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TALLINNA ÜLIKOOL SOTSIAALTEADUSTE DISSERTATSIOONID TALLINN UNIVERSITY DISSERTATIONS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES 30

Boriss Bazanov

INTEGRATIVE APPROACH OF THE TECHNICAL AND TACTICAL ASPECTS IN BASKETBALL COACHING

Abstract

TALLINN 2007

TALLINNA ÜLIKOOL SOTSIAALTEADUSTE DISSERTATSIOONID TALLINN UNIVERSITY DISSERTATIONS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES 30

Boriss Bazanov INTEGRATIVE APPROACH OF THE TECHNICAL AND TACTICAL ASPECTS IN BASKETBALL COACHING Abstract

Faculty of Educational Sciences, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia. The dissertation is accepted for commencement of the degree of Doctor philosophiae in Educational Sciences on June 14, 2007 by the Doctoral Committee of Educational Sciences of the Tallinn University. Supervisor: Oponendid: Rein Haljand (Professor, Tallinn University) Arved Vain (Dr. Habil. Biol., senior researcher, University of Tartu) Kaarel Zilmer (Cand. Pedagogy, associate professor, Tallinn University)

The academic disputation on the dissertation will be held at the Tallinn University (Lecture Hall U-342) Uus-Sadama 5, Tallinn on September 07, 2007 at 14.00.

Copyright: Boriss Bazanov, 2007 Copyright: Tallinn University, 2007

ISSN 1736-3632 (publication) ISBN 978-9985-58-496-5 (publication) ISSN 1736-3675 (abstract online, PDF) ISBN 978-9985-58-497-2 (abstract online, PDF)

Tallinn University Press Narva mnt 25 10120 TALLINN www.kirjastus.tlu.ee

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CONTENTS

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ..............................................................................................................................................4 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................................................5 1. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE RESEARCH ............................................................................................6 2. METHODS AND RESULTS.........................................................................................................................................7 3. THE PRACTICAL OUTPUT AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH .....................................14 TEHNIKA JA TAKTIKA INTEGRATIIVNE KÄSITLUS KORVPALLI ÕPI-TREENINGPROTSESSIS. Kokkuvõte ...................................................................................................................15 REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................................................16

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LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

I. Boriss Bazanov, Priit Võhandu, Rein Haljand 2007. Võistkondliku ründetegevuse optimeerimine korvpallis. ­ S. Timpmann (koost). Konverentsi "Teadus, sport ja meditsiin VII" ettekanded. Artiklite kogumik. Tartu: Atlex, 14­16. Boriss Bazanov, Priit Võhandu, Rein Haljand 2006. Factors influencing the teamwork intensity in basketball. ­ International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 6(2), 88­96. Boriss Bazanov, Priit Võhandu, Rein Haljand 2006. Trends in offensive team activity in basketball. ­ Education. Physical Training. Sport, 2(61), 5­11. Boriss Bazanov, Rein Haljand, Priit Võhandu 2006. Tehnika ja taktika integratiivne käsitlus korvpallis. ­ A. Lepik, M. Pihlak, K. Sepp, M. Veisson (toim). Doktorantidelt sotsiaal- ja kasvatusteadustele. Sotsiaal- ja kasvatusteaduste doktorantide III teaduskonverents 21.­22. aprillil 2005 TLÜs. Artiklite kogumik. Tallinn: TLÜ kirjastus, 152­163. Boriss Bazanov, Priit Võhandu, Rein Haljand 2006. Trends and Rules in Offensive Teamwork in Basketball. 9th Conference of EARLI`S JURE, Models and Learning: Theory, Design and Application. Tartu, Estonia, 30.06­04.07, 25. Boriss Bazanov, Priit Võhandu, Rein Haljand 2006. Factors influencing the teamwork intensity in basketball. ­ Proceedings book of the 7th World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sport. Hungary, Szombathely, 23.­26.08, 157­163. Boriss Bazanov, Priit Võhandu, Rein Haljand 2005. Offensive teamwork intensity as a factor influencing the result in basketball. ­ International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 5(2), 9­16. Boriss Bazanov, Priit Võhandu, Rein Haljand 2005. Structural analysis of offensive teamwork in basketball. 4th International Baltic Congress on Sports Medicine. Riga, Latvija, 11.­12.11, SMVA, 19. Boriss Bazanov 2004. Tagasiside ­ oluline osa korvpallimängu tehnilis-taktikalise tegevuse õpiprotsessis. ­ S. Timpmann (koost). Konverentsi "Teadus, sport ja meditsiin" ettekanded. Tartu: Atlex, 28­30. Boriss Bazanov, Rein Haljand 2002. Hüppeviske liigutuste struktuur ja rütmi variatiivsus kõrgema kvalifikatsiooniga korvpalluritel. ­ S. Timpmann (toim). Konverentsi "Teadus, sport ja meditsiin" ettekanded. Tartu: Atlex, 23­25.

