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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RITUAL AND LITERARY SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SACRIFICE SCENE IN GENESIS 8:20-22 IN LIGHT OF THE SACRIFICE SCENES IN THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH (XI:157-63) AND ATRA- ASIS (III iv:30-36)

by J. Caleb Howard

MA/OTSL THESIS PROPOSAL

Department of Old Testament and Semitic Languages Master of Arts in Old Testament and Semitic Languages First Reader: Dr. Richard E. Averbeck Second Reader: Dr. K. Lawson Younger Jr.

Trinity Evangelical Divinity School Deerfield, Illinois Monday, January 26, 2009

Research Topic and Methodology The general subject area of this thesis has to do with the biblical and Mesopotamian Flood stories. More specifically, I am trying to answer the question: What is the ritual and literary significance of the sacrifice scene of the Hebrew Flood story (Genesis 8:20-22) with reference to the ritual and literary significance of the sacrifice scenes in the Akkadian Flood stories (i.e., Epic of Gilgamesh XI:157-63; Atra- asis III iv:30-36)? In the biblical context, I will address at least the following questions: 1) What is the literary significance of the sacrifice scene in the larger context of the Flood narrative (e.g., this sacrifice is connected with the intention of Yahweh to never again destroy the world by a flood)? 2) What constitutes clean and unclean animals in pre-Law materia1? 3) What do the preceding and succeeding narrative portrayals of the relationship(s) between people and Yahweh contribute to understanding the significance of the sacrifice scene (e.g., the response of Yahweh to Noah's sacrifice, etc.)? 4) By what means might the Mesopotamian Flood stories have affected the writing of the Hebrew Flood story (e.g., the significance of the known presence of fragments of the Gilgamesh Epic in Canaan; the importance of the Mesopotamian scribal tradition for the formation of literature in the Levant; etc.)? Similar questions should be asked of the Akkadian stories: 1) What is the literary and ritual significance of the sacrifice scenes in these stories? 2) What is the contribution of the portrayal of the relationship(s) between people and deities to the significance of the sacrifice scenes (e.g., the result the sacrifice produces in the realm of the gods, etc.)? 3) Why does Uta-napishti offer incense in the Epic of Gilgamesh while Atra- asis seems to offer an apparently edible sacrifice (how, furthermore, does this relate to the biblical sacrifice, which Yahweh merely smells); how

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does this relate to Mesopotamian ritual "rules" (note also the particular woods used as fuel[?] for the sacrifice)? The significance of my research question is best considered by pointing out that there are a great many literary similarities between the biblical and Mesopotamian Flood stories. Furthermore, it is clear that Mesopotamian mythic and epic literature was quite widespread throughout the ancient Near East, including the West Semitic environment (see e.g. the fragments of the Epic of Gilgamesh found at Emar, Ugarit, and Megiddo and the fragments of the flood portion of the Atra- asis story at Ugarit). No doubt this was at least in part because of the importance of Akkadian as the lingua franca of the ancient Near East throughout the Late Bronze Age and most of the Iron Age, as well as the concomitant importance of the Mesopotamian scribal tradition in the ancient Near East. It is also clear that this tradition predated the Hebrew pentateuchal traditions by several hundred years; much of the Akkadian mythic and epic material can be traced back to roots in the Sumerian scribal traditions in the third and early second millennia. This widespread tradition, as well as the obvious literary similarities between the Hebrew and Mesopotamian Flood stories, suggests that the Hebrew writer knew about something very close to the Mesopotamian Flood stories (as we have them today). In fact, the rhetoric of the Genesis Flood narrative may suggest that the author/redactor was actually dialoguing with the Mesopotamian Flood traditions, perhaps assuming a knowledge of them among his readers. This warrants comparison between the Mesopotamian and Hebrew traditions and, more specifically, consideration of how the Hebrew story speaks out among the Flood traditions. My research question proceeds upon these assumptions and considers not only the sacrifice scenes of the Akkadian and Hebrew texts within their own literary and religious

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contexts, but it also considers the specific contributions of the Mesopotamian Flood stories to the sacrifice scene in Genesis 8. This approach is useful because it allows for greater understanding of the biblical Flood story in its ancient Near Eastern literary context; such a study allows one to more closely approximate the worldview of the ancient Near Eastern reader so as to better understand the biblical text, which was originally written to such readers. This is especially pertinent in the biblical Flood narrative (and in most of Genesis 111) because the rhetoric suggests explicit interaction with ancient Near Eastern mythic conceptions. Thus the significance of this research is contextual as well as exegetical and theological. Many earlier studies of the relationship(s) between the biblical and ancient Near Eastern Flood stories have gone little beyond simple emphasis on the similarities or differences between the stories. Some scholars have posited borrowing of the Hebrew Flood story from the Mesopotamian texts; others have suggested that both derive from a common tradition. This discussion is caught up in the issue of source analysis, usually taking the form of divisions between the texts of J and P. On the other hand, the unity of the Flood narrative in Genesis 6-9 has been defended by several scholars and, though they have not gone unchallenged, these scholars' conclusions seem to stand up to scrutiny. At any rate, it may be best to move beyond discussions of simple borrowing, to consideration of how texts and traditions were shaped in relationship to one another, grounded in careful study of the (comparative plethora of) relevant extant texts, with reference to what we know of the historical-cultural relationships between these texts and the concepts they communicate. The contribution of my study, then, is the application of just such assumptions to an element of the Flood stories that appears in both the Hebrew and the Mesopotamian traditions. I do not

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assume borrowing between these literatures (though there may have been such), so much as a genetic relationship (historical, cultural, literary, conceptual) which warrants comparison and consideration of whether a careful understanding of the Mesopotamian literature may help in understanding the Hebrew literature. This must move beyond the broader thematic comparison and contrast of former studies (though that is important) to more specific philological and literary/rhetorical comparison. As one studies the relevant literature, however, certain constraints become obvious. Since the Flood is an important and widespread theme in Mesopotamian literature, a comprehensive study of the Flood in the Mesopotamian literature would be a massive undertaking, more deserving of a dissertation than a master's thesis. This is true in part because of the massive literary and geographical ground one would have to cover, but also because of the nuances of the languages and dialects in which these literatures are written (Sumerian, East Semitic, West Semitic with most of their variations). Thus, it becomes necessary to limit oneself to some textual exemplars which carry the mainstream of the textual tradition concerning the Flood. These have generally been recognized to be the Flood stories presented in the larger story of Atra- asis and in tablet XI of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the use of these texts also corresponds to my linguistic capabilities in Akkadian, which are significantly better than in Sumerian. While the Sumerian Flood story (the Eridu Genesis) could be included in such a study, it is excluded as a main source here because I am inexperienced in Sumerian and because the transmission of the Mesopotamian Flood traditions to the West likely came through the linguistic medium of Akkadian (note, however, the contribution of Eblaite). However, I will include the Sumerian story as secondary source material, along with any other sources from the ancient Near East or

