XX 50BXX 51XX 51BXX 61XX 81XX 81BXX 86XX

4 4

4

Note: For standard H grades, the maximum carbon content of the comparable standard steel is used when considering cold shearing limitations. **Size 1 in. square and smaller should be cold shearing quality or thermally treated before cold shearing. Producers should be consulted for flat sizes under 3/4 in. thickness. All sizes in this carbon range should be cold shearing quality or thermally treated before cold shearing.

RECOMMENDED COLD SHEARING LIMITATIONS WITHOUT HEAT TREATMENT ­ continued

When Maximum of Specified Carbon Range is, percent Over 0.20 thru 0.25 4 3½ 3 2½ 2** 2** Over 0.25 thru 0.33 Over 0.33 thru 0.44 Over 0.44 thru 0.49 Over 0.49 thru 0.55 Over 0.55 thru 0.76 Over 0.76 thru 1.05

Grade Series Designation

Thru 0.20

4

119

4 2½

86BXX 87XX 88XX 92XX 93XX 94XX 94BXX 97XX 98XX 43BVXX 2½

4

4

Note: For standard H grades, the maximum carbon content of the comparable standard steel is used when considering cold shearing limitations. **Size 1 in. square and smaller should be cold shearing quality or thermally treated before cold shearing. Producers should be consulted for flat sizes under 3/4 in. thickness. All sizes in this carbon range should be cold shearing quality or thermally treated before cold shearing.

RECOMMENDED COLD SHEARING LIMITATIONS FOR COLD SHEARING QUALITY HOT ROLLED ALLOY AND CARBON STEEL BILLETS AND BARS

When Maximum of Specified Carbon Range is, percent Over 0.20 thru 0.25 6½ 6 5 5 5 3½ 4¾ 3 4¼ 2½ 4 4¾ 4¾ 4½ 4¼ 4 3½ 5½ 4½ 4 3 6 5 4½ 4 Over 0.25 thru 0.33 Over 0.33 thru 0.44 Over 0.44 thru 0.49 Over 0.49 thru 0.55 Over 0.55 thru 0.76 3½ 2¼ Over 0.76 thru 1.05 2½

(Standard AISI and SAE Grades and Formerly Standard SAE Grades) Maximum Square or Equivalent Cross-Sectional Area Annealed for Cold Shearing Quality

Grade Series Designation

Thru 0.20

10XX 12XX 11XX Thru 1.00 Max. Mn

120

11XX Over 1.00 Max. Mn 15XX 13XX 23XX 25XX 31XX 32XX

5 5 5 4

Note: For standard H grades, the maximum carbon content of the comparable standard steel is used when considering cold shearing limitations. All sizes in this carbon range should be thermally treated before cold shearing.

RECOMMENDED COLD SHEARING LIMITATIONS FOR COLD SHEARING QUALITY ­ continued

When Maximum of Specified Carbon Range is, percent Over 0.20 thru 0.25 Over 0.25 thru 0.33 Over 0.33 thru 0.44 Over 0.44 thru 0.49 Over 0.49 thru 0.55 Over 0.55 thru 0.76 Over 0.76 thru 1.05

Grade Series Designation

Thru 0.20

3 4½ 5 5 4¾ 4¾ 4¾ 3 4½ 4¼ 4 4½ 4 4½ 3 4¼ 5 5 4¾ 5 5 5 4¾ 4¾ 4¾

121

5 5 4¾ 4¼ 4¾ 4½ 4½ 4¼ 4¼ 4 4 4

5

5 5

33XX 34XX 40XX 41XX 43XX 44XX 46XX 47XX 48XX 50XX 50BXX 51XX 51BXX 61XX 81XX 3½ 3¼ 3¼ 3

5

5 5

Note: For standard H grades, the maximum carbon content of the comparable standard steel is used when considering cold shearing limitations. All sizes in this carbon range should be thermally treated before cold shearing.

RECOMMENDED COLD SHEARING LIMITATIONS FOR COLD SHEARING QUALITY ­ continued

When Maximum of Specified Carbon Range is, percent Over 0.25 thru 0.33 4¾ 4¾ 4½ 1 4 3¼ 3¼ 3¼ 4½ 4 4 4 4 3¼ Over 0.33 thru 0.44 Over 0.44 thru 0.49 Over 0.49 thru 0.55 Over 0.55 thru 0.76 Over 0.76 thru 1.05

Grade Series Designation

Thru 0.20 5

Over 0.20 thru 0.25

5

122

4¾ 3¾ 3 4½ 4½

3

81BXX 86XX 86BXX 87XX 88XX 92XX 93XX 94XX 94BXX 97XX 98XX 43BVXX

5

Note: For standard H grades, the maximum carbon content of the comparable standard steel is used when considering cold shearing limitations. All sizes in this carbon range should be thermally treated before cold shearing.

ESTIMATED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES HOT ROLLED CARBON STEEL BARS

Estimated Minimum Values SAE and AISI No. 1008 1010 1012 1015 1017 1018 1020 1022 1023 1025 1026 1030 1035 1037 1038 1040 1042 1043 1045 1046 1050 1055 1060 1065 1070 1080 1085 1090 1524 1536 1541 1548 1552 Tensile Strength psi 44,000 47,000 48,000 50,000 53,000 58,000 55,000 62,000 56,000 58,000 64,000 68,000 72,000 74,000 75,000 76,000 80,000 82,000 82,000 85,000 90,000 94,000 98,000 100,000 102,000 112,000 121,000 122,000 74,000 83,000 92,000 96,000 108,000 Yield Strength psi 24,500 26,000 26,500 27,500 29,000 32,000 30,000 34,000 31,000 32,000 35,000 37,500 39,500 40,500 41,000 42,000 44,000 45,000 45,000 47,000 49,500 51,500 54,000 55,000 56,000 61,500 66,500 67,000 41,000 45,500 51,000 53,000 59,500

Elongation

in 2 in., % 30 28 28 28 26 25 25 23 25 25 24 20 18 18 18 18 16 16 16 15 15 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 20 16 15 14 12

Reduction

in Area, % 55 50 50 50 50 50 50 47 50 50 49 42 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 35 30 30 30 30 25 25 25 42 40 40 33 30

Hardness

Brinell

86 95 95 101 105 116 111 121 111 116 126 137 143 143 149 149 163 163 163 170 179 192 201 207 212 229 248 248 149 163 187 197 217

123

ESTIMATED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES RESULFURIZED HOT ROLLED CARBON STEEL BARS(1)

Estimated Minimum Values SAE and AISI No. 1117 1132 1137 1141 1144 1146

(1)

Tensile Strength psi 62,000 83,000 88,000 94,000 97,000 85,000

Yield Strength psi 34,000 45,500 48,000 51,500 53,000 47,000

Elongation

in 2 in., % 23 16 15 15 15 15

Reduction

in Area, % 47 40 35 35 35 40

Hardness

Brinell

121 167 179 187 197 170

All SAE 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10 maximum silicon or coarse grain melting practice.

