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NCPS 2009

3 August, 2009

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONALPAKISTAN

5C, 2ND FLOOR, KHYABANEITTEHAD, PHASE VII, DEFENCE HOUSING AUTHORITY, KARACHI PHONE : (009221) 53904089 FAX : (009221) 5390410 EMAIL : [email protected] WEBSITE : www.transparency.org.pk

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Contents

Foreword Note on Tendering Section Objective of the Survey Pakistan at a Glance Country Profile Strategy Sample Sample Location Survey Highlights Respondents Profile Respondents Demographic Profile Corruption Through Bribery Opinion on Corrupt Sectors Page No 02 03 10 11 10 15 16 17 19 23 25 29 33

Sectors Analysis

Police Judiciary Power Land Administration Taxation Custom Health Education Local Government Tendering / Contracting 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 65 69 71

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Foreword

Similar to the NCPS 2002 and 2006, the NCPS 2009 covers the levels and frequency of corruption faced by the common man on a daily basis. Unlike the previous surveys, the railway and banking sectors have been replaced by the local government and tendering/contracting sectors respectively. The NCPS 2009 focuses on ten departments of the government where the average man faces the highest levels of corruption. There were obstacles faced at various stages of this report, resulting in a longer time being taken than originally anticipated. The encumbrances were mainly due to the increase in sample base, decided by MARC, the constant power outages countrywide, and the unstable societal and political conditions in all four provinces. This study doesn't cover just the negative aspects of the country's government departments. It is also being compiled to laud and appreciate the improvements made in those departments/sectors where corruption levels have decreased. It is a platform to not only profess the deplorable state of our governmental sectors, but also for their success stories to be shared and appreciated. A majority of respondents of this survey were of the view that the media, especially the electronic media has played a positive role in the battle against corruption. Unfortunately, the media is also prone to propaganda under duress/pressure, which distorts reality. Judiciary ranking in corruption amongst 10 sectors in 2006 was 3rd. whereas it has shown remarkable improvement in 2009, and its rank is now 7th. Motor way police system has been said by more than 84% respondents to have reduced corruption, and has been recommended to be implemented in all cities of Pakistan. Unfortunately there isn't much else on a positive note to be shared through this report. The level of expenditure in the case of bribery, for example, has increased to almost four times high as compared to the previously carried out surveys. Transparency International Pakistan is hopeful that with this report, more care and attention will be given towards reforming the systems prevalent in our society, where it is the common man who is facing problems every day and is consequently suffering. This survey doesn't target the billions of rupees wasted in the government agencies, which is another playing field altogether. The support and sponsorship in regard to this survey by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and USAID is highly appreciated by TIP. We also acknowledge and commend the efforts and formulation made by M/s. Marketing and Research Consultants for this survey.

Syed Adil Gilani Chairman Transparency International Pakistan

17th June, 2009

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Note on Tendering Section

The NCPS 2009 shows that the quantum per act of corruption is highest in Tendering (Procurement), Rs. 71,870, which is 49% of all 10 sectors.

PKR 80,000.00 PKR 60,000.00 PKR 40,000.00 PKR 20,000.00 PKR 0.00 Tendering & Contracting Land admin Custom Health Power Judiciary Taxation Police Local Govt. Education 19246 17946 12607 10669 6786 3167 2862 1130 966 71870

World Bank Corruption Report.

The assessment of the Pakistan Infrastructure Implementation Capacity (PIICA) which was carried out at the request of the GoP, jointly by World Bank and Planning Commission of Pakistan, released its report on 8th Feb. 2008. The report stated that in Pakistan the cost of corruption in procurement is about 15%. In the GCB 2009 released on 3 June 2009, the survey indicated that the political parties and civil service are perceived on average to be the most corrupt sectors worldwide. Figure 1 Single institution/sector perceived to be most affected by corruption, overall results

Political Parties Public officials/Civil Servants Parliament/Legislature Business/Private Sector Judiciary

Media 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%

% of respondents reporting this to be the most corrupt institution

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Transparency International Pakistan also conducted a survey of the Federal Government Departments on the compliance of the Public Procurement Rules 2004. The results prepared from responses of the various departments are tabulated in Table A. The Armed Forces are the largest sector of violators of the Procurement Rules 2004, issued by Public Procurement Regulatory Authority under PPRA Ordinance 2002. The other sectors of violators are the regulatory authorities themselves. PPRA itself is not performing its statutory obligations of monitoring the application of rules, and is stated to have given illegal exemptions from application of Procurement Rules 2004. Bodies such as the SECP, privatization ministry, and the State Bank of Pakistan refuse to be governed under the PPRA Ordinance 2002. The correspondence with these departments is available on the Transparency International Pakistan website. The survey results confirm that Pakistan has laws, but not the rule of law. We quote here a few statements from Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry. These are from the speeches given during the period he was deposed. November 4, 2008 Rawalpindi: Some people think that by touching November 3 emergency, the questions about the authenticity of general elections could also be raised but as a matter of fact, the imposition of emergency has not any linkage with the national polls as the elections were to be held in any case after completion of five years tenure. He said that the terrorism could be eradicated only by means of a strong economy. The investors put their money only in those countries where their investment is safe and judiciary is independent. November 17, 2008 New York: My learned friends, in an ideal world I should not be standing here today giving this speech. In an ideal world where all nations bow to the rule of law, for the Chief Justice of a Supreme Court to take a principled stand against subversion of the Constitution and to warn against the erosion of the Rule of Law and Independence of the Judiciary, should be the norm rather than the exception. It is extremely unfortunate for us as a nation to have to fight for and struggle for something which should be the birth right of every human being. Ladies and gentlemen, I am sure all of you are fully aware of the link between economic growth and an independent judiciary. Investment shies away from economies or countries that do not have an independent judiciary.

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November 26, 2008 Washington: Chief Justice Iftikhar Mohammad Chaudhry has defended judicial activism, saying the courts have a duty to protect the fundamental rights of a citizen and to keep the government within the parameters of the Constitution. Addressing a gathering at the law school of the Georgetown University in Washington on Tuesday, Justice Iftikhar said the Pakistani Constitution allowed superior courts to take suo moto actions when necessary. "In the case of the Supreme Court there is not even a need for an application by an aggrieved person," he said. "The Supreme Court may take up a matter suo moto provided that it feels that a question of public importance relating to the enforcement of fundamental rights is involved." Justice Iftikhar noted that on Nov. 3, 2007, the then government abrogated the Constitution and declared a selective martial law against the judiciary and the media because it felt threatened by the two institutions. December 24, 2008 Rawalpindi: Deposed Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry said that Pakistan could not make progress if there was no rule of law and a handpicked judiciary would give decisions according to the will of individuals. He said any country having compliant judges, who decide what they are asked to decide by the rulers, could not achieve development. He said only those countries achieved progress, which had rule of law, an independent judiciary and all the institutions of the country including the executive, legislature and judiciary worked within their respective jurisdictions. Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry asked the audience to renew the pledge for restoration of the 1973 Constitution in its original shape, enforce rule of law and enable the country to join the club of those countries, which coined a respectable place for themselves. Transparency International Pakistan demands from Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry to take measures for the Rule of Law in Pakistan, as promised during the restoration of judiciary movement to the citizen of Pakistan. All rules shall be made applicable without further loss of time. To start with, all those departments who are violators of Public Procurement Rules 2004, shall be made accountable by the Supreme Court, in such manner that in future no one dare violates procurement rules. Syed Adil Gilani, Chairman, TIPakistan

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Organizations complying to PPR 2004

A questionnaire was mailed by TI Pakistan to federal organization to determine those complying with PPR 2004 for public disclosure of evaluation report and contract agreement of their procurements. The results have been tabulated in Table A

Table A

Organizations Organizations Violating Complying Public Public Procurement Procurement Rule 2004 Rule 2004

S.NO

Names of Organization

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Civil Aviation Authority OGDCL Pakistan International Airlines Trading Corporation Pakistan Pakistan Steel Mills Trade Development Authority of Pakistan TDAP SMEDA Ministry of Information Technology Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan, National Highway Authority, NHA Gwadar Port Authority, GPA State Bank of Pakistan SBP Capital Development Authority (CDA) Karachi Port Trust KPT Port Qasim Authority Pakistan Security Printing Press Corporation ( Private ) Ltd Election Commission of Pakistan Earthquake Reconstruction & Rehabilitation Authority Board of Investment Ministry of Interior Labour and Manpower Division, Government of Pakistan Department Of Archaeology & Museums Ministry of Industries, Production & Special Initiative Ministry of Social Welfare Secretary Ministry of Religious Affairs Ministry of Defence Production WAPDA Sui Southern Gas Company Ltd Defence Housing Authority Islamabad DHA/ Lahore DHA/Karachi Cantonment Executive Officer COMSATS 6