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elsewhere that bears on the discussion (e.g., Berossus). The text that I eventually want to clarify is the Genesis Flood narrative; this will be my focus text. Thus my primary sources will be the Flood stories found in Genesis, in the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the story of Atraasis. These texts have been under scrutiny for a long time (over a hundred years in every case) and have excellent editions of their texts already published. Furthermore, I have focused this study on the sacrifice scenes both because of the relevance of such a study to both Hebrew and Mesopotamian traditions and because of the similarities between the two traditions at this point. I will approach these sources first philologically, literarily, rhetorically, and linguistically; that is to say, I will investigate the texts at all levels of textuality. I will also consider these texts in their religious context, because of the importance of this context for perceiving the respective understandings of sacrifice. This will contribute to a better appreciation of the rhetoric of the texts and the purpose of the sacrifice episodes in the larger contexts of the Flood stories. Furthermore, there should be some reflection on the Flood stories in their respective, broader literary contexts (i.e., the significance of the Flood stories in Atra- asis, in Gilgamesh, and in Genesis, respectively). The sacrifice scenes will then be compared using essentially the contextual method articulated by W. W. Hallo and others, taking into account both similarities and differences between the texts. Furthermore, propinquity of language, geography, history, and culture will be considered as methodological controls and caution will be exercised throughout. My philological work will seek to establish the proper reading of the texts, as well as their proper interpretation. Finally, the inner-biblical literary context will be given greater priority in interpreting the Flood story in Genesis than the extra-biblical literary context of the 5

Mesopotamian Flood stories. What is to be sought is the rhetorical significance of the way the biblical writer(s) speak, silhouetted against the Mesopotamian literature; indeed, this seems to be the intention of the biblical authors themselves. Preliminary Table of Contents Introduction: Here I will state the research topic with the supporting issues and constraints. I will also present my methodology in conversation with prior work on comparative method. I will also present a brief history of the study. Chapter 1: In chapter one, I will present an exegetical study of the sacrifice scene in Atraasis III iv:30-36. I will focus on the relevant philological, literary, and linguistic data that bear on the interpretation of the text in its immediate literary context. I will also consider the religious background for the sacrifice found there. Here I will also discuss the relationships between this Old Babylonian story and its Sumerian precursors. Chapter 2: In chapter two, I will present an exegetical study of the sacrifice scene in the Epic of Gilgamesh XI:157-63. The methodology of the study will be essentially the same as my study of Atra- asis. Here, however, I will discuss the differences between the sacrifice scenes in these three texts, as well as the religious significance of this. I will also consider the relationship(s) between the Flood story presented in Atra- asis and that in Gilgamesh. Chapter 3: In chapter three, I will present a similar exegetical study of Genesis 8:20-22 as I presented for the previous texts. I will consider the sacrifice scene in the context particularly of the other ritual information given in Genesis 1-11, in the rest of Genesis, and in the Pentateuch in general. Here, there will also be some reflection on the distinction between clean and unclean animals in the Flood story.

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Chapter 4: In chapter four, I will present a comparative study of the sacrifice scenes in these three texts, based on the previous exegetical examination of them. My goal here will be to explicate the intention(s) of the writer(s) of Genesis in the sacrifice scene with specific reference to the Mesopotamian traditions. This will have not only philological and literary aspects, but also religious and theological components. Chapter 5: Here, I will present a summary of my findings and suggestions for further research, not only into the sacrifice scenes, but also into other parts of the Flood stories. Bibliography Alexander, T. Desmond. "Messianic Ideology in the Book of Genesis." Pages 19-39 in The Lord's Anointed: Interpretations of Old Testament Messianic Texts. Edited by P. E. Satterthwaite, et.al. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995. __________. From Paradise to the Promised Land: An Introduction to the Pentateuch. Second edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002. Alexander, T. Desmond and David W. Baker, eds. Dictionary of the Old Testament Pentateuch. Grand Rapids: InterVarsity, 2003. Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. New York: Basic Books, 1987. Andersen, Francis I. The Hebrew Verbless Clause in the Pentateuch. Nashville: Abingdon, 1970. __________. "On Reading Genesis 1-3." Pages 137-50 in Backgrounds for the Bible. Edited by M. P. O'Connor and D. N. Freedman. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987. Anderson, B. W. "`Subdue the earth': What Does It Mean?" Bible Review 8 (1992): 4,10. __________. "From Analysis to Synthesis: The Interpretation of Genesis 1-11." Pages 41635 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Journal of Biblical Literature 97 (1978): 23-39. Averbeck, Richard E. "The Sumerian Historiographic Tradition and Its Implications for Genesis 1-11." Pages 79-102 in Faith, Tradition, and History: Old Testament Historiography in Its Near Eastern Context. Edited by A. R. Millard, J. K. Hoffmeier,

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and D. W. Baker. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994 (other essays in this book are also relevant). __________. "Ritual Formula, Textual Frame, and Thematic Echo in the Cylinders of Gudea." Pages ?-? in Crossing Boundaries and Linking Horizons: Studies in Honor of Michael C. Astour on His 80th Birthday. Edited by G. D. Young, M. W. Chavalas, and R. E. Averbeck. Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press, 1997. __________. "Sumer, the Bible, and Comparative Method: Historiography and Temple Building." Pages 88-125 in Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations. Edited by M. W. Chavalas and K. L. Younger, Jr. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002. __________. "Daily Life and Culture in Enki and the World Order and Other Sumerian Literary Compositions." Pages 23-61 in Life and Culture in the Ancient Near East. Edited by R. E. Averbeck, M. W. Chavalas, and D. B. Weisberg. Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press, 2003. __________. "Myth, Ritual, and Order in `Enki and the World Order.'" Journal of the American Oriental Society 123 (2003): 757-71 __________. "Ancient Near Eastern Mythography as It Relates to Historiography in the Hebrew Bible: Genesis 3 and the Cosmic Battle." Pages 328-56 in The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions, The Proceedings of a Symposium, August 12-14, 2001 at Trinity International University. Edited by J. K. Hoffmeier and A. Millard. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004. Barré, Lloyd M. "The Poetic Structure of Genesis 9:5." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 96 (1984): 101-4. Barré, Lloyd M. "The Riddle of the Flood Chronology." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 41 (1988): 3-20. Bartholomew, Craig G. "Covenant and Creation: Covenant Overload or Covenantal Deconstruction." Calvin Theological Journal 30 (1995): 11-33. Batto, Bernard. "The Institution of Marriage in Genesis 2 and in Atrahasis." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62 (2000): 621-31. Bauckham, Richard. "The Genesis Flood and the Nuclear Holocaust: A Hermeneutical Reflection." Churchman 99 (1985): 146-55. Bergsma, John S., and Scott Hahn. "Noah's Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan (Genesis 9:20-27)." Journal of Biblical Literature 124 (2005): 25-40. Berlin, Adele. The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985. 8

