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4. International Conference on Phthiraptera, Urgup, Turkey

SESSION III Faunistics, Morphology & Physiology of Lice Chairs: Ricardo L PALMA (New Zealand), Oldrich SYCHRA (Czech Republic), Bilal DIK (Turkey)

Plenary Lecture

14.00 ­ 14.20 Oldich SYCHRA (Czech Republic). Myrsidea Waterston

1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae)

Oral Presentations

14.20 ­ 14.35 Kosta Y MUMCUOGLU, Maria DANILEVICH, Orly ZELIG,

Hanna GRINBAUM, Michael FRIGER, Terri L. MEINKING (Israel & USA). The effect of blood group and blood handling on feeding success, longevity and egg production of the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus USLU (Turkey). Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) species found on Turkish shorebirds (Charadriiformes) Phthirapteran ectoparasitic fauna of Uttarakhad, India

14.35 ­ 14.50 Bilal DK, C H EKERCOLU, M A KRPK, S INAK & U.

14.50 ­ 15.05 Suneel Kumar SINGH, Arun Kumar SAXENA (India). 15.05 ­ 15.20 Nayanci BANSAL (India). A new species of Hohorstiella

(Menoponidae: Amblycera: Phthiraptera) from Indian Ring Dove, Streptopelia decaocto decaocto (Columbiformes)

Poster Presentations A 01. Ian F BURGESS (UK) How do Echinophthiriidae on seals survive

months of immersion? ­ A hypothesis for debate

A 02. Oldrich SYCHRA, Tomas NAJER, Ivan LITERAK, Miroslav CAPEK,

Petr KOUBEK, Petr PROCHAZKA (Czech Republic) Chewing lice (Amblycera, Ischnocera) from estrildid finches, weavers, indigobirds and sparrows (Passeriformes: Estrildidae, Ploceidae, Viduidae, Passeridae) from birds in Senegal (Czech Republic) Ectoparasites on wild birds during their pre breeding and postbreeding migration through the central Europe Ivan LITERAK (Czech Republic) Chewing lice (Amblycera,

A 03. Oldrich SYCHRA, Peter HARMAT, Petr PODZEMNY, Ivan LITERAK

A 04. Oldrich SYCHRA, Tomas NAJER, Filip KOUNEK, Miroslav CAPEK,

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Ischnocera) from wildliving birds in Costa Rica

A 05. A INCI, B DIK, M KIBAR, A YILDIRIM, O DUZLU (Turkey) Chewing

lice (Phthiraptera) species on wild birds in Cappadocia region

A 06. József RÉKÁSI, Botond J KISS, Attila D SÁNDOR (Hungary,

Romania) Chewing lice in the Danube Delta: present knowledge and ways further

A 07. Leonor GUARDIA (Argentina) Survey of biting lice (Ischnocera,

Amblycera: Phthiraptera) on wild birds in protected areas of the province of Entre Rios, Argentina the Curonian Spit

A 08. Oleg TOLSTENKOV (Russia) Chewing lice of the birds migrating on A 09. Bilal DIK (Turkey) Chewing lice found on wild birds: New records

from Turkey

A 10. Archna RASHMI, Nidhi GUPTA, Smita BADOLA, A K SAXENA (India)

Microtopography of the egg shells of selected avian Phthiraptera

A 11. Saima NAZ, S Anser RIZVI, Oldrich SYCHRA (Pakistan, Czech

Republic) New data on chewing lice (Amblycera, Ischnocera) from wildliving birds in Pakistan (Insecta: Phthiraptera) on Mallards (Anas platyrynchos)

A 12. Nursel AKSIN (Turkey) The presence of species chewing lice A 13. Nursel AKSIN (Turkey) The presence of chewing lice (Insecta:

Phthiraptera) species on wild Quails (Coturnix coturnix)

A 14. Costicã ADAM, Attila D SÁNDOR, Gabriel CHISAMERA (Romania)

Checklist of the chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from the birds of Romania

A 15. Nayanci BANSAL, Gaurav ARYA, Padam SINGH, A K SAXENA (India)

New host records of Phthiraptera on Whitebellied Drongo, Dicrurus caerulescens, Yellowlegged Green pigeon, Treron phoenicoptera and Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis (Turkey) Current knowledge of Turkey's louse fauna

A 16. Abdullah INCI, Alparslan YILDIRIM, Bilal DIK, Onder DUZLU A 17. Mihaela ILIEVA (Bulgaria) Current knowledge of the chewing lice

on wild birds in Bulgaria

A 18. Ali Tümay GÜRLER, Mustafa AÇICI, Kiraz ERCYAS, Cenk Soner

BÖLÜKBA, Gökmen Zafer PEKMEZC, Yunus Emre BEYHAN, inasi UMUR (Turkey) Menacanthus camelinus (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1874); First report from Lanius collurio (Passeriformes: Laniidae) in Turkey

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Myrsidea Waterston 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) Oldich SYCHRA Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic. The chewing lice genus Myrsidea is the most speciose menoponid genus parasitizing mainly passerines. It currently contains 326 recognized species occurring throughout the world, with 307 of them recorded from 341 host species in 45 families of Passeriformes, 12 species on 14 species of toucans (Piciformes: Ramphastidae), 3 from 3 species of hummingbirds (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and 4 species sedis incertae from 4 most likely the erroneous hosts. Myrsidea species are a good example of highly host specific lice, with 79 % of them being restricted to one host species. The remainders are found on a few host species, with only a single instance of an overlap between host families. Although there has been no comprehensive study of the entire genus due to the large number of species involved, all evidence suggests that each host species or group of closely related host species is parasitised by one or more closely related species of Myrsidea. Therefore, the only practical manner to deal with the taxonomy of such a large genus is to treat lice from each host family as a unit. There are about twenty important characters useful in separating species. While most species are more easily identified with females, males may show characters needed for phylogenetic analysis. Species of Myrsidea grouped together by characters of the male genital sclerite are frequently found to be parasitic on a group of related hosts, usually from one bird family. Males and females of a species may have few characters in common and only one sex may be identifiable; therefore, it is unsatisfactory to describe new species based on only one sex. Partially suported by project IAA601690901 from the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. <[email protected]>