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Ministry of Defence Production Evacuee Trust Property Board Frequency Allocation Board, Government of Pakistan Headquarters Frontier Works Organization (FWO) Heavy Mechanical Complex3, Taxila HESCO Faisalabad Electric Supply Company (FESCO) Federal Board of Revenue, IESCO International Islamic University, Islamabad Jamshoro Power Company Limited M/s Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre Karachi M/s Maritime Security Agency, Karachi Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works Limited Government of Pakistan, Secretary Education Ministry of Food & Agriculture Ministry of Health/ Government of Pakistan Ministry of Housing and Works PSO NBP Pak P.W.D. Complex PNSC Pakistan Post PESCO Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited State Bank of Pakistan State Life Insurance Corporation Of Pakistan SUPARCO Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited Supreme Court of Pakistan Federal Secretary, Ministry of Privatisation Cantonment Board Clifton Cantonment Board Faisal Cantonment Board Malir Cantonment board Islamabad Cantonment Board Karachi Karachi Water & Sewerage Board Karachi University Pakistan Railways

Organizations names in Blue Colour are Complying with Public Procurement Rule 2004 Organizations names in Red Colour are Violating Public Procurement Rule 2004

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Survey of Corruption in Province Foreword

On behalf of Marketing & Research Consultants we express our thanks to the Transparency International Pakistan for entrusting us the exclusive survey of Question "In your Opinion which Province is the most corrupt?". The primary source of data was collected by Marc in 2006 & now in 2009. This particular question has been exclusively and separately surveyed in JuneJuly 2009 as to have independent opinion on the ranking of corrupt provinces. The sample base is increases from 4000 in 2006 to 5200 in 2009. These research reports have to be taken seriously, because perception is much deeper with wide impact than the reality, especially in our culture. We owe special thanks to Transparency International Pakistan for guidance given at all the stages of the survey.

Shameim Kazmi

Managing Director Marketing & Research Consultants 1 August , 2009

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2.3)

In your opinion which Province is the most corrupt? PROVINCIAL CORRUPTION ASSESSMENT Punjab Punjab Sindh NWFP 648 446 260 365 1719 33.06 Sindh 350 756 172 464 1742 33.50 NWFP 155 38 848 338 1379 26.52 Baluchistan 147 60 20 133 360 6.92 1300 1300 1300 1300 5200 5200 Total

PROVINCES

Baluchistan PAKISTAN (Percentage)

Corruption

Punjab Sindh NWFP Baluchistan

33.06

33.5 26.52

6.92 Punjab Sindh NWFP Balochistan

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Objectives

The overall objective of the survey was to measure the nature and extent of corruption being faced by consumers of the following ten public sector departments: Police Judiciary Power Land Administration Taxation Custom Health Education Local Government Tendering & Contracting

Another objective of the survey was to gather information about the particular stages where obstacles are usually being faced, to locate the responsible element for creating the obstacles, and the means used by the user for overcoming the bottlenecks in the ten sectors under study. Transparency International expects the country's concerned provincial chapters to use the findings of the survey as pressure techniques and to facilitate and motivate the various sectors' heads for rectification of the prevalent situation. The information gathered is to be shared by the South Asian countries in their respective governments, by their policy makers, the other stake holders and the media. The objective is also to assess the changes which have occurred from the first phase of the survey, conducted in the year 2002 till the present time period, 2009.

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Pakistan at a Glance

Population Area Covered Population growth rate Sex ratio Fertility rate Infant mortality rate Literacy rate 166 millions (Estimated) 796, 096 sq. km. 2.06 per annum 52.0% Male, 48.0% Female 3.2% per annum 77.1 (per 1000 live birth) Both Sexes 43.90% *Male 54.81% *Female 32.02% Muslim 96.28%, Christian 1.58%, Hindu 1.59%, Qadiani 0.22%, Scheduled caste 0.26%, Others 0.07%

Religions

* Statistical Year Book Govt. of Pakistan 2008.

Estimated Population of Pakistan 166 million according to www.pakistan.gov.pk as of May, 2009.

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Country Profile

THE UNIVERSE Pakistan as an independent state had come on the world map on August 14th, 1947. Its total area is 7, 96,096 sq. kilometers. The country comprises of four provinces namely, Punjab, Sindh, Northwest Frontier and Balochistan. Its capital is the city of Islamabad located in the Punjab province. Each province is divided into administrative divisions, and each division into districts, tehsils/ talukas, village and union councils; there are 28 divisions, 106 districts, 376 tehsils/ taukas, 46, 144 villages and 4, 147 union councils in the country. POPULATION Pakistan with a population of 160.9 million in mid 2008 is the 6th most populous country in the world. The population of the area now constituting Pakistan has increased tenfold since 1901; half added during postindependence period. In absolute numbers; almost 128 million people have been added to the population during the last 58 years (19512008). Annual growth rates have risen from 1 percent in the first three decades of the country to around 2 percent in the next three decades after peaking over 3 percent in the 1960s and 1970s and then below 3 percent in the 1990s. The country's population is estimated to double in the year 2045 if it continues to grow at 1.8 percent. The population density has increased to 203 persons per square kilometer today from 42.5 persons per square kilometer in 1951 which is almost a fourtime increase. Movement of population to urban areas, attributed to the wellknown "pull" and "push" factors continues, and as a result the urban population has increased from 6 million in 1951 to today's 57 million. Selected Demographic Indicators Indicators Latest Available Total Fertility Rate (TFR) 200506 3.8 Crude Birth Rate (CBR) 200506 26.1 Crude Death Rate (CDR) 200506 7.1 Population Growth Rate 1.8 Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) 200506 76.7 Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) 200405 350400 Life Expectancy at Birth 200506 Male : 64 Years, Female : 66years

Source: "Economic Survey 200708" Govt. of Pakistan Finance Division.

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EDUCTION According to the Pakistan Social and Living Measurement (PSLM) Survey data (200607), the overall literacy rate (age 10 years and above) is 55% (67% for male and 42% for female) in 200607 compared to 54% (65% for male and 44% for female) in 200506. Literacy remains higher in urban areas (72%) than in rural areas (45%) and more in men (67%) compared to women (42%). When analyzed provincially, literacy rate in Punjab stood at (58%) followed by Sindh (55%), NWFP (47%) and Balochistan at (42%). The literacy rate of Punjab and Balochistan has improved considerably during 200405 to 200607. Adult literacy rate (age 15 and above) has also increased from 50% in 200405 to 52% in 2006 07. Educational Institutions by Sector and Provinces (in 2006) Area Public Private Total Pakistan 164,579 81,103 (33) 245,682 Punjab 66,770 48,541 (42) 115,311 Sindh 46,738 12,574 (21) 59,312 NWFP 29,430 11,276 (28) 40,706 Balochistan 7,742 1,750 (15) 11,492 FATA 4,704 640 (12) 5,344 FANA 1,505 2,861 (66) 4,366 AJK 5,092 2,711 (35) 7,803 ICT 598 750 (56) 1,348

Percentage Share in Parentheses Source; Pakistan Education Statistics 2007

Number of Educational Institutions Category Preprimary Primary + Mosque Middle High Higher Sec/Inter Degree Colleges Universities Total 200506 157,526 39,370 22,909 2,996 1,135 111 224,047

Institutions 200607 158,378 42,918 25,177 3,332 1,371 113 231,289

Source: Pakistan Education Statistics MoE Islamabad

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HEALTH With reference to demographic transition Pakistan stands in the list of one of the world's most populous countries with a population of 161 million. Although the annual population growth rate has declined from over 3 percent in 1960s and 1970s to present level of 1.8 percent per annum, it still remains high. Human Resource Available (2007) Years MBBS Doctors Dentists Nurses Midwives Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) Population per Doctor Population per Dentist Population per Nurse Population per Midwife Population per LHVs

2007 127,859 8,195 62,651 25,261 9,302 1,225 19,121 2,501 6,203 16,845

Sources: Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) and Pakistan Nursing Council (PNC), Islamabad

Social Indicators health:

Country Life Expectancy Year 2005 Female Pakistan India Sri Lanka Bangladesh Nepal China Thailand Philippines Malaysia Indonesia 64.8 65.3 75.6 64.0 62.9 74.3 74.5 73.3 76.1 71.6 Male 64.3 62.3 67.9 62.3 62.1 71.0 65.0 68.9 71.4 67.8 Infant Mortality Rate Per 1000 Year 2005 70 56 12 54 56 23 18 25 10 28

Source: Human Development Report 2008 & World Development Report 2008

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Strategy

As per agreement with Transparency International Pakistan, the total number of households to be contacted was 4,000. It was estimated that at least 3,000 respondents would be selected from urban areas and 1,000 respondents from the rural areas. However, keeping in view the magnitude of the issue, the base has been increased from 4,000 to 5,200; 800 urban households in each province and 500 rural households in each province. All 5,200 respondents were asked questions from section I of the questionnaire. Only those respondents were asked for details who had used the services within the last one year from any of the ten sectors under study. In each town, localities were selected being residents of the middle and lowermiddle class. Socioeconomic parameters were used, such as the type of vehicle owned, size of the plot, electronic accessories, profession and means of monthly income, to assess the class status Questionnaire was finalized in the month of Jan, 2009. Pilot testing of the questionnaire was done and field data collection was started in the province of Sindh in Feb, 2009. The data collection period of other three provinces, namely Punjab, NWFP and Balochistan was from March, 2009 to April, 2009

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Sample

Due to lack of statistical information on localitywise data in any city of Pakistan, the Random Sampling approach was adopted. The selection of a particular locality was based on the researcher's past experience and knowledge. Efforts were made to spread the sample spatially. In very congested lanes every fifth house was knocked, and in less populated area every third house was covered. A trained team of field investigators collected data from the head of the household or responsible adult member of the family. Each investigator had an introductory letter of MARC, and they were trained to create a rapport with the respondent before asking questions. Initially in many houses, especially in the provinces of NWFP and Balochistan our field team was even doubted as secret agents or income tax representative. Thirty to fifty minutes were taken, later on with practice in both verbal and written tack, lesser time was consumed. All completed questionnaires were backchecked and scrutinized by the supervisors. The vaguely filled ones were rejected and substituted from the same locality. However, such incidences were less, due to the experienced field team. The quality of fieldwork was satisfactory. The field team was not only given a thorough briefing by the client, they were given one week for pilot testing. All Investigators had to sign a commitment undertaking for honesty and unbiased field reporting. The overall response was good. Respondents were reluctant in the beginning but after explanations about the objectives they were co operative and willingly provided the information with a few exceptions. They were also given assurance of complete secrecy, and that at no stage whatsoever their name or address would be disclosed. In each province at least 38% respondents were chosen from rural areas or from rural pockets adjoining the urban city. However, in the final analysis,

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Sample

that is the statistical tables, data has been analyzed and represented as urban, because no marked difference of responses were noted, with a few exceptions. One rural respondent said "May God save you from tortures of Patwari and hell." The interviews were conducted mostly in the evening, keeping in view the availability of the head of the household.

Sample Locations:

In each Province a total of 1300 Respondents were approached.

Province of Punjab Lahore City, Localities:

Najaf colony, Ravi Block, Kareem Block, Mehran Block (Iqbal town) Kakar bazaar (Multan road) ,Awan Town ,Hassan Bazaar ,Mandi Stop (Wahdat Road) Nashtar Colony, Shah Di Khoi, Ghari Shao, Mughal Pura, Multan Road, Gugar pura (Ghazi road), Alfaisal Town (Ghazi road), Railway Station, Gulshan Ravi, Chuburji Chowk, Chuburji Park, Samanabad, Sanda Kalan, Dharam Pura,

Rural: Sheikhupura and Jehanian Districts Province of Sindh Karachi City, Localities:

North Karachi, Maripur, Hawks Bay, Kharadar, Meethadar, Urdu bazaar, Old Town, Burns Road, Korangi, landhi, Liaquatabad, GulshaneIqbal, F.B Area, GulistaneJohar.

Rural: Sajawal and Dadu Districts

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Province of Balochistan Quetta City, Localities:

Brewery, Sirki Road, Satellite town, Basti Panchait, Killi Yaro, Loralai, Gulstan, Killi Ismailzai, Kuchlaq,

Rural : Pishin and Mastung Districts Province of NWFP Peshawar City, Localities:

Gulbahar, Hayatabad, Lahori, Phandu road, Yaqatut, Sadar, Ganj,Badh ber, Shami road, Tehkaal , University road, Warsak road

Rural & Semi Urban Areas:

Nowshera cantt, Nowshera kallan, Moti bazaar, Laal kurti, Ada bazaar, Savul colony, Cavalary road Charsada : Umerzai, Utmaanzai, Sherpao Chamkani: Qadakhel, Rehmankhel

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Survey Highlights

The Survey conducted in 2002, 2006 and 2009, indicates Police as the topmost corrupt department. In spite of various measures taken from time to time, and the highly published slogan "Police ka hai kaam madad aap ki" the image has not improved. Out of the ten public sector departments, the reality is that the visibility of the Police is much higher and frequency of public dealing is highest when compared to the other nine departments. The police department needs revamping and drastic measures for improvement. Appreciation has been expressed for the Motorway Police, the Traffic Police Warden system of Punjab, though some respondents of Punjab were of the view that even this system is getting polluted by corruption and they are not as good as they were in the beginning. After Police the other two perceived as most corrupt were Power and Health. Power as the secondmost corrupt department is quite understandable. The prevalent load shedding situation in the whole country has geared a high level of resentment towards WAPDA, KESC, etc. Power also needs drastic measures for improvement because they provide electricity, gas, and water to the masses. In one pocket of a semirural area of Sindh, the respondents disclosed that they do not pay the bills according to the meter, since they do not even have a meter. Rs. 300 is collected per month per house with punctuality, and no receipt is issued. The respondents were vague about the real identity of the collector, he being either representative of the Nazim or WAPDA. In the 2009 survey, Health in corruption ranked high as compared to 2002 and 2006. This was also due to the fact that this time rural households had more representations in the survey, and in rural areas dependence on Public Health departments are more as compared to cities. In the opinion of a respondent of Punjab "There is no difference between a Daco (Dacoit) and Doctor". An exhealth minister in one of the Province narrated indepth details of corruption in the Health sector and confessed his helplessness.

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Difference between perception and reality has been noted that as in previous surveys bribery cost is higher in other sectors as compared to the top three corrupt departments of Police, Power and Health. At the time of the survey, the campaign of Justice Iftikhar Choudhery was at its momentum especially in Punjab. As a result, the public were sympathetic, and as compared to the 2006 survey Judiciary ranked as the 3rd most corrupt sector, whereas in 2002 it ranked in as 4th most corrupt sector. In this survey, Judiciary has been ranked in the number 7 position. In this year of Survey the expenditure on bribery is almost four times high as compared to the other two surveys, the overall inflation has affected the rate of bribery too. On an average our 5200 respondents have spent Rs. 9,428/ at a time on palm greasing to get their legal or illegal job done. However this expenditure is an unnecessary drain on the limited economic resources of the middle class. Highest amount has been spent on bribery on Police, followed by Land Administration, Judiciary & Tendering / Contracting. According to an estimate based on current Population of the Country Rs. 195.6 Billion has been spent on corruption through bribery. The number of consumers giving bribery also indicates a rising trend. In the 2002 survey, out of 3,000 respondents, 1,784 confessed using bribery to get their job done. In the 2006 survey, out of 4,000 respondents, 3,568 used bribery, and in the current survey, the number of consumers giving bribery increased to 7,004. Some respondents gave bribery to more than one department. In the opinion of our respondents civilian governments are more corrupt then the military. Actually, people expressed their frustration against the apathy and inefficiency prevalent at its height in all the public sector departments in the course of the survey. The remedies suggested for improvement by a majority of the respondents, were accountability of public office holder, streamlining the

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judicial process, appointments on merit, adequate salaries of public servants, and the abolishment of the officers' discretionary powers. Respondents do feel the need of an independent accountability Institution under the Supreme Judicial Council, with its jurisdiction over the military, private sector and also the judiciary. A significant majority of the respondents were of the view that the media, especially electronic media has played a positive role in combating corruption. The weak points of media as stated by the respondents were propaganda under pressure, both political and international, lack of research and biased information. In the 2009 survey overall expression of helplessness and hopelessness among the respondents has been much more obvious then the previous years of 2002 and 2006. The usual comments was "All departments are corrupt, their officers are callous, inefficient and do not desire to work". The only visible ray of hope is through the media as expressed by quite a few respondents. Some respondents suggested that for future surveys the departments of Nadra and Zakat should also be added. The average expenditure on bribery per household is Rs. 9,428. Based on a population of 165 million and 8 members per house, the cost of petty bribery works out to Rs. 196 billion Cost of bribery per act in tendering almost equals to the combined bribery cost per act of all the other 9 sectors. 66% of the respondents paid bribe under duress. In the opinion of 55% of the respondents, civilian government were more corrupt than military government. 67% of the respondents perceived that the present district government system was more corrupt than the previous provincial government system.