II. III. IV.

V.

VI.

VII. VIII. IX. X.

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INTRODUCTION

The dissertation focuses on integrating the technical and tactical aspects of the basketball coaching process. It is well known that basketball is a complicated team game where the tactics has the important role. To accomplish the tactical tasks is tightly connected to the technical elements of the game. The content of basketball game is determined by the diversity of technical elements and the variety of tactical tasks. The right balance of tactics and techniques is the factor of success. Ideally the tactical task arisen in the course of the game must find the solution by the most suitable technical application. In reality such an accordance is met in much fewer cases than hoped. The reasons for that are different. Our choice for the research is the integration of the technical and tactical aspects of the basketball coaching process. The choice was not random. The analysis of the literature has shown us that such research has not conducted before. The technical side of the game has been researched (Hamilton & Reinschmidt 1997; Hudson 1985; Ivoilov 1986; Keller & Mozola 1974; Kolos 1989; Laos 2001; Miller & Bartlett 1996; Rojas et al. 2000) but separately from tactics. Individual and group action tactical aspects and playmaking (Gomelskii 1976; Wissel 1994) has been isolated from the technical side. Data describing the physical fitness and physiological characteristics (Landõr & Gocentas 2004; Mcinnes et al. 1995), the players' somatotype and physical build (Carter et al. 2005) and the psychological background (Chie-der et al. 2003; Raab 2002) are not directly in touch with our research. The researcher's 20 yearlong coaching experience confirms the results in practice as well. As the technical and tactical aspects are mainly coached separately it results in competitive situations in playing discordantly ­ the technical arsenal of the players does not get the resulting solution. That indicates to the problems in the integrity. The skilled melting of techniques and tactics into the effectively functioning game is one of the most important tasks in the professional activity of the coach. The different abilities of the player are mainly trained using specific methods. The continuous use of such practice brings us to the situation where some abilities "function" well in local exercises (dribble, passes, 1:1, 2:2 etc) but does not guarantee the effectiveness in more complex competitive situations. That contradiction brings out the necessity in preparing the sportsmen to find a method which allows them to use their technical skills in solving the tactical tasks. Therefore the main task of the research is to work out the new integrative methodology for the basketball team coaching process. To achieve that objective the usual coaching scheme ­ coach­sportsman ­ has to be complemented with planned game environment (situational tactical tasks). The main task of the designed new methodology is to model the possible game situations surely met in the real competition. This means that the practice game is transformed to the new methodological coaching form allowing the coach to connect directly the technical-tactical abilities to the real situations in the field. Thus the new holistic coaching system coach­ game environment­player ­ result is created. Important is that by the game environment must be understood the situational tactical tasks set up by the coach. One of the most important features of the new methodology is widening the possibility of the players' self-organization during the training process. In principle it is the problem-based learning where obtaining the knowledge, habits and skills put forward the higher demands to include the players' consciousness. Solving the situations set by the coach in the varying game environment improves both the technical performance and tactical intuition. The inseparable part of the coaching process is the feedback received from the performance. In the course of the competition the changes in the game structure occur because of the various reasons. These can be caused by the tempo of the game, defence formation of the opponent or the model of the offence. To lead the training process effectively such information must be constantly analyzed. The performance analysis as precise as possible and the objective evaluation of the results are one of the main tasks of the coach. Up to now the evaluation of the performance results has been restricted to the absolute values of the data obtained from the technical protocols. Such practice does not allow to delve into the technical-tactical finesses and does not give the adequate information of the game flow. The following tasks were derived from the main goal of the research:

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to evaluate the efficiency of the integrated training methodology on the basis of competition results of the subject team; to determine the structure and efficiency of the subject team game activity; to work out the analysis system of the game competitive activity (GCA); to find out how the offence teamwork intensity influences the result in basketball; to determine factors influencing the teamwork intensity in basketball.

To find the solution to the problem required coming to the understanding of the ideas how to implement the principles of functional systems theory (Anohin 1978) and synergy (Haken 2000; Kapica et al. 1997; Kelso 2002; Knjazeva 2000; Perl 2004; Prigogine 1991; Torrents & Balagué 2006) to the pedagogy, including sport pedagogy. Contemporary thinking style is moving from the linear to the nonlinear and research from uni-dimensional to the multidimensional models (Kelso 2002; Mack et al. 2000; Mayer 2001). Therefore the holistic understandings are considered actual in the research of team games. Considering the modern standpoints of functional systems theory and sports theory as the basis of training process integrating all the subsystems into the whole is the inevitable necessity. Therefore from the viewpoint of the holistic preparation of the game we have to find which factors influence the offence system as a whole. The goal set in the research is based on the synergetic paradigm and widens the perspectives of improving the training methods of the basketball game. Considering the standpoints of functional systems theory (feedback) it is assumed that using the designed GCA analysis system as the part of the training process allows to open deeper the content of technicaltactical activity and more objectively assess the preparation level of the team. Therefore the hypothesis of the research is that the more persistent is the integrative approach in the training process the more effective is the game in the competition. The scientific novelty of the research is that as far as it is known such integrated approach based on systems theory is applied for the first time in the training process. In the designed GCA analysis system the factor of time in the form of intensity index is used for the first time. The system allows to find out the structure of technical-tactical activity and its intensity. Therefore taking into the usage the intensity index becomes important while evaluating the cooperation in the teamwork. From that the second hypothesis of the research is formed: offence is more efficient if the teamwork intensity is better.

1. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE RESEARCH

Taking a look at the conceptual background of the research we can state that the standpoints of the scientific research coming from the theory of complexity, the theory of the functional systems and synergy are universal in their meaning. It means that the application sciences such as education science, sports science etc. can collect valuable theoretical backing for their research. The use of synergy theory allowed the author to design the content of the basketball coaching process. Relying to the complexity theory and the theory of the functional systems allowed to conclude that the activity of the player can be considered as the part of the open dynamic functional system. In essence it means observing the game through the prism of nonlinearity. The behaviour of the players and the team as the whole in the game situations associates with their free will. The activity of the players and the team leading to the better structure of the game apparently has the intention to adapt better to the conditions of the game. In basketball one of the outputs of self-organisation can be the structuring of separate technicaltactical elements in the whole systems leading to the deliberate game competitive activity (GCA). Together with that there will be a substantial rise of the whole systems coherence level. This will be achieved by