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ORAL PRESENTATIONS The effect of blood group and blood handling on feeding success, longevity and egg production of the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus Kosta Y MUMCUOGLU1, Maria DANILEVICH1, Orly ZELIG2, Hanna GRINBAUM2, Michael FRIGER3 and Terri L. MEINKING4 1Department of Parasitology, Hebrew UniversityHadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel; 2Department of Hematology, Hebrew UniversityHadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 3Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, BenGurion University of the Negev, BeerSheba, Israel; 4Global Health Associates of Miami, Inc., South Miami, FL, USA The effect of feeding body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae), different types of human blood on their feeding success, longevity and numbers of eggs laid were investigated using an artificial bloodfeeding system in the laboratory. No significant differences were found between lice fed on different human blood group types on any of the parameters tested. Control lice, fed twice on the same human blood, took significantly larger amounts of blood, lived longer, and the number of fully engorged lice and mean number of eggs laid per female were higher as compared to those that fed on two different blood groups. The mean number of fully engorged lice, the quantity of blood taken and the longevity of lice diminished gradually during the 26 weeks of the bloodage experiment. Lice refused to feed on 26 weekold blood but no decline was observed over time in the mean number of eggs laid per female. Lice fed on EDTAtreated blood took larger amounts of blood and the number of fully engorged lice was significantly higher than with lice fed on heparinized or citrated blood. However, lice fed on EDTAtreated blood showed significantly shorter longevity and laid significantly fewer eggs. Lice fed on rabbits took significantly larger amounts of blood, lived longer, and the number of fully engorged lice and the mean number of eggs laid per female was higher than in lice fed on human blood. <[email protected]>

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Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species found on Turkish shorebirds (Charadriiformes) Bilal DIK1, C H EKERCIOLU2, M A KIRPIK3, S INAK3, U USLU1 1Selçuk University, Veterinary Faculty, Department of Parasitology, Alaaddin Keykubat Campus, Konya, Turkey; 2Stanford University, Center for Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Stanford CA, USA; 3Kafkas University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Kars, Turkey. Chewing lice were sampled from shorebirds captured between September October 2009 at Lake Kuyucuk Bird Ringing Station in Kars, eastern Turkey. Fourtyone birds belonging to 7 species, 5 genera and 2 families (Scolopacidae and Sternidae) were examined: Chlidonias leucopterus, Gallinago gallinago, Tringa glareola, Calidris minuta, Calidris alpina, Calidris temminckii, Philomachus pugnax). Birds were caught in mistnets, ringed, examined for ectoparasites and released unharmed. To sample chewing lice, the feathers of each bird were carefully rubbed over a white piece of paper with a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide dust. Thereafter, birds were placed in a breathable paper bag for 5 min. All lice were collected and placed in tubes with 70% alcohol. Lice specimens were cleared in 10% KOH mounted in Canada balsam and identified under a stereomicroscope. Thirtysix out of 41 bird examined (88%) were infested with at least one chewing louse species. All individuals of Chlidonias leucopterus, Calidris minuta, C. alpina, C. temminckii and Philomachus pugnax were infested, whereas 4 out of 9 (44%) Gallinago gallinago had chewing lice. A total of 20 lice species, i.e., Austromenopon sp, Austromenopon lutescens (Burmeister, 1838), A. durisetosum (Blagoveshtchensky, 1948), A. alpinum Timmermann, 1954, A. atrofulvum (Piaget, 1880), Actornithophilus totani (Schrank, 1803), A.pustulosus (Piaget, 1880), A. stictus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899), A. umbrinus (Burmeister, 1838), Carduiceps scalaris (Piaget, 1880), C. zonarius (Nitzsch, 1866), C. meinertzhagani Timmermann, 1954, Quadraceps obscurus (Burmeister, 1838), Q. anagrapsus (Nitzsch, 1866), Lunaceps actophilus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899), Lunaceps holophaeus (Burmeister, 1838), L. drosti Timmermann, 1954, L. incoensis (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899), Rhynonirmus scolopacis (Denny, 1842) and Saemundssonia lobaticeps (Giebel, 1874) were found on birds. All louse species documented here are first records for Turkey. Austromenopon sp. found on Tringa glareola belong to a species not described yet in science. <[email protected]>