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In the opinion of 36% of the respondents, Accountability Commission should also include accountability of military, judiciary and private sector. 54% of respondents feel that NAB and provincial corruption agencies are least effective in combating corruption. 60% respondents felt government and armed forces should not be involved in commercial activities. The main feature of the Pakistan National Corruption Perception Survey 2009 and ranking in 2006 and 2002 NCPS are detailed below. 1. In the opinion of the 5,200 respondents the ranking of ten government departments are, (1 Rank 1 being the most corrupt and 10 being the least corrupt) 2009 Ranking 1. POLICE 2. POWER 3. HEALTH 4. LAND 5. EDUCATION 6. TAXATION 7. JUDICIARY 8. LOCAL GOVT 9. CUSTOM 10. TENDERING 2006 Ranking 1. POLICE 2. POWER 3. JUDICIARY 4. LAND 5. TAXATION 6. CUSTOM 7. HEALTH 8. EDUCATION 9. RAILWAY 10. BANK 2002 Ranking 1. POLICE 2. POWER 3. TAXATION 4. JUDICIARY 5. CUSTOM 6. HEALTH 7. LAND 8. EDUCATION 9. RAILWAY 10. BANK

Green Colour Shows drop in ranking. Red Colour Shows Improvement in ranking. Black Colour Shows status quo.

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Respondents Profile

Respondent Status In a male dominated society, interaction with the world outside the home is a man's prerogative, hence 87% of our respondents were male, 13% were females who were head of the household at the time of data collection, or were business women, school owners etc. Age Status Nearly 40% belonged to the mature age group of 24 to 35 years, 30% represented 36 to 45 years age group.15% represented the senior age group of 46 to 60. However in this survey there has been a broader representation of youths, as compared to the last two. Marital Status 61% respondents were married Educational Status Literacy status of the respondents was pretty high, only 15% were illiterate, they were mainly from rural areas or blue collar workers , nearly 19% were primary, that is up to Class 5 educated, 34% secondary, that is up to Metric, 7% Graduates and 10% Post Graduates. Occupational Status Among the 5,200 respondents, 24% were in services both private and public, 18% in Business, 15% were farmers, 7% were labourer (Daily wage earner) and around 8.5% were selfemployed. Family Composition On an average there were 8 persons living in a household, males and females were approximately equal, 57% were adult and 16% were in the younger age group of 5 to 14 years. Earners With the exception of very few households, almost 99% had two earners in the family. The average monthly income per household was Rs.10, 000 to Rs.20, 000. However this table should be read with caution, because people usually either hid the income or inflated it. The real average monthly income should be around

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Rs.25, 000 to Rs.30, 000 per household, because mostly there were two earners per household. Household Assets Among the respondents, 36% had telephone/mobile, 19% had T.V., 10% had refrigerator and 13% had motorbike, etc. Quite a significant number of households had computers, especially in the Province of Balochistan and NWFP. In the last two areas there were smuggled mobiles, computers and even cars freely available. House Ownership Among the respondents, 41% have their own house, 56% have rented houses and 1.4% lives in Govt. /Co. property. In rural areas house ownership was high as compared to urban.

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Respondent Demographic Profile

Respondents status Household member Household head Total No. 2737 2463 5200 Percent 52.63 47.37 100.00

Gender Male Female Total

No. 4539 661 5200

Percent 87.29 12.71 100.00

AgeGroup 1823 2428 2935 3640 4145 4650 5155 5660+ Total

No. 862 1000 988 795 765 360 220 210 5200

Percent 16.58 19.23 19.00 15.29 14.71 6.92 4.23 4.04 100.00

Marital Status Married Unmarried Widow/er Separated Divorced Total

No. 3188 1903 63 27 19 5200

Percent 61.308 36.596 1.212 0.519 0.365 100.000

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Education Illiterate Informal Primary Secondary Inter Graduate Post Graduate Professional Other Total

Total 800 162 1000 1781 210 347 520 348 32 5200

Percent 15.38 3.12 19.23 34.25 4.04 6.67 10.00 6.69 0.62 100.00

Occupation Service (Private & govt.) Business(Shop owner ,Hotels , etc) Student Selfemployed Labour (Daily wage earner) Farmer House Work Unemployed Zamindar (Small Zamindar & Patwari etc.) Fisherman Retired Other(Lawyer ,Doctor, engineer ,etc) Total

No. 1240 940 636 445 324 803 193 160 108 14 97 240 5200

Percent 23.85 18.08 12.23 8.56 6.23 15.44 3.71 3.08 2.08 0.27 1.87 4.62 100.00

Household Data

No. Of Male & No. Percent Female in H.H Male 20313 50.61 Female 19821 49.39 Total 40134 100 Avg no. Per H.H 4 4 8

*Average Persons per Household 8

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Age of H.H members Adult (1559) young (514) Child (24) Senior (60+) Infant (01) Total

No. 22919 6736 5165 3100 2214 40134

Percent 57.11 16.78 12.87 7.72 5.52 100.00

No of Earning Persons Full Time Part Time Other(seasonal worker) Total

No. 10861 1003 84 11948

Percent 90.90 8.39 0.70 100.00

*Average earners per house hold 2 *Average Income on 5,200 households works out to be Rs.20, 000/ per household per month.

27

H.H Assets Telephone/Mobile TV Refrigerator Motorbike AC Computer CD/DVD player Car TOTAL

Punjab 2773 1452 1157 985 644 761 389 343 8504

Sindh 2223 1197 931 770 493 638 436 404 7092

NWFP 1068 1245 1218 378 1251 371 345 345 6221

Balochistan 3389 1492 1094 1008 142 750 457 507 8839

Total 9453 5386 4400 3141 2530 2520 1627 1599 30656

*The total has exceeded to 5200 because of ownership of more than one asset.

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Punjab Sindh NWFP Balochistan

AC Co m pu CD te /D r VD pl ay er

Re TV fri ge ra to r M ot or bi ke

ile

House Ownership Own House Rental House From Employer/Govt/Co Other (shared , temporary) Total

Te l

ep ho n

e/ M ob

No. 2135 2929 73 63 5200

Percent 41.06 56.33 1.40 1.21 100.00

28

Ca r

Corruption through Bribery

i

ii

Expenditure on bribery in Rupees: Sector Police Land admin Judiciary Tendering & Contracting Taxation Health Sector Custom Power Local Govt. Education 2235800 1751303 304400 460333 83366 432620 882846 901957 1512010 469300 211664 279384 850540 84649 333750 382331 25100 121000 254061 103300 218255 145876 718782 113200 3849328 4223247 2841209 2368415 1457840 1038912 946204 49025282 8.61 5.80 4.83 2.97 2.10 1.93 100 SINDH (Rs) 6786428 944665 487983 1250748 PUNJAB (Rs) 4792283 6938100 5710804 4248500 NWFP (Rs) 729630 771522 1058900 134038 BALOCHISTAN (Rs) 517540 1072624 517540 188150 Total 12825881 9726911 7775227 5821436 Percentage % 26.16 19.84 15.85 11.80

Total 14737646 25946848 4491460

Average expenditure on bribery is around Rs. 9,428/ on 5200 Respondents.

29

Average Expenditure on Bribery Per Corrupt Act: (2009) Sector Tendering & Contracting Judiciary Land admin Taxation Custom Police Health Local Govt. Power Education Total

Based on 5200 Consumers

Extra Cost (RS) 5821436 7775227 9726911 4223247 2368415 12825881 2841209 1038912 1457840 946204 49025282

Number of Consumers 81 404 542 335 222 1890 897 363 1290 980 7004

AVG. Exp. On Bribery (RS) 71870 19246 17946 12607 10669 6786 3167 2862 1130 966 7000

PKR 80,000.00 PKR 70,000.00 PKR 60,000.00 PKR 50,000.00 PKR 40,000.00 PKR 30,000.00 PKR 20,000.00 PKR 10,000.00 PKR 0.00

71870

19246 17946

12607 10669

6786

3167

2862

1130

966

Tendering & Contracting Taxation Health Education

Judiciary Custom Local Govt.

