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CITY OF TORONTO WORKS AND EMERGENCY SERVICES TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION TORONTO DISTRICT

PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION AND INFILTRATION TESTING GEOTECHNICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION

Ardwold Gate

From Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate

January 2008

Project: FE-P3679

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400 Esna Park Drive, Unit 15 Markham, Ontario L3R 3K2 Tel: (905) 475-7755 Fax:(905)475-7718

Ardwold Gate from Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 3 1. 2. 3. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 5 SCOPE OF WORK ............................................................................................................. 5 FIELD INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY AND SITE CHARACTERISTICS ......................... 6 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. SITE P REPARATION........................................................................................................ 6 SITE DESCRIPTION......................................................................................................... 7 BOREHOLES AND SOIL SAMPLING ................................................................................... 7 REGIONAL G EOLOGICAL SETTING ................................................................................... 8 Boreholes - Special Conditions ............................................................................. 9 Degree of Compactness ....................................................................................... 9 Groundwater........................................................................................................11

3.4.1. 3.4.2. 3.4.3. 3.5. 4.

INFILTRATION TEST .......................................................................................................11

LABORATORY PROGRAM AND ANALYTICAL FINDINGS ............................................14 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. SELECTION OF A NALYTICAL S AMPLES AND PARAMETERS ................................................14 GENERAL .....................................................................................................................14 DATA E VALUATION........................................................................................................14 Guidelines/Normal Levels ....................................................................................14 Metals..................................................................................................................16 Petroleum Hydrocarbons PHC(F4) ......................................................................16 Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) ........................16 Excess Materials Classification ............................................................................16

4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. 4.3.4. 4.3.5. 5.

PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION .........................................................................................17 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. COMPOSITE P AVEMENT DESIGN FOR LOCAL ROAD .........................................................17 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION FOR G RANULAR ROAD SUB -BASE ...........................................18 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION FOR CONCRETE ROAD BASE .........................................19 Materials ..............................................................................................................19 Construction ........................................................................................................20 Concrete Testing .................................................................................................22

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5.4.

CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS FOR HOT MIXED, HOT LAID A SPHALTIC CONCRETE

PAVING...................................................................................................................................22 5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.5. 6. 7. Composition and Properties of Hot Mix Types .....................................................22 Testing Requirements for Hot Mix, Hot Laid Asphaltic Concrete ..........................23

PAVEMENT CORING AND CUTTING FOR TESTING.............................................................24

GENERAL COMMENTS ....................................................................................................25 LIMITATIONS ....................................................................................................................26

APPENDIX A ­ SITE PLANS .................................................................................................... A APPENDIX B ­ BOREHOLE LOGS ..........................................................................................B APPENDIX D ­ HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY MODELING ..................................................... C APPENDIX D ­ CHEMICAL ANALYSIS....................................................................................D

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Fisher Environmental Limited (Fisher) was commissioned by the City of Toronto to carry out a Pavement Construction and Soil Infiltration Testing Geo-environmental Investigation on Ardwold Gate from Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a pavement structure evaluation, to determine the soil and groundwater conditions, to provide geo-environmental recommendations for the proposed Pavement Construction, and to evaluate the suitability of utilizing an exfiltration system in the management of storm water runoff. The pavement and subsurface soil investigation was carried out on January 8, 2008. Three (3) boreholes were advanced within the investigated road allowance and road island of Ardwold Gate. The existing pavement structure evaluation and recommendations for the proposed Pavement Construction were based on the Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications (OPSS), Construction, (OPSS), Materials, Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO), Laboratory Testing Manual (Tests) and the City of Toronto Specifications. Two (2) soil samples collected from each of the boreholes drilled within the above noted street were submitted to the laboratory to investigate the presence of hazardous materials in the subsoil, the degree of contamination, and to provide recommendations for off-site disposal. Laboratory chemical analyses were performed as per applicable Ministry of Environment "Soil, Ground Water and Sediment Standards for Use Under Part XV.1 of the Environmental Protection Act", March 2004. The results of chemical analyses conducted on the sub-soils indicated that all of the parameters analyzed were within the applicable MOE Standards for Industrial/Commercial/Community property use. For disposal purposes it would be expected that any surplus soils generated through the pavement and storm water exfiltration system construction works should be suitable for disposal at sites accepting Table 3, Industrial / Commercial / Community "Clean Fill". It was noted through the course of the drilling works that the pavement structure along Ardwold Gate consisted of approximately 50 mm to 76 mm of surface course asphalt over 178 mm of concrete. Thickness of encountered pavement, as noted through the borehole works, is presented in the log of boreholes. General site geology along the investigated portion of Ardwold Gate was mapped as Young tills: sandy silt till. The drilling investigation on Ardwold Gate from Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate revealed that the native subsurface soils were generally