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Phthirapteran ectoparasitic fauna of Uttarakhad, India Suneel Kumar SINGH1, Arun Kumar SAXENA2 1Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh ­ 249 201, Uttarakhand, India; 2Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P.G. College, Rampur ­ 244 901, U.P., India. Phthiraptera is a group of economically important ectoparasitic insects that feed generation after generation on the same hosts and exhibit many functional peculiarities, which usually do not occur in other group of insects. They cause considerable monetary loss to livestock throughout the world. The effect of lice on their host is a function of their density. A small number of lice on a host bird/mammal present no particular problem other than prospects of future population increase. But, the heavier infestation adversely affects the vitality and productivity of their hosts. Five districts (Dehradun, Haridwar, Tehri, Pauri and Chamoli) of Uttarakhand were surveyed during 1989 to 2009 for investigating the occurrence of different phthirapteran ectoparasites infesting selected domestic mammals and birds. Birds including poultry, pigeons and ducks were selected. Mammals like buffalo, goat, sheep, cow, dog and ass were chosen for the same purpose. Seven research scholars from this region have been awarded Ph.D. degrees so far for their work on this aspect of lice infestation. Nine species of lice from poultry; four from pigeons and two from duck have been discovered to host lice so far. Likewise, two lice species each from the said mammals have been recorded. Different factors such as host sex, feather/hair condition, general health and mode of captivity etc. were checked to note the effect on the prevalence of louse. Mean monthly incidence has also been noted to note the lice population fluctuation. Interesting results were obtained and will be discussed in the paper. <[email protected]>

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A new species of Hohorstiella (Menoponidae: Amblycera: Phthiraptera) from Indian Ring Dove, Streptopelia decaocto decaocto (Columbiformes) Nayanci BANSAL Research scholar, Govt. Raza P.G. College, Rampur (U.P.), India There is reasons to believe that the genus Hohorstiella Eichler, 1940 needs revision. Out of 10 species of Hohorstiella, in which pleurites are not prolonged, three species reportedly occur on genus Streptopelia (H. asiatica, Fedorenko & Kekilova, 1978 occurs on S. senegalensis; H. streptopeliae, Eichler, 1953 infests S. turtur arenicola and H. modesta, Ansari, 1951 parasitizes S. decaocto decaocto). Seventeen adult specimens (5 male, 12 female) collected from the Indian Ring Dove, S. decaocto decaocto during 2008 from Rampur district differ from H. modesta by absence of a median notch (at the end of anterior tip of frons), straight margins of meta thorax, presence of occipital seta 21 (in addition to 22 and 23), 5+5 gular setae, 18 20 minute spines on the upper and lower margins of vulva and the nature of male genitalia. The new species, H. rampurensis is described and illustrated in the paper. <[email protected]>

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4. International Conference on Phthiraptera, Urgup, Turkey

POSTER PRESENTATIONS A 01. How do Echinophthiriidae on seals survive months of immersion? A hypothesis for debate Ian F BURGESS Medical Entomology Centre, Insect R&D Limited, StowcumQuy, Cambridge, UK. Echinophthiriidae are physically unusual lice living in a challenging environment. In some cases that environment is so hostile it is difficult to see how they survive. As ectoparasites how do they tolerate immersion in water for long periods? In some cases, such as Lepidophthirus macrorhini on the flippers of elephant seals, this immersion may last several months. They must have strongly hypertonic haemocoel fluid to remain in balance with the surrounding sea water. During the immersion they are reported to feed, but how do they respire? It would appear they aestivate for long periods and only become "active" occasionally. Could it be that during that time they excrete carbon dioxide through their spiracles but obtain what little oxygen they need from host blood? <[email protected]>

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A 02. Chewing lice (Amblycera, Ischnocera) from estrildid finches, weavers, indigobirds and sparrows (Passeriformes: Estrildidae, Ploceidae, Viduidae, Passeridae) from birds in Senegal Oldrich SYCHRA1, Tomas NAJER1, Ivan LITERAK1, Miroslav CAPEK2, Petr KOUBEK2, Petr PROCHAZKA2

Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Vertebrate Biology AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, Czech Republic.

1Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and

We collected ectoparasites from wildliving passerine birds in Senegal in 2005 and 2007. A total of 381 individuals of 20 species of estrildid finches (6 spp.), weavers (8), indigobirds (3) and sparrows (3) were examined. One hundred and seventyfive birds of 15 species were parasitized with chewing lice. Twentyseven species of chewing lice belonging to four genera were found: Amblycera ­ Machaerilaemus (4 spp.), Myrsidea (8); Ischnocera ­ Brueelia (10), Sturnidoecus (5). In 82 % of parasitized birds the rate of infestation was very light (1­10 lice per bird). Infestation by 11­20 and 21­33 lice was found in 11 % and 7 % of birds, respectively. On one bird (Euplectes franciscanus), the infestation by 53 lice was found. Our records represent the first louse records from Lagonosticta senegala, Estrilda melpoda and Uraeginthus bengalus (Estrildidae), Euplectes franciscanus, E. hordaceus, Ploceus heuglini, P. luteolus (Ploceidae) and Passer luteus, P. griseus (Passeridae). Three species of chewing lice were found on 86 % individuals (91 positive/106 examined) of Redbilled Quelea (Quelea quelea), the most numerous bird species examined. There were no significant differences in prevalence and intensities of infestation of males and females or adults and fledged juveniles. Ten species of genus Brueelia were identified. A typical feature of Brueelia from estrildid hosts is a triangular head with a straightsided forehead and lateral sides of the marginal carina interrupted in the midline. Conversely, Brueelia from sparrows and indigobirds have entire marginal carina uninterrupted with lateral side convex or straight, respectively. Brueelia from weavers are easily distinguished morphologically from estrilidid as well as passerid Brueelia by typical pattern of sclerotization and pigmentation involving head, gular and ventral thoracic plates and sternites. This fact supported results of molecular phylogenetic analyses in which weavers and sparrows represent two evolutionarily independent clades. Brueelia from Euodice cantans (Estrildidae) are morphologically similar to Brueelia from weavers. We suppose this Brueelia probably originated from a host switching either during mixedspecies cooperative breeding or during intraspecific brood parasitism. Conversely, Brueelia from Lagonosticta senegala (Estrildidae) is morphologically similar to viduid Brueelia. Lagonosticta senegala is known as a host of the parasitic finch Vidua chalybeata. That is why this Brueelia may have originated from the parasitic finch. These records supported the hypothesis that sympatry or syntopy of hosts may provide an opportunity for lice to switch hosts. Partially suported by projects IAA601690901 and No. IAA6093404 from the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. <[email protected]>