Land admin Police Power

Average expenditure on bribery per corrupt act is around Rs. 7000/ on 7004 No. Of Consumers.

30

Average Expenditure on Bribery per Corrupt Act: (COMPARATIVE): Sectors

Tendering / Contracting Judiciary Land & Admin Taxation Custom Police Health Local Govt. Education Power

Average in Rs. (2009)

71869 49% 19245 13% 17946 12% 12606 9% 10668 7% 6786 5% 3167 2% 2862 2% 965 1% 1130 1%

Average in Rs. (2006)

4198 13% 5085 15% 3324 10% 11750 36% 694 2% 980 3% 1510 5% 2444 7% 2752 8% 249 1%

Average in Rs. (2002)

9670 34% 6013 21% 3858 14%

2331 8% 777 3% 4811 17% 1087 4%

Bank Railway

Total

7000

2303

3085

In 2009 Average expenditure on bribery per corrupt act is around Rs. 7000/ on 7004 No. Of Consumers.

31

32

Opinion on Corrupt Sectors

i

ii

In your opinion what are the three most corrupt sectors in the country?

Most Corrupt Sector Police Power Health Land Admin Education Tax Judiciary Local Govt Custom Tendering & Contracting Total

Pakistan 1836 925 517 476 365 279 247 241 197 117 5200

Percent 35.30 % 17.78 % 9.94 % 9.15 % 7.01 % 5.36 % 4.75 % 4.63 % 3.78 % 2.30 % 100

Punjab 424 122 77 163 96 113 117 81 67 40 1300

Sindh 595 205 118 103 98 70 41 29 31 10 1300

NWFP 352 390 149 125 78 48 55 55 37 11 1300

Balochistan 465 208 173 85 93 48 34 76 62 56 1300

No. Of Respondents.

2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 517 476 365 279 925 1836

247

241

197

117

Police Land Admin Judiciary Tendering & Contracting

Power Education Local Govt

Health Tax Custom

33

Most Corrupt Sectors

In Your Opinion what are the most Corrupt Sectors in the country ? (COMPARATIVE)

Sectors

Police Power Health Land & Admin. Education Taxation Judiciary Local Govt. Custom Tendering/Contracting Bank Railway

Percentage 2009

35% 18% 10% 9% 7% 5% 5% 5% 4% 2%

Percentage 2006

64% 11% 2% 5% 1% 4% 9% 4% 1% 1%

Percentage 2002

28% 15% 5% 5% 3% 13% 10% 9% 1% 2%

The main feature of the Pakistan National Corruption Perception Survey 2009 compared to 2002 & 2006 Surveys are detailed below. In the opinion of the 5,200 respondents the ranking of Ten government departments are, (1 Rank 1 being the most corrupt and 10 being the least corrupt ) 2009 Ranking 1. POLICE 2. POWER 3. HEALTH 4. LAND 5. EDUCATION 6. TAXATION 7. JUDICIARY 8. LOCAL GOVT 9. CUSTOM 10. TENDERING 2006 Ranking 1. POLICE 2. POWER 3. JUDICIARY 4. LAND 5. TAXATION 6. CUSTOM 7. HEALTH 8. EDUCATION 9. RAILWAY 10. BANK 2002 Ranking 1. POLICE 2. POWER 3. TAXATION 4. JUDICIARY 5. CUSTOM 6. HEALTH 7. LAND 8. EDUCATION 9. RAILWAY 10. BANK

Green Colour Shows drop in ranking. Red Colour Shows Improvement in ranking. Black Colour Shows status quo.

34

In your opinion why public is involved in encouraging corruption?

Response Under duress Voluntarily Total

No 3444 1756 5200

Percent 66.23 33.77 100.00

In your opinion which government has done more harm to the country on account of corrupt practices?

Type of Government Civilian Government Military Government Total

No 2828 2372 5200

Percent 54.38 45.62 100.00

In your opinion is the present District Govt. System more corrupt than Provincial Government?

Type of system Present District system Provincial Government System No idea Total

Present District system

No. 3457 1732 11 5200

Percent 66.48 33.31 0.21 100.00

No idea

Provincial Government System

66% 34% 1% Present District system Provincial Government System No idea

35

In your opinion National Accountability Bureau or any equivalent Anti Corruption Agency should be an independent body under the control of:

Under control of : Supreme Judicial Council Public Accounts Committee Prime Minister President Ministry Of Interior Total

Supreme Judicial Council President Public Accounts Committee Ministry Of Interior

No. 1886 1460 830 583 441 5200

Prime Minister

Percent 36.27 28.08 15.96 11.21 8.48 100.00

36%

28% 16% 11% President 9% Ministry Of Interior

Supreme Public Accounts Prime Minister Judicial Council Committee

Should jurisdiction of National Accountability Bureau also include the following?

Options Military Judiciary Private Sector

Yes 3649 3600 3350

% 70.17 69.23 64.42

No 1551 1600 1850

% 29.83 30.77 35.58

Total No. of Responses 5200 5200 5200

36

How far Provincial Anti Corruption Agencies are effective in combating corruption?

Effectiveness Least Effective Average Effective Most Effective Total

No. 2812 1669 719 5200

Percent 54.08 32.10 13.83 100.00

In your opinion Government /Armed forces should not be involved in commercial activities like operating corporations, airlines, factories and port terminals?

Response Yes No No Idea Total

No. 3142 1957 101 5200

Percent 60.42 37.63 1.94 100.00

37

What are the three main causes of Corruption in the Govt. Departments?

Causes of corruption Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low salaries ShortagesDemand & Supply Power of influential people Redtape Other Total

No. 2449 673 594 458 527 113 229 100 57 5200

Percent 47.096 12.942 11.423 8.8077 10.135 2.1731 4.4038 1.9231 1.0962 100

38

For combating corruption what immediate measures should be taken?

Measures for Combating Corruption Accountability of public office holders Judicial process to be streamlined Appointing on merit Adequate salaries of public servants Abolish discretionary power of officers Access to information Privatize all commercial activities from public sector Other (Sharai adalat ,Local Courts, Qazi Courts) Total

*Multiple responses

No. of Responses 3660 2518 2460 2339 1885 1563 898 277 15600

Percent 23.46 16.14 15.77 14.99 12.08 10.02 5.76 1.78 100.00

In your opinion has media played a positive role in combating corruption?

Media Role Yes No Total

No. 4024 1176 5200

Percent 77.38 22.62 100.00

39

If yes, which media?

Media Television Print Radio Not playing any role Total

*Total exceeds to 4024 due to Multiple Responses*

No. 3017 1220 764 40 5041

Percent 59.85 24.20 15.16 0.79 100.00

Specify the Radio Channels:

Radio Private Radio Govt Radio Total

No. 542 222 764

Percent 70.94 29.06 100.00

40

Name the TV Channels

Channel Name Geo Express ARY Ajj tv KTN PTV Sama Dunya Sindh tv Tv one News Dhoom Waqt Balochistan/Bolan Dawn Metro one ATV All Local TV News channels

Punjab NWFP 263 364 239 102 64 1 40 49 28 1 0 0 0 34 0 3 0 0 11 251 56 92 0 44 39 15 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 17 9

Balochistan 132 105 48 20 4 42 22 41 0 5 1 0 0 25 14 0 2 38

Sindh 192 82 108 40 209 15 11 6 74 49 44 42 1 0 6 21 0 28

No. 951 677 314 216 214 141 121 90 75 55 45 42 36 25 23 21 19 86

Percent 30.18 21.49 9.97 6.85 6.79 4.47 3.84 2.86 2.38 1.75 1.43 1.33 1.14 0.79 0.73 0.67 0.60 2.73 100.00

Total 3151

*Total has exceeded to 3017 because of Multiple Responses*

41

News Papers:

Newspaper Jang Nawa e Waqt Dawn Mashriq Express Khabroon Ummat Balochistan Kaawish The News Qumi The nation Jurrat Bakhabar Himmat All Local News Papers

Punjab 99 125 33 0 30 35 4 0 5 6 0 6 8 4 0 9

NWFP 23 0 13 15 9 0 16 0 0 10 0 12 16 0 0 4

Balochistan 136 31 7 78 2 0 0 41 1 4 5 11 0 14 12 18

Sindh 58 0 41 0 33 17 22 0 30 15 5 0 0 0 0 46 Total

No. 316 156 94 93 74 52 42 41 36 35 10 29 24 18 12 77 1109

Percent 28.49 14.07 8.48 8.39 6.67 4.69 3.79 3.70 3.25 3.16 0.9 2.61 2.16 1.62 1.08 6.95 100.00

*Total has exceeded to 1220 because of Multiple Responses

42

In your opinion what are the weak points of media?