Berlinerblau, Jacques. "The Bible as Literature." Hebrew Studies 45 (2004): 9-26. Berthoud, Pierre. "Le thème de Genèse 1 à 11." PR 31 (1980): 250-64. Bivens, Forrest L. "Who Will Live in the Tents of Shem?" Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly 95 (1998): 126-30. Black, J., and A. Green. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992. Black, J. Reading Sumerian Poetry. Cornell University Press, 1998. Blenkinsopp, Joseph. The Pentateuch: An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible. The Anchor Bible Reference Library. Edited by D. N. Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992. __________. "P and J in Genesis 1:1-11:26: An Alternative Hypothesis." Pages 1-15 in Fortunate the Eyes that See. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995. Blocher, D. In the Beginning. InterVarsity, 1984. Bodi, D. The Book of Ezekiel and the Poem of Erra. : , 1991. Borger, Rykle. "The Incantation Series Bit Meseri and Enoch's Ascension to Heaven." Pages 224-33 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. __________. Babylonische-assyrische Lesestücke. Two volumes. Third edition. Analecta Orientalia 54. Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 2006. Borowitz, Albert. "Lamech, the Second Biblical Killer: A Song with Variations." Legal Studies Forum 31 (2007): 747-64. Bottéro, Jean. L'Épopée de Gilgames. Paris: Gallimard, 1992. __________. Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning and the Gods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. __________. "Le modèle babylonien de la Genèse biblique." Pages 21-7 in Studia Orientalia 70. Helsinki: Societas Orientalis Fennica, 1993. Bouma-Prdeiger, Steven. "Live Wisely and Well: A Biblical Ecological Vision." Perspectives 17 (2002): 6-14.

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Bradley, Walter L. and Roger Olsen. "The Trustworthiness of Scripture in Areas Relating to Natural Science." Pages 283-317 in Hermeneutics, Inerrancy, and the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984. Briffard, Colette. "Sem, une clé de lecture pour Babel (Gn 11/1-9), ou de l'importance du contexte." Études théologiques et religieuses 75 (2000): 411-4. Brown, Christine. "`A Huge Burden of Guilt': Christianity and Nature." ET 109 (1998): 13942. Brown, Walter E. "Noah: Sot or Saint? Genesis 9:20-27." Pages 36-60 in Way of Wisdom. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000. Brueggemann, W. Genesis. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1982. Brug, J. F. "Biblical Acrostics and Their Relationship to Other Ancient Near Eastern Acristics." Pages 283-304 in The Bible in the Light of Cuneiform Literature: Scripture in Context III. Ancient Near Eastern Texts and Studies 8. Edited by W. W. Hallo, B. W. Jones, and G. L. Mattingly. Lewiston, N. Y.: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1990. Bryan, David T. "A Reevaluation of Gen 4 and 5 in Light of Recent Studies in Genealogical Fluidity." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 99 (1987): 180-8. Buccellati, Giorgio. "Towards a Formal Typology of Akkadian Similes." Kramer University Volume 59-70. __________. "Principles of Stylistic Analysis." Pages 807-36 in Bono Homini Donum: Essays in Memory of J. A. Kerns. Edited by Y. D. Arbeitmann and A. R. Bomhard. __________. "On Poetry ­ Theirs and Ours." Pages 105-34 in Lingering Over Words. Harvard Semitic Studies 37. Edited by T. Abusch, J. Huehnergard, and P. Steinkeller. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1990. __________. Structural Grammar of Babylonian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1995. Bullmore, Michael A. "The Four Most Important Biblical Passages for a Christian Environmentalism." Trinity Journal ns. 19 (1998): 139-62. Busenitz, Irvin A. "Introduction to the Biblical Covenants: The Noahic Covenant and the Priestly Covenant." Master's Seminary Journal 10 (1999): 173-89. Cagni, L. The Poem of Erra. Sources from the Ancient Near East 1/3. Malibu, Cal.: Undena Publications, 1977.

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Campbell, Anthony F. and O'Brien, Mark A. Sources of the Pentateuch: Texts, Introductions, Annotations. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. Caquot, André. "Suppléments qoumrâniens à la Genèse" Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses 80 (2000): 339-358. Cassuto, Umberto. The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch. Translated by Israel Abrahams. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Press, 1961. __________. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis: From Adam to Noah. Translated by I. Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1961. __________. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis: From Noah to Abraham. Translated by I. Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1964. Christensen, Duane L. "Janus Parallelism in Genesis 6:3." Hebrew Studies 27 (1986): 20-4. Cimosa, Mario. "Translating the Old Testament." Pages 1341-57 in Interpretation of the Bible. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998. Clines, David J. A. "The Theology of the Flood Narrative." Faith and Thought 100 (197273): 128-. __________. "Theme in Genesis 1-11." Pages 285-309 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 111. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Catholic Biblical Quarterly 38 (1976): 483-507. __________. The Theme of the Pentateuch. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 10. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1978. __________. "The Significance of the `Sons of God' Episode (Genesis 6:1-4) in the Context of the Primeval History (Genesis 1-11)." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament ? (1979): 33-. Coats, G. W. Genesis, with an Introduction to Narrative Literature. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983. Cobb, John B, Jr. "Biblical Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis." Second Opinion 18 (1992): 11-21. Cohn, R. L. "Narrative Structure and Canonical Perspective in Genesis." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 25 (1983): 3-16. Collins, Clifford John. "The Wayyiqtol as `Pluperfect': When and Why." Tyndale Bulletin 46 (1995): 117-40. 11

Collins, John J. "Wisdom, Apocalypticism and the Dead Sea scrolls." Pages 19-32 in "Jedes Ding hat seine Zeit ..." Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1996. Conroy, Charles. "The `Olden Gods' in Ancient Near Eastern Creation Myths." Pages 32938 in Magnalia Dei, The Mighty Acts of God: Essays on the Bible and Archaeology in Memory of G. Ernest Wright. Edited by F. M. Cross, W. E. Lemke, and P. D. Miller, Jr. New York: Doubleday, 1976. __________. "Hebrew epic: Historiographical Notes and Critical Reflections." Biblica 61 (1980): 1-30. __________. "The Epic Traditions of Early Israel: Epic Narrative and the Reconstruction of Early Israelite Institutions." Pages 13-39 in The Poet and the Historian: Essays in Literary and Historical Biblical Criticism. Edited by R. E. Friedman. Chico, California: Scholars Press, 1983. Cook, Johann. "The Exegesis of the Greek Genesis." Pages 91-125 in Sixth Congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, Jerusalem, 1986. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. __________. "The Septuagint of Genesis: Text and/or Interpretation?" Pages 315-29 in Studies in the Book of Genesis. Leuven: University Press; Sterling, VA: Uitgeverij Peeters, 2001. Cotter, David W. Genesis. Berit Olam. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2003. Cross, F. M. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973. __________. "The Epic Traditions of Early Israel: Epic Narrative and the Reconstruction of Early Israelite Institutions." Pages 13-39 in The Poet and the Historian: Essays in Literary and Historical Biblical Criticism. Edited by R. E. Friedman. Harvard Semitic Studies 26. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983. Cryer, Frederick H. "The Interrelationships of Gen 5:32, 11:10-11 and the Chronology of the Flood (Gen 6-9)." Biblica 66 (1985): 241-261. Dalley, S. "Atrahasis." Pages 1-38 in Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, 1-38. __________. "The Epic of Gilgamesh." Pages 39-153 in Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. __________. "Erra and Ishum." Pages 282-315 in Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. 12