124

IRON CARBON PHASE DIAGRAM

Temperature °F 3000 2802 2800 2720 2600 2552 2400 2200 2066 2000 1800 1670 1600 1400 1333 1200 1000 410 0.025

+L

= Austenite = Ferrite = Delta iron CM = Cementite

L +L

Temperature °C

1539 1492 1400

+

2066° F

L + Fe3C

1130

Fe3C + Fe3C + 1333° F A1,2,3

910 760 723

Austenite to Pearlite

Pearlite and Ferrite

Pearlite and Cementite

+ Fe3C Magnetic change of Fe3C 6.67

210

0.008%

0.50% 0.83% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5%

6% 65%

Hypo-eutectoid Steel

Hyper-eutectoid Cast Iron

Materials Science and Metallurgy, 4th Edition; Pollack, Prentice Hall, 1988

125

IRON CARBON PHASE DIAGRAM (ENLARGED VERSION)

Materials Science and Metallurgy, 4th Edition; Pollack, Prentice Hall, 1988

126

­ CALCULATIONS FOR X AND R CHARTS AND CAPABILITY

­ Calculate the Average (X) and Range (R) of each subgroup X1 1 X2 1 . . . . . Xn ­ X5 n R 5 Xmax 2 Xmin ­ Calculate the Average Range (R) ­ and the process Average (X) X5

CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES

PROCESS CAPABILITY

^ Estimated () ­ ^ 5 R/d2 Estimated Process Capability (Cp) Cp 5 USL 2 LSL ^ 6

Estimated Capability Ratio (Cr) Cr 5 1/Cp 3 100 (%) Estimated Process Capability (Cpk) CPU 5 USL 2 X ^ 3

=

X1 1 X2 1 . . . . . Xk k

R1 1 R2 1 . . . . . Rk ­ R5 k Calculate the Control Limits

=

X 2 LSL CPL 5 ^ 3

=

= _ ­ UCL X 5 X 1 A2R = _ ­ LCL X 5 X 2 A2R

­ UCLR 5 D4R ­ LCLR 5 D3R

CPK 5 Minimum of CPU or CPL

Note: A2, D3, D4, d2 factors are dependent on subgroup size (n). See factor values table. Note: Calculations of Process capability (Cp, Cpk, Cr) are only valid for stable processes.

FACTOR VALUES

N D4 A2 d2 D3 = 2 3.27 * 1.86 1.13 3 2.57 * 1.02 1.69 4 2.28 * 0.73 2.06 5 6 12 2.11 2.00 1.72 * * 0.26 0.58 0.48 0.27 2.33 2.53 3.26

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

-3s

-2s

-1s

* No constant for subgroup sizes below 7.

X +1s 68.3% 95.4% 99.7%

+2s +3s

127

CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES

The p Chart The p Chart The u Chart The u Chart ­ number of rejects in subgroup ­ total nonconformities total nonconformities _ 5 number of rejects in subgroup _ u __________________ p 5 p = _________________________ u = number inspected in subgroups total units inspected total units inspected number inspected_in subgroups _ _ 3u ­ 3p ( 12 p ) ­ UCLP 5 P 1 UCLu 5 u 1 ______ _ _ _ _ _ n3 u 3np ( 1- p ) _____ _________ UCLu = u + UCLP = P + ­ 3 p ( 12 p ) _ _ LCLP 5 P 2 _ 3 n ( 1- p ) p LCLP = P - _________

_

_ n

n

3u _ ­ LCLu 5 u 2 _ 3 u _____ LCLu = u - n

_

n n

The np Chart The np Chart np 5 Number of non-conforming units within a sample np = Number of non-conforming ­ 5 units within a sample Average number of np _ nonconforming units np = Average number of per sample nonconforming units per sample ­ ­ ­ UCLnp 5 np 1 3 np ( 1 2 p ) np UCLnp =­np + 3 ­ (1 - p ) ­ LCL np 5 np 2 3 np ( 1 2 p ) _ _ _ LCL np = np - 3 np (1 - p )

_ _ _

The c Chart The u Chart c 5 The count (number) of nonconformities within c = The count (number) of a sample nonconformities within a ­ sample _ c 5 Average number of nonconfomities per of nonc = Average numbersample confomities per sample UCLc 5 c 1 3 c UCLc = c + 3 c LCL c 5 c 2 3 c LCL c = c - 3 c

IDENTIFICATION OF OUT-OFControl Conditions Identification of Out-of CONTROL CONDITIONS (Each point is a subgroup) (Each point is a subgroup)

One or More Points Outside Control Limits.

A Run Of 7 Or More Points Increasing.

A Run Of 7 Or More Points Decreasing.

A Run Of 7 Or More Points On Either Side Of Aim Size.

128

HANDY PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

Acceleration of gravity, g Density of water Gas Constant, R Gas volume (STP: 68°F, 1 atm) Joule's Constant, J Poisson's ratio, µ Fe-Fe3C eutectoid composition Fe-Fe3C eutectoid temperature Modulus of Elasticity (steel) Densities: Carbon & Low-Alloy Steels 304 SS Tool Steels Moly High Speed Multiphase Alloys Steel Tensile Strength (psi) 32.17 ft/s2 5 9.807 m/s2 62.4 lbm/ft3 5 1 g/cm3 1 gal H2O 5 8.345 lbm 1545 ft-lbf/pmole-R 5 8.314 J/gmole-K 359 ft3/pmole 5 .02241 m3/gmole 778 ft-lbf/BTU .3 (for steel) 0.77 w/o carbon 1340°F (727°C) 30 3 106 psi 0.283 lbm/in3 5 7.84 g/cm3 0.29 lbm/in3 5 7.88 g/cm3 Carbon Steels 3 1.000 Carbon Steels 3 1.035 Carbon Steels 3 1.074 ~ 500 3 Brinell Number Density (g/cm3) 2.6-2.9 8.0-8.9 4.4-5.0 Modulus of Elasticity (psi) Poisson's Ratio 0.33 0.31 0.34

STEEL CONSTANTS

COMPARISON MATERIALS

Material Aluminum Alloys Nickel-base Superalloys Titanium Alloys

10.0 3 106 28.5 2 31.0 3 106 15.0 3 16.8 3 106

SI PREFIXES

giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano G M k h da d c m µ n 109 106 103 102 101 1021 1022 1023 1026 1029

129

ENGINEERING CONVERSION FACTORS

Explanation of Dimensional Units

All table entries are categorized according to their specific combination of basic dimensions of Length [L], Mass [M] and Time [t]. For example, all units of force have the dimensions [M][L][t]22. The following better illustrates this convention: Force 5 [M][L][t]22 5 (Mass) 3 (Acceleration) 1 kgf 5 (1 kg) 3 (9.80665 m/s2)

Example Conversion

Meters to Yards (50 m) 3 (3.28084 ft/m) 3 (1/3 yd/ft) 5 54.68066 yd

Significant Digits

The convention is to retain the number of digits which correctly infers the known accuracy of the numbers involved. Normally, this means using the same number of significant digits as occur in the original number. For the above example, the answer would therefore be rounded to 55 yards. When the accuracy of the measurement is known, additional digits may become significant. For example, if the measurement of 50 meters is known to be accurate to .01 meters (.0109 yards), then the conversion result may be rounded to 54.68 yards.