2.13 Weak points of Media Propaganda (under duress) Lack of research False reporting Propaganda (paid by political party) Biased information Other Total

*Total has exceeded to 5200 because of Multiple Responses

No. 2307 2009 2002 1710 1544 281 9853

Percent 23.41 20.39 20.32 17.36 15.67 2.85 100.00

Other Biased information Propaganda (paid by political party) Falls reporting Lack of research Propaganda (under duress)

24%

20%

20%

17%

16% 3%

Propaganda (under duress)

Lack of research

Falls reporting

Propaganda (paid by political party)

Biased information

Other

In your opinion has there been a reduction in corruption in traffic police by introduction of new traffic system? Such as Motorways , Traffic warden system etc. ?

2.14 Response Yes No No Idea Total

No. 4251 772 177 5200

Percent 81.75 14.85 3.40 100.00

43

Have you/any of your relative; friend every experienced motor way police?

2.15 Response Yes No Total

No 2962 2238 5200

Percent 56.96 43.04 100.00

If yes, in which province? (Motorway Experience)

Province Punjab(Motorway) Sindh (Highway) NWFP(National Highway) Balochistan (Custom Highway) Total

No 1256 924 688 94 2962

Percent 42.40 31.20 23.23 3.17 100.00

Balochistan (Custom Highway) NWFP(National Highway) Sindh (Highway) Punjab(Motorway)

43% 31% 23% 3% Punjab(Motorway) Sindh (Highway) NWFP(National Highway) Balochistan (Custom Highway)

44

In different cities of Punjab, Punjab police have introduced a modern system of traffic control, which is traffic warden (based on motor way police) in your opinion, has this system minimized corruption in traffic dept?

Responses Yes No No idea Total

No 4244 752 204 5200

Percent 81.62 14.46 3.92 100.00

What do you think, should same system be implemented in other cities of the country?

Response Yes No No idea Total

No 4391 610 199 5200

Percent 84.44 11.73 3.83 100.00

45

46

Service taken from the selected sectors:

i

ii

Have you or has any member of your household taken any service from the following sectors during the last one year?

2.18 Taken Services Yes No Total Sindh 1225 75 1300 NWFP 1273 27 1300 Punjab 1260 40 1300 Balochistan 1139 161 1300 Total 4897 303 5200 Percent 94.17 5.83 100

Sectorial Usage by Respondents

If Yes, Please tell us the Relevant Sector: (2009)

Sector Police Power Education Health Land admin Judiciary Local Govt. Taxation Custom Tendering & Contracting TOTAL Sindh 496 322 148 138 120 78 45 38 35 17 1437 NWFP 403 316 122 112 110 102 83 64 48 16 1376 Punjab 600 534 437 424 222 183 166 160 64 25 2815 Balochistan 391 228 212 176 104 88 59 54 41 23 1376 Total 1890 1290 980 897 542 404 363 335 222 81 7004 Percent 26.98 18.42 13.99 12.81 7.74 5.77 5.18 4.78 3.17 1.16 100

*Total exceeds to 4897 because of multiple usage

47

48

Sectors Analysis

i

ii

Police

iii

iv

Police

For which purpose, did you / your household interact with police service?

Purpose FIR Violation of traffic laws Get release from false arrest As accused False Pick up Recovery of stolen vehicles Verification for job Verification of passport Vehicle fitness Character certificate Other Total *Multiple purposes No 513 474 217 166 133 104 97 86 82 79 53 Percent 25.60 23.65 10.83 8.28 6.64 5.19 4.84 4.29 4.09 3.94 2.64

2004

100.00

Was any corruption faced by you / your household?

Yes No

No 1709 181

Percent 90.42 9.58

Total If yes, what kind of corruption did you faced?

Investigation Officer

1890

100.00

Clerk of the Police officer

Traffic Police

Verification Officer

Duty Police Officer Types of corruption Money had to be paid for traffic violation/vehicle fitness Money had to be paid for first Information Report Money had to be paid to avoid false arrest Money had to pay for General Dairy (GD) Money had to be paid to get release from false arrest Money had to be paid to arrest accused Money had to be paid for Police verification for passport Money had to be paid for recovery of car/stolen goods Money had to be paid for Police verification for Job Money had to be paid to get character certificate for immigration Money had to be paid to take down a complaint Money had paid to send the charge sheet to the court Politician used interference to subvert the normal process Other Total 199 140 106 53 49 34 31 18 15 11 10 7 6 31 710

Officer In charge 13 87 38 14 31 35 6 14 9 2 5 2 3 8 267

Other

Total

16 82 22 14 27 34 10 36 13 6 3 4 0 5 272

10 39 12 12 6 5 23 10 19 11 3 3 1 8 162

8 10 3 2 3 2 13 5 19 5 1 0 2 7 80

296 1 10 6 3 1 1 5 0 0 2 2 0 12 339

0 5 3 0 4 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 21

542 364 194 101 123 114 88 88 75 35 24 18 12 73 1851

*Multi type of corruption faced

49

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered by the Service recipient through third party Total

No 955 416 286 194 1851

Percent 51.59 22.47 15.45 10.48 100.00

*Multiple Responses*

In your opinion, which factors are responsible for corruption in police sector?

Causes of Corruption Lack of accountability Low Salaries Discretionary power Lack of transparency Power of influential Monopoly of power Redtape Shortages Other No 982 576 544 376 363 355 112 82 29 Percent 28.72 16.85 15.91 11.00 10.62 10.38 3.28 2.40 0.85

Total

*Multiple responses

3419

100.00

50

Judiciary

i

ii

Judiciary

For what purpose did you / your household interacted with judiciary?

Purpose As a complainant As an accused As a witness As a lawyer Other Total No 185 94 50 39 36 404 Percent 45.79 23.27 12.38 9.65 8.91 100.00

At what stage interaction took place?

Stages Lower Count High Court Supreme Court Special Court Other Total No 293 82 8 4 17 404 Percent 72.52 20.30 1.98 0.99 4.21 100.00

Was any corruption faced by you/your H.H?

No Yes No Total 346 58 404 Percent 85.64 14.36 100.00

51

If yes what kind of corruption did you faced?

Types of Corruption Extra money had to be paid to the witness Extra money had to be paid to the public prosecutors Extra money had to be paid to the opponent lawyer Extra money had to be paid to the Court official Extra money had to be paid to the Magistrate Extra money had to be paid to the judge Extra money had to be paid for date extension/expedition of the case Others Total *Multi types of corruption faced Judge 3 0 2 6 6 32 Court employee 10 27 10 71 33 4 Public Prosecutor s 4 28 5 4 3 0 Opponent Lawyer 4 3 39 6 0 3 Witness 14 4 2 1 0 0 Other 0 1 0 7 0 0 Total 35 63 58 95 42 39

5 6 60

35 16 206

9 7 60

2 1 58

0 0 21

3 5 16

54 35 421

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered directly by the Actor (Service provider Money offered directly by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses*

No. 187 123 85 26 421

Percent 44.42 29.22 20.19 6.18 100.00

In your opinion which factors are responsible for corruption in the judiciary system?

Causes Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Inefficiency Other Total *Multiple responses No. 202 114 71 100 70 28 82 75 48 15 805 Percent 25.09 14.16 8.82 12.42 8.70 3.48 10.19 9.32 5.96 1.86 100.00

52

Power

51

52

Power

Do you have any electricity connection to your house establishment (factory, Business) etc?

Electric Connection

Yes No

Total

No 1240 50 1290

Percent 96.13 3.87 100.00

If yes, how did you get electricity line to your house or establishment?

Process Normal process Alternative process Total No 566 674 1240 Percent 45.65 54.35 100.00

If you got electricity line through alternative process, identify which of the alternative process took place?

Types of Alternative Process Had to pay the office staff Through political influence Through Relatives Had to make repeated trips to the electricity office For settlement of the Accumulated bills Other Total No 255 93 98 117 27 84 674 Percent 37.83 13.80 14.54 17.36 4.01 12.46 100.00

After getting electricity connection, was any corruption faced over the last one year?