__________. "Erra and Ishum (1.113)." Pages 404-16 in Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Volume 1 of The Context of Scripture. Edited by W. W. Hallo and K. L. Younger, Jr. Leiden: Brill, 2003. David, Robert. "Prolégomènes à l'étude écologique des récits de Gn 1-11." Église et théologie 22 (1991): 275-91. Davidson, R. Genesis 1-11. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973. Davidson, Richard M. "The Genesis Flood Narrative: Crucial Issues in the Current Debate." Andrews University Seminary Studies 42 (2004): 49-77.\ Davies, Philip R. "Sons of Cain." Pages 35-56 in A Word in Season: Essays in Honour of W. McKane. Edited by J. D. Martin and P. R. Davies. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 42. Sheffield: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Press, 1986. __________. "Making It: Creation and Contradiction in Genesis." Pages 249-56 in Bible in Human Society. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995. Davies, P. R., and D. M. Gunn. "Pentateuchal Patterns: An Examination of C. J. Labuschagne's Theory." Vetus Testamentum 34 (1984): 399-406. Davis, John J. Paradise to Prison: Studies in Genesis. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1975. Delitzsch, Franz. A New Commentary on Genesis. 2 vols. Translated by S. Taylor. Edinburgh: Clark, 1888. Reprint. Klock, 1978. Deurloo, Karel A. "The Scope of a Small Literary Unit in the Old Testament." Pages 37-51 in Voices from Amsterdam. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994. DeVries, Carl. "The Bearing of Current Egyptian Studies on the Old Testament." Pages 2536 in New Perspectives on the Old Testament. Edited by J. Barton Payne. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1970. Di Vito, Robert A. "The Demarcation of Divine and Human Realms in Genesis 2-11." Pages 39-56 in Creation in the Biblical Traditions. Washington, D.C.: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1992. Driver, S. R. The Book of Genesis. 3rd edition. Westminster Commentaries. London: Methuen, 1904. Dumbrell, William J. "Creation, Covenant and Work." Evangelical Review of Theology 13 (1989): 137-56. 13

Emerton, John A. "An Examination of Some Attempts to Defend the Unity of the Flood Narrative in Genesis: Part 1." Vetus Testamentum 37 (1987): 401-20. __________. "An Examination of Some Attempts to Defend the Unity of the Flood Narrative in Genesis: Part 2." Vetus Testamentum 38 (1988): 1-21. Eslinger, Lyle M. "The Enigmatic Plurals Like `one of us' (Genesis i 26, iii 22, and xi 7) in Hyperchronic Perspective." Vetus Testamentum 56 (2006): 171-84. Etz, Donald V. "The Numbers of Genesis V 3-31: A Suggested Conversion and Its Implications." Vetus Testamentum 43 (1993): 171-89. Eynde, Sabine van den. "The Missing Link: BRYT in the Flood Narrative: Meaning and Peculiarities of a Hebrew Key Word." Pages 467-78 in Studies in the Book of Genesis. Leuven: University Press; Sterling, VA: Uitgeverij Peeters, 2001. Fejo, Wali. "The Voice of the Earth: an Indigenous Reading of Genesis 9." Pages 140-6 in Earth Story in Genesis. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Feldman, Louis H. "Questions About the Great Flood, as Viewed from Philo, Pseudo-Philo, Josephus, and the Rabbis." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 115 (2003): 401-22. Finkelstein, J. J. "The Antediluvian Kings." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 1 (1963): -. Fischer, Georg. "The Need for a New Vision of the Torah." Pp. 62-73 in Pentateuch. Edited by ?. Münster: LIT Verlag, 2005. Fokkelman, J. P. Reading Biblical Poetry: An Introductory Guide. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001. Forrest, Robert W. E. "Paradise Lost Again: Violence and Obedience in the Flood Narrative." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 62 (1994): 3-18. Foster, B. R. From Distant Days: Myths, Tales, and Poetry of Ancient Mesopotamia. Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press, 1995. __________. Before the Muses. 2nd edition. 2 volumes. Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press, 1996. __________. "Atra-hasis (1.130)." Pages 450-53 in Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Volume 1 of The Context of Scripture. Edited by W. W. Hallo and K. L. Younger, Jr. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

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__________. "Gilgamesh (1.132)." Pages 458-60 in Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Volume one of The Context of Scripture. Edited by W. W. Hallo and K. L. Younger, Jr. Leiden: Brill, 2003. Fox, Everett. "Can Genesis be Read as a Book?" Semeia 46 (1989): 31-40. Francisco, Clyde T. "Preaching from the Primeval Narratives of Genesis." Pages 17-35 in Biblical Preaching. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983. Freedman, D. N. "Acrostics and Metrics in Hebrew Poetry." Harvard Theological Review 65 (1972): 366-92. __________. "Acristic Poems in the Hebrew Bible, Alphabetic and Otherwise." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 48 (1986): 408-31. Fretheim, Terrence E. "The Book of Genesis." Pages 319-674 in volume one of The New Interpreter's Bible. Nashville: Abingdon, 1994. Gafney, Wilda C. M. "The Daughters of God." AME Zion Quarterly Review 109 (1997): 3447. García Martínez, Florentino. "Interpretations of the Flood in the Dead Sea Scrolls." Pages 86-108 in Interpretations of the Flood. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Gardner, J., and J. Maier. Gilgamesh. New York: Knopf, 1984. Garrett, Duane. Rethinking Genesis: The Sources and Authorship of the First Book of the Pentateuch. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1991. Gelb, I. J. "The Name of Babylon." Pages 266-69 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies 1 (1955): 1-4. George, Andrew R. House Most High: The Temples of Ancient Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian Civilizations 5. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1993. __________. The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition, and Cuneiform Texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Gevirtz, S. "Lamech's Song to his Wives (Genesis 4:23-24)." Pages 405-15 in I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Gevirtz, S. Patterns in the Early Poetry of Israel. SAOC 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963, 25-34.