130

CONVERSION FACTORS

A EQUATION: A 3 B 5 C B C m2 mm2 cm2 kJ kcal Joules (J) J kgf-m MJ MJ J J gal/min l/s l/s Newton (N) N Kgf MPam cal/g J/g MJ/m3 cal/s-cm2 W/m2 W/cm2 Meter (m) Millimeter (mm) Kilometer (km)

Area [L]2 ft2 in2 in2

0.092903 645.16 6.45160

Energy, Work or Heat [M] [L]2 [t]22 Btu 1.05435 0.251996 Btu Calories (cal) 4.184* 1.355818 ft-lbf ft-lbf 0.138255 2.6845 hp-hr KWH 3.600 9.80665* m-kgf N-m 1. Flow Rate [L]3 [t]21 ft3/min ft3/min gal/min 7.4805 0.471934 0.063090

Force or Weight [M] [L] [t]22 kgf 9.80665* lbf 4.44822 lbf 0.453592 Fracture Toughness ksiin Heat Content Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/ft3 Heat Flux Btu/hr-ft2 Btu/hr-ft2 cal/s-cm2 Length [L] Foot (ft) Inch (in) Mile (mi)

* Indicates exact conversion(s)

1.098800 0.555556 2.324444 0.037234 7.5346 E-5 3.1525 4.184* 0.304800 25.4000 1.609344

131

CONVERSION FACTORS ­ continued

EQUATION: A 3 B 5 C B

Mass Density [M] [L]23 lbm/in3 lbm/ft3 Power [M] [L]2 [t]23 Btu/hr ft-lbf/s Horsepower (hp) Horsepower

A

C g/cm3 kg/m3 Watt (W) W W ft-lbf/s lbf/in2 Pascal (Pa) Pa in. H2O at 39.2°F MPa MPa MPa ksi cm3 m3 Gallon Liter (l) Liter cal/g-°C Celsius Rankine Kelvin Kelvin cal-cm/hr-cm2-°C

27.68 16.0184 0.292875 1.355818 745.6999 550.*

Pressure (fluid) [M] [L]21 [t]22 Atmosphere (atm) 14.696 atm 1.01325 E5* 2 lbf/ft 47.88026 lbf/in2 27.6807 Stress [M] [L]21 [t]22 kgf/cm2 ksi N/mm2 kgf/mm2 Volume [L]3 & Capacity in3 ft3 ft3 ft3 Gallon Specific Heat Btu/lbm-°F Temperature* Fahrenheit Fahrenheit Celsius Rankine Thermal Conductivity Btu-ft/hr-ft2-°F

* Indicates exact conversion(s)

9.80665 E-2* 6.89476 1. 1.42231 16.3871 0.028317 7.4805 28.3168 3.785412 1. (°F232)/1.8 °F1459.67 °C1273.16 R/1.8 14.8816

132

METRIC-ENGLISH STRESS CONVERSION TABLE

Kg Per Sq Mm to Psi to M Pa

Kg per sq mm Kg per sq mm

Psi 14,223 15,646 17,068 18,490 19,913 21,335 22,757 24,180 25,602 27,024 28,447 29,869 31,291 32,714 34,136 35,558 36,981 38,403 39,826 41,248 42,670 44,093 45,515 46,937 48,360 49,782 51,204 52,627 54,049 55,471 56,894 58,316 59,738 61,161 62,583 64,005 65,428 66,850 68,272 69,695

M Pa 98.1 107.9 117.7 127.5 137.3 147.1 156.9 166.7 176.5 186.3 196.1 205.9 215.7 225.6 235.4 245.2 255.0 264.8 274.6 284.4 294.2 304.0 313.8 323.6 333.4 343.2 353.0 362.8 372.7 382.5 393.3 402.1 411.9 421.7 431.5 441.3 451.1 460.9 470.7 480.5

Psi 71,117 72,539 73,962 75,384 76,806 78,229 79,651 81,073 82,496 83,918 85,340 86,763 88,185 89,607 91,030 92,452 93,874 95,297 96,719 98,141 99,564 100,986 102,408 103,831 105,253 106,675 108,098 109,520 110,943 112,365 113,787 115,210 116,632 118,054 119,477 120,899 122,321 123,744 125,166 126,588

M Pa 490.3 500.1 510.0 519.8 529.6 539.4 549.2 559.0 568.8 578.6 588.4 598.2 608.0 617.8 622.6 637.4 647.2 657.0 666.9 676.7 686.5 696.3 706.1 715.9 725.7 735.5 745.3 755.1 764.9 774.7 784.5 794.3 804.1 814.0 823.8 833.6 843.4 853.2 863.0 872.8

Kg per sq mm

Psi 128,011 129,433 130,855 132,278 133,700 135,122 136,545 137,967 139,389 140,812

M Pa 882.6 892.4 902.2 912.0 921.8 931.6 941.4 951.2 961.0 970.9

Kg per sq mm

Psi 184,904 186,327 187,749 189,171 190,594 192,016 193,438 194,861 196,283 197,705

M Pa 1274.9 1284.7 1294.5 1304.3 1314.1 1323.9 1333.7 1343.5 1353.3 1363.1 1372.9 1382.7 1392.5 1402.4 1412.2 1422.0 1431.8 1441.6 1451.4 1461.2 1471.0 1480.8 1490.6 1500.4 1510.2 1520.0 1529.8 1539.6 1549.5 1559.3

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139

142,234 980.7 140 199,128 143,656 990.5 141 200,550 145,079 1000.3 142 201,972 146,501 1010.1 143 203,395 147,923 1020.0 144 204,817 149,346 150,768 152,190 153,613 155,035 156,457 157,880 159,302 160,724 162,147 163,569 164,991 166,414 167,836 169,258 170,681 172,103 173,525 174,948 176,370 177,792 179,215 180,637 182,059 183,482 1029.7 1039.5 1049.3 1059.1 1068.9 1078.7 1088.5 1098.3 1108.2 1118.0 1127.8 1137.6 1147.4 1157.2 1167.0 1176.8 1186.6 1196.4 1206.2 1216.0 1225.8 1235.6 1245.4 1255.3 1265.1 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 206,239 207,662 209,084 210,506 211,929 213,351 214,773 216,196 217,618 219,040 220,463 221,885 223,307 224,730 226,152

