Read TEXT TYPE CONTROLS ON THE PURPOSE OF TRANSLATION text version

TEXT TYPE CONTROLS ON THE PURPOSE OF TRANSLATION

Basil Hatim

TEXT TYPE

A cumulative (con)textual effect conveyed by a set of values and relations defining suprasentential entities as tokens of a type or of an interactional frame within which a set of interactive acts become mutually relevant in performing a rhetorical purpose.

TEXT TYPE

Three perspectives from which to approach the notion of rhetorical purpose A structural perspective (the Text as a unit of organization) A norm and convention perspective (focus on Genre) An interpretive perspective (negotiating Discourse)

THE SEMIOTIC DIMENSION

TEXT ­ GENRE ­ DISCOURSE AS MACRO-SIGNS EACH ENCOMPASSING A SET OF MUTUALLY RELEVANT MICRO-SIGNS

CONTEXTUALIZATION

In terms of CONTEXT, TT is a SUPRASENTENTIAL ENTITY INTENDED to function as a SIGN appropriate to a particular communicative goal (Text), conventional event (Genre) or ideological statement (Discourse).

STANDARDS OF TEXTUALITY

INTENTIONALITY INTERTEXTUALITY

REALIZATION

In terms of REALIZATION, there will be discernible patterns of cohesion and coherence (structure and texture)

STANDARDS OF TEXTUALITY

COHESION COHERENCE

ARABIC TEXT

AND IF Indonesia and Malaysia are far from perfectly open...,

still the country's carefully monitored multiculturalism has allowed Malays, Chinese and Indians to rub shoulders and get to know one another without much rancor. ...

ENGLISH TEXT

TO BE SURE, Indonesia and Malaysia are far from perfectly open... .

Still the country's carefully monitored multiculturalism has allowed Malays, Chinese and Indians to rub shoulders and get to know one another without much rancor. ...

ARABIC GENRE

The visitor begins his tour by discovering the

reptile department, which contains a variety of Arabian snakes and lizards. Then he continues the journey to find himself within a huge aviary, where waterfalls cascade on the rocks, a spacious place which contains different varieties of songbirds. The visitor continues his journey through a long corridor, which takes him to where there are baboons.

ENGLISH GENRE

The reptile and insect house has exhibits of many of the Arabian snakes, lizards, amphibians, common insects and arachnids. A huge aviary, with a waterfall cascading down rocks into a small lake and river, contains several species of local songbirds as well as some small raptors.

ENGLISH DISCOURSE

It may be that the atomic bomb is the "good news of damnation" that it may frighten us into that Christian character and those righteous actions and those positive political steps necessary to the creation of a world society, not a thousand or 500 years hence, but now ... Readers' Digest (1945)

ARABIC DISCOURSE

PRESERVED THROUGH QURANIC INTERTEXTUALITY WHICH LIKE THE ENGLISH ST PROMOTES POLITICS THROUGH RELIGION

Rhetorical Purpose

REALIZATION yields unreliable clues, particularly in languages experiencing so-called `residual orality' (e.g. Arabic). CONTEXT is thus the last court of appeal to judge whether or not ST Rhetorical Purpose is preservable/has been preserved.

TEXT VS. DISCOURSE

WHAT IS IN THE TEXT MAY OR MAY NOT BE IN THE DISCOURSE AND VICE VERSA

IN THE TEXT BUT NOT IN THE DISCOURSE

So long as I live, I shall cut off the hands of the agents of America and the Soviet Union in all fields, and I am absolutely confident that all the people are in principle, as in the past, supporters of the system and of their Islamic revolution.

AMBIVALENT TEXTURE: ARABIC

No sooner had the British occupation authorities gained control over Iraq than they set out to issue all manner of declarations and orders to secure their domination over the country's economic resources in an attempt to recoup their losses.

AMBIVALENT TEXTURE: ARABIC

The British occupation sapped the labours of poverty­stricken peasants, who constituted the majority of the working people, and burdened these desperate people with all kinds of taxes.

AMBIVALENT TEXTURE: ARABIC

the British occupying power subsequently seized the country's agricultural resources and mercilessly plundered these assets to such a great extent that taxes increased to three times the rate in the period prior to the occupation.