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A 03. Ectoparasites on wild birds during their prebreeding and post breeding migration through the central Europe Oldrich SYCHRA, Peter HARMAT, Petr PODZEMNY, Ivan LITERAK Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic. Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during their prebreeding and postbreeding migration. A total of 921 individuals of 49 bird species belonging to 15 families were examined. Three species of louseflies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), 5 species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 32 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus (Phthiraptera: Ricinidae), Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 195 birds of 31 species. During prebreeding migration 113 (17 %, n = 659) birds of 18 species were parasitized by 32 species of chewing lice. The dominant genus was Brueelia (D = 46 %, n = 1587). Following dominance was found for other genera: Philopterus (34 %), Menacanthus (13 %), Penenirmus (4 %), Ricinus (2 %) a Myrsidea (0.3 %). Fourty (15 %) birds of 13 species were parasitized by 21 species of chewing lice during their post breeding migration. The dominant genus was Menacanthus (D = 64 %, n = 280). Following dominance was found for other genera: Brueelia (26 %), Penenirmus (8 %), Philopterus (1.5 %) and Myrsidea (0.5 %). There was significant difference in prevalence of infestation between juveniles and adults. In juveniles, the higher prevalence of infestation was found (28 %, n = 170 vs. 8 %, n = 92) However no difference was found in prevalence of infestation, significantly lower mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during postbreeding migration. This study was funded by Grant MSM6215712402 from the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic. <[email protected]>

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A 04. Chewing lice (Amblycera, Ischnocera) from wildliving birds in Costa Rica Oldrich SYCHRA1, Tomas NAJER1, Filip KOUNEK1, Miroslav CAPEK2, Ivan LITERAK1 1Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Vertebrate Biology AS CR, v.v.i., Brno, Czech Republic. We collected ectoparasites from wildliving birds in Costa Rica in 2004 and 2009. A total of 1189 individuals of 168 species of birds from 10 orders and 33 families were examined. Three hundred and seventy birds of 104 species were parasitized with chewing lice. Chewing lice belonging to 20 genera were found: Amblycera ­ Colpocephalum (dominance 1.5; prevalence 0.5), Leremenopon (0.04; 0.3), Machaerilaemus (0.9; 1.1), Menacanthus (2.9; 1.6), Myrsidea (53.9; 64.3), Ricinus (2.6; 7.0), Trochiloecetes (2.4; 2.7) and Ischnocera ­ Alcedoffula (1.5; 1.4), Austrophilopterus (1.1; 0.3), Brueelia (8.7; 5.4), Columbicola (1.3; 1.1), Cuculicola (4.1; 0.3), Degeeriella (0.3; 0.3), Formicaphagus (0.5; 0.5), Multicola (0.04; 0.3), Philopterus (4.4; 5.1), Physconelloides (3.5; 1.1), Rallicola (4.2; 4.6), Strongylocotes (0.04; 0.3), Tyranniphilopterus (6.1; 8.6). The highest prevalence of infestation was found on 61 % individuals (92 positive/152 examined) from family Tyrannidae (23 species of birds were examined). The lowest prevalence of infestation was found on 7 % individuals (18 positive/273 examined) from family Trochilidae (25 species of hummingbirds were examined). Chewing lice or their eggs were found on 26 % individuals (28 positive/109 examined) of Longtailed Manakins (Chiroxiphia linearis), the most numerous bird species examined. There were significant differences in prevalences and intensities of infestation between males and females. No lice were found on females (n = 28) compared to 35 % (24 positive/69 examined) prevalence in males. In older males, the higher prevalence and mean intensity of infestation was found. Partially suported by project IAA601690901 from the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. <[email protected] >

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A 05. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species on wild birds in the Cappadocia region Abdullah INCI1, Bilal DIK2, M. KIBAR3, Alparslan YILDIRIM1, Onder DUZLU1 1Erciyes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Kayseri, Turkey; 2Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Konya, Turkey; 3Erciyes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Surgery, Kayseri, Turkey. This study was performed on 70 injured wild birds which were found in Cappadocia region and transferred to Erciyes University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for treatment between 2005 and 2009. Clinically, all birds were inspected for ectoparasites and 29 of 70 (41.4%) birds were found to harbor at least one chewing louse species. All lice were collected from infested birds, transferred to vials with 70% ethyl alcohol and stored in the laboratory until microscopic examination. At the same time the details of each bird species and lice collected from each infested bird were recorded. The louse specimens were cleared in 10% KOH, mounted in Canada balsam on slides and identified under a light microscope. Two of the 9 Longlegged buzzards (Buteo rufinus) were found to be infested with Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), 2 of with Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838), 5 with Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) and 5 with Colpocephalum nanum (Piaget, 1890).(OK?) Three of the 14 common buzzards (Buteo buteo) were infested with C. platystomus, 5 with L. maximum, 6 with D. fulva and 4 with C. nanum. Degeeriella fulva and Colpocephalum sp. were identified on the one honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). One of the 2 black kites (Milvus migrans) was infested with Colpocephalum milvi (Tendeiro, Restivo and Demartis, 1979) and the other with L. maximum. Strigiphilus barbatus (Osborn, 1902) was identified on the longeared owl (Asio otus), Comatomenapon elongatum (Uchida, 1920) was on the great egret (Egretta alba) and Colpocephalum zebra (Burmeister, 1838) was on the white stork (Ciconia ciconia). Degeeriella fulva and Colpocephalum sp. were reported from honey buzzard for the first time in this study. In addition, Colpocephalum milvi from the black kite and Comatomenapon elongatum from the great egret were the first reports from Turkey. <[email protected] >