133

WORK-ENERGY CONVERSION TABLE

ft.-lbf joules ft.-lbf joules

0.7376 1.4751 2.2127 2.9502 3.6878 4.4254 5.1629 5.9005 6.6381 7.3756 8.1132 8.8507 9.5883 10.3259 11.0634 11.8010 12.5386 13.2761 14.0137 14.7512 15.4888 16.2264 16.9639 17.7015 18.4391 19.1766 19.9142 20.6517 21.3893 22.1269 22.8644 23.6020 24.3396 25.0771 25.8147 26.5522 27.2898 28.0274 28.7649 29.5025 30.2400 30.9776 31.7152 32.4527 33.1903 33.9279 34.6654 35.4030 36.1405 36.8781

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

1.356 2.712 4.067 5.423 6.779 8.135 9.491 10.847 12.202 13.558 14.914 16.270 17.626 18.981 20.337 21.693 23.049 24.405 25.761 27.116 28.472 29.828 31.184 32.540 33.895 35.251 36.607 37.963 39.319 40.675 42.030 43.386 44.742 46.098 47.454 48.809 50.165 51.521 52.877 54.233 55.589 56.944 58.300 59.656 61.012 62.368 63.723 65.079 66.435 67.791

37.6157 38.3532 39.0908 39.8284 40.5659 41.3035 42.0410 42.7786 43.5162 44.2537 44.9913 45.7289 46.4664 47.2040 47.9415 48.6791 49.4167 50.1542 50.8918 51.6294 52.3669 53.1045 53.8420 54.5796 55.3172 56.0547 56.7923 57.5298 58.2674 59.0050 59.7425 60.4801 61.2177 61.9552 62.6928 63.4303 64.1679 64.9055 65.6430 66.3806 67.1182 67.8557 68.5933 69.3308 70.0684 70.8060 71.5435 72.2811 73.0186 73.7562

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

69.147 70.503 71.858 73.214 74.570 75.926 77.282 78.637 79.993 81.349 82.705 84.061 85.417 86.772 88.128 89.484 90.840 92.196 93.551 94.907 96.263 97.619 98.975 100.331 101.686 103.042 104.398 105.754 107.110 108.465 109.821 111.177 112.533 113.889 115.245 116.600 117.956 119.312 120.668 122.024 123.379 124.735 126.091 127.447 128.803 130.159 131.514 132.870 134.226 135.582

Examples: 1 ft-lbf 5 1.356 joules 1 joule 5 0.7376 ft-lbf

134

TABLES FOR CONVERSION FROM INCHES INTO MILLIMETERS

Fractions

1 1

Inches

Millimeters

/32

/64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64

3

1

/16

3

5

/32

7

1

/8

5

9

/32

11

3

/16

7

13

/32

15

1

/4

9

17

/32

19

5

/16

11

21

/32

23

3

/8

13

25

/32

27

7

/16

15

29

/32

31

1

/2

.015625 .031250 .046875 .062500 .078125 .093750 .109375 .125000 .140625 .156250 .171875 .187500 .203125 .218750 .234375 .250000 .265625 .281250 .296875 .312500 .328125 .343750 .359375 .375000 .390625 .406250 .421875 .437500 .453125 .468750 .484375 .500000

.396875 .793750 1.190625 1.587500 1.984375 2.381250 2.778125 3.175000 3.571875 3.968750 4.365625 4.762500 5.159375 5.556250 5.953125 6.350000 6.746875 7.143750 7.540625 7.937500 8.334375 8.731250 9.128125 9.525000 9.921875 10.318750 10.715625 11.112500 11.509375 11.906250 12.303125 12.700000

* On the basis of the conversion factor 1 in. 5 25.4 mm.

135

TABLES FOR CONVERSION ­ continued

Fractions

33 17

Inches

Millimeters

/32

/64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64

35

9

/16

19

37

/32

39

5

/8

21

41

/32

43

11

/16

23

45

/32

47

3

/4

25

49

/32

51

13

/16

27

53

/32

55

7

/8

29

57

/32

59

15

/16

31

61

/32

63

1

.515625 .531250 .546875 .562500 .578125 .593750 .609375 .625000 .640625 .656250 .671875 .687500 .703125 .718750 .734375 .750000 .765625 .781250 .796875 .812500 .828125 .843750 .859375 .875000 .890625 .906250 .921875 .937500 .953125 .968750 .984375 1.000000

13.096875 13.493750 13.890625 14.287500 14.684375 15.081250 15.478125 15.875000 16.271875 16.668750 17.065625 17.462500 17.859375 18.256250 18.653125 19.050000 19.446875 19.843750 20.240625 20.637500 21.034375 21.431250 21.828125 22.225000 22.621875 23.018750 23.415625 23.812500 24.209375 24.606250 25.003125 25.400000

(All the values in these tables are exact).

136

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLES

Albert Sauveur type of table. Values revised.

C F/C

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 -273 -268 -262 -257 -251 -246 -240 -234 -229 -223 -218 -212 -207 -201 -196 -190 -184 -179 -173 -169 -168 -162 -157 -151 -146 -140 -134 -129 -123 -118 -112 -107 -101 -96 -90 -84 -79 -73 -68 -62 -57 -51 -46 -40 -34 -29 -23 -17.8

C

--459.4 to 0

-459.4 -450 -440 -430 -420 -410 -400 -390 -380 -370 -360 -350 -340 -330 -320

F/C

F

0 to 100

32 33.8 35.6 37.4 39.2 41.0 42.8 44.6 46.4 48.2 50.0 51.8 53.6 55.4 57.2 59.0 60.8 62.6 64.4 66.2 68.0 69.8 71.6 73.4 75.2 77.0 78.8 80.6 82.4 84.2 86.0 87.8 89.6 91.4 93.2

-17.8 -17.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4 -13.9 -13.3 -12.8 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 -9.4 -8.9 -8.3 -7.8 -7.2 -6.7 -6.1 -5.6 -5.0 -4.4 -3.9 -3.3 -2.8 -2.2 -1.7 -1.1 - .6 0 .6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4

F

10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9 24.4 25.0 25.6 26.1 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7 32.2 32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4

C

F/C

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94

122.0 123.8 125.6 127.4 129.2 131.0 132.8 134.6 136.4 138.2 140.0 141.8 143.6 145.4 147.2 149.0 150.8 152.6 154.4 156.2 158.0 159.8 161.6 163.4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172.4 174.2 176.0 177.8 179.6 181.4 183.2 185.0 186.8 188.6 190.4 192.2 194.0 195.8 197.6 199.4 201.2 203.0 204.8 206.6 208.4 210.2 212.0

F

C

38 43 49 54 60 66 71 77 82 88

F/C

100 to 1000

212 230 248 266 284 302 320 338 356 374 392 410 413.6 428 446 464 482 500 518 536 554 572 590 608 626 644 662 680 698 716 734 752 770 788 806 824 842 860 878 896

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

F

260 266 271 277 282 288 293 299 304 310 316 321 327 332 338 343 349 354 360 366 371 377 382 388 393 399 404 410 416 421 427 432 438 443 449 454 460 466 471 477