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reducing the redundant degrees of freedom in isolated components of the game. Therefore relying to the main principles of synergy the competitive activity obtains the attributes of the coherent structure missing in the separate elements. Derived from the above-mentioned theoretical-methodological principles the competitive activity in basketball can be understood as the holistic system of interrelated technical-tactical components dedicated to achieve a specific goal. Such system is brought to the existence by the cooperation of the team mates in the changing situations of the game. This principle gives the significant meaning to the integrative approach of the coaching process. The analysis of the specialized literature offers us the more modest picture. The basketball research available to the author was mostly concerned with specific elements of the coaching and competitive activity and had therefore only the local meaning. Research in the field of connecting the coaching process to the systems theory is almost nonexistent. The analysis of the basketball competitive activity is concerned with the statistical characteristics of the result. Connecting such characteristics with the competitive situations is vague obviously it does not characterize the whole picture of the game. The works dedicated to the structural analysis of the game activity are represented even less. Partly it can be explained by the complexity of the problem. The excessive amount of necessary data handling and analysis require contemporary means for that task. Otherwise it is not possible to assure the required scientific objectivity. Such opportunity was given to us by the method of data mining, which allows us to solve large and complex data analysis tasks. As the result we can state that the critical analysis of the literature concerned with the subject of our research allowed us to specify more concisely the goals and tasks set in the research and to choose the necessary methodology to solve them.

2. METHODS AND RESULTS

METHODS Revealing the structure of the game and defining the intensity of the game activity made it possible to objectively evaluate the efficiency of the players and the team. For the evaluation of the intensity of the team offence a special formula for that purpose was developed. The tactical-technical preparation of the subject team was led by the principles of the integrated approach designed by the disputant. During the research the competitive activity of the teams with different levels were observed to get further confirmation to the author's theoretical-methodological standpoints. The subjects of the research were the basketball team TPÜ/Kiili playing in the first division of Estonian Championships (subject team) and it's opponents (control teams), the four best teams playing in the Euroleague 2002/2003: Moscow CSKA, BC Barcelona, Treviso Benneton, Siena Montepaschi; the winner of the Baltic League Lietuvos Rytas, second place holder Kaunas Zalgiris and BC Ventspils who finished the main season in the third place. The data of TPÜ/Kiili team and it's opponents was gathered from the 1197 possessions (600 subject team +597 control team) of the 8 games played during the 2004/2005 main season of the Estonian first league. The games were chosen against different opponents. That enabled to evaluate more objectively the efficiency of the offence models, the designed integrative preparation methodology and the ability to adapt to the changing game conditions of the subject team.

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While studying the video of the subject team's 600 possessions there was fixed 4294 technical/tactical elements which contained 1288 dribbles, 1802 passes, 102 screen on, 505 screen offs, 302 jump shots, 158 close shots, 144 lay-ups. The intensity index designed by the author is calculated using the following formula: Iindex = (P + D + Scr on + Scr off + S)/t, where: P ­ pass; D ­ dribble; "Scr on" ­ screen on; "Scr off" ­ screen off; S ­ shot; t ­ possession time in the offensive zone (s) (Bazanov 2004). The offensive efficiency coefficient (OEC) was calculated by the equation of D. Oliver (2004) OEC = points/possessions. In the same manner with efficiency the teams level of ball handling was calculated dividing the number of turnovers by the number of possessions (Oliver 2004).

DATA ANALYSIS Descriptive statistics To find out any significant differences between the successful (2­4 points) and non-successful (1 point) offences the data was statistically analysed. For the gathered data (the sum of technical-tactical elements in the offensive zone, time of the ball possession in the offensive zone, "intensity index") the mean, standard error, standard deviation, median, minimum, maximum and the differences of the means (F-test, T-test) at the significance level of p<0,05. The offences were grouped by the result to successful (2­4 points) (N = 291) and non-successful (1 point) (N = 309) offences.

