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Productive Thinking: Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Logic/Reasoning

Gifted students are identified on their ability to respond to higher levels of thought. Instruction in productive thinking helps students develop the ability to problem solve and think critically, creatively, and logically. This sequence of ten strategies works to develop productive thinking, guiding and instructing students in ways to deepen their understanding of content by developing and applying the skills of productive thought. Many of the skills within the strategies overlap and can be generalized as the big ideas of thinking. CREATIVE THINKING Substitute Combine Rearrange Redesign Add-to Adapt Design Amend Minify Maximize Brainstorm Hypothesize Restate Modify Alter Create analogies Reverse Rename CRITICAL THINKING Define the meaning or interpret Judge with criteria Test assumption Give supportive evidence Differentiate fact/fiction Note ambiguity Specify the intent/purpose Check reliability Check credibility Relate conclusions Verify meaning Prove Justify Make an inference Criticize PROBLEM SOLVING Define problem Hypothesize Collect data Test hypotheses Verify solution Apply solutions LOGIC/ REASONING Inductively reason Deductively reason Relate Sequence Conclude Identify the pattern State the rule Recognize the structure

Glossary of Creative and Critical Thinking Skills

1. Analogies ­ inference that if two or more things agree with one another in some aspects, they will probably agree in others. 2. Brainstorming ­ a group problem solving technique that involves the spontaneous contribution of ideas from all members of a group. Four rules are established prior to brainstorming: no criticism; quantity not quality of ideas (fluency; wild, zany ideas; piggybacking, combinations of ideas. 3. Creative problem solving ­ CPS ­ a process, a methods, a system for approaching a problem in an imaginative way resulting in effective action. There are six steps

This information located at the Gifted Services Web page for Arlington, VA public schools @ http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/instruct/gifted_serv/resources.html

Productive Thinking: Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Logic/Reasoning

to the CPS process: brainstorming; fact finding; problem finding; idea finding; solution finding; acceptance finding. (Donald Treffinger) a. Fact finding: supplying the background as to why a situation might be a problem. This is a data search process. b. Problem finding: redefining a problem to its broadest perspective. Looking for subproblems which might be aspects or angles not previously seen. c. Idea finding: looking imaginatively, from various perspectives, for what might be possible solutions to the given problem; stressing quantify of ideas, building one idea from another. d. Solution finding: providing some selected criteria against which promising ideas may be judged and put into realistic perspective. e. Acceptance finding: considering why or how an idea might succeed or fail thus allowing for alteration before actually putting it to use 4. Elaboration ­ to add on to; to embellish up on an idea; to embroider upon a simple idea or response to make it more elegant; stretching or expanding upon things or ideas. 5. Fallacy ­ an erroneous idea; incorrectness of reasoning 6. Flexibility ­ to take different approaches; to generate a variety of kinds of ideas; ability to shift categories; to see things from various points of view 7. Fluency ­ to think of the most; generation of a quantity; flow of thought; number of relevant resources. 8. Generalization ­ a statement concerned or dealing with universal rather than particular aspects/ideas. 9. Hyperbole ­ extravagant exaggeration. 10. Inference ­ a conclusion derived from facts or premises. 11. Metaphor ­ a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness between them. 12. Originality ­ to think of novel or unique ways: unusual responses; clever ideas; productive away from the obvious. 13. Piggybacking ­ to adapt, combine, or add to an existing ideas(s). 14. Premise ­ a proposition put forth as a basis for argument. 15. Similes ­ a figure of speech comparing to unlike things that is often introduced by like or as. 16. Stages of creative process ­ a. preparation: define the problem, gather relevant data, formulate approaches to the solution b. incubation: time to "let the problem lie" c. illumination: a sudden insight to the solution d. verification: the "proving: stage 17. Syllogism ­ a deductive scheme of a formal argument consisting of a major and minor premise and a conclusion 18. Synectics ­ a strategy for "making the familiar strange"; looking at familiar objects in new perspective from various points of view. 19. Synonyms ­ words that have the same or nearly the same meaning.

This information located at the Gifted Services Web page for Arlington, VA public schools @ http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/instruct/gifted_serv/resources.html

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