C

F/C

500 932 510 950 520 968 530 986 540 1004 550 560 570 580 590 1022 1040 1058 1076 1094 1112 1130 1148 1166 1184 1202 1220 1238 1256 1274 1292 1310 1328 1346 1364 1382 1400 1418 1436 1454 1472 1490 1508 1526 1544 1562 1580 1598 1616 1634 1652 1670 1688 1706 1724 1742 1760 1778 1796 1814 1832

F

93 99 100 104 110 116 121 127 132 138 143 149 154 160 166 171 177 182 188 193 199 204 210 216 221 227 232 238 243 249 254

200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480

600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000

-310 -300 -290 -280 -273 -459.4 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -454 -436 -418 -400 -382 -364 -346 -328 -310 -292 -274 -256 -238 -220 -202 -184 -166 -148 -130 -112 -94 -76 -58 -40 -22 -4 14 32

35 95.0 36 96.8 37 98.6 38 100.4 39 102.2 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 104.0 105.8 107.6 109.4 111.2 113.0 114.8 116.6 118.4 120.2

490 914 482 488 493 499 504 510 516 521 527 532 538

35.0 95 35.6 96 36.1 97 36.7 98 37.2 99 37.8 100

Look up reading in middle column. If in degrees Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in right hand column; if in Fahrenheit degrees, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.

137

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLES ­ continued Albert Sauveur type of table. Values revised.

C F/C 1000 to 2000

1832 1850 1868 1886 1904 1922 1940 1958 1976 1994 2012 2030 2048 2066 2084 2102 2120 2138 2156 2174 2192 2210 2228 2246 2264 2282 2300 2318 2336 2354 2372 2390 2408 2426 2444 2462 2480 2498 2516 2534 2552 2570 2588 2606 2624 2642 2660 2678 2696 2714

538 543 549 554 560 566 571 577 582 588 593 599 604 610 616 621 627 632 638 643 649 654 660 666 671 677 682 688 693 699 704 710 716 721 727 732 738 743 749 754 760 766 771 777 782 788 793 799 804 810

1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490

F

816 821 827 832 838 843 849 854 860 866 871 877 882 888 893 899 904 910 916 921 927 932 938 943 949 954 960 966 971 977 982 988 993 999 1004 1010 1016 1021 1027 1032 1038 1043 1049 1054 1060 1066 1071 1077 1082 1088 1093

C

1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

F/C

2732 2750 2768 2786 2804 2822 2840 2858 2876 2894 2912 2930 2948 2966 2984 3002 3020 3038 3056 3074 3092 3110 3128 3146 3164 3182 3200 3218 3236 3254 3272 3290 3308 3326 3344 3362 3380 3398 3416 3434 3452 3470 3488 3506 3524 3542 3560 3578 3596 3614 3632

F

1093 1099 1104 1110 1116 1121 1127 1132 1138 1143 1149 1154 1160 1166 1171 1177 1182 1188 1193 1199 1204 1210 1216 1221 1227 1232 1238 1243 1249 1254 1260 1266 1271 1277 1282 1288 1293 1299 1304 1310 1316 1321 1327 1332 1338 1343 1349 1354 1360 1366

C

2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180 2190 2200 2210 2220 2230 2240 2250 2260 2270 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2330 2340 2350 2360 2370 2380 2390 2400 2410 2420 2430 2440 2450 2460 2470 2480 2490

F/C

2000 to 3000

3632 3650 3668 3686 3704 3722 3740 3758 3776 3794 3812 3830 3848 3866 3884 3902 3920 3938 3956 3974 3992 4010 4028 4046 4064 4082 4100 4118 4136 4154 4172 4190 4208 4226 4244 4262 4280 4298 4316 4334 4352 4370 4388 4406 4424 4442 4460 4478 4496 4514

F

1371 1377 1382 1388 1393 1399 1404 1410 1416 1421 1427 1432 1438 1443 1449 1454 1460 1466 1471 1477 1482 1488 1493 1499 1504 1510 1516 1521 1527 1532 1538 1543 1549 1554 1560 1566 1571 1577 1582 1588 1593 1599 1604 1610 1616 1621 1627 1632 1638 1643 1649

C

2500 2510 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2590 2600 2610 2620 2630 2640 2650 2660 2670 2680 2690 2700 2710 2720 2730 2740 2750 2760 2770 2780 2790 2800 2810 2820 2830 2840 2850 2860 2870 2880 2890 2900 2910 2920 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000

F/C

4532 4650 4568 4586 4604 4622 4640 4658 4676 4694 4712 4730 4748 4766 4784 4802 4820 4838 4856 4874 4892 4910 4928 4946 4964 4982 5000 5018 5036 5054 5072 5090 5108 5126 5144 5162 5180 5198 5216 5234 5252 5270 5288 5306 5324 5342 5360 5378 5396 5414 5432

F

Look up reading in middle column. If in degrees Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in right hand column; if in Fahrenheit degrees, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.

138

HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLES BASED ON BRINELL

(APPROXIMATE)

BRINELL HARDNESS Diameter Tungsten mm Carbide 3000 Kg 10 mm Ball A-Scale 60 Kg Brale ROCKWELL HARDNESS B-Scale 100 Kg 1/16" Ball Diamond Pyramid Approx. C-Scale Hardness Tensile 150 Kg Superficial Number Strength Brale 30 N (Vickers) 1000 psi

.... .... .... .... .... 2.25 .... .... 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.40 3.45 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65

.... .... .... .... 757 745 722 710 682 653 627 601 578 555 534 514 495 477 461 444 429 415 401 388 375 363 352 341 331 321 311 302 293 285 277

86.5 86.0 85.6 85.0 84.4 84.1 83.4 83.0 82.2 81.2 80.5 79.8 79.1 78.4 77.8 76.9 76.3 75.6 74.9 74.2 73.4 72.8 72.0 71.4 70.6 70.0 69.3 68.7 68.1 67.5 66.9 66.3 65.7 65.3 64.6

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... (110.0) (109.0) (108.5) (108.0) (107.5) (107.0) (106.0) (105.5) (104.5)

70.0 69.0 68.0 67.0 65.9 65.3 64.0 63.3 61.7 60.0 58.7 57.3 56.0 54.7 53.5 52.1 51.0 49.6 48.5 47.1 45.7 44.5 43.1 41.8 40.4 39.1 37.9 36.6 35.5 34.3 33.1 32.1 30.9 29.9 28.8

86.0 85.0 84.4 83.6 82.7 82.2 81.1 80.4 79.0 77.5 76.3 75.1 73.9 72.7 71.6 70.3 69.4 68.2 67.2 65.8 64.6 63.5 62.3 61.1 59.9 58.7 57.6 56.4 55.4 54.3 53.3 52.2 51.2 50.3 49.3

1076 1004 940 900 860 840 800 780 737 697 667 640 615 591 569 547 528 508 491 472 455 440 425 410 396 383 372 360 350 339 328 319 309 301 292