FROM HORTATORY TO ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Text is typically hortatory. However, it could serve two distinct contexts: hortatory exposition or analytical exposition

FROM HORTATORY TO ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

No sooner had the British occupation authorities gained control of Iraq than they set out to issue all manner of declarations and orders to secure their domination over the country's economic resources in an attempt to recoup their losses.

After they had established their position in Iraq, the British occupation authorities set out to issue all kinds of rules and regulations to secure their domination over the country's economic resources in an attempt to recoup their losses.

FROM HORTATORY TO ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

The British occupation sapped the labours of poverty­stricken peasants, who constituted the majority of the working people, and burdened these desperate people with all kinds of taxes.

The labours of poverty­stricken peasants, who constituted the majority of the working people, were sapped and they were burdened with various types of taxes.

FROM HORTATORY TO ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

the British occupying power subsequently seized the country's agricultural resources and mercilessly plundered these assets to such a great extent that taxes increased to three times the rate in the period prior to the occupation.

Subsequently, the country's agricultural resources were seized and mercilessly plundered to such a great extent that taxes increased to three times the rate in the period prior to the occupation.

INTERTEXTUAL PURPOSE

VERTICAL INTERTEXTUALITY OTHER TEXTS OTHER GENRES OTHER DISCOURSES

INTRATEXTUAL PURPOSE

IN RESPONSE TO INSTRUCTIONS WITHIN THE TEXT LOCAL GLOBAL

FROM ANALYTICAL TO HORTATORY

No sooner had the British occupation authorities gained control of Iraq than they set out to issue all manner of declarations and orders to secure their domination over the country's economic resources in an attempt to recoup their losses

FROM ANALYTICAL TO HORTATORY

The British occupation sapped the labours of poverty­stricken peasants, who constituted the majority of the working people, and burdened these desperate people with all kinds of taxes.

FROM ANALYTICAL TO HORTATORY

The British occupying power subsequently seized the country's agricultural resources and mercilessly plundered these assets to such a great extent that taxes increased to three times the rate in the period prior to the occupation.

STRATEGIC PURPOSE I

Purpose of TRANSLATION e.g. Domestication as Translation Strategy

UNMARKED PURPOSE OF TRANSLATION

Certain choices will be made in line with norms sanctioned by a particular translation tradition. To convey the real intentionality of the source, ST Rhetorical Function must remain intact, in which case translation would be unmarked (i.e. adequate)

MARKED VS UNMARKED TRANSLATION

UNMARKED TRANSLATION HAS ST RHETORICAL FUNCTION PRESERVED INTACT MARKED TRANSLATION CHANGES ST RHETORICAL FUNCTION JUSTIFIABLY OR UNJUSTIFIABLY

UNMARKED TRANSLATION OF OCCUPATION TEXT

DOMESTICATED TRANSLATION IS UNMARKED IF TEXT IS ENVISAGED AS ANALYTICAL HISTORICAL WRITING (FOREIGNIZATION WOULD BE MARKED)

UNMARKED TRANSLATION OF OCCUPATION TEXT

FOREIGNIZED TRANSLATION IS UNMARKED IF TEXT IS ENVISAGED AS HORTATORY QUOTE TO SHOW UP THE EXCESSIVE RHETORIC OF A SOURCE TEXT (DOMESTICATION WOULD BE UNMARKED)

MARKED PURPOSE OF TRANSLATION

The possibility of compromising ST Rhetorical Purpose in favour of some translation tradition criteria of excellence is not ruled out. The result would be a MARKED translation that may be JUSTIFIABLE (i.e. adequate) or UNJUSTIFIABLE (i.e. inadequate)

BENIGN DOMESTICATION

At first we would play for walnuts, then we began to play for poultry, and then came the day when I played for the three calves I had. Finally, I played for the trees

At first we used to gamble with walnuts, then we began to play for poultry; and then came the day when I gambled with the three calves I had. Finally, I threw the trees in

COMMISIONAL PURPOSE

Purpose of THE TRANSLATION i.e. Translation Commission or Skopos

UNMARKED PURPOSE OF THE TRANSLATION

Certain choices will be made in line with the requirements of a specific `commission'. If Commission Purpose upholds ST CONTEXT, regardless of changes if any in REALIZATION, then the translation would be unmarked (adequate).