Data mining Data mining process was carried out using the special software WizWhy. The programme summarizes the data and lists the rules that relate between the dependent variable and the other fields. The rules are formulated as "if-then" and "if-then not" sentences. It uses the method, which calculates the best segmentations of the continuous fields and shows the association between variable needing the analysis and each data segment discovered. These automatically generated sentences make up the models (WizSoft 2002). Example: if the possession time in the offensive zone is between 0,80­3,60 seconds (average = 2,11) and the intensity index is between 0,96­1,82 (average = 1,23), then the score is more than 0 in 74% of cases. The programme also shows the numbers of the cases which go along with the rule and which do not. This can be used for finding the video cuts for the coaching purposes. The models are kept in the computer and the results of the data mining can be presented either to the coaches or players both in text and graphical form. The results of the analysis are presented in the report which contains the overall number of the possessions, the offensive efficiency coefficient (OEC) and its frequency, trend and the "if-then-rule" report. The "trends" are the rules with the single condition and therefore summarize the data. If-then rules represent sufficient conditions (the "if" condition is a sufficient condition for the result). The rules are formulated as "if­then" sentences. The main factors influencing the intensity of teamwork activity was found using the prediction power of each field calculated by the program WizWhy (WizSoft 2002).

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Workflow of the pedagogical experiment The working order did foresee three training sessions and one competition game during a week. It is worth mentioning that control teams had some experience advantage over the subject team. Namely the regalement of the Estonian Championship first league allows during the main season to use the players of the same club who play in the Champions league. Several clubs used that advantage. So the opponents of the subject team were quite trained and experienced. The only difference between the subject and control teams was in the coaching methodology. The main content of the training process of the subject team were the integrative exercises. The main scheme of the methodology was the following. The coach put up the tactical tasks for the team. The solutions had to be found (subject to the given restrictions by the coach) by the players themselves. The solution's correctness was analysed after the end of the episode or in the end of the training session in the joint discussion of the coach and the players. Conclusions derived from that discussions formed usually the content of the next training session. Control teams were independent in their coaching process and trained, as it had become the custom during the years.

MAIN RESULTS In general, the goal, the hypothesis and the tasks form the profile of the given research. It can be added that the empirical part of the research (analysis of the efficiency of the offensive activity, comparisons of the results between the subject and control teams) confirmed the practical usability of some theoreticalmethodological standpoints. Conducting the described experiment allowed to work out the significantly updated integrative technical-tactical preparation methodology as the direct pedagogical output. That new methodology has also the valuable educational dimension. There is a reason to assume that such a constitution of the training game allows to substantially raise the self-regulation ability of the player. In such kind of training we do not hear the coaches commands "Do that! Run there!" etc. Instead the coach creates in the coaching process deliberately certain game situations, to which the players have to adapt and make the right decisions to solve them. Was the choice right or wrong will be analysed after the game or the situation in the joint discussion. Such an approach to the coaching process allowed to observe the behaviour of the sportsmen in the dynamic conditions which correspond to real competitive situations. The only difference is that during the competition you face the opponent not the coach. This shows how relevant is that the coach could approximate the training situation step by step to the real competition. In the framework of the complex system the order, innovation and development can emerge in the natural way of self-organisation (Haken 2000; Knjazeva 2000; Pinn 1988; Prigogine 1991; Torrents & Balagué 2006). For the coach it means more trust in players and avoiding the direct influencing of the individual player in the concrete playing situation while directing the competition game. The results of the pedagogical experiment led in the framework of the research confirmed these principles.

Methodology of integrative technical-tactical preparation in basketball By integrative preparation we understand the organized learning-training process to obtain specialized knowledge, abilities and skills. From here goes the road to the mastery of the game and achievement of high sports results. The integrative preparation holds the central part and meaning among the other coaching ways. Learning the solutions of tactical tasks has to be integrative as well. One of the main goals of the competitive activity is the ability to select and use the right technical elements ensuring the solution of the game situation. At the same time the requirements to the precision, strength, speed, stability and efficiency of the performance must be gradually raised.

