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You mean I have to know this?

vol 2 Table of Contents

PASSÉ COMPOSÉ

Passé composé with avoir The big question is: Not difficult, is it? Negatives Irregular verbs Exercises - Passé composé Passé composé with être MRS VANDERTAMP Exercises - Passé composé with être - Subject pronouns - Passé Composé with être - Passé Composé with avoir and être - Passé composé 1 1 1 2 2 4 8 10 11 12 13 15 17

PLUS-QUE-PARFAIT

About plus-que-parfait OK. Where are the problems? Exercises - Plus-que-parfait Reported speech Exercises - Reported speech - Plus-que-parfait - Passé composé, imparfait, plus-que-parfait? 32 33 35 38 39 41 43

Transitive

What's with this "transitive"? However, five interesting verbs Now for two exceptions to the rules! Exercises - Transitive and intransitive verbs ANSWERS 45 46 47 48 50

Questions with inversion 19 Exercises - Passé composé: 20 questions with inversion

IMPARFAIT

The Imparfait is... Where are the irregular verbs? Here's a reminder But, an exception Exercises - Imparfait Passé composé and imparfait Passé composé Imparfait A few hints... Exercises - Passé composé ou imparfait?

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You mean I have to kNOW this!? Vol 2

Nom:

Imparfait

Irregular

Here are some odd-looking ones: can you form the imparfait of the verbs rire, étudier and oublier in the nous and vous forms? Yes, that's right:

nous riions nous étudiions nous oubliions

vous riiez vous étudiiez vous oubliiez

Because the stem ends in `i' and the ending begins with `i', you have a double vowel. Two `i"s are always useful, especially if you want to see properly. (Where does he get these jokes?)

It cant be that easy! Where are the irregular verbs?

Believe it or not, the imparfait has only one irregular formation - être.

jét - ais tu ét - ais il ét - ait elle ét - ait nous ét - ions vous ét - iez ils ét - aient elles ét - aient

No problem!

Heres a reminder:

a) remember the rules about the present tense of -cer and -ger verbs? They apply also to the imparfait:

je commençais

elle mangeait

But the nous and vous forms don't change because the following vowel - `i' in this case softens the `c' and `g' already.

nous commencions

vous mangiez

b) What about the stem change verbs like acheter, lever, mener etc.? Well, you remember that the stem changes only if the ending is unpronounced. In the case of the imparfait, all the endings are pronounced, so there's no change!

Copyright © 2001 John Beaver Published by Tralco Educational, Hamilton ON

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You mean I have to kNOW this!? Vol 2

Nom:

tRANSITIVE

with être

However,

five of the verbs conjugated with être can become transitive, take direct objects and, of course, mean something rather different. Let's look at them. Here are some examples:

Il sort un stylo. Elle sort un mouchoir. Je monte les valises. Il descend les livres. Nous rentrons la voiture. Il retourne le document.

He takes out a pen. She takes out a handkerchief. I take up the suitcases. He brings down the books. We put the car away. He turns the document over.

Now, what happens when these verbs are put into the passé composé? We have said that no verb conjugated with être can have a direct object. So, if these verbs are to have a direct object, they must be conjugated with... you guessed it: Study these examples:

avoir!

Il a sorti un mouchoir. Elle a descendu trois livres. Jai monté les valises. Il a rentré la voiture au garage. Elle a retourné lomelette.

passer is similarly conjugated:

He took out a handkerchief. She took down three books. I took up (carried up) the suitcases. He put the car away in the garage. She turned the omelette over.

Il a passé un examen. Elle a passé le sel.

He wrote an exam. (verb + direct object) She passed the salt. (verb+ direct object)

But, when the verb means to "pass by", it doesn't have a direct object and so is conjugated in the passé composé with être:

Ils sont passés devant la maison.

They passed by the house.

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Copyright © 2001 John Beaver Published by Tralco Educational, Hamilton ON

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