Faced Corruption Yes No Total No 957 283 1240 Percent 77.18 22.82 100.00

Did you face any problem on accumulated bill clearance?

Response Yes No Total No 949 291 1240 Percent 76.53 23.47 100.00

53

If yes, what kind of corruption did you face?

Meter reader Union Leader Repairman Electrician Billing Employee Line Man Officer Other Total

Types of Corruption

Extra money had to be paid to receive proper electricity supply Money had to be paid for reducing electricity Bill. Money had to be paid for illegal electricity connection Money had to be paid for correcting the overbilling. Money had to be paid to stop the disconnection of the line ( due to default bill) Money had to be paid for bill Adjustment Others Total *Multiple Responses*

61 80 15 40 7

25 68 16 79 21

35 24 16 42 13

11 5 0 6 1

55 45 38 26 14

30 1 1 0 1

21 4 3 1 3

5 1 1 3 1

243 228 90 197 61

16 9 228

54 14 277

30 10 170

3 1 27

16 15 209

2 5 40

1 2 35

1 4 16

123 60 1002

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses*

No 542 243 167 50 1002

Percent 54.09 24.25 16.67 4.99 100.00

In your opinion, which factors are responsible for corruption in power sector?

Causes of Corruption Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Other No Idea Total Multiple responses* No 681 251 302 242 396 137 218 100 39 90 2456 Percent 27.73 10.22 12.30 9.85 16.12 5.58 8.88 4.07 1.59 3.66 100.00

54

Land Administration

i

ii

Land Administration

For what purpose did you or your household interact with land administration?

Purpose For selling Land For buying Land For Mutation Tax paying Distribution of land Periodic Survey Determination of boundary of land Transfer of property For paying land and property tax Tapedar, Patwari, Tehsildar Other Total *Multipurpose visits No 105 129 41 33 44 14 40 84 19 35 23 567 Percent 18.52 22.75 7.23 5.82 7.76 2.47 7.05 14.81 3.35 6.17 4.06 100.00

Was any corruption faced by your household during interaction?

Response Yes No Total No 483 59 542 Percent 89.11 10.89 100.00

If yes, what kind of corruption did you face?

Surveyors Tahseeldar Revenue Officer Stamp vendor Deed Writer Land owner Other Total

Types of Corruption

Extra money had to be paid for Land registration Waited long time to get documents after registration Extra money had to be paid for mutation Extra money had to be paid to clear land tax Extra money had to be paid for showing lower price than actual price to avoid tax Extra money had to be paid for getting land Extra money had to be paid for transfer of papers Extra money had to be paid to determinate the boundary of land Extra money had to be paid for deed writing Extra money had to be paid for land certificate Others Total *Multi type of corruption faced

17 8 3 6 7 5 8 27 4 2 5 92

37 22 13 9 5 9 36 14 1 8 8 162

11 20 13 15 10 6 17 10 1 4 7 114

13 16 11 3 2 4 6 1 3 4 2 65

15 6 20 0 0 4 9 2 10 0 1 67

2 2 1 1 0 2 2 2 1 0 0 13

6 3 1 2 2 2 7 6 1 2 8 40

101 77 62 36 26 32 85 62 21 20 31 553

55

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses

No 306 126 83 38 553

Percent 55.33 22.78 15.01 6.87 100.00

In your opinion, which factors are responsible for corruption in land administration?

Causes Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Power of Wadera, Zamindar, Sardar Redtape Other Total *Multiple responses No 278 94 143 129 108 39 102 107 69 3 1072 Percent 25.93 8.77 13.34 12.03 10.07 3.64 9.51 9.98 6.44 0.28 100.00

56

Taxation

i

ii

Taxation

Have you /your household paid any tax recently?

Response Yes No Total No 316 19 335 Percent 94.33 5.67 100.00

If yes, please furnish the following information:

Types of Taxes Income Tax With Holding Tax Sales Tax Land and property Tax Other Total *Total has exceeded to 316 because of Multiple Responses No 119 22 60 124 6 331 Percent 35.95 6.65 18.13 37.46 1.81 100.00

Was any corruption faced by your household for the interaction?

Response Yes No Total No 263 72 335 Percent 78.51 21.49 100.00

If yes, what kind of corruption did you face?

Tax Department employee

Land revenue officer

Adjudicator

Tax Officer

Tax lawyer

Other

Total

Types of Corruption

Paid for underassessment Paid to reduce tax which was assessed Paid to reduce fictitious assessment Had to pay extra money for getting tax certificate Had to pay extra money for releasing goods Had to pay extra money to refund excess paid tax Others Total *Multiple Responses*

25 38 16 12 5 11 9 116

15 16 9 7 8 3 0 58

1 14 4 4 4 8 0 35

12 17 11 25 0 7 8 80

5 9 0 7 1 8 3 33

2 1 0 0 0 2 4 9

60 95 40 55 18 39 24 331

57

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered directly by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses*

No 141 86 82 22 331

Percent 42.60 25.98 24.77 6.65 100.00

Which factors are responsible for corruption in taxation department?

Causes of Corruption Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Other Total *Multiple responses No 165 101 103 85 75 25 104 75 13 746 Percent 22.12 13.54 13.81 11.39 10.05 3.35 13.94 10.05 1.74 100.00

58

Custom

i

ii

Custom

Did you/your household interact with customs department?

Response Yes No Total No 213 9 222 Percent 95.95 4.05 100.00

If yes, during which period?

Period 19992002 20032005 20062009 Total No 10 76 127 213 Percent 4.67 35.51 59.81 100.00

What kind of services have you taken from custom department?

Response Goods inspection Goods valuation Survey/valuation of goods For quick service Other Total *Multi type of service No 76 31 34 68 13 222 Percent 34.23 13.96 15.32 30.63 5.86 100.00

Was any corruption faced by you/your household during last interaction?

Response Yes No Total No 192 21 213 Percent 90.14 9.86 100.00

59

If yes, what kind of corruption did you face?

Custom Soldier /Sipahi 9 7 1 2 9 0 28

Types of Corruption Had to pay for the inspection of Goods Had to pay for valuation Had to pay for the reduction custom duties Had to pay to get benefit for inspection Had to pay for quick service Others Total *Multiple Responses*

Custom Officer 22 11 4 5 22 1 65

Duty officer 36 20 12 8 34 4 114

Custom collector 4 0 3 4 1 0 12

Other 3 1 0 0 0 0 4

Total 74 39 20 19 66 5 223

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses

No 80 59 61 23 223

Percent 35.87 26.46 27.35 10.31 100.00

In your opinion, which factors are responsible for corruption in custom department?

Causes Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Other Total *Multiple Responses No 132 57 59 63 62 26 61 34 8 502 Percent 26.29 11.35 11.75 12.55 12.35 5.18 12.15 6.77 1.59 100.00

60

Health

i

ii

Health

Did any of your household members go to Government hospital for treatment during last one year?

Response Yes No Total No 857 40 897 Percent 95.54 4.46 100.00

If yes, please furnish the following information about the patients.

Response Infant(01) Child (24) Young (514) Adult (1559) Old (60+) Total *Multi type of patients Out door 48 86 94 261 37 526 In door 21 43 53 234 65 416 Total 69 129 147 495 102 942

Types of Disease:

Diabetes

Heart Disease

Child related

Orthopaedic

Cold &Fever

Dysentery

Diarrhoea

Accident

Gastritis

Epilepsy

Insanity

Asthma

Cancer

Stroke

Other

Total

T.B.

Patients

/BP

Infant (01) Child (24) Young (514) Adult (1559) Old (60above) Total

17 34 20 25 6 102

2 1 8 22 8 41

0 0 1 10 3 14

4 6 15 56 7 88

21 31 39 63 7 161

2 0 3 12 3 20

7 12 15 11 2 47

1 0 3 31 6 41

1 1 9 20 2 33

0 5 0 6 1 12

0 1 0 3 0 4

0 0 2 36 18 56

0 0 1 21 10 32

0 0 1 42 14 57

12 37 20 57 0 126

4 2 9 77 16 108

71 130 146 492 103 942

How did he / you get admission/service in the hospital?

Response Normal Process Alternative Process Total No 673 269 942 Percent 71.44 28.56 100.00

61

If the admission /service took place through alternative process (reason) identify which of the alternative process took place for admission?

Types of alternative process By paying fee to the hospital doctor at his private chamber Through influential relatives/ persons Through hospital Staff Through direct payment Through political influence Others (Specify ............................. Total No 79 71 81 16 17 5 269 Percent 29.37 26.39 30.11 5.95 6.32 1.86 100.00

Was any corruption faced by the patients after admission in the hospital?