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The definition of tactics is tightly connected to the competitive activity ie the sportsman's activity in the competitive situations. That reflects the organisational aspect of the game as well. In sport games the sportsmen participate in teams. Inside its own team the ruling relations have to be helpful while between the opposing teams the relations are resistive. Integrative preparation is complex in its nature and has the task to tie all the movement components into the holistic system resulting in the adaptive action of the players. Conventionally the game activity proceeds in the central zone of the scheme (dynamic balance) (Figure 1)

GAME ENVIRONMENT

OFFENSIVE Goal: to increase the scoring of the offensive activity

OFFENSIVE MODELS

STABILE

GCA DYNAMIC BALANCE

CHAOTIC

ADAPTIVE MECHANISM: GCA INTEGRATIVE COACHING Goal: adaptation to the resistive activity

DEFENCE Goal: to increase the scoring of the defensive activity

DEFENSIVE MODELS

Figure 1. Integrative coaching as the way for the adaptation to the game environment

The main driving force in the technical-tactical development of the basketball is the contradiction of the offensive and defensive activity. The more stable periods of game alter with instable periods. The scoring attacks alter with non-scoring. One of the main reasons for that is the resistance. Therefore in the opinion of the author the main goal of the integrative coaching is to develop in the players the ability to quickly adapt to the changing conditions, the skills to make the right decisions and use the appropriate activity leading to the efficient solution and high coherence between the activity of the team members. The coaching process foresaw three training sessions and one competition game in a week. The basis for the integrative preparation were the action models derived from the analysis of GCA. Therefore ensuring the feedback formed the inseparable part of the coaching process. The main practical means of the integrative preparation were the exercises worked out on the basis of the analysis of GCA. According to our concept the activity of the team was influenced by the external factors of the system. The duration of the ball possession was chosen as the main influencing factor. The main coaching session was divided into four parts of team exercises with the duration of 10­12 minutes each. In the first part fast breaks without defence were imitated. The restrictions were set by the limit of time and the number of elements in the offence zone. From the analysis of the GCA the coaching model of the effective fast break. The scoring fast break consisted of up to three elements within the five seconds. In the choice of the elements the players could use their free will.

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The model of the positional offence foresaw the stages of transition from the defence zone to the offence zone. The duration of the transition phase was 5 seconds and the activity in the offence zone was 10 seconds provided that the main elements of the offence were performed. For example in the positional offence four screen offs were obligatory as the screen offs, next to the duration of the ball possession, were the important factor of raising the offence intensity.

The analysis of offence models' efficiency of the subject team The analysis results showed that the offence efficiency coefficient (OEC= points/possessions) as the main indicator of the analyzed offences was equal to 1,13 (± 0,09) with the frequency of 48%. The designed analysis system allowed to evaluate the efficiency of different offensive models. It showed that the fast break was the most efficient (66%). The efficiency of the early offence was just the average of the team. The set offence had the efficiency rate of 44%. The analysis was conducted to find out how the beginning of the offence influences the efficiency. It was highest after the steal (59%) or getting the ball from the defensive rebound (51%). In the situations where the offence started with the inbound in the defence zone the offence efficiency (43%) was approximately the same as the average efficiency (44%) of all set offences. This information enabled us to evaluate the different offence options separately. In Figure 2 we see the relationship between the intensity index and the efficiency of the offences of our subject team. The efficiency of high intensity (Iindex >1,17) offences was 67%. Most of the offences had intensity index between 0,59­1,17 and they had the efficiency, which corresponded to the average of the team. The offences, which had the lowest intensity values between 0,12­0,43 had the lowest efficiency of 33% only.

80 70 60 efficiency % 50 40 30 20 10 0 0,12 - 0,43 0,44 - 0,58

index

0,59 - 1,17

1,18 - 1,82

Figure 2. Relationship between the intensity index and the efficiency of the offences

The number and the type of screens reflect the movement of the team. Analysis showed that the cooperation using two screen offs had the efficiency rate of 42% while it was 56% with one and 50% with four screen offs used in the flow of the offence. (Figure 3) In the situations where the team was using Screen on the efficiency fell (Figure 4). Such information points to the strengths and weaknesses in the performance of the subject team. In the given situation the players of the team had to cooperate more using 1, 3­4 screen offs. The activities needed amendment in the situations where they used screen on or two screen offs.