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A 06. Chewing lice in the Danube Delta: present knowledge and ways further József RÉKÁSI1; Botond J KISS2, Attila D SÁNDOR3

1Pannonhalma, Vár 2, H9090 Hungary; 2Danube Delta Project and Design Institute,

str. Babadag 165, Tulcea, RO820112, Romania; 3BabesBolyai University, Department of Ecology and Taxonomy, Clinicilor st. 5­7, RO400084, Cluj, Romania. Past collecting work and survey on the available literature was made to ascertain the knowledge of chewing lice fauna parasitizing birds in Europe's most birdrich region, the Danube Delta, Romania. The figures given below are the sum of the number of louse species actually recorded from birds in the Danube Delta. The bird orders that occur in the Danube Delta with their respective numbers of families, genera and species, plus the number of recorded bird species with chewing louse are: Podicipediformes (1/2/5/2), Procellariiformes (1/1/1/1), Pelecaniformes (2/2/5/4), Ciconiiformes (3/10/13/10), Phoenicopteriformes (1/1/1/0), Anseriformes (2/15/37/20), Falconiformes (3/14/34/13), Galliformes (1/6/6/6), Gruiformes (3/9/11/5), Charadriiformes (8/29/70/40), Gaviiformes (1/1/3/2), Pteroclidiformes (1/1/1/0), Columbiformes (1/2/5/5), Cuculiformes (1/1/1/1), Strigiformes (2/5/7/6), Caprimulgiformes (1/1/1/1), Apodiformes (1/1/2/0), Coraciiformes (4/4/4/4), Piciformes (1/3/9/3), Passeriformes (23/60/146/32). Six orders, Procellariiformes, Galliformes, Columbiformes, Cuculiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Coraciiformes have 100% of their species with records of chewing lice in the Danube Delta. Three orders have more than 70% of their species with records of chewing lice, a knowledge level regarded here as good: Pelecaniformes (80.00%), Ciconiiformes (76.92%) and Strigiformes (71.42%). On the other hand, a poor level of knowledge (<30%) is found in four orders: Phoenicopteriformes (0), Pteroclidiformes (0), Apodiformes (0), Piciformes (30%), Passeriformes (21.90%). The distribution of bird species with lice identified is highly biased towards wetland and game birds, underlining the importance of the area for these groups. It is very unlikely that avian orders containing a high number of species, such as Charadriformes and Passeriformes, will end up having such a low percentage of lousepositive host species, however the present situation is a result of low frequency of screening among the species of these groups. A number of 281 different lice species were recorded on 157 host species (47% of all bird species recorded in the Danube Delta) These figures clearly show that it is still necessary to carry out faunal surveys to proper record the chewing louse fauna, as at least a similar number of lice species may be discovered in the region. <[email protected]>

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A 07. Survey of biting lice (Ischnocera, Amblycera: Phthiraptera) on wild birds in protected areas of the province of Entre Rios, Argentina Leonor GUARDIA CONICET ­ Instituto Superior de Entomología "Dr. Abraham Willink" (INSUE), Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Miguel Lillo 205, Tucumán, Argentina. The province of Entre Rios is located in the northeast of Argentina. This area of 78,781 km2 with the provinces of Misiones and Corrientes is part of the Mesopotamian region. Because of its rich land and abundant rainfall it is a province where agriculture, livestock farming and deforestation have made progress over natural areas that have been greatly reduced. The order Phthiraptera was known to be represented in the province by 26 species, , 5 of which belong to the suborder Anoplura, 11 and 10 to Amblycera and Ischnocera, respectively but of these only nine are parasites of wild birds: Myrsidea psittaci, M. seminuda, Ricinus subangulatus, Brueelia argentina, B.sayacae, Strigiphilus chilensis, Fulicoffula gallinulae, Campanulotes compare and Columbicola columbae. Within the framework of the project "Biodiversity of terrestrial insects from Entre Rios", a series of samples from various protected areas of the province of Entre Rios were collected during the period June 2004 to March 2009. Overall 224 birds were captured using mist nets placed against vegetation, of which 96 had lice Seven new genera for the province, i.e., Menacanthus, Formicaphagus, Philopterus, Physconelloides, Picicola, Saemundssonia and Sturnidoecus were identified. New records for the province of Entre Ríos are: Menacanthus eurysternus, Myrsidea elegans, Brueelia addoloratoi, B. persimilis, Picicola rufa and Sturnidoecus sarwatae, while 26 new hostparasite associations have been detected. <[email protected]>

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A. 08. Chewing lice of birds migrating on the Curonian Spit Oleg TOLSTENKOV Center of Parasitology of A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Wild migratory birds were examined for ectoparasites in general and lice (Phthiraptera) in particular in the Curonian Spit (Kaliningrad region, Russia) during the autumn and spring migration in 200809. Forty seven species (1 Falconiformes, 1 Coraciformes, 3 Piciformes and 42 species of Passeriformes) and 1,247 individuals were investigated. Thirty one species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Colpocephalum, Myrsidea and Menacanthus (Menoponidae), Ricinus (Ricinidae), Brueelia, Degeriella, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Philopteridae) were found. The representative of the genus Philopterus was detected on the siskin Spinus spinus for the first time. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance were different in autumn and spring. The study was supported by the RFBR grants ¹ 080490116Mola and 090490300Vieta. <[email protected]>

