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Literacy Task Cards

Set 2: Vocabulary Development

by Linda Dorn and Carla Soffos What are the task cards?

The task cards are a set of literacy activities that promote students' concept knowledge and vocabulary development. After you demonstrate a few tasks for your class or small group, your students use the cards in independent work at literacy corners. The task cards you have received have all the task, picture, word and category cards that you need.

What makes them different?

In today's educational market, there are many sets of activities that promote the phonics side of word knowledge. Although we agree this is important learning for children (see Task Cards, Set 1: Word Building), the semantic side of word learning must not be neglected. The primary purpose of this set is to provide students with opportunities to develop and expand their word knowledge by comparing multiple sources of information. This process involves higher-level thinking and is commonly called "thinking by analogy." (See Chapter 1: Language and Learning in Shaping Literate Minds by Linda Dorn and Carla Soffos (2001) for a more thorough discussion of this process.) An analogy is a comparison between two or more things. In order for students to "think by analogy," they must be able to analyze particular concepts based on logical relationships, then apply this relationship to a new set of forms. When teachers create opportunities for students to think by analogy, students learn how to build links between known information and expand their knowledge of word meanings. This process begins with simple classification tasks and becomes more complex as students acquire greater knowledge of word meanings. At the earliest levels, the tasks require students to classify information according to pre-established categories. As students become more analytical, the tasks increase in difficulty, requiring them to think about relationships between words and form logical categories based on the distinctive quality of the relationships. The literacy tasks span a cognitive developmental scale with three areas of difficulty: · everyday concepts versus school-based concepts · broad knowledge domains versus specific knowledge domains · concrete relationships versus abstract relationships

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# Task 1

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Concept Level Comprehension

Comprehension is grounded in concept knowledge. As students learn words, they group them together into knowledge domains. For example, animals is a broad knowledge domain, whereas cat is a specific member of this domain. The concept of specificity can be further analyzed to include "feature" domains; for example, furry and meow are logical features associated with a cat. It is through these categorical associations that students develop deeper layers of meaning for words. Students' ability to assign a spoken or written label to a concept reflects vocabulary knowledge. However, vocabulary knowledge is much more complex than simply learning a word and its meaning. When students learn how to notice relationships among concepts and words, their understanding of the words deepens. The task cards expand students' potential for vocabulary growth by giving them the following opportunities to note simple and complex associations among concepts: · classifying everyday concepts · classifying school-based concepts · classifying people, places, and things · classifying people and actions · analyzing relationships between common objects · analyzing relationships between an attribute and other objects · analyzing the syntactic order of words that belong together · comparing words with similar meanings · comparing words with opposite meanings · analyzing word parts to deduct meanings · establishing relationships for words that belong together

What are some characteristics of the Emergent level set?

The emergent learner has already learned how to classify things in everyday life according to specified relationships, for instance, grouping toys together for a particular play activity or helping a parent sort canned goods into types of vegetables or fruits. The Emergent level task cards provide students with opportunities to practice classification skills on simple concepts. The categories are broad, with clear examples provided for whole-class inclusion. For instance, emergent readers should know the difference between hot and cold, so one task is classifying common objects under these categories. In the process, students learn to compare, analyze, discriminate, and decide on the most logical relationships. With practice, the process becomes smoother and more efficient.

What are some characteristics of the Early level set?

At this level, school-based, or academic, concepts such as mammals and reptiles are introduced. Students learn how to match picture cards with word cards and classify them according to a specific category. Simple analogies are introduced with tasks that help students analyze the finer distinctions between related objects. For instance, a student must determine that the words plate, mug, and fork, represent tools for eating, while a fourth word, sandwich, does not fall under this particular category. Other tasks require students to develop syntactic associations for the sounds and rhythm of language. For example, they can expect certain words to occur in a particular order, such as tiny ant, delicious meal, windy day, and big giant. As students develop an awareness of syntactic associations (in this case, modifiers and nouns), they expand their knowledge of word meanings through the logical relationships they identify. For further vocabulary development, literacy tasks challenge students to classify words according to synonymous and antonymous relationships. In the process, they acquire strategies of comparison, discrimination, analysis, and reasoning. Following each task, students make notes in their literacy logs.

What are some characteristics of the Transitional level set?

At this level, more complex analogies are introduced with synonyms and antonyms. Here, students recognize a relationship that exists between two things and then apply this same relationship to a new example. For instance, they notice the synonymous relationship "cry is to weep as laugh is to giggle" and the antonymous relationship "simple is to difficult as generous is to stingy." Students apply the same process to word parts­prefixes and suffixes in particular­for inferring word meanings. The literacy task cards at this level are designed to expand students' opportunities for exploring the power of words. In their literacy logs, they record the reasons words belong together.

Management Suggestions:

Everything you need to implement the Literacy Task Cards, Set 2 is included in this package: picture, word, category, and task cards. Carefully cut apart the cards, keeping them in the order in which they appear on the printed sheets. We have printed them in sequence (separated into catagory, word, and picture card sets) and have included the level and task number at the bottom of each card to help you keep them organized. As you cut the cards for each task, put them in a labeled baggie or container. Small, white baskets are available from Teaching Resource Center. Place the task cards and all the materials needed for each task in these baskets. Below we have listed all the contents you will need for each task to help in sorting the cards and preparing the baskets. Once you are finished organizing the tasks, they're ready to go!