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Gibson, J. C. L. Genesis I. Edinburgh: St. Andrews Press, 1981. Gilboa, R. "Who `Fell Down' to Earth? A Different Light on Genesis 6:1-4." Biblische Notizen 111 (2002): 66-75. Granot, Hayim. "Noah and His Family Relations." Jewish Bible Quarterly 28 (2000): 62-64. Greig, A Josef. "Genesis 6:1-4: The Female and the Fall." Michigan Quarterly Review 26 (1987): 483-96. Gunkel, Hermann. Genesis. 9th edition. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck, 1977. __________. The Stories of Genesis. Edited by W. R. Scott. Translated by J. J. Scullion. Berkeley: BIBAL Press, 1994. Gunton, Colin E. "Between Allegory and Myth: The Legacy of the Spiritualising of Genesis." Pages 47-62 in Doctrine of Creation. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997. Haas, Nelson. "Canaan, Not Ham." Bible Review 21 (2005): 54. Hallo, William W. "Beginning and End of the Sumerian King List in the Nippur Recension." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 1 (1963): -. __________. "Antediluvian Cities." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 23 (1971): -. __________. "Genesis and Ancient Near Eastern Literature." In W. Gunther Plaut, Genesis. The Torah: A Modern Commentary I. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1974, pp. xxix-xxxiv. __________. "New Moons and Sabbaths: A Case Study in the Contrastive Approach." Hebrew Union College Annual 48 (1977): 1-18. __________. "Biblical History in its Near Eastern Setting: The Contextual Approach." Pages 1-26 in Scripture in Context: Essays on the Comparative Method. Edited by C. D. Evans, W. W. Hallo, and J. B. White. Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series 34. Pittsburgh, Pa.: The Pickwick Press, 1980. __________. "Compare and Contrast: The Contextual Approach to Biblical Literature." Pages 1-30 in The Bible in Light of Cuneiform Literature: Scripture in Context III. Edited by W. W. Hallo, B. W. Jones, and G. L. Mattingly. Ancient Near Eastern Texts and Studies 8. Lewiston, Pa.: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1990. __________. "The Contextual Approach." Pages ?-? (chapter 2) in The Book of the People. Brown Judaic Studies 225. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991.

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Hallo, W. W., and W. K. Simpson. The Ancient Near East: A History. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. Halpern, Baruch. "What They Don't Know Won't Hurt Them: Genesis 6-9." Pages 16-34 in Fortunate the Eyes that See. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995. Hameen-Anttila, J. A Sketch of Neo-Assyrian Grammar. State Archives of Assyria Studies 13. Helsinki: Neo-Assyian Text Corpus Project, 2000. Hamilton, Victor P. Handbook on the Pentateuch. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1982. __________. The Book of Genesis Chapters 1-17. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. Haran, Menahem. "Book-Size and the Thematic Cycles in the Pentateuch." Pages 165-76 in Die Hebraische Bibel und ihre zweifache Nachgeschichte: Festschrift for Rold Rendtorff zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by E. Blum, C. Macholz, and E. W. Stegemann. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1990. Häring, Hermann. "Disaster for the World and Human Disaster? An Experience Common to the Religions." Pages 57-76 in Original Sin: A Code of Fallinility. Edited by Christophe Boureux and Christoph Theobald. Translated by John Bowden. London: SCM, 2004. Harland, P. J. "A Further Note on Genesis vi 13." Vetus Testamentum 43 (1993): 408-11. Harrelson, Walter. "The Significance of Cosmology in the Ancient Near East." Pages 237-52 in Translating and Understanding the Old Testament: Essays in Honor of Herberty Gordon May. Edited by H. T. Frank and W. L. Reed. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1970. Harris, Z. S. "Discourse Analysis." Language 28 (1952): 1-30. Harrison, Roland K. "From Adam to Noah: A Reconsideration of the Antedilvian Patriarchs' Ages." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37 (1994): 161-68. Hartley, John E. "Principles of Orientation for Holy Living as Found in Genesis 1-11." Pp. 150-79 in Holiness as a Root of Morality: Essays on Wesleyan Ethics. Edited by J. S. Park and L. A. Scott. Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2006. Haupt, Paul. Das Babylonische Nimrodepos. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1884. Hay, Donald A. "Christians in the Global Greenhouse Tyndale Fellowship Annual Lecture in Ethics, 1989." Tyndale Bulletin 41 (1990): 109-27.

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Haynes, Stephen R. "Original Dishonor: Noah's Curse and the Southern Defense of Slavery." Journal of Southern Religion 3 (2000): ?. Heidel, A. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. Hendel, Ronald S. "Of Demigods and the Deluge: Toward an Interpretation of Genesis 6:14." Journal of Biblical Literature 106 (1987): 13-26. __________. "When the Sons of God Cavorted with the Daughters of men." Bible Review 3 (1987): 8-13. __________. "Genesis, Book of." Pages 933-41 in vol. 2 of The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by D. N. Freedman. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992. __________. The Text of Genesis 1-11: Textual Studies and Critical Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hepner, Gershon. "The Depravity of Ham and the Tower of Babel Echo Contiguous Laws of the Holiness Code." Estudios Bíblicos 61 (2003): 85-131. __________. "The Relationship Between Biblical Narrative and Biblical Law." Jewish Bible Quarterly 29 (2001): 263-268. Hess, Richard S. "A Comparison of the Onomastica in Genealogical and Narrative Texts of Genesis 1-11." Pages 67-74 in Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of Jewish Studies, Division A. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1990. __________. "Splitting the Adam: The Usage of 'adam in Genesis i-v." Pages 1-15 in Studies in the Pentateuch. Leiden: Brill, 1990. __________. Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 234. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1993. __________. "One Hundred Fifty Years of Comparative Studies on Genesis 1-11: An Overview." Pages 3-26 in I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. __________. "The Genealogies of Genesis 1-11 and Comparative Literature." Pages 58-72 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Biblica 70 (1989): 241-54. __________. "Ancient Near Eastern Studies." Pages 201-220 in Interpreting the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001. 18

__________. "Adam, Father, He: Gender Issues in Hebrew Translation." Bible Translator (Ja, Jl Technical Papers) 56 (2005): 144-53. Hess, Richard S. and David T. Tsumura. "I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood": Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Heyd, David. "Divine Creation and Human Procreation: Reflections on Genesis in the Light of Genesis." Pages 57-70 in Contingent Future Persons. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1997. Hiebert, Theodore. "Creation, the Fall, and Humanity's Role in the Ecosystem." Pages 11121 and 233-34 in Creation and the Environment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. __________. "Rethinking Dominion [sic] Theology." Direction 25 (1996): 16-25. Hilhorst, A. "The Noah Story: Was it Known to the Greeks?" Pages 56-65 in Interpretations of the Flood. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Hinschberger, Régine. "Image et ressemblance dans la tradition sacerdotale: Gen 1:26-28; 5:1-3; 9:6b." Revue des sciences religieuses 59 (1985): 185-99. Hobbs, Gerald. "Exercices pratiques: (1) l'histoire de l'ivresse de Noé (Gen 9,20-27); (2) l'onction à Bethanie (Mt 26,6-13)." Pages 113-25 in Théorie et pratique de l'exégèse. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1990. Holloway, Steven W. "What Ship Goes There: The Flood Narratives in the Gilgamesh Epic and Genesis Considered in Light of Ancient Near Eastern Temple Ideology." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 103 (1991): 328-355. Hong, Joseph. "Problems in an Obscure Passage: Notes on Genesis 6:1-4." Bible Translator (Ap, O Practical Papers) 40 (1989): 419-26. Horowitz, W. Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1998. Horowitz, W., T. Oshima, and S. Sanders. Cuneiform in Canaan: Cuneiform Sources from the Land of Israel in Ancient Times. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2006. Hudson, Don Michael. "From Chaos to Cosmos: Sacred Space in Genesis." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 108 (1996): 87-97. Jacobsen, Thorkild. The Sumerian King List. Assyriological Studies 11. Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1939.