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A. 09. Chewing lice found on wild birds: New records from Turkey Bilal DIK Selçuk University, Veterinary Faculty, Department of Parasitology, Alaaddin Keykubat Campus, Konya, Turkey. This study was carried out to investigate the chewing lice fauna of wild birds in Turkey. Columbicola bacillus (Giebel, 1866) was found on the dove (Streptopelia decaocto), Afrimenopon waar (Eichler, 1947) on the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Anatoecus icterodes (Nitzsch, 1818) on the marbled duck (Marmaronetta angustirostris). All three louse species were recorded for the first time in Turkey. Marbled duck is a new host for Anatoecus icterodes. <[email protected]>

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Turkiye Parazitol Derg, Volume 34 (Supplement 1), 2010

A. 10. Microtopography of the egg shells of selected avian Phthiraptera Archna RASHMI, Nidhi GUPTA, Smita BADOLA, Arun Kumar SAXENA Dept. of Zoology Govt. Raza P.G. College, Rampur (U.P) 244901, India. The chorion of phthirapteran eggs often exhibits certain outgrowth/sculpturing or ornamentations. The markings present on the egg cases can be used to differentiate the species. The microtopography of eggs shells from selected species has been noted previously. The present study gives information regarding the nature of egg shell of seven phthirapteran species e.g Brueelia sp. (host: Pycnonotus jocosus), B. plocea (host: Ploceus philippinus), B. iliaci (host: Turdus iliacus), Columbicola bacillus (host: Streptopelia decaocto), C. phoenicopterae (host: Treron phoenicoptera), Myrsidea assemensis (host: Garrulax leucolophus) and Hohorstiella sp. (host: Streptopelia decaocto). The study further indicates that the nature of egg shells of the same louse species parasitizing different host e.g. Menacanthus eurysternus (occurring on Acridotheres tristis; A. ginginianus and Pycnonotus jocosus), Colpocephallum turbinatum (parasitizing Columba livia and Milvus migrans) Holomenopon maxbeieri (infesting Milvus migrans and Anas platyrhynchos), are quite similar. <[email protected]> <[email protected]>

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A. 11. New data on chewing lice (Amblycera, Ischnocera) from wildliving birds in Pakistan Saima NAZ1, S Anser RIZVI1, Oldrich SYCHRA2 1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, 75270; 2Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic. We collected ectoparasites from wildliving birds in Pakistan from 2001 to 2007. Chewing lice belonging to 19 genera were found. A total of 13 species of birds from 6 orders were parasitized with chewing lice: Anseriformes ­ Anser anser (Anaticola crassicornis), Anas platyrhynchos (Holomenopon leucoxanthum); Columbiformes ­ Columba livia (Campanulotes compare, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Colpocephalum sp., Columbicola columbae, Columbicola tschulyschman, Hohorstiella lata); Galliformes ­ Coturnix coturnix (Menacanthus abdominalis), Gallus gallus (Goniocotes gallinae, Lipeurus tropicalis, Cuclotogaster cinereus, Menacanthus stramineus, Menacanthus pallidulus, Menopon gallinae), Meleagris gallopavo (Chelopistes meleagridis), Pavo cristatus (Colpocephalum tausi, Goniodes dissimilis, Goniodes sp.); Gruiformes ­ Grus grus (Heleonomus adnani); Psittaciformes ­ Melopsitacus undulatus (Afrimenopon waar), Psittacula crameri (Neopsittaconirmus lybartota); Passeriformes ­ Corvus splendens (Brueelia saliemi, Myrsidea splendenticola), Lonchura (=Padda) oryzivora (Brueelia sp.), Passer domesticus (Sturnidoecus ruficeps). A new species, Heleonomus adnani Naz, Adam, Rizvi, 2009, from Grus grus was described from this material. Finding of the species Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) from captive budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus was also interesting. This is the first record of amblyceran lice from this host. The primary host species of A. waar is the rosyfaced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis. The finding of A. waar on budgerigars, which appear not to have been in direct contact with other parrot species, is, most likely, a result of a contamination in captivity. <[email protected]>

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Turkiye Parazitol Derg, Volume 34 (Supplement 1), 2010

A. 12. The presence of chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) species on Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) Nursel AKSIN Firat University, Elazig Health High School, Elazig, 23119, Turkey. This research was conducted to determine the species of chewing lice (Phithiraptera) on Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). For this purpose, Mallards (Anseriformes: Anatidae) obtained in different areas of Elazi province (Eastern Anatolian region) of Turkey from 2004 and 2006 during the hunting season (OctoberFebruary) were examined for chewing lice. Three species of chewing lice were found i.e., Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763), Anatoecus sp. and Trinoton querquedulae (Linnaenus, 1758). This is the first report of Anaticola crassicornis, Anatoecus sp.and Trinoton querquedulae on Mallards in Turkey. <[email protected]>

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A. 13. The presence of chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) species on wild Quails (Coturnix coturnix) Nursel AKSIN Firat University, Elazig Health High School, Elazig, 23119, Turkey. This research was conducted to determine species of chewing lice (Phithiraptera) on wild quails (Coturnix coturnix). For this purpose, 30 wild quails, caught in different areas of Elazi province (the Eastern Anatolian region) of Turkey between 2006 and 2008 during the hunting season (AugustOctober) were examined for ectoparasites. It was recorded that 19 (63.33%) wild quails were infested with at least one chewing louse species. Of the infested quails, 6 (31.58%) were found to have Menacanthus abdominalis, 12 (63.15%) Cuclotogaster cinereus and 1 (5.27%) Goniodes astrocephalus. This is the first report of the occurrence of Menacanthus abdominalis, Goniodes astrocephalus and Cuclotogaster cinereus on wild quails in Turkey. <[email protected]>