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60 50 efficiency % 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 screens 3 4

Figure 3. Relationship between the number of Screen offs and the efficiency of the offences

50 48 efficiency % 46 44 42 40 0 1 screens <The others>

Figure 4. Relationship between the number of Screen on and the efficiency of the offences

The systematic structure of the GCA The research allowed to work out the fundamentals of GCA technical-tactical aspect. This analysis system consists of video recording the game, presenting the flow of the game in a formalized data table and the computerized analysis of the game. The GCA system like the analogous one (Bhandari et al. 1997), allows the wholesome approach to the analysis. Based on the information received the coach can avoid mistakes in changing the players in the field, correct the strategy for the next games taking into the account the teams efficiency playing against the different defence formations, find out more favourable game activity timings, control the speed of the game, and to receive other interesting findings for constructing new models to conduct coaching process more on more purpose. It also allows to make better choices while compiling the new team before the start of the season. The latter has an utmost practical importance. The standpoint that the data mining helps to analyse the huge amount of data and to find the best formation of the team B. Francett (1997), C. HudginsBonafield (1997), has found confirmation by the author. Such an analysis system helps along improving the quality of the game.

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The intensity of team activity as the scoring efficiency factor in basketball To find out any significant differences between the scoring (2­4 points) (N=291) and non-scoring (1 points) (N=309) offences F-test and T-test was made. The statistics of analyzed data is in the following table.

Table. The statistics of the scoring (2­4 points) and non-scoring (1 points) offences

time 10,13 5,85 9,54 0,84 36,04

time 0,45178 **0,00508

mean st. deviation median minimum maximum

Non-scoring elements 7,52 4,41 7 1 26

elements 0,84983 *0,03261

index 0,78 0,23 0,76 0,13 1,52

index **0,00637 **0,00035

time 8,75 6,11 7,54 0,80 33,52

Scoring elements 6,76 4,36 6 1 25

index 0,86 0,27 0,82 0,12 1,82

F-test T-test

Statistically significant difference * p<0.05 ** p<0.01

Total number of offences N=600; from them scoring N=291 and non-scoring N=309. From the results it came out that the mean of intensity index (0,86 ± 0,03) of scoring offences is statistically significantly (p<0.001) higher than the mean of intensity index (0,78 ± 0,02) of non-scoring offences (Bazanov et al 2005). These results allowed to find the main factor of teamwork offence efficiency ­ the intensity of the cooperation between the players.

The factors influencing the offensive teamwork intensity in basketball The analysis system allowed to find out the teamwork intensity of different offence models of the subject team. The results of the analysis showed that the subject team's average intensity index of offence was 0,82 (± 0,02). The research showed that main factor influencing the intensity index was the ball possession time in the offence zone (prediction power 67), the ball possession time in whole (prediction power 59), and screen offs (prediction power 39) (Bazanov et al. 2006). These results allow us to influence the team's cooperation intensity in the training situation using these parameters. Based on the results of the research the ball possession time in the offence zone proved to be the main external factor and screen offs the internal factor.

Rating the efficiency of the designed coaching methodology by the results of the subject team The offence efficiency coefficient OEC is considered to be one of the main indicators in basketball. Usually the average OEC is equal to 1,0 (Oliver 2004). Therefore the target of offence is to achieve OEC higher than 1,0 and the target of defence is to keep opponent's OEC below 1,0. Thus the efficiency of the subject team's offence (1,13 ± 0,09) can be estimated as high.