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 323 309 297 285 274 263 253 243 235 225 217 210 202 195 188 182 176 170 166 160 155 150 145 141 137

139

HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLES ­ continued

BRINELL HARDNESS Diameter Tungsten mm Carbide 3000 Kg 10 mm Ball A-Scale 60 Kg Brale ROCKWELL HARDNESS B-Scale 100 Kg 1/16" Ball Diamond Pyramid Approx. C-Scale Hardness Tensile 150 Kg Superficial Number Strength Brale 30 N (Vickers) 1000 psi

3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00 4.05 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 4.60 4.65 4.70 4.80 4.90 5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30 5.40 5.50 5.60

269 262 255 248 241 235 229 223 217 212 207 201 197 192 187 183 179 174 170 167 163 156 149 143 137 131 126 121 116 111

64.1 63.6 63.0 62.5 61.8 61.4 60.8 59.7 59.2 58.5 57.8 57.4 56.9 56.5 55.9 55.5 55.0 53.9 53.4 53.0 52.5 51.0 49.9 48.9 47.4 46.0 45.0 43.9 42.8 41.9

(104.0) (103.0) (102.0) (101.0) 100.0 99.0 98.2 97.3 96.4 95.5 94.6 93.8 92.8 91.9 90.7 90.0 89.0 87.8 86.8 86.0 85.0 82.9 80.8 78.7 76.4 74.0 72.0 69.8 67.6 65.7

27.6 26.6 25.4 24.2 22.8 21.7 20.5 (18.8) (17.5) (16.0) (15.2) (13.8) (12.7) (11.5) (10.0) (9.0) (8.0) (6.4) (5.4) (4.4) (3.3) (.9) .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

48.3 47.3 46.2 45.1 43.9 42.9 41.9 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

284 276 269 261 253 247 241 234 228 222 218 212 207 202 196 192 188 182 178 175 171 163 156 150 143 137 132 127 122 117

133 129 126 122 118 115 111 .... 105 102 100 98 95 93 90 89 87 85 83 81 79 76 73 71 67 65 63 60 58 56

Values in ( ) are beyond normal range and are given for information only. The Brinell values in this table are based on the use of a 10mm tungsten carbide ball; at hardness levels of 429 Brinell and below, the values obtained with the tungsten carbide ball, the Hultgren ball, and the standard ball are the same. The Hardness Conversion Tables are based on SAE J417 and ASTM E140.

140

USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR HARDENABLE ALLOY STEELS

104 V Ae1 (°F) ~ 1333 25 Mn 40 Si 42 Cr 26 Ni ............... (1) Ae3 (°F) ~ 1570 323 C 25 Mn 80 Si 3 Cr 32 Ni.. (2) Ac1 (°C) ~ 723 10.7 Mn 29.1 Si 16.9 Cr 16.9 Ni 290 As 6.38 W ........................................................... (3) Ac3 (°C) ~ 910 203 C 44.7 Si 15.2 Ni 31.5 Mo 104 V 13.1 W ...................................................................... (4) Ms (°F) ~ 930 600 C 60 Mn 20 Si 50 Cr 30 Ni 20 Mo 20 W........................................................ (5) M10 (°F) ~ Ms 18 ................................................................................. (6) M50 (°F) ~ Ms 85 ................................................................................. (7) M90 (°F) ~ Ms 185 ............................................................................... (8) Mf (°F) ~ Ms 387................................................................................ (9) Bs (°F) ~ 1526 486 C 162 Mn 126 Cr 67 Ni 149 Mo ............................................................................ (10) B50 (°F) ~ Bs 108 ............................................................................. (11) Bf (°F) ~ Bs 216 ............................................................................. (12) Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .025t, for 1700°F ............................... (13) Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .021t, for 1650°F ............................... (14) Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .018t, for 1600°F ............................... (15)

(t time in hours)

___________________________________________________________________________

Note: Each equation above is subject to the chemistry limitations under which it was developed. R. A. Grange, Metal Progress, 79, April 1961, p 73. K. W. Andrews, JISI, 203, 1965, p 721. E. S. Rowland and S. R. Lyle, Trans. ASM, 37, 1946, p 27. W. Steven and A. G. Haynes, JISI, 183, 1956, p 349. F E. Harris, Metal Progress, 44, August 1943, p 265. .

1 & 2: 3 & 4: 5: 6-12: 13-15:

141 105

ALUMINUM - Al is used to deoxidize steel and control grain size. Grain size control is effected by forming a fine dispersion with nitrogen and oxygen which restricts austenite grain growth. Aluminum is also an extremely effective nitride former in nitriding steels. BORON - B is usually added between .0005-.003% to significantly increase the hardenability, especially for low carbon alloys. It does not affect the strength of ferrite, therefore not sacrificing ductility, formability or machinability in the annealed state. CALCIUM - Ca is used in certain steels to control the shape, size and distribution of oxide and/or sulfide inclusions. Benefits may include improved ductility, impact strength and machinability. CARBON - C is the most important alloying element which is essential for the formation of cementite, pearlite, spheriodite, bainite, and iron-carbon martensite. Compared to steels with similar microstructures, strength, hardness, hardenability, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature are increased with increasing carbon content up to approximately .60%. Toughness and ductility of pearlitic steels are decreased with increasing carbon content. CHROMIUM - Cr is used in low alloy steels to increase 1) resistance to corrosion and oxidation, 2) high temperature strength, 3) hardenability, and 4) abrasion resistance in high carbon alloys. Straight chromium steels are susceptible to temper embrittlement and can be brittle. COPPER - Cu is detrimental to hot workability and subsequent surface quality. It is used in certain steels to improve resistance to atmospheric corrosion. LEAD - Pb improves machinability. It does not dissolve in steel but stays as globules. Environmental concerns are resulting in a decreased usage of lead in the steel industry. MANGANESE - Mn is important because it deoxidizes the melt and facilitates hot working of the steel by reducing the susceptibility to hot shortness. It combines with sulfur to form MnS stringers which increases machinability. Manganese contributes to the effectiveness of normalizing for strengthening, to the formation of fine pearlite, and lowers the Ms temperature, therefore increasing the probability of retained austenite.