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A. 14. Checklist of the chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from the birds of Romania Costic ADAM1, Attila D SÁNDOR2, Gabriel CHIAMERA1 1"Grigore Antipa" National Museum of Natural History, os. Kiseleff no. 1, 011341 Bucharest 2, Romania; 2"BabeBolyai" University, Faculty of BiologyGeography, Str. Gheorghe Bilacu no. 44, 400015 ClujNapoca, Romania. Analyzing papers dealing with chewing lice of the ectoparasitological fauna of Romania, published until 2009, reveals that there are 378 reported species and 10 subspecies of chewing lice (belonging to 77 genera, 4 families and 2 suborders), parasitic on 232 wild bird species (belonging to 58 families and 18 orders) from Romanian fauna. Also, we report 30 chewing louse species from domestic birds and 13 species found on some exotic birds from zoos and private breeding farms. Considering both the wild bird species reported for the Romanian fauna up to now (including the natural accidental species) and their known chewing louse species, the chewing louse fauna of Romania can be estimated as 696 species and 25 subspecies. If we take into consideration the same criteria mentioned above, we can estimate the domestic bird fauna parasitized by chewing lice as including 69 species. We present both the parasitehost checklist and the hostparasite checklist. The parasitehost checklist includes all chewing louse species reported up to now from the Romanian birds. For each species, we mention: reported host species from Romanian fauna, bibliographical references, the synonym names used in the bibliographical references, capture localities and additional remarks, when necessary. The hostparasite list presents all bird species reported in the Romanian fauna up to now in a systematic order. For each bird species, we mention all known chewing louse species which usually parasitize them, marking those which were reported from Romania for the same host. <[email protected]>

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A. 15. New host records of Phthiraptera on the Whitebellied Drongo, Dicrurus caerulescens, Yellowlegged Green Pigeon, Treron phoenicoptera and Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis Nayanci BANSAL, Gaurav ARYA, Padam SINGH, Arun Kumar SAXENA Dept. of Zoology, Govt. Raza P.G. College, Rampur (U.P) 244901, India. The whitebellied drongo, Dicrurus caerulescens L. reportedly harbors only one amblyceran louse, Menacanthus eurysternus (Burm, 1838). Delousing of two aforesaid birds in Rampur, India during 2008, yielded 15 specimens of Philopterus kalkalichi (Ansari, 1955) and 2 specimens of Brueelia dircuri (Ansari, 1955), along with 10 specimens of M. eurysternus. Occurrence of both ischnoceran species on the whitebellied drongo represents new host records. Fifty six specimens of Columbicola phoenicoptera (Lantham) and 33 specimens of Coloceras sp. were recorded from three yellowlegged green pigeon, Treron phoenicoptera. Simultaneous occurrence of both the ischnoceran species on the aforesaid bird has been recorded for the first time. Likewise, 38 specimens of Colpocephalum sp. were procured from three cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis examined in the Rampur district during 2009. The presence of Colpocephalum sp. on the aforesaid bird was noted for the first time. <[email protected]>

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A. 16. Current knowledge of Turkey's louse fauna Abdullah INCI1, Alparslan YILDIRIM1, Bilal DIK2, Onder DUZLU1

1Erciyes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Parasitology Department, Kayseri, Turkey; 2Selçuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Parasitology Department, Konya, Turkey. The current knowledge on the louse fauna of birds and mammals in Turkey is quite incomplete. Up to the present day, a total of 94 species belonging to 45 genera of lice have been recorded from animals and humans, based on the morphological identification of these parasites. Among the avian lice (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) a total of 39 species belonging to 22 genera were identified. These are: Anaticola (A. anseris, A. crassicornis), Anatoecus (A. icterodes), Ardeicola (A. ciconiae), Brueelia (B. cruciata, B. nebulosa, Brueelia sp.), Campanulotes (C. bidentatus), Carduiceps (C. meinertzhageni, C. scalaris, C. zonarius), Columbicola (C. bacillus, C. columbae), Cuclotogaster (C. heterographus), Craspedorrhynchus (C. fraterculus, C. platystomus), Degeeriella (D. aquilarum, D. fulva, D. fusca), Goniocotes (G. gallinae, G. pusillus), Goniodes (G. colchici, G. dissimilis, G. gigas, G. dispar), Lipeurus (L. caponis), Lunaceps (L. drosti, L. holophaeus, L. incoenis), Mulcticola (M. hypoleucus), Neophilopterus (N. incompletes), Penenirmus (P. rarus), Quadraceps (Q. anagrapsus, Q. obscures), Rhynonirmus (R. scolopacis), Saemundssonia (S. (Saemundssonia) lobaticeps), Strigiphilus (S. barbatus, S. strigis) and Sturnidoecus (S. sturni). Among Amblycera, Laemobothriidae, only 1 species (L. (Laemobothrion) maximum) was detected, while in Menoponidae 30 species belonging to 13 genera were found, i.e., Actornithophilus (A. pustulosus, A. stictus, A. totani, A. umbrinus), Afrimenopon (A. waar), Austromenopon (A. alpinum, A. atrofulvum, A. durisetosum, A. lutescens), Ciconiphilus (C. quadripustulatus), Colpocephalum (C. impressum, C. milvi, C. nanum, C. trachelioti, C. turbinatum, C. zebra, Colpocephalum sp.) Comatomenopon (C. elongatum), Dennyus (D. (Dennyus) hirundinis), Kurodaia (K. (Kurodaia) fulvofasciata), Menacanthus (M. cornutus, M. lyali, M. pusillus, M. stramineus, Menacanthus sp.), Menopon (M. gallinae), Myrsidea (M. rustica, M. cucullaris), Piagetiella (P. titan) and Trinoton (T. anserinum) have been recorded. Among the mammalian lice (Anoplura), the Pediculidae family is represented with 2 species; namely Pediculus humanus (P. humanus capitis, P. humanus humanus) and Pthirus pubis. From the Haematopinidae family, 4 species of Haematopinus (H. eurysternus, H. quadripertusus, H. tuberculatus, H. suis), from Linognathidae 5 species of Linognathus (L. africanus, L. vituli, L. ovillus, L. pedalis, L. stenopsis) and one of Solenopotes (S. capillatus) are known. From Polyplacidae 2 species of Haemodipsus (H. lyriocephalus, H. setoni) and 2 of Polyplax (P. serrata, P. spinulosa), are known. The Ischnoceran family of Trichodectidae is represented with 7 species, i.e., Bovicola (B. (Bovicola) bovis , B. (Bovicola) caprae, B. (Holakartikos) crassipes, B. (Werneckiella) equi, B. (Bovicola) limbatus, B. (Bovicola) ovis) and Felicola (F. (Felicola) subrostratus). <[email protected]>

