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Session

Gas Pains ­ Feasibility of Using Alternative Fuels in Aviation

Transportation Research Board

Approval of a Fully Synthetic Fuel for Gas Turbine Engines

Tedd Biddle Fuels Technology Manager United Technologies Pratt & Whitney

23 January 2006

Revised 1/21/06 Syn Fuels TRB 1-23-06.ppt

More than Feasible ­ It's Here!

Engine Manufacturers P&W, GE & RR Expect to Approve the First Fully Synthetic Fuel in 06!

· How this came to be · The approval process · What's in it for us

Sasol Semi-Synthetic Jet Fuel

Semi-Synthetic Fuel is Currently Approved

· Produced by Sasol and approved per ASTM D1655 and Def Stan 91-91 mid 1999

· Risk of demand exceeding supply at JIA · Semi-synthetic: 50/50 blend of synthetic and petroleum-derived · Approval based on SWRI Study

Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

Synthetic Fuel is Defined by the FischerTropsch Process

· · · · Derived from coal or natural gas Developed in Germany in the 1920s Used in World War II Main fuel supply for Germany and Japan

Fuel Fundamentals

Isooctane n-Pentane

H H H H H H H-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H C H H C C C H H

Cyclic Paraffin

H H

Paraffins

H

CH3 H

H

H - C - CH - C - C - C - H H CH3 H CH3 H

Toluene

CH3

Naphthalene

H H H H C C C C H C C H C

Aromatics

H H

C C C C H C C

H

Olefins

H-C H

Butylene

H H H

C- C- C- C- H H H H

Heteroatoms Sulfur and nitrogen

Sasol Synthetic Jet Fuel

H2 + CO

FISCHERTROPSCH

C1 to C40 HC Liquid C3 & C4 Olefins Polymerization Hydrogenation Fractionation Naphtha Cut Hydrogenation Fractionation Petrol Distillate Cut Hydrogenation Fractionation Diesel

Coal Gasification

Coal tar Naphtha H'treat Petrol Creosote H'crack Diesel Light Distillate

Iso-Paraffinic Kerosene

Heavy Naphtha

Light Distillate

Blender

Sasol Synthetic Jet Fuel

The Approval Process

Consensus Among Approval and Listing Bodies

· · · · Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) ASTM UK MOD U.S. Military

The Approval Process

Industry Involvement is Important Fuel Functions

· · · · Propulsion Airframe and engine coolant Lubricant for fuel system components Hydraulic fluid for some systems

Impact of Fuel Properties

Sasol Fully-Synthetic Jet Fuel

Been Flying on Semi-synthetic Fuel for 6 Years

Now Seeking Approval for Fully-Synthetic What we're doing to approve the first fully synthetic jet fuel for use in P&W, GE and Rolls Royce commercial engines

Approval Protocol

Fuel Specification Properties

· ASTM D1655/SB 2016 · Impact on S, P & D

Component Test

· Fuel control · Fuel pump · Nozzle · Turbine · Combustor Rig

Yes

Negative Impact

No Anomalies

Fit-for-Purpose Properties

·Seal Swell ·Lubricity ·Bulk Modulus ·Material Compatibility ·Additive Compatibility

No Effect

Component Test Required?

No

Engine Test Required?

Yes No

Negative Impact

Engine Manufacturer Approval

Incorporate into fuel spec

Engine Test

No Anomalies Negative Impact

Reject Fuel

File Report

Approval of Sasol Synthetic Fuel

Final Stages of the Approval Process at P&W, GE and Rolls Royce · No negative effects on fuel specifications, fit-for-purpose properties or material compatibility · Meets minimum requirements of P&W SB 2016 and GE D50TG2 fuel specifications

Final Considerations

Defined by Internal Engine Groups and Discipline Chiefs

JT9D Engine Endurance Test ­ South African Airlines/P&W, GE and Rolls Ignition Test ­ Rolls Royce ­ Altitude relight, cold start Emissions Test ­ Pratt & Whitney

Why Do We Care?

Synthetic Fuels are Inevitable

Commercial Program

· Sasol Synthetic Jet Fuel

­ Derived from coal

Military Program

· DoD/DoE Jointly Funded Synthetic Fuel Program for Air Force, Navy & Army

­ Derived from natural gas

Always better to be a player than an observer

Why Do We Care?

Benefits

· Reduce dependence on foreign crude

­ Studies: economically viable when crude prices reach $31/$43/$59 a barrel

· Homeland security implications · Burns cleaner (no sulfur) - reduced particulate emissions · Significant improvement in thermal oxidative stability

Improved Thermal Stability

50% Greater Heat-Sink Than Conventional Jet A Fuel

· Reduces fuel system deposits, maintenance and improves performance in mature engines · Provides increased heat sink capability for advanced engines (F119 and F135)

Thermal Oxidative Stability

Data courtesy AFRL

Relative Total Deposition ­ ECAT (6 Hrs)

350

Deposition, micrograms/cc

300 250 200 150 100 50 0

200+ Hours on JP-8

F100-200 Kingsley Field

200+ Hours on JP-8 then 56 Hours on JP-8+100

JP-8

JP-8+100

JP-7

Sasol 50/50

FT

Increased fuel thermal stability enables development of very fuel efficient propulsion systems

Aviation Fuel Goals Over the Years

1894 Lifts a gift. Thrusts a must!

Coal-derived steam to drive paddle (steam turbine)

Pilfered from Marty Rabinowitz, NASA Glenn

Okay, that's as far as coal will take us: let's try a better fuel.

Aviation Fuel Goals Over the Years

1903 Get me Flying!

Aviation Fuel Goals Over the Years

1920 - 1930 Get me There!

Aviation Fuel Goals Over the Years

1935 Give me Comfort!

Okay, that's as far as AvGas will take us: let's try a better fuel.

Aviation Fuel Goals Over the Years

1930-50s Get me there Quick!

Aviation Fuel Goals Over the Years

1960 ­ 1990 Get me there Cheap!

Aviation Fuel Goals Over the Years

1990s Be a Good Neighbor!

Okay, that's as far as conventional petroleum-derived kerosene will take us: let's try a better fuel.

So ... We're Back to Coal

Synthetic Jet A Derived from Coal or Natural Gas is a Step Toward Innovative, Designer Fuels

Historically, engines have been designed around fuel. It's time to design fuel around the engine's needs. Synthetic fuels can help us do that.

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