MARKED TRANSLATION

If commission is at variance with ST context, then we are into a marked translation

The possibility of compromising ST Rhetorical Purpose in the interest of some Commissional Purpose is not ruled out. The result would be a MARKED translation that may be JUSTIFIABLE (i.e. adequate) or UNJUSTIFIABLE (i.e. inadequate)

EXAMPLE OF COMMISSION-DRIVEN DEVIATION

INSTITUTIONAL PURPOSE

Institutional Purpose e.g. the UN

UNMARKED INSTITUTIONAL PURPOSE

Certain choices will be made in line with the requirements of a specific `institution'. If Institutional Purpose upholds ST CONTEXT, regardless of changes if any in REALIZATION, then the translation would be unmarked (adequate).

MARKED INSTITUTIONAL PURPOSE

The possibility of compromising ST Rhetorical Purpose in the interest of some Institutional Purpose is not ruled out. The result would be a MARKED translation that may be JUSTIFIABLE (i.e. adequate) or UNJUSTIFIABLE (i.e. inadequate)

EXAMPLE OF INSTITUTION-DRIVEN DEVIATION

PROFESSIONAL PURPOSE

SKILL-DRIVEN PURPOSE e.g. Subtitling

UNMARKED SKILL-DRIVEN PURPOSE

Certain choices will be made in line with the requirements of a specific `skill'. If Skill-driven Purpose upholds ST CONTEXT, regardless of changes if any in REALIZATION, then the translation would be unmarked (adequate).

MARKED SKILL-BASED PURPOSE

The possibility of compromising ST Rhetorical Purpose in the interest of some skill-driven criteria of acceptability is not ruled out. The result would be a MARKED translation that may be JUSTIFIABLE (i.e. adequate) or UNJUSTIFIABLE (i.e. inadequate)

EXAMPLE OF SKILL-DRIVEN DEVIATION

INDIVIDUAL PURPOSE

Translator Purpose interest, bias, ideology, etc

UNMARKED TRANSLATOR PURPOSE

Certain choices will be made in line with the requirements of a specific `individual'. If Individual Purpose upholds ST CONTEXT, regardless of changes if any in REALIZATION, then the translation would be unmarked (adequate).

MARKED TRANSLATOR PURPOSE

The possibility of compromising ST Rhetorical Purpose in favour of some translator ideological purpose, biases or interests is not ruled out. The result would be a MARKED translation that may be JUSTIFIABLE (i.e. adequate) or UNJUSTIFIABLE (i.e. inadequate)

EXAMPLE OF INDIVIDUAL-DRIVEN DEVIATION

Chaim Weizmann, the first president of Israel, who supposedly had a reputation of being humanitarian, welcomed the exodus. THE FORCEFUL EXPULSION OF PALESTINIANS

It will be argued that

For a translation to be optimally adequate and acceptable, it is source text rhetorical purpose (Text, Genre, Discourse) that becomes an overriding factor which must be maximally heeded whether as an end in itself or as a means to achieving other purposes

That is

When deviating from source text rhetorical purposes translations intended to serve other purpose could be unmarked if ST CONTEXT remains intact even if REALIZATION is tampered with, or marked translations ­ translations whose adequacy and acceptability would be in question unless deviations are substantially justified

RESIDUAL ORALITY

Residual orality is a communicative condition which certain languages and cultures go through long after they have shed full-fledged orality and replaced it often by some very elegant written mediums (e.g. Arabic, Chinese, Spanish).

RESIDUAL ORALITY

For a variety of complex reasons, certain traits of orality tend to linger, giving rise to what may be described as `orate' (as opposed to `literate') linguistic behaviour.

RESIDUAL ORALITY

Words have great power All sound is dynamic This determines not only modes of expression but also thought processes Thought must come into being - in heavily rhythmic, balanced patterns, - in repetitions or antitheses, - in alliterations and assonances, - in epithetic and formulary expressions

MINIMAX

Speaker, writer, listener or reader resolves for that which promises maximal effect for minimal effort. Translators should do the same

SELECTIONAL POLITENESS

A writer who maintained absolute presentational politeness/ would observe the cooperative principle at all costs, so that his readers would never be in the slightest doubt as to what was happening, what he meant, or why he was saying what he was saying

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TEXT TYPE CONTROLS ON THE PURPOSE OF TRANSLATION

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