GLOSSARY OF METALLURGICAL TERMS Alloying Elements

142

GLOSSARY ­ continued

MOLYBDENUM - Mo increases hardenability of steels and helps maintain a specified hardenability. It increases high temperature tensile and creep strengths. Molybdenum hardened steels require higher tempering temperatures for softening purposes. NICKEL - Ni is used in low alloy steels to reduce the sensitivity of the steel to variations in heat treatment and distortion and cracking on quenching. It also improves low temperature toughness and hardenability. NIOBIUM - Nb (Columbium - Cb) lowers transition temperature and raises the strength of low carbon steel. Niobium increases strength at elevated temperatures, results in finer grain size and forms stable carbides, lowering the hardenability of the steel. NITROGEN - N increases the strength, hardness and machinability of steel, but it decreases the ductility and toughness. In aluminum killed steels, nitrogen combines with the aluminum to provide grain size control, thereby improving both toughness and strength. Nitrogen can reduce the effect of boron on the hardenability of steels. PHOSPHORUS - P is generally restricted to below 0.04 weight percent to minimize its detrimental effect on ductility and toughness. Certain steels may contain higher levels to enhance machinability, strength and/or atmospheric corrosion resistance. SILICON - Si is one of the principal deoxidizers with the amount used dependent on the deoxidization practice. It slightly increases the strength of ferrite without a serious loss of ductility. In larger quantities, it aids the resistance to scaling up to 500°F in air and decreases magnetic hysteresis loss. SULFUR - S is detrimental to transverse strength and impact resistance. It affects longitudinal properties to a lesser degree. Existing primarily in the form of manganese sulfide stringers, sulfur is typically added to improve machinability. TITANIUM - Ti is added to boron steels because it combines with oxygen and nitrogen, thus increasing the effectiveness of boron. Titanium, as titanium nitride, also provides grain size control at elevated temperatures in microalloy steels. In excess, titanium is detrimental to machinability and internal cleanness.

143

GLOSSARY ­ continued

TELLURIUM - Te is added to steel to modify sulfide type inclusion size, morphology and distribution. The resulting sulfide type inclusions are finer and remain ellipsoidal in shape following hot working, thereby improving transverse properties. VANADIUM - V inhibits grain growth during heat treating while improving strength and toughness of hardened and tempered steels. Additions up to .05% increase hardenability whereas larger amounts tend to reduce hardenability because of carbide formation. Vanadium is also utilized in ferrite/ pearlite microalloy steels to increase hardness through carbonitride precipitation strengthening of the matrix.

ANNEALING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a temperature, within or above the critical range, and cooling at a controlled rate to a temperature under the critical range. This treatment is used to produce a definite microstructure, usually one designed for best machinability, and/or to remove stresses, induce softness, and alter ductility, toughness or other mechanical properties. BILLET A solid semifinished round or square that has been hot worked usually smaller than a bloom. Also a general term for wrought starting stock for forgings or extrusions. BLOOM A semifinished hot rolled rectangular product. The width of the bloom is no more than twice the thickness and the cross-sectional area is usually not less that 36 square inches. CAPPED STEEL A type of steel similar to rimmed steel, usually cast in a bottle top ingot, in which the application of a mechanical or chemical cap renders the rimming action incomplete by causing the top metal to solidify. DI (Ideal Diameter) The diameter of a round steel bar that will harden at the center to a given percent of martensite when subjected to an ideal quench (i.e., Grossman quench severity H=infinity) ELONGATION In tensile testing, the increase in gage length, measured after the fracture of a specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.

Standard Mill Terminology

144

GLOSSARY ­ continued

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY TEST (Jominy Test) A laboratory procedure for determining the hardenability of a steel or other ferrous alloy. Hardenability is determined by heating a standard specimen above the upper critical temperature, placing the hot specimen in a fixture so that a stream of cold water impinges on one end, and, after cooling to room temperature is completed, measuring the hardness near the surface of the specimen at regularly spaced intervals along its length. The data are normally plotted as hardness versus distance from the quenched end. HARDNESS Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. However, this may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion, or cutting. IMPACT TEST A test to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading, usually in bending, tension or torsion. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow, as in the Charpy or Izod tests. INGOT A casting of a simple shape which can be used for hot working or remelting. KILLED STEEL Steel treated with a strong deoxidizer to reduce oxygen to a level where no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. LAP A surface imperfection which appears as a seam. It is caused by the folding over of hot metal, fins, or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface but not welding them. Laps on tubes can form from seams on piercing mill billets. MACHINABILITY This is a generic term for describing the ability of a material to be machined. To be meaningful, machinability must be qualified in terms of tool wear, tool life, chip control, and/or surface finish and integrity. Overall machining performance is affected by a myriad of variables relating to the machining operation and the workpiece. An overall review is provided in the ASM Metals Handbook: Machinability, Ninth Edition, Volume 16, 1989. NORMALIZING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to temperature at least 100°F above the critical range and cooling in still air at room temperature. The treatment produces a recrystallization and refinement of the grain structure and gives uniformity in hardness and structure to the product.

145

GLOSSARY ­ continued

PICKLING An operation by which surface oxide (scale) is removed by chemical action. Sulfuric acid is typically used for carbon and low-alloy steels. After the acid bath, the steel is rinsed in water. QUENCHING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a predetermined temperature and cooling rapidly in air or liquid medium to produce a desired crystalline structure. REDUCTION OF AREA The difference, expressed as a percentage of original area, between the original cross-sectional area of a tensile test specimen and the minimum cross-sectional area measured after complete separation. RIMMED STEEL A low carbon steel having enough iron oxide to give a continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during solidification giving a rim of material virtually free of voids. SCAB An imperfection which is a flat piece of metal rolled into the steel surface. SEAM A defect on the surface of a metal which appears as a crack. Experience indicates that most seams are created during the cooling or reheating of cast structures. SEMI-KILLED STEEL Incompletely deoxidized steel which contains enough dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset solidification shrinkage. SPHEROIDIZE ANNEAL A special type of annealing that requires an extremely long cycle. This treatment is used to produce globular carbides and maximum softness for best machinability in some analyses, or to improve cold formability. STRAND CASTING (Continuous Casting) Operation in which a cast shape is continuously drawn through the bottom of the mold as it solidifies. The length is not determined by mold dimensions. STRESS RELIEVE TEMPER A thermal treatment to restore elastic properties and to minimize distortion on subsequent machining or hardening operations. This treatment is usually applied to material that has been heat treated (quenched and tempered). Normal practice would be to heat to a temperature 100°F lower than the tempering temperatures used to establish mechanical properties and hardness. Ordinarily, no straightening is performed after the stress relieve temper.

146

GLOSSARY ­ continued

TEMPERING A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to some predetermined temperature under the critical range, holding at that temperature a designated period of time and cooling in air or liquid. This treatment is used to produce one or more of the following end results: A) to soften material for subsequent machining or cold working, B) to improve ductility and relieve stresses resulting from prior treatment or cold working, and C) to produce the desired mechanical properties or structure in the second step of a double treatment. TENSILE STRENGTH In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original crosssectional area. YIELD POINT The first stress in a material, usually less than the maximum attainable stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding, a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points. YIELD STRENGTH The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of .2% is commonly used.

Information adapted from ASM and/or SAE publications.