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comprised of light brown to grey silty sand with some fine gravel to sandy silt till, moist to wet from 2.85 m to 3.30 m, underlain by brown to grey sand with seams of silt, moist to wet from 3.00 m to the completion of the boreholes at 6.45 m. 2" PVC pipe observation wells were installed at the completion of boreholes BH1, BH2 and BH3 for infiltration test purposes. The wells were screened from 4.30 m to 5.80 m below grade. Static groundwater levels were measured on January 10, 2008, and were noted at 5.34 m, 2.81 m and 2.15 m below grade, respectively, in the observation wells installed in boreholes BH1, BH2 and BH3. Considering the calculated and software modeled infiltration rate values, it may be concluded that the infiltration rate at BH1, BH2 and BH3 locations, between 4.3 m to 5.8 m below grade, ranges from 8.15 x10-5 cm/sec to 2.3 x10 -4 cm/sec. Based on a minimum percolation design criteria of 4.17 x 10 -4 cm/sec as recommended by the Ontario MOE Stormwater Management Planning and Design Manual 2003 for pervious pipes and catch basins, it would be expected that the subject site would not be a fair candidate for the implementation of standard ex-filtration measures. However, these values indicate that implementation of a stormwater management system is supported by a draft City of Toronto criterion recommending the use of ex-filtration pipes and catch basins in soils with infiltration rates greater than 7 x 10 -5 cm/sec. Recommendations for the Pavement Construction have also been detailed in the body of this report.

Respectfully submitted,

David Fisher, P. Eng., C. Chem. Principal

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1. INTRODUCTION

Fisher Environmental Limited (Fisher) was commissioned by the City of Toronto to carry out a Pavement Construction and Soil Infiltration Testing Geo-environmental Investigation on Ardwold Gate from Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate.

2. SCOPE OF WORK

Mr. Mauricio Barbon, P. Eng., Manager, Design and Construction ­ Toronto District, on behalf of the City of Toronto, authorized the work for this investigation. The purpose and scope of this investigation were as follows:

1. To measure the thickness of the existing asphalt, concrete and/or granular road sub-base at three (3) boreholes locations. 2. To reveal and identify the subsurface soil and groundwater conditions to a depth of approximately 7.0 metres below the existing ground surface at three (3) boreholes locations as shown on the site plan attached in Appendix A. 3. To provide pavement construction recommendations based on the field and laboratory data collected from a geotechnical engineering standpoint. 4. To analyze two (2) soil samples from each of the three (3) boreholes for the selected parameters listed in the MOE "Soil, Ground Water and Sediment Standards for Use Under Part XV.1 of the Environmental Protection Act", March 2004. 5. To conduct one (1) Infiltration Test on the subsoils in each of the boreholes in order to evaluate the suitability of utilizing an exfiltration system in the management of storm water runoff at the time of pavement construction. This report is provided on the basis of the terms of reference presented above and on the assumption that the design will be in accordance with current applicable codes and standards.

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3.

FIELD

INVESTIGATION

METHODOLOGY

AND

SITE

CHARACTERISTICS

The pavement and subsurface soil investigation was carried out on January 8, 2008. Three (3) boreholes were advanced within the investigated road allowance and road island of Ardwold Gate. The Infiltration Tests were conducted on January 11, 2008, after a 24 hours soaking period. The field work was conducted by Fisher Environmental Ltd. environmental and geotechnical consultants whom directed drilling, measurements and sampling operations and assured proper chain-of-custody procedures for the recovered subsurface soil samples. Fisher Environmental Ltd. performed the site drilling and testing operations.

3.1.

Site Preparation

Site preparation included the following:

Location of underground services by referring to the respective utilities: Hydro

One, Toronto Hydro, Enbridge Gas, BELL Canada, AT&T, Telus, and Public Works to avoid potential disruptions to the utilities during the drilling. Soil drilling was scheduled following receipt of clearance from all utilities for the given borehole locations.

Obtained Street Occupation and Street Cut Permits for carrying out the work. No restrictions resulting from interference with underground utilities were

encountered on the pre-designed boreholes placement. Boreholes locations are depicted on the attached Site Plan in Appendix A.