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The intensity of the team activity is one of the factors affecting the efficiency. So the intensity index of the subject team and of the control group was compared. The mean of the subject team's intensity index 0,82 (± 0,02) was significantly higher than the mean of the control group (0,68 ± 0,02). These results show that different offensive models were used in the competition conditions. It can be assumed that the differences in models are due to the differences in the coaching methods. Besides to the efficiency of the offence activity avoidance of turnovers is almost as important from the viewpoint of the final score. Especially important it is for the teams on the inferior level eg youth teams. Even on the higher levels of the basketball it is hard to underestimate that component. Therefore the corresponding coefficient of the subject team and the control group was compared. In the similar way of determining the offence efficiency the teams level of ball handling is calculated dividing the number of turnovers by the number of possessions. From the results it occurred that in comparison to the control group (0,21 ± 0,03) the subject team had a better indicator (0,16 ± 0,03) here as well. The results of the comparative analysis and the second place achieved in the main season of the Estonian first league confirmed the effectiveness of the integrative coaching which was set as the hypothesis of the research. Another hypothesis stating that the team offensive activity with higher intensity is more efficient than with lower intensity was also confirmed.

3. THE PRACTICAL OUTPUT AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH

The conducted research provides the scientifically grounded recommendations for the practical coaching which allow: - to use quantified indicators (time, the number of passes, screens etc) to optimize the technical-tactical activities in the coaching process; - to take into account the goals emerging from the tactical situations while polishing the technical skills; - to store the objective information about the activities of the opponents; - to simulate the competition situations in the training game using the models worked out in the computer; - to evaluate the individual stake of the players to the teamwork efficiency; - to determine the optimal composition of the team and identify the other important factors from the standpoint of the competitive activity. As basketball is carrying in itself the main characteristics of the open complex system we inevitably have to accept it that in the real competitive situation it is not possible to foresee all the forthcoming situations. How these situations arise? Are these situations controllable and solvable? Such questions, although very meaningful, were not the goal of the present research. That is the topic for the future. Is this coaching methodology effective when applied to the teams of the different level? In the future the research could be extended to the other team sports games. Are the patterns found in this research universal and can they be applied to the coaching process of the other team games? Will the hypothesis presented here be confirmed in other games? These are only few of the questions waiting to be answered in the future.

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TEHNIKA JA TAKTIKA INTEGRATIIVNE KÄSITLUS KORVPALLI ÕPI-TREENINGPROTSESSIS

Kokkuvõte Uurimuse tulemused aitavad treeneritel modelleerida võistkondlikku tegevust, mõjutades tegevuse intensiivsust pallivaldamise ajaliste parameetrite muutmisega treeningtingimustes. Koos sellega muutub eriti oluliseks ründetegevuse mudelite (kiirrünnak, positsiooniline rünnak) lähendamine tegelikele võistlustingimustele ja võistlustegevusest saadava objektiivse tagasiside pidev kasutamine. Uurimismetoodika võimaldas määrata ründemängu struktuuri kuuluvate elementide arvnäitajaid, koosseisu, tegevuse kestust ja intensiivsust ning selle alusel konkretiseerida kaasaegsele ründetegevusele esitatud nõuded. Tehnilis-taktikalise tegevuse integratiivmudeli töötasime välja Tallinna Ülikooli korvpallivõistkonna ja mängijate võistlustegevuse analüüsi alusel. Selle ülesande täitmiseks lõime korvpalli võistlustegevuse analüüsisüsteemi. Võistlustegevuse analüüsisüsteem võimaldas määrata tegevuse soodsamad ajalised lõigud, leida ründemängus kasutatavate liikumiste seast efektiivsemad ja hinnata mängijate panust lähtuvalt võistkondlikust tulemusest. Strateegilisel tasandil saab treener taolise informatsiooni alusel tulevasteks mängudeks valmistudes korrigeerida võistkonna tegevust. Uurimuse käigus selgitati välja ka võistkondliku ründetegevuse intensiivsust mõjutavad peamised faktorid. Võistkondlik efektiivsus suureneb kõrgema intensiivsusega kiirja positsioonilise rünnaku arvel. Kokkuvõtvalt võib eeldada, et doktoritöös väljatöötatud õpi-treeningprotsessi metoodika aitab treeneritel täiustada võistkonna ettevalmistuse protsessi ja saavutada võistlustel paremaid tulemusi.

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REFERENCES

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