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__________. The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976. __________. "The Eridu Genesis." Pages 129-142 in "I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood": Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Journal of Biblical Literature 100 (1981): 513-529. __________. The Harps That Once . . .: Sumerian Poetry in Translation. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987. __________. "The Eridu Genesis (1.158)." Pages 513-15 in Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Volume 1 of The Context of Scripture. Edited by W. W. Hallo and K. L. Younger, Jr. Leiden: Brill, 2003. James, Stephen A. "Divine Justice and the Retributive Duty of Civil Government." Trinity Journal 6 (1985): 199-210. Jeske, John C. "Genesis 7--The Flood Prevailed." Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly 95 (1998): 210-11. Johnson, Michael. "From Cosmogony to Cartography in Genesis 1-13." Pages 93-112 in Proceedings, Eastern Great Lakes and Midwest Biblical Societies, vol 15, 1995. Buffalo, N.Y.: Canisius College, 1995. Johnson, Rick, ed. "Genesis 1-11." Southwestern Journal of Theology 44 (Fall 2001): 2-92. Kahl, Brigitte. "Human Culture and the Integrity of Creation: Biblical Reflections on Genesis 1-11." Ecumenical Review 39 (1987): 128-37. Kaiser, Walter C. "The Literary Form of Genesis 1-11." Pages 48-65 in New Perspectives on the Old Testament. Edited by J. Barton Payne. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1970. Kass, Leon R. "Seeing the Nakedness of his Father." Commentary 93 (1992): 41-47. Kawashima, Robert S. "Homo Faber in J's Primeval History." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 116 (2004): 483-501. Kidner, Derek. Genesis. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity, 1967. Kikawada, Isaac M. "A Quantitative Analysis of the `Adam and Eve,' `Cain and Abel,' and `Noah' Stories. Pages 195-203 in Perspectives on Language and Text. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987.

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__________. "Primeval History." Pages 461-66 in vol. 5 of The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by D. N. Freedman. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Kikawada, Isaac M. and Arthur Quinn. Before Abraham Was: The Unity of Genesis 1-11. San Francisco: Ignatious Press, 1985. Kilmer, Anne Draffkorn. "The Mesopotamian Counterparts of the Biblical Nepilîm." Pages 39-43 in Perspectives on Language and Text. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987. Kinnier Wilson, J. V. "`Desonance' in Akkadian." Journal of Semitic Studies 13 (1968): 93103. Kio, Stephen Hre. "Revisiting `the sons of God' in Genesis 6.1-4." Bible Translator (AP, O Practical Papers) 52 (2001): 234-39. Kitchen, Kenneth A. Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago: InterVarsity, 1966. __________. On The Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003. Knight, G. A. F. Theology in Pictures: A Commentary on Genesis 1-11. Edinburgh: Handsel Press, 1981. Knoppers, Gary N. "Shem, Ham, and Japheth: The Universal and the Particular in the Genealogy of Nations." Pages 13-31 in Chronicler as Theologian. Edited by M. Patrick Graham, Steven L. McKenzie, and Knoppers Gary N. New York: T & T Clark, 2003. Komoróczy, G. "Work and Strike of the Gods." Oikumene 1 (1976): 9-37. Korsak, Mary. "Translating the Bible: Bible Translations and Gender Issues." Pages 132-46 in Bible Translation on the Threshold of the Twenty-First Century: Authority, Reception, Culture, and Religion. Edited by Athalya Brenner and Jan W. van Henten. New York: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002. Kovacs, M. G. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Kramer, S. N. "The Deluge." Pages - in Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Edited by J. B. Pritchard. 3rd edition with supplement. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969. __________. "The Sumerian Deluge Myth: Reviewed and Revised." Anatolian Studies 33 (1983): -. Krasovec, Joze. "Punishment and Mercy in the Primeval History (Gen 1-11)." Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 5-33.

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Kruger, H. A. J. "Subscripts to Creation: A Few Exegetical Comments on the Literary Device of Repetition in Gen 1-11." Pages 429-45 in Studies in the Book of Genesis. Leuven: University Press; Sterling, Va.: Uitgeverij Peeters, 2001. Kugel, James L. The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and Its History. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. Kvanvig, Helge S. "Gen 6,1-4 as an Antediluvian Event." Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament 16 (2002): 79-112. Labuschagne, C. J. "The Pattern of the Divine Speech Formulas in the Pentateuch." Vetus Testamentum 32 (1982): 268-96. __________. "Additional Remarks on the Pattern of the Divine Speech Formulas in the Pentateuch." Vetus Testamentum 34 ( Lambert, W. G. "Review of F. Gössman, Das Erra-Epos." Archiv für Orientforschung 18 (1957-58): -. __________. "A New Look at the Babylonian Background of Genesis." Pages 114-28 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Journal of Theological Studies 16 (1965): 287-300. Lambert, W. G., and A. R. Millard. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum XLVI. London: British Museum, 1965. __________. Atra- as s: The Babylonian Story of the Flood. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1999. Landy, Francis. "Flood and Fludd." Pages 117-58 in Biblical Studies/Cultural Studies. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998. Lang, Bernhard. "Non-Semitic Deluge Stories and the Book of Genesis: A Bibliographical and Critical Survey." Anthropos 80 (1985): 605-16. Larsson, Gerhard. "Remarks Concerning the Noah-Flood Complex." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 112 (2000): 75-77. Le Morvan, Michael. "The Flood Revisited." Scripture Bulletin 30 (2000): 34-41. Lee, Stephen. "Imago Dei and Dominium Terrae." CGST Journal 26 (1999): 31-42. Leibowitz, N. Studies in Bereshit. 4th edition. Jerusalem: World Zionist Organization, 1981.