147

AS FORGED The condition of a forged component when it is removed from the finisher die block cavity without any additional or subsequent operations. BACKWARD EXTRUSION The forging or forming process where a metal contained within a die is forced backward or in the opposite direction over a punch producing a blind hole or cup shaped forging. BLANK Raw material or forging stock from which a forging is made. BLOCKER FORGING The primary forging operation that defines the basic shape of the forging by approximating the components final dimensions and leaving a generous finish allowance and radii. BOSS A relatively short projection or protrusion on the surface of a forging, often cylindrical in shape. BURNING Metal that has been overheated to an excessively high temperature resulting in permanent damage. Burning occurs by either incipient melting at the grain boundaries or intergranular oxidation. COLD FORGING An impression or closed die forging process that is performed at or near room temperature. This process often requires a lubricant to assist with material flow and will produce a close-tolerance, draft-less forging. COINING A post-forging process that is used to attain tighter tolerances or to improve the surface finish of the forged components. DIE BLOCK(S) Metal block(s) that have been machined with the required forging impressions to produce the forged component. DIE IMPRESSION The counter-sunk portion of the die block surface that defines the shape of the forged component. DIE SINKING The forming or machining operation that creates the depressed pattern of a die block. DRAFT The taper on the sides of the die impression and the associated forging that is required for removal of the component from the die block.

GLOSSARY OF FORGING TERMS

148

FORGING GLOSSARY ­ continued

FILLET The concave easing of an interior corner of the forging that is used to reduce stress concentration within the component. FIN A thin projection formed on a forging when metal is forced under pressure into hairline cracks or die interfaces. FINISH ALL OVER (F.O.A.) The designation that a forging has been produced sufficiently larger than the dimensions specified to permit machining to the required size on all surfaces. FLASH The excess metal that extends out from the body of the forging to ensure complete filling of the die block impression. FORGING BILLET A wrought metal multiple or "mult" used as forging stock. FORGING STRESSES Elastic residual stresses induced by part design, forging operations or post-forging cooling. The stresses can be relieved by a subsequent heat treatment such as annealing or normalizing. FORWARD EXTRUSION The forcing of metal through a die orifice in the same direction as the force applied. HAMMER FORGING A mechanical forging or forming process that shapes the metal by means of a hammer ram striking forging stock that is placed on an anvil, repeated strikes create the components desired shape. The action of the hammer provides instantaneous localized compressive forces that deform the metal. The process also is referred to as Drop Forging and is frequently used during the forging of shafts. HOT FORGING A forging process that induces plastic deformation at a specified temperature and strain rate to simultaneously produce recrystallization and metal deformation, thus avoiding strain hardening. IMPRESSION DIE FORGING A forging process that utilizes mating dies with shaped impressions to form a component. The process also is referred to as Closed Die Forging. "MULT" OR MULTIPLE A single piece of raw material or forging stock used to produce a forging.

149

FORGING GLOSSARY ­ continued

OPEN DIE FORGING A forging process where components are made between a set of flat dies or dies with simple shapes such as "V" or "O" shapes. Shafts, Discs and Saddle/Mandrel Rings are manufactured through this process. PREHEATING The heating of a metal to a relatively high temperature for a long period of time to gain a uniform and sufficient soak in order to change the structure before hot working. PUNCHOUT The metal that is removed when punching a hole in a forging. This operation is often required during the Ring Rolling process. RECRYSTALLIZATION The process by which deformed grains are replaced by a new set of undeformed grains that nucleate and grow until the original grains have been entirely consumed. RESIDUAL STRESS Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation (i.e. forging). The deformation can be caused by cold working or by drastic temperature gradients created by accelerated cooling operations such as quenching. RING ROLLING A forging process that traditionally starts with a hole-punched work piece. The process uses an inner mandrel roll and an outer drive roll. The inner mandrel roll compresses toward the drive roll resulting in a thinner wall and enlarged diameter forging. SADDEN Light reduction incurred at the initial forging operation to break up and refine the coarse as-cast structure at the surface of an ingot. SCALE Oxidation of metal due to heat, resulting in relatively heavy surface layers of oxide. SEAM (DEFECT) (1) A crack located on the surface of the metal that has been closed but not welded shut. They are generally formed by a preexisting defect produced during casting or cold/hot working (i.e. laps). (2) A defect on the surface of a metal which appears as a crack, usually resulting from a discontinuity obtained during casting or teeming. SHEAR A type of cutting operation in which the metal is cut by means of a moving blade and a fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades.

150

FORGING GLOSSARY ­ continued

SHEAR CRACKING A diagonal, transgranular crack caused by shear stresses. SHOT BLASTING The cleaning of a metal surface through the combination of an air blast and metal shot used as an abrasive. SHRINKAGE The contraction of metal that occurs during cooling after hot forging. SLIVER (DEFECT) A loose piece of metal or slender fragment that is forged into the surface of a component during the forging operation. SOAKING Prolonged heating of a metal at a selected temperature in order to ensure it has achieved a uniform temperature through the entire cross section. STRAIN The elastic or plastic deformation of steel caused by stress. STRAIN HARDENING An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recystallization range of the material. STRESS (1) The deforming load to which a metal is subjected. (2) The resistance which the metal offers to deformation by a force. TRIMMING A mechanical shearing operation (hot or cold) that removes the flash or excess material from the forging. TOLERANCE LIMIT The permissible deviation from a specified value of any design characteristic. UPSET FORGING A forging or forming process that occurs near the end of the bar. The upset occurs between laterally moving dies which increases the diameter of the worked piece by compressing its length. WARM FORGING The forging or forming process where metal deformation occurs below the recrystallization temperature. For steels, this temperature can range from 800 to 1800 degrees Fahrenheit. WORK HARDENING An increased resistance to deformation (i.e. increase in hardness) produced by cold working.

151

FORGING GLOSSARY ­ continued

WORKABILITY The characteristic or group of characteristics that determine the ease of forming a metal into a desired shape. WROUGHT STEEL Steel that has been produced by thermo-mechanical working or hot deformation.

152

7

Customers Turn to Timken for Quality and Innovation

Companies around the world turn to Timken for alloy steel. We're known for metallurgy and advanced manufacturing processes that produce some of the cleanest, highest performance steel in the world. In addition, we offer value-added solutions that help customers reduce costs and test new technology. An example is Timken's machining capabilities at Timken Boring Specialties in Houston, Texas, which provides precision-machined IDs and ODs if tighter tolerances are required.

Timken® and Where You Turn® are registered trademarks of The Timken Company. · © 2011 The Timken Company · Printed in U.S.A.

Contact Timken to create solutions for you. For more information on Timken® steel and other value-added services or products, call: USA: +1 (866) 284-6536 Fax: +1 (330) 471-4118 India: +91-80-40053120 India Fax: +91-80-28521039 Latin America: +52 55 5061 4850 (Mexico) International: +44 1455 826320 (U.K.) International Fax: +44 1455 826321 (U.K.) Website: www.timken.com/products/alloysteel

Engineered Steel Solutions for: Industrial · Mobile On Highway · Oil and Gas

www.timken.com

7.5M 06-11-29 Order No. 4023

Information

154 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

218210


Notice: fwrite(): send of 196 bytes failed with errno=104 Connection reset by peer in /home/readbag.com/web/sphinxapi.php on line 531