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3.2.

Site Description

The site to be investigated was Ardwold Gate from Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate. Boreholes / observation wells locations descriptions are provided in Table 3-1. Table 3-1: BOREHOLES LOCATIONS

Borehole

Borehole Location Description

Ardwold Gate

Within the road allowance of Ardwold Gate, in front of # 15, 3ft. from BH 1 South Curb Line, 23ft west of Black Light Pole with NO Parking sign.

Within the road allowance of Ardwold Gate, in front of # 75, 3ft from BH 2 East Curb Line, 10ft north of Tree Sapling in front yard (south edge of driveway).

Within the eastern half of road island of Ardwold Gate, in front of #72 & BH 3 #74, 22ft South of South Curb Line of Ardwold Gate, in line with white bark tree.

3.3.

Boreholes and Soil Sampling

The pavement and subsurface soil investigation was carried out on January 8, 2008. Three (3) boreholes were advanced within the investigated road allowance and road island of Ardwold Gate. The completion depths of the boreholes are shown on the borehole logs in Appendix B.

The drilling for the boreholes was carried out using a Diedrich 50 gasoline-powered drilling rig equipped with a 50 mm diameter split-spoon sampler driven 300 mm into

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subsoil by a 65 kg hammer, falling 760 mm, and solid stem continuous flight augers. No external water was used to advance the boreholes.

The drilling rig was owned and operated by Fisher Environmental Ltd. All drilling was carried out under the supervision of our field engineer. The existing pavement structure evaluation and recommendations for the proposed pavement construction were based on the Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications (OPSS), Construction, (OPSS), Materials, Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO), Laboratory Testing Manual (Tests) and the City of Toronto Specifications. Soil samples were obtained by means of the Standard Penetration Test in conformance with ASTM standards. The samples were visually classified and logged in the field, and returned to our laboratory. Soil types are presented in the appended Logs of Boreholes in Appendix B. The soil samples were immediately placed in clean sealable glass jars for the purpose of later analyses. The samples for chemical testing were kept cool and were transferred by the end of the day to the analytical laboratory. The results of chemical analysis are presented in Appendix D. Soil samples remaining after laboratory testing and examination will be stored for a period of 60 days from the date of issue of this report and then discarded unless we are otherwise notified in writing. Groundwater static level observations were made in the open boreholes during and at the completion of the drilling works.

3.4.

Regional Geological Setting

General site geology along the investigated portion of Ardwold Gate was mapped as Young tills: sandy silt till.

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The drilling investigation on Ardwold Gate from Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate revealed that the native subsurface soils were generally comprised of light brown to grey silty sand with some fine gravel to sandy silt till, moist to wet from 2.85 m to 3.30 m, underlain by brown to grey sand with seams of silt, moist to wet from 3.00 m to the completion of the boreholes at 6.45 m. 2" PVC pipe observation wells were installed at the completion of boreholes BH1, BH2 and BH3 for infiltration test purposes. The wells were screened from 4.30 m to 5.80 m below grade. Static groundwater levels were measured on January 10, 2008, and were noted at 5.34 m, 2.81 m and 2.15 m below grade, respectively, in the observation wells installed in boreholes BH1, BH2 and BH3.

3.4.1. Boreholes - Special Conditions

During the on-site soil sampling no hydrocarbon odors or deleterious fill materials were noted in any of the recovered soil samples.

3.4.2. Degree of Compactness

Based on the Standard Penetration Resistance N values the compactness of the soils on Ardwold Gate as measured on January 8, 2008, is presented in Table 3-2. TABLE 3-2: STANDARD PENETRATION RESISTANCE

Borehole #

Depth

`N' Value 0.3m

Relative Density

Type of Soil

Ardwold Gate BH 1 0.20 m ­ 0.75 m 0.75 m­ 1.35 m 1.50 m ­ 2.10 m 2 7 13 Very Loose Loose Compact Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive

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Borehole #

Depth

`N' Value 0.3m

Relative Density

Type of Soil

2.25 m ­ 2.85 m 3.00 m ­ 3.60 m 4.50 m ­ 5.10 m 6.00 m ­ 6.45 m BH 2 0.20 m ­ 0.75 m 0.75 m­ 1.35 m 1.50 m ­ 2.10 m 2.25 m ­ 2.85 m 3.00 m ­ 3.60 m 4.50 m ­ 5.10 m 6.00 m ­ 6.45 m BH 3 0.20 m ­ 0.75 m 0.75 m­ 1.35 m 1.50 m ­ 2.10 m 2.25 m ­ 2.85 m 3.00 m ­ 3.60 m 4.50 m ­ 5.10 m 6.00 m ­ 6.45 m