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Luyster, Robert. "Wind and Water: Cosmogonic Symbolism in the Old Testament." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 93 (1981): 1-10. Machinist, P. "Rest and Violence in the Poem of Erra." Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1983): -. Magnuson, K. T. "Marriage, Procreation and Infertility: Reflections on Genesis." Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 4 (2000): 26-42. Maier, John R. "The Flood Story: Four Literary Approaches." Pages 106-9 in Approaches to Teaching the Hebrew Bible as Literature in Translation. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1989. Maillot, Alphonse. "Du péché à la mort ou de la mort au péché." Pages 107-17 in Religion, société et politique. Paris: Presser Universitaires De France, 1983. Malamat, Abraham. "Proto-History of Israel: A Study in Method." Pages 303-13 in The Word of the Lord Shall God Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman in Celebration of His Sixtieth Birthday. Edited by C. L. Meyers and M. O'Connor. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1983. __________. "King Lists of the Old Babylonian Period and Biblical Genealogies." Pages 183-99 in I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (1968): 163-173. Malul, M. The Comparative Method in Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Legal Studies. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1990 (esp. pp. 13-78). Mann, Thomas W. The Book of the Torah: The Narrative Integrity of the Pentateuch. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1988. Marrs, Rick. "The Sons of God (Genesis 6:1-4)." Restoration Quarterly 23 (1980): 218-24. Martin-Achard, Robert. "À propos de la théologie de l'Ancien Testament: une hypothèse de travail." Cahiers de la revue de théologie et de philosophie 11 (1984): 21-29. Matthews, Kenneth A. Genesis 1-11:26. New American Commentary 1A. Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 2001. Mauldin, Frank Louis. "Story Patterns: How It Says What it Says." Saint Luke's Journal of Theology 30 (1987): 125-40. Mazor, Yair. "What You See is Not What You Get: When Unity Masquerades as Disarray." Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament 20 (2006): 264-72. 24

McCarter, P Kyle, Jr. "A New Challenge to the Documentary Hypothesis." Bible Review ? (1988): 34-39. McCarthy, Dennis J. Treaty and Covenant: A Study in Form in the Ancient Oriental Documents and in the Old Testament. Second edition. Analecta Biblica 21A. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1981. __________. "Twenty-five Years of Pentateuchal Study." Pages 34-57 in Biblical Heritage in Modern Catholic Scholarship. Wilmington, Del.: Michael Glazier, 1986. McKenzie, Steven L. "The Curse of Ham and David H Aaron." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 65 (1997): 183-86. Merrill, Eugene H. "The Peoples of the Old Testament according to Genesis 10." Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (1997): 3-22. Michalowski, P. "History as Charter: Some Observations on the Sumerian King List." Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1983): -. __________. "Presence at the Creation." Pages - in Lingering over Words: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Literature in Honor of William L. Moran. Edited by T. Abusch, J. Huehnergard, and P. Steinkeller. : , 1990. Millard, Allan R. "A New Babylonian `Genesis' Story." Pages 114-28 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Tyndale Bulletin 18 (1967): 3-18. Miller, Patrick D., Jr. "Eridu, Dunnu, and Babel: A Study in Comparative Mythology." Pages 143-68 in I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Reprinted from Hebrew Annual Review 9 (1985): 227-51. Mitchell, Terence C. "Shared Vocabulary in the Pentateuch and the Book of Daniel." Pages 131-41 in He Swore an Oath: Biblical Themes from Genesis 12-50. Edited by R. S. Hess, P. E. Satterthwaite, and G. J. Wenham. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994. Moberly, R. W. L. "Christ as the Key to Scripture." Pages 143-73 in He Swore an Oath: Biblical Themes from Genesis 12-50. Edited by R. S. Hess, P. E. Satterthwaite, and G. J. Wenham. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994. __________. "Why Did Noah Send Out a Raven?" Vetus Testamentum 50 (2000): 345-56.

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Petersen, David L., and Kent Harold Richards. Interpreting Hebrew Poetry. Guides to Biblical Scholarship Old Testament Series. Edited by Gene M. Tucker. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992. Pippin, Tina. "They Might Be Giants: Genesis 6:1-4 and Women's Encounter with the Supernatural." Pages 47-59 in Violence, Utopia, and the Kingdom of God. London: Routledge, 1998. Poebel, A. Historical and Grammatical Texts (= PBS V). Philadelphia: ?, 1914. Postgate, J. N. Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. New York: Routledge, 1992. Prewitt, Terry J. The Elusive Covenant: A Structural-Semiotic Reading of Genesis. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1990. Priest, James E. "Gen 9:6: A Comparative Study of Bloodshed in Bible and Talmud." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 31 (1988): 145-51. Pritchard, J. B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third edition with supplement. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969. Rad, Gerhard von. Genesis. Old Testament Literature. Revised edition. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1972 (German original, 1953). Rashi. Pentateuch with Rashi's Commentary. Translated by M. Rosenbaum and A. M. Silbermann. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, ?. Rashkow, Ilona N. "Daughters and Fathers in Genesis . . . or, What is Wrong with this Picture." Pages 250-65 in New Literary Criticism and the Hebrew Bible. Sheffield: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Press, 1993. Reiner, Erica. A Linguistic Analysis of Akkadian. Janua linguarum 21. Mouton: The Hague, 1966. __________. Your Thwarts in Pieces, Your Mooring Rope Cut: Poetry from Babylonia and Assyria. Michigan Studies in the Humanities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1985. Rendsburg, Gary A. The Redaction of Genesis. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1986. __________. "The Internal Consistency and Historical Reliability of the Biblical Genealogies." Vetus Testamentum 40 (1990): 185-206. Rendtorff, Rolf. "`Covenant' as a Structuring Concept in Genesis and Exodus." Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989): 385-93. 28

__________. "L'histoire biblique des origines (Gen 1-11) dans le contexte de la rédaction `sacerdotale' du Pentateuque." Pages 83-94 in Pentateuque en question. Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1989. Robertson, O. Palmer. "Current Critical Questions Concerning the `Curse of Ham' (Gen 9:20-27)." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 41 (1998): 177-88. Rogerson, John W. Genesis 1-11. Old Testament Guides. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991. Ross, Allen P. Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of the Book of Genesis. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988. Ruiten, J. T. A. G. M. van "The Interpretation of Genesis 6:1-12 in Jubilees 5:1-19." Pages 59-75 in Studies in the Book of Jubilees. Tübingen: Mohr, 1997. __________. van. "The Interpretation of the Flood Story in the Book of Jubilees." Pages 6685 in Interpretations of the Flood. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Rummel, Stan. "The Ninth Day: To Say `Creation' in Genesis 1:1-11:26." Pages 295-314 in Problems in Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997. Sailhamer, John. "Genesis." The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 2. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990. ________. The Pentateuch as Narrative: A Biblical-Theological Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992. __________. Genesis Unbound. Sisters, Oregon: Multnomah Books, 1996. Sandars, N. K. The Epic of Gilgamesh. New York: Penguin, 1960. Sandmel, S. "Parallelomania." Journal of Biblical Literature 81 (1962): 1-13. Sarna, Nahum M. Understanding Genesis. New York: Schocken, 1970. __________. Genesis. The JPS Torah Commentary. Jerusalem: The Jewish Publication Society, 1989. Sasson, Jack M. "Rechovot 'îr." Revue biblique 90 (1983): 94-96. __________. "`The mother of all . . .' Etiologies." Pages 205-20 in Wise and Discerning Mind. Providence: Brown Judaic Studies, 2000.