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A. 17. Current knowledge of the chewing lice on wild birds in Bulgaria Mihaela ILIEVA Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. Chewing lice parasitizing wild birds have been studied in Bulgaria since 1957. A total of 282 chewing lice species belonging to 63 genera, 4 families and 2 suborders were recorded until 2009. As their hosts, 194 bird species belonging to 48 families and 18 orders have been reported. Thus, the number of registered chewing louse species represents around 40% of the expected nearly 700 louse species found on bird species from the Bulgarian avifauna. The emphasis of the studies so far has been on lice parasitizing Ciconiiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Charadriiformes and Columbiformes. Collection of chewing lice was conducted in vast geographical regions of the country during migration, breeding and wintering periods of the hosts. Ecological studies carried out by Dr. Krastio Touleshkov provided data on the intensity and prevalence of chewing lice on various bird species. His extensive research on chewing lice parasitising species of the Corvidae family revealed that the number of the chewing lice is highest in late spring and late autumn. Although the present state of knowledge on Bulgarian chewing louse fauna is considerable, the parasites of many bird species, and especially those on the small passerines, are still poorly studied. Taking into account the rich Bulgarian bird fauna further studies of chewing lice are needed. <[email protected]>

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A. 18. Menacanthus camelinus (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1874); First report from Lanius collurio (Passeriformes: Laniidae) in Turkey Ali Tümay GÜRLER1 Mustafa AÇICI1 Kiraz ERCYAS2 Cenk Soner BÖLÜKBA1 Gökmen Zafer PEKMEZC1 Yunus Emre BEYHAN1 inasi UMUR1 1Department of Parasitoloy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuzmayis University, Turkey; 2Ornithology Research Center, Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey. The aim of this study was to identify lice species of the redbacked shrikes (Lanius collurio) in the Kizilirmak Delta, situated in the Black Sea coast of Turkey, which is one of the largest and most significant deltas of the country and which preserves the natural heritage of this coastal region. Up today, 311 bird species were identified in the Kizilirmak Delta; nearly 140 species of birds live permanently in the delta, while close to 100.000 waterfowls stay here during the winter months. Lice (Amblycera) are obligate and permanent ectoparasites of birds, feeding on host's feathers, pinnas or skin debris. It has been suggested that the presence of lice on birds causes a low level of pathogenicity. However, lice influence major aspects of avian life such as flight performance, feeding, life expectancy and sexual selection. In this study and during 2009, data on parasites of redbacked shrikes were collected from a population breeding in the Kizilirmak Delta. Birds were captured using nets and 9 out of 10 redbacked shrikes (90%) had lice; all of them belonging to the species Menacanthus camelinus. This is the first report of Menacanthus camelinus infestation of the redbacked shrikes (Lanius collurio) in Turkey.

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ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION New guidelines for the control of head louse infestations Moderators: Robert Vander STICHELE1, Oliver CHOSIDOW², Aysegul TAYLANOZKAN³ Institute of Pharmacology, University of Ghent, Belgium; ²Department of Dermatology, Hopital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France; ³Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, National Parasitologic and Bacterial Zoonotic Diseases Reference and Research Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey In 2007, international guidelines for the treatment of head louse infestations were published.1 An update is needed as new information has been published regarding diagnostic procedures, and treatment with topical dimeticone and oral ivermectin. An overview of the available evidence on dimeticone and ivermectin will include a critical review of possible biases in the study design of published studies, of the interpretation of results and ensuing conclusions. For ivermectin, recent proposals for mass treatment in underdeveloped regions with high infestation rates will be discussed. Sound public health communitybased approaches to infestation control in developed countries should be formulated. 1Mumcuoglu KY, Barker SC, Burgess IE, CombescotLang C, Dalgleish RC, Larsen KS, Miller J, Roberts RJ, TaylanOzkan A. International guidelines for effective control of head louse infestations. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007 Apr;6(4):40914. <[email protected]>

1Heymans

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