47 >50 >50 >50 4 15 29 25 32 >50 36 31 10 10 25 32 24 30

Dense Very Dense Very Dense Very Dense Very Loose Compact Compact Compact Dense Very Dense Dense Dense Compact Compact Compact Dense Compact Dense

Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive Non-cohesive

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3.4.3. Groundwater

Static groundwater levels were measured on January 10, 2008, and were noted at 5.34 m, 2.81 m and 2.15 m below grade, respectively, in the observation wells installed in boreholes BH1, BH2 and BH3.

3.5.

Infiltration Test

Fisher Environmental Ltd. conducted site investigations within Ardwold Gate for the purpose of evaluating the suitability of utilizing an ex-filtration system in the management of storm water runoff. The drilling investigation on Ardwold Gate revealed that the native subsurface soils were generally comprised of light brown to grey silty sand with some fine gravel to sandy silt till, moist to wet from 2.85 m to 3.30 m, underlain by brown to grey sand with seams of silt, moist to wet from 3.00 m to the completion of the boreholes at 6.45 m. 2" PVC pipe observation wells were installed at the completion of boreholes BH1, BH2 and BH3 for infiltration test purposes. The wells were screened from 4.30 m to 5.80 m below grade. Based on a field examination of the soils encountered at BH1, BH2 and BH3 locations between the depths of 3.00 m ­ 6.45 m, estimations of the coefficient of permeability for these soils would be in the range of 10 -3 to 10-5 cm/sec, with an estimated percolation time of 8-20 min/cm. Infiltration tests were initiated in BH1, BH2 and BH3 after a one day soaking period. The falling-head tests were conducted on January 11, 2008 and included installation of observation wells constructed of 2" ID PVC pipe equipped with 2" screens perforated from 4.3 m to 5.8 m below grade. The wells were filled with potable water to 1.39 m below top of the pipe in BH1, 2.75 m in BH2 and 2.09 m in BH3 m, and the monitoring of groundwater levels was conducted at one minute, two minutes, five minutes, ten minutes and thirty minutes intervals for a period of up to 90 minutes. Hydraulic conductivity was calculated using the Variable Head Test formula:

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K = R²x ln(L/R) x ln(h1/h2) / 2L(t2 ­ t1) for L/R>8, where: R = casing radius L = length of screen h1 = distance from water level inside casing at time t1 to static water level h2 = distance from water level inside casing at time t2 to static water level Considering the above formula, the following values of the hydraulic conductivity were calculated in the three observation wells:

K 1 = R²x ln(L/R) x ln(h 1/h2) / 2L(t2 ­ t1) = 0.03²x ln(1.5/0.03) x ln(3.92/1.22) / 2x1.5x33x60 = 9 x 10-4 x 3.91 x 1.167 / 5940 = 6.93 x 10-5 cm/s.

K 2 = R²x ln(L/R) x ln(h 1/h2) / 2L(t2 ­ t1) = 0.03²x ln(1.5/0.03) x ln(2.61/1.65) / 2x1.5x32x60 = 9 x 10-4 x 3.91 x 0.458 / 5760 = 2.8 x 10-5 cm/s.

K 3 = R²x ln(L/R) x ln(h 1/h2) / 2L(t2 ­ t1) = 0.03²x ln(1.5/0.03) x ln(1.99/0.63) / 2x1.5x54x60 = 9 x 10-4 x 3.91 x 1.15 / 9720 = 4.16 x 10 -5 cm/s. The software modeling of the Falling-head Test conducted at BH1, BH2 and BH3 locations, using Hvorslev as well as Bouwer & Rice methods, indicated values of the hydraulic conductivity K of: K 1 = 5.04 x10-5 cm/sec (Hvorslev); K 2 = 2.45 x10-5 cm/sec (Hvorslev); K 3 = 4.13 x10 -5 cm/sec (Hvorslev). Please refer to Appendix C for hydraulic conductivity modeling. Considering the porosity of the compact to very dense sand to silty sand till deposits n = 30%, and the horizontal hydraulic gradient i = 1, the velocity (infiltration rate) of water in sub-soils, V, at BH1, BH2 and BH3 locations, are presented in Table 3-5 below:

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Table 3-5: Infiltration Rate at BH1, BH2 and BH3 locations Borehole Infiltration Rate (V) using Variable Head Test formula, (cm/sec) 1.68 x10-4 8.15 x10-5 1.37 x10-4 Infiltration Rate (V) using Falling-head Test modeling software (Hvorslev) , (cm/sec) 2.3 x10 -4 9.32 x10 -5 1.38 x10 -4 Test interval, (m bgs)

MW1 MW2 MW3

4.30 m ­ 5.80 m 4.30 m ­ 5.80 m 4.30 m ­ 5.80 m

Considering the calculated and software modeled infiltration rate values, it may be concluded that the infiltration rate at BH1, BH2 and BH3 locations, between 4.3 m to 5.8 m below grade, ranges from 8.15 x10 -5 cm/sec to 2.3 x10 -4 cm/sec. Based on a minimum percolation design criteria of 4.17 x 10-4 cm/sec as recommended by the Ontario MOE Stormwater Management Planning and Design Manual 2003 for pervious pipes and catch basins, it would be expected that the subject site would not be a fair candidate for the implementation of standard ex-filtration measures. However, these values indicate that implementation of a stormwater management system would be supported by a draft City of Toronto criterion recommending the use of ex-filtration pipes and catch basins in soils with infiltration rates greater than 7 x 10-5 cm/sec. Utilization of a storm water ex-filtration system should be carefully implemented after addressing other potential concerns like: proximity to sensitive structural foundations due to potential support erosion and water infiltration, and potential contamination of soil and groundwater associated with accidental hazardous or toxic liquid spills, construction materials or waste.

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4. 4.1.

LABORATORY PROGRAM AND ANALYTICAL FINDINGS Selection of Analytical Samples and Parameters

In order to provide guidance regarding disposal of surplus excavated materials, a soil analysis and classification program was conducted. Selection of samples for environmental analysis was based on the specifications presented in the Contract and was projected to assess potential contamination of the materials encountered in accordance with MOE "Soil, Ground Water and Sediment Standards for Use Under Part XV.1 of the Environmental Protection Act", March 2004. Six (6) soil samples were submitted to the lab for chemical analysis of a suite of parameters, commonly referred to as the Decommissioning Criteria. The chemical analysis certificate is attached in Appendix D.

4.2.

General

Fisher Environmental Laboratories performed laboratory chemical analysis of the submitted soil samples. As a CAEAL - registered analytical facility (Canadian Association of Environmental Analytical Laboratories), QA/QC (Quality

Assurance/Quality Control) procedures were maintained consistent with CAEAL requirements and standard laboratory practices. The laboratory ensured that analytical sub-samples were, by appearance, representative of the whole sample as collected in the field.

4.3.

Data Evaluation

4.3.1. Guidelines/Normal Levels

The MOE "Soil, Ground Water and Sediment Standards for Use Under Part XV.1 of the Environmental Protection Act", March 2004, presents soil quality guidelines that have been developed with regard to toxicological data. They are levels at and below which no environmental or safety concerns or adverse conditions are anticipated environments or persons with average sensitivity. for

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For the subject borehole locations, the appropriate criteria were identified as the Table 3 Standards, Industrial/Commercial/Community Property Use criteria for a non-potable groundwater condition and coarse textured soils. Six (6) soil samples were submitted to the laboratory for MOE Decommissioning Criteria and PHC(F4) Parameters analysis. Copies of the Laboratory Certificate of Analysis are provided in Appendix D. The results of chemical analyses are summarized in Table 4-1. Table 4-1: RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES

MOE Standards Borehole Sample Depth Sample ID Parameters Analyzed Exceedance, Table 3, Industrial / Commercial / Community

BH 1 0.70-1.30m 08-5617-1 Decommissioning PHC(F4) BH 1 2.40-3.00m 08-5617-2 Decommissioning PHC(F4) BH 2 0.20-0.60m 08-5617-3 Decommissioning PHC(F4) BH 2 1.50-2.10m 08-5617-4 Decommissioning PHC(F4) BH 3 0.70-1.30m 08-5617-5 Decommissioning PHC(F4) BH 3 2.40-3.00m 08-5617-6 Decommissioning PHC(F4) None None None None None None None None None None None None

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4.3.2. Metals

Various metallic elements can cause adverse environmental effects at relatively low concentrations. Such metals are associated with industrial activities, both historic and current, and it is common practice to include metals analysis in fill quality assessments. The results of Metals analysis revealed no exceedance of the applicable MOE Standards.

4.3.3. Petroleum Hydrocarbons PHC(F4)

Petroleum Hydrocarbons are components of gasoline and/or diesel and other petroleum products for which soil quality guidelines have been developed. These compounds are widely utilized and are often included in the evaluation of a sites' overall sub-surface condition. The results of PHC(F4) analysis revealed no exceedance of the applicable MOE Standards.

4.3.4. Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)

Guideline criteria for EC and SAR were generally developed with respect to their impact on plant growth. EC is a measure of a soils soluble salt concentration, and SAR is the ratio of sodium content to the content of calcium plus magnesium in water. Elevated SAR levels are detrimental to plant growth as they can lead toward a sealing of the pores of the soil making it impermeable to water and air flow. The results of EC and SAR analysis revealed no exceedance of the applicable MOE Standards.

4.3.5. Excess Materials Classification

The results of chemical analyses conducted on the sub-soils indicated that all of the parameters analyzed were within the applicable MOE Standards for

Industrial/Commercial/Community property use. For disposal purposes it would be

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expected that any surplus soils generated through the pavement and storm water exfiltration system construction works should be suitable for disposal at sites accepting Table 3, Industrial / Commercial / Community "Clean Fill".

5. PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION

The surface condition of the investigated portion of Ardwold Gate from Spadina Road to South End of Ardwold Gate could be described as having a moderate to poor riding quality. There were several occurrences of asphalt distresses visualized as transversal and longitudinal cracks, and occasional potholes. Additionally, numerous localized horizontal irregularly shaped and variable length cracks and/or utility cuts in t he pavement were also noted. It was noted through the course of the drilling works that the pavement structure along Ardwold Gate consisted of approximately 50 mm to 76 mm of surface course asphalt over 178 mm of concrete. Thickness of encountered pavement as noted through the borehole works is presented in Table 5-1 and in the log of boreholes. Table 5-1 PAVEMENT COMPOSITION

Borehole Location

BH 2 BH 3

Surface Course

76 mm surface asphalt 50 mm surface asphalt

Concrete Base

178 mm 178 mm

5.1.

Composite Pavement Design for Local Road

The pavement design has been determined based upon the frost susceptibility and strength characteristics of the sub-soil. The pavements should be constructed after first removing any organic topsoil material that may be present at the sub grade level. The following Table 5-2 presents the recommended composite pavement design in accordance with City of Toronto Standard T-216.02-1 for a Local Road.

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TABLE 5-2: PAVEMENT DESIGN

Material Asphalt HL1 Concrete OPSS Granular `A' / Crusher Run

Course Surface Base Sub-base

Thickness 50 mm 150 or 200mm Compacted to 100% Standard Proctor Density

Asphalt concrete should be placed and compacted to at least 97% Marshall Density, as determined through in situ nuclear testing. The sub grade soils may be frost susceptible and could lose the strength to support traffic loads if allowed to become wet due to surface water or during freezing and thawing periods. Drainage of the granular courses and sub grade is recommended. Catch basins and manholes should be backfilled with compacted OPSS Granular 'B' material. Along the curb edge, it is recommended that drainage tile, wrapped in filter fabric (Big "O") be installed to facilitate the drainage of the base granular material in wet periods.

5.2.

Material Specification for Granular Road Sub-base

19 mm Crusher Run Limestone shall meet the physical requirement for Granular `A', and shall meet the following gradation:

MTO Sieve Designation 19 mm 16 mm 13.2 mm 9.5 mm 4.75 mm 1.18 mm 300 µm

Percentage Passing by Mass 100 75-100 65-90 35-55 15-45 5-22

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MTO Sieve Designation 150 µm 75 µm Gradation Test

Percentage Passing by Mass 0-8

One test shall be performed prior to construction commencement. The contractor shall submit representative sample of material (approximately 30-50 Kg each) proposed for use in the contract with clear identification of the sources of the materials. One test shall be performed on samples taken at the point of the materials that are incorporated in the work. Additional samples should be taken at the discretion of the Project manager to confirm his judgment that segregation, degradation or contamination of the material has not occurred. On larger projects, one check sample for each 300 tonnes or fraction thereof shall be taken for testing.

5.3.

Construction Specification for Concrete Road Base

5.3.1. Materials

Concrete The materials for and the production of concrete road base shall meet the requirements of TS 13.00 and the following: Cement type Minimum 28 day cylinder compressive test strength Class of exposure Nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate Type 10 Normal Portland 32 MPa C-2 37.5 mm

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Slump at point of discharge (Formed Concrete) Total air content Maximum water/cementing materials ratio Minimum cementing materials content

80±30 mm 5.5±1.5% 0.45 335 kg/m³

Welded Steel Wire Fabric Unless otherwise specified, all welded steel wire fabric detailed on the plans or ordered by the City of Toronto for incorporation in the road base shall be 152 mm x 152 mm ­ MW 18.7 x MW 18.7 welded steel wire f abric. The construction design should include drainage tile beneath the shoulders or curbs draining to the storm sewer. The drainage tile is to be wrapped in filter fabric and buried with a minimum of 100 mm of a well graded filter (sandy Granular B).

5.3.2. Construction

Excavation All excavations shall be in accordance with TS 2.10. Excavation shall be to the lines and grades shown on the contract drawings or as specified by the City of Toronto. Care shall be taken to prevent damage to appurtenances and utilities which may be under the proposed road base. Excess excavated material shall be disposed of off the site in conformance with OPSS 180 and based on the disposal options presented in this report. Sub-grade Preparation Prior to placement of backfill or the granular sub-base, the sub grade should be prepared by scarifying and compacting to a minimum of 95% of standard Proctor density. The exposed sub grade should be proof rolled to ensure uniformity of support. Any soft or excessively wet zones that become evident during the proof rolling operation

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should be sub-excavated and replaced with acceptable fill or OPSS Granular 'B' compacted to a minimum of 95% standard Proctor density, as should any fill required to raise the grade. The top 300 mm of the sub-grade shall be compacted to a minimum of 95% of standard Proctor density. Compaction Test for Road Sub-grade and Sub-base

One test shall be performed per 500 m² of undivided roadway on alternating lanes of the street at the final sub-grade or sub-base elevation. When the sub-grade or sub-base aggregate is placed in layers or lifts, each lift shall be tested.

Granular Base Placement

The OPSS Granular 'A' base should be placed in maximum 200 mm thick lifts and compacted to a minimum of 95% standard Proctor maximum dry density.

For spring or late fall construction on a wet sub grade, an additional sub-base course of Granular `B' may have to be included to carry the heavy construction traffic.

Placing Concrete

Concrete shall be placed and consolidated in accordance with the requirements of Section 19 of CAN/CSA A23.1 and the requirements of this specification. The concrete shall be placed to the specified thickness, line and grade. The concrete shall be consolidated by 50 mm vibrators and other suitable tools to eliminate voids, honeycombing and entrapped air, especially against the formwork. The surface of the road base shall have no irregularities exceeding 6 mm when tested with a 3 m straightedge in any direction. The final finish for concrete road base shall have a coarse broomed texture.

Compaction Test for Curb and Sidewalk Base

One test shall be performed per 90 m on alternating sides of the street. A minimum of two tests per street is required.

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5.3.3. Concrete Testing

Minimum one concrete test shall be performed for each 115 m³ (150 cubic yards) of concrete placed and in no case shall be less than on test for each class of concrete or each separate type of structural component, placed on any day. When frequency of the testing stipulated above will provide less than five tests for a given class of concrete, tests shall be made from at least five randomly selected batches. When the total quantities of a given class of concrete are less than 38 m³ (50 cubic yards), the strength test may be waived by the Authority if, in his judgement adequate evidence of satisfactory strength is provided. Where concrete will be subject to frequent cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of moisture or de-icing chemicals, every load batch of concrete shall be tested until satisfactory control of air content is established and fewer tests are required by the owner.

5.4.

Construction Specifications for Hot Mixed, Hot Laid Asphaltic Concrete Paving

5.4.1. Composition and Properties of Hot Mix Types

The hot mix shall be of uniform consistency and consist of coarse and fine aggregates, as required for the hot mix type, mixed with Performance Graded Asphalt Cement (PGAC) and Performance Graded Asphalt Cement with Elastic Recovery (PGAC-E). All testing of hot mix shall be in accordance with current MTO procedures.

The aggregates and PGAC or PGAC-E shall be combined in such proportions as to produce a hot mix conforming to the gradation, and PGAC or PGAC-E content.

The hot mix shall conform to the physical requirements given in Table 5-3.

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For HL1 mixes, the minimum Marshall Stability requirement shall be satisfied for the PGAC or PGAC-E range of job mix formula ± 0.3 %. TABLE 5-3: PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HOT MIX TYPES

Property of the Laboratory Compacted Mix Minimum Marshall Stability: N at 60° C Minimum Marshall Flow: Units of 0.25 mm at 3.5 % Air Voids Maximum Marshall Flow: Units of 0.25 mm at 3.5 % Air Voids Air Voids % Mix Design Desirable Design Air Voids % HL1 (Note 1) HL3 HL8

14000

7000

7000

8

9

9

14 3 to 5 4

3 to 5 4

3 to 5 4

Note 1: HL1 ­ As a guide, HL1 Mix will contain 55% by volume of the total aggregate passing the 4.75 mm sieve and the percentage by mass of asphalt sand will be between 10 and 15 %. Contractors should note that achieving the Minimum Marshall Stability for HL1 may be difficult for some aggregate combinations and can limit the amount of asphalt sand incorporated.

5.4.2. Testing Requirements for Hot Mix, Hot Laid Asphaltic Concrete

Mix Extraction, Gradation and Marshall Compliance Testing One complete Marshall Test of pre-construction trial batch sample of each type of mix from each plant. Minimum of one Extraction & Gradation test (AM sample) and one Complete Marshall compliance (PM sample) test on AM and PM samples of each type of mix, when small quantities are placed or in the case of bridge deck paving. Alternating Extraction & Gradation and Complete Marshall test typically for each 300 tonnes (local roads) or 500 tonnes (arterial roads) of mix placement of larger quantities.

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One Complete Marshall test of each type of mix per day in the case of utility cuts paving. Performance Graded Asphalt Binder One test per each day of paving shall be performed to verify the conformance of each type of Performance Graded Asphalt Binder used. Penetration of Recovered Asphalt Cement

One test of each day of paving shall be performed when RAP (Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement) is used in HL-8 mix. Compaction of the Mix using nuclear Equipment On typical projects, one test section is considered every 300 m of any pass made by the paving equipment. Five tests shall be performed in each test section. A minimum of two tests sections per street is required regardless of the length of the street.

5.5.

Pavement Coring and Cutting for Testing

To check the pavement thickness or on site bulk relative density test (to confirm compaction test results), two cores or cuts represent one test. One test shall be performed per 90 m of roadway, a minimum of two tests per street are required regardless of the street length. For Marshall Compliance Check, one test shall be performed per 150 m of roadway (on alternating lanes). A minimum of two tests are required regardless of the street length.

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6. GENERAL COMMENTS

The information contained in this report is intended only for the guidance of design engineer and is based on information obtained at the location of three boreholes. The information provided on the borehole logs is not to be interpreted as a general description of pavement, soil and groundwater conditions elsewhere. Subsurface conditions may vary in between and beyond boreholes locations. Should conditions other than those shown in this report be encountered during construction, we should be notified so that our recommendations may be revised or reviewed as necessary.

The report does not reflect on the environmental aspects of the groundwater, since this was not within the scope of work. Should such information be required, additional testing will be needed. Construction should comply with all applicable environmental and construction safety regulations and guidelines.

Contractors bidding on or undertaking the work should reach their own decisions as to subsurface conditions and should not rely on the information provided herein for design guidance.

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7. LIMITATIONS

This report was prepared for use by The City of Toronto and is based on the work as described in the Scope of Work. The conclusions presented in this report reflect existing site conditions within the scope of this assignment. No investigation method can completely eliminate the possibility of obtaining partially imprecise or incomplete information. It can only reduce the possibility to an acceptable level. Professional judgment was exercised in gathering and analyzing the information obtained and the formulation of the conclusions and recommendations. Like all

professional persons rendering advice, we do not act as absolute insurers of the conclusions reached, but commit ourselves to care and competence in reaching those conclusions. No warranty, whether expressed or implied, is included or intended in this report. The scope of services performed may not be appropriate for the purposes of other users. This report should not be used in contexts other than pertaining to the evaluation of the property at the current time. Any use which a third party makes of this report, or any reliance on or decisions made on the basis of it, are the responsibility of the third parties. Fisher Environmental Limited accepts no responsibility for damages, if any, suffered by any third party as a result of decisions made or actions based on this report.

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APPENDIX A ­ SITE PLANS

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APPENDIX B ­ BOREHOLE LOGS

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APPENDIX D ­ HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY MODELING

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APPENDIX D ­ CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

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43 pages

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