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Scher, Timothy P. "The Perfect Indicative in Septuagint Genesis." Bulletin of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies 24 (1991): 14-24. Schökel, Luis Alonso. A Manual of Hebrew Poetics. Subsidia Biblica 11. Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 2000. Scullion, John J. "Genesis 1-11: An Interpretation." St. Mark's Review 122 (1985): 11-17. __________. "What of Original Sin? The Convergence of Genesis 1-11 and Romans 5:12." Pages 25-36 in Schöpfung und Befreiung. Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1989. __________. "Genesis, the Narrative of." Pages 941-62 in vol. 2 of The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by D. N. Freedman. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Seely, Paul H. "Noah's Flood: Its Date, Extent, and Divine Accommodation." Westminster Theological Journal 66 (2004): 291-311. Selvidge, Marla J. Schierling. "Primeval Woman: A Yahwistic View of Woman in Genesis 1-11:9." Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 42 (1983): 5-9. Shaviv, Shemuel. "The Polytheistic Origins of the Biblical Flood Narrative." Vetus Testamentum 54 (2004): 527-48. Shutte, Augustine. "Community, Apartheid and the Metaphysics of Humanity in Genesis 111." Philosophy & Theology 2 (1987): 57-75. Simons, Jan Jozef. "The `Table of Nations' (Genesis 10): Its General Structure and Meaning." Page 234-53 in I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Simpson, Cuthbert A. "The Book of Genesis." The Interpreter's Bible. Vol. 1. Nashville: Abingdon, 1952. Siverns, L. E. "Is There a Jinni in Genesis." Theological Review 8 (1987): 48-54. Ska, J.-L. "Separation des eauxet de la terra ferme dans le re*cit sacerdotal." La nouvelle revue théologique 103 (1981): 512-32. Skinner, J. Genesis. 2nd edition. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1930. Smith, R. F. "Chiasm in Sumero-Akkadian." Pages 17-35 in Chiasmus. Edited by Welch. Snell, D. C. Life in the Ancient Near East. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

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Stigers. Harold G. A Commentary on Genesis. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976. Strong, John T. "Israel as a Testimony to Yhwh's Power: The Priest's Definition of Israel." Pp. 89-106 in Constituting the Community: Studies on the Polity of Ancient Israel in Honor of S. Dean McBride, Jr. Edited by S. Dean McBride. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2005. Sweet, R. F. G. "A Pair of Double Acristics in Akkadian." Orientalia 38 (1969): 459-60. Talmon, S. "Did There Exist a Biblical National Epic?" Pages 11-61 in Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East. Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress of Jewish Studies. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1981. __________. "The `Comparative Method' in Biblical Interpretation ­ Principles and Problems." Vetus Testamentum Supplement 29 (1977): 320-56. Tanner, William Francis. "How Many Trees Did Noah Take on the Ark." Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 47 (1995): 260-63. Tardieu, Michel. "La naissance du ciel et de la terre selon la Paraphrase de Sem." Pages 409425 in Création dans l'Orient ancien; congrès de l'ACFEB, Lille (1985). Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1987. Thomsen, Marie-Louise. The Sumerian Language: An Introduction to Its History and Grammatical Structure. Third edition. Mesopotamia: Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology 10. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 2001. Tigay, J. The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. __________. "The Image of God and the Flood: Some New Developments." Pages 169-82 in Studies in Jewish Education and Judaica in Honor of Louis Newman. New York: KTAV, 1984. __________, ed. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985. __________. "Genesis, Science, and `Scientific Creationism.'" Conservative Judaism 40 (1987-1988): 20-27. __________. "On Evaluating Claims of Literary Borrowing." Pages 250-55 in Studies Hallo. Edited by ?. : , . Tomasino, Anthony J. "History Repeats Itself: the `Fall' and Noah's Drunkenness." Vetus Testamentum 42 (1992): 128-30. 32

Tournay, R. J., and A. Shaffer. L'Épopée de Gilgamesh. Littératures anciennes du ProcheOrient 15. Paris: Cerf, 1994. Tsirkin, Yu B. "Japhet's Progeny and the Phoenicians." Pages 117-34 in Studia Phoenicia, 11. Louvain: Departement Oriëntalistiek, 1991. Tsumura, David T. "Genesis and Ancient Near Eastern Stories of Creation and Flood: An Introduction." Pages 27-57 in I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11. Edited by R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994. Turner, Laurence A. "The Rainbow as the Sign of the Covenant in Genesis ix 11-13." Vetus Testamentum 43 (1993): 119-24. Ullmann, S. Language and Style: Collected Papers. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1966. Van De Mieroop, M. The Ancient Mesopotamian City. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Vander Kam, James C. "Putting Them in Their Place: Geography as an Evaluative Tool." Pages 46-69 in Pursuing the Text. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994. Vander Hart, Mark D. "Creation and Covenant: A Survey of the Dominion Mandate in the Noahic and Abrahamic Covenants." Mid-America Journal of Theology 6 (1990): 105116. Vander Hart, Mark D. "Creation and Covenant: A Survey of the Dominion Mandate in the Noahic and Abrahamic Covenants." Mid-America Journal of Theology 6 (1990): 318. Vandermeersch, Patrick. "Where Will the Water Stick: Considerations of a Psychoanalyst About the Stories of the Flood." Pages 167-193 in Interpretations of the Flood. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Van Exem, Albert. "Genesis 1-11 as Living Tradition." Sevartham 21 (1996): 3-29. Van Seters, John. Prologue to History: The Yahwist as Historian in Genesis. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992. Vasholz, Robert I. "Genesis 9:19-25." Presbyterion 26 (2000): 32-33. Vervenne, Marc. "`The Blood is the Life and the Life is the Blood': Blood as Symbol of Life in Biblical Tradition (Gen 9,4)." Pages 451-70 in Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East. Louvain: Peeters, 1993; Louvain: Departement Orientalistiek, 1993.

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Wright, Chris. "The Old Testament and the Environment: A Response to Chris Wright." Transformation 16 (1999): 86-92. Wright, John W. "Toward a Holiness Hermeneutic: The Old Testament Against Israelite Religion." Wesleyan Theological Journal 30 (1995): 68-90. Young, Davis A. "Scripture in the Hands of Geologists." Westminster Theological Journal 49 (1987): 1-34, 257-304. __________. "The Antiquity and the Unity of the Human Race Revisited." Christian Scholar's Review 24 (1995): 380-96. Youngblood, Ronald F., ed. The Genesis Debate: Persistent Questions About Creation and the Flood. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1986. Younger, K. L., Jr. Ancient Conquest Accounts. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1990. __________. "The `Contextual Method': Some West Semitic Reflections." Pages xxxv-xlii in Archival Documents from the Biblical World. Volume 3 of The Context of Scripture. Edited by W. W. Hallo and K. L. Younger, Jr. Leiden: Brill, 2003. Zelechow, Bernard. "God's Presence and the Paradox of Freedom." Pages 162-76 in Hermeneutics, the Bible and Literary Criticism. New York: St Martin's, 1992. Zipor, Moshe A. "A Note on Genesis 6:13." Vetus Testamentum 41 (1991): 366-69.

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