Task #1 Classification: Lives in Water, Doesn't Live in Water 2 picture/word category cards frog/"yes", zebra/"no" 8 picture cards crab, elephant, fish, goat, horse, lizard, seal, whale Task #2 Classification: Things That Grow, Things That Don't Grow 2 picture/word category cards tree/"yes", book/"no" 6 picture cards chicken, cup, desk, dog, flower, phone Task #3 Classification: Animals with Fur, Animals without Fur 2 picture/word category cards kitten/"yes", snake/"no" 6 picture cards lion, panda, pig, rabbit, snail, turtle Task #4 Classification: Things You Play With, Things You Don't Play With 2 picture/word category cards top/"yes", fire/"no" 6 picture cards ball, doll, game, lamp, lawnmower, stove Task #5 Classification: Things That Fly, Things That Do Not Fly 2 picture/word category cards airplane/"yes", car/"no" 6 picture cards bike, bird, boat, helicopter, hot air balloon, truck Task #6 Classification: Things Found in a House, Things Not Found in a House 2 picture/word category cards table/"yes", car/"no" 6 picture cards airplane, bed, boat, elephant, lamp, sofa Task #7 Classification: Meat, Fruit 2 picture category cards 6 picture cards

Set 2: Emergent Level Materials

hamburger, apple banana, chicken, grapes, hot dog, orange, ham

Task #8 Classification: Zoo Animals, Farm Animals 2 picture category cards lion, cow 7 picture cards bear, chicken, duck, elephant, giraffe, horse, zebra Task #9 Classification: Hot, Cold 2 picture category cards 6 picture cards Task #10 Classification: Hard, Soft 2 picture category cards 6 picture cards

fire, ice cube ice cream, refrigerator, snow, stove, sun, tea

rock, feather carrot, desk, kitten, marshmallow, pencil, pillow

©2002 Teaching Resource Center

Set 2: Emergent Level Materials

Task #11 Classification: Big, Little 2 picture category cards elephant, ant 6 picture cards baby, bear, dinosaur, giraffe, kitten, mouse Task #12 Classification: Furniture, Appliances 2 picture category cards chair, refrigerator 6 picture cards blender, couch, stove, table, TV, vacuum Task #13 Classification: Fast, Slow 2 picture category cards deer, snail 5 picture cards beetle, mouse, rabbit, tiger, turtle Task #14 Classification: Mothers, Babies 2 picture category cards cat, kitten 8 picture cards bear, bunny, cub, deer, dog, fawn, puppy, rabbit Task #15 Classification: Winter, Summer 2 picture category cards coat, bathing suit 8 picture cards galoshes, mittens, sandals, scarf, shorts, sled, sweater, tee shirt Task #16 Classification: Things with Wheels, Things without Wheels 2 picture category cards skateboard, canoe 8 picture cards bicycle, cruise ship, sailboat, skates, skis, wagon Task #17 Classification: Homes for People, Homes for Animals 2 picture category cards house, bird nest 6 picture cards apartment building, barn, dog house, hamster cage, igloo, tepee Task #18 Classification: Things That Belong Together 3 picture category cards umbrella and galoshes, sunglasses and swimsuit, coat and mitten 3 picture cards rain, snow, sunshine Task #19 Classification: Things That Belong Together 4 picture category cards cake and ice cream, banana and orange, bug and butterfly, pencil and pen 4 picture cards apple, crayon, insect, ice cream Task #20 Classification: Things That Belong Together 4 picture category cards fish and whale, horn and drum, sandwich and hot dog, bat and ball 4 picture cards baseball mitt, guitar, pizza, seal Task #21 Classification: Things That Belong Together 4 picture category cards flower and tree, stamp and letter, tooth and toothbrush, dog and horse 4 picture cards cat, mailbox, plant, toothpaste

Task #1 Classification: Reptiles, Mammals 2 picture/word category cards snake/"reptile", rabbit/"mammal" 6 picture cards alligator, deer, dinosaur, dog, horse, snake 6 word cards alligator, deer, dinosaur, dog, horse, snake Task #2 Classification: Animals, Animal Sounds 2 word category cards animal, sound 6 picture cards cat, chicken, dog, horse, pig, sheep 6 word cards baa, cluck, meow, neigh, oink, woof Task #3 Classification: Living, Non-Living 2 word category cards living, non-living 8 picture cards chair, desk, man, mouse, pencil, puppy, snake, table 8 word cards chair, desk, man, mouse, pencil, puppy, snake, table Task #4 Classification: Sink, Float 2 word category cards 5 picture cards 5 word cards

Set 2: Early Level Materials

sink, float ball, boat, penny, rock, tube ball, boat, penny, rock, tube

Task #5 Classification: Animals with Fur, Animals with Feathers 2 word category cards fur, feathers 7 picture cards bear, bird, chicken, duck, lion, peacock, rabbit 7 word cards