Response Yes No Total No 483 459 942 Percent 51.27 48.73 100.00

If yes, please tell us what kinds of corruption were faced by patients in these institutions.

Types of Corruption Extra money had to be paid for getting allocated medicine. Extra money had to be paid for getting bed. Extra money had to be paid for Xray Extra money had to be paid for blood. Extra money had to be paid for operation. Medicine had to be bought from designated pharmacy Pathological test had to be done from designated centre Extra money/influence had to be used to have proper food supply ( because food was not supplied properly) Extra money medical supplies (because medicine was not supplied properly) Extra money had to be paid to get post mortem report Extra money had to be paid to get birth/death medical certificate Other (specify.... Total *Multi type of corruption faced Doctor 19 11 15 9 34 52 18 3 Hospital staff 52 82 33 22 13 21 16 10 Nurse 13 15 7 2 1 4 2 4 Union Leader 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 Other 9 3 3 5 3 1 2 1 Total 94 116 59 38 51 78 38 18

7 2 5 8 183

13 1 23 6 292

2 5 1 0 56

0 0 0 0 7

1 0 4 3 35

23 8 33 17 573

62

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered directly by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses

No 347 117 82 27 573

Percent 60.56 20.42 14.31 4.71 100.00

In your opinion, which factors are responsible for corruption in health Sector?

Causes Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Unavailability of doctor & consultant Other No Idea Total *Multiple Responses No 432 197 136 92 102 97 71 70 226 14 45 1482 Percent 29.15 13.29 9.18 6.21 6.88 6.55 4.79 4.72 15.25 0.94 3.04 100.00

Do you think corruption is less in private Hospital as compared to Govt. Hospital?

Response Less in Private Hospital ore in Govt. Hospital Both have corruption Total No 334 363 200 897 Percent 37.24 40.47 22.30 100.00

If less in private hospital, Explain

Response Good services/Facilities Check and balance Specialization effective administration Total *Multiple responses No 198 105 65 21 389 Percent 50.90 26.99 16.71 5.40 100.00

63

64

Education

i

ii

Education

Is any member of your household a student?

Response Yes No Total No 951 29 980 Percent 97.04 2.96 100.00

If yes, please mention the type of institution.

Type of Institution Primary Secondary School College /Equivalent University Professional Institutions Religious Institutions Other Total *Multiple responses No 239 266 272 170 26 57 7 1037 Percent 23.05 25.65 26.23 16.39 2.51 5.50 0.68 100.00

Has the admission been completed?

Response Yes No Total No 929 22 951 Percent 97.69 2.31 100.00

If yes, how did the admission take place?

Response Normal Process Alternative process Total No. 742 187 929 Percent 79.87 20.13 100.00

65

If the admission took place through alternative process :

Type of Alternative process Through influential relative Private tutor Donation Additional money to be paid other than donation Through political influence Other Total No 64 23 20 23 45 12 187 Percent 34.22 12.30 10.70 12.30 24.06 6.42 100.00

After admission was any corruption faced by the students with the institutions?

Response Yes No Total No 424 505 929 Percent 45.64 54.36 100.00

If yes, please tell us what kinds of corruption were faced by student in the institution?

Types of Corruption Difficult to get good result or promotion to next class unless the teacher are engaged as Different Kinds of Irregular fees had to be paid For taking different kinds of certificate Additional money to be paid for Form fill up Management deduct money from the stipend awarded to the students Management took money for supplying Govt. Free books pen etc Teacher Referred to buy books, pen, papers from designated Extra money had to be paid to pass exams Other (specify.... Total *Multiple Responses* Teacher 50 Management committee 7 Invigilator 0 Institutional employee 3 Student leader 0 Other 0 Total 60

31 8 15 3

47 20 11 11

8 1 2 0

17 12 10 5

11 0 2 2

2 4 2 15

116 45 42 36

6

8

1

4

2

3

24

21 19 19 172

8 13 8 133

1 10 0 23

2 9 10 72

0 3 2 22

0 3 10 39

32 57 49 461

66

Nature of Interactions Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered directly by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses*

No 269 112 54 26 461

Percent 58.35 24.30 11.71 5.64 100.00

In Your opinion which factors are responsible for corruption in education sector?

Causes Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Other No Idea Total *Multiple Responses No 393 238 193 157 323 88 197 109 30 58 1786 Percent 22.00 13.33 10.81 8.79 18.09 4.93 11.03 6.10 1.68 3.25 100.00

Do you think corruption is less in private Educational Institutions as compared to Govt. Educational Institutions?

Response Less in Private Educational Institutions More in Govt. Educational Institutions Both have Corruption Total No 258 531 162 951 Percent 27.13 55.83 17.04 100.00

If less in private Education institute, explain:

Reasons Good Service/Facilities Check and balance Effective teaching staff Transparent administration Specialized staff Competition Total No 133 40 26 40 21 8 268 Percent 49.63 14.93 9.70 14.93 7.84 2.99 100.00

*Multiple Responses

67

68

Local Government

i

ii

Local Government

In your opinion which department of local government is most corrupt?

Department of Local Govt. Sanitation/Road Procurement Vaccination Tool Tax Birth and Death certificate Graveyard permission Don't know Total No 141 26 34 20 103 22 17 363 Percent 38.84 7.16 9.37 5.51 28.37 6.06 4.68 100.00

For what purpose did you / your household interact with local government?

Reason of Interaction As a Complainant As a Attestation of documents As a Vaccination of certificate Seeking permission Other Total *Multiple Responses* No 110 112 65 50 32 369 Percent 29.81 30.35 17.62 13.55 8.67 100.00

At what stage interaction took place?

Stages of interaction Union Council Town Council City Council Total *Multiple Responses No 217 88 64 369 Percent 58.81 23.85 17.34 100.00

Was any corruption faced by you / your household during the interaction?

Response Yes No Total No 248 115 363 Percent 68.32 31.68 100.00

69

If yes, what kind of corruption did you face?

Types of Corruption Extra money had to be paid to the Union Council Extra money had to be paid to the Town council Extra money had to be paid to the City Council Total No 162 38 48 248 Percent 65.32 15.32 19.35 100.00

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered by the Service recipient through third party Total

No 95 84 44 25 248

Percent 38.31 33.87 17.74 10.08 100.00

In your opinion, which factors are responsible for corruption in local government system?

Causes Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Inefficiency Other Don't know Total *Multiple responses No 137 77 71 75 83 25 101 61 43 20 5 698 Percent 19.63 11.03 10.17 10.74 11.89 3.58 14.47 8.74 6.16 2.87 0.72 100.00

70

Tendering/ Contracting

i

ii

Tendering/Contracting

For what purpose did you submit tender / contract?

Purpose Building & Construction Renovation & Repair Catering Transport Goods Supply Contract of Labour & Man Supply Technologies Supply Other Total No 31 8 8 7 12 5 6 4 81 Percent 38.27 9.88 9.88 8.64 14.81 6.17 7.41 4.94 100.00

To which authority did you submit tender / contract?

Response Civil Military Total No 61 20 81 Percent 75.31 24.69 100.00

What kind of corruption did you face during tendering and contract process?

Types of Corruption Extra money had to be paid before submission of tender Back channel negotiation with concern authority Extra money had to be paid for clearance of checks and dues Extra money demand in cash Extra money had to be paid to show lowest bid Demand was made in kind Other Total *Multiple Responses* Clerk 7 4 2 0 1 2 0 16 Section Officer 12 3 2 3 1 0 0 21 Account officer 2 1 9 5 3 1 1 22 Concern officer 4 6 7 8 4 2 6 37 Other 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 Total 27 15 20 16 9 6 7 100

71

Nature of Interaction Money demanded directly by the Actor (Service provider) Money demanded directly by the Actor through 3rd party Money offered by the Actor (Service provider) Money offered directly by the Service recipient through third party Total *Multiple Responses*

No 57 22 13 8 100

Percent 57.00 22.00 13.00 8.00 100.00

In your opinion, which factors are responsible for corruption in tendering / contract?

Causes Lack of accountability Lack of transparency Discretionary power Monopoly of power Low Salaries Shortages Power of influential Redtape Power of Wadera, Zamindar, Sardar Other Total *Multiple responses No 45 30 44 28 17 7 24 12 5 1 213 Percent 21.13 14.08 20.66 13.15 7.98 3.29 11.27 5.63 2.35 0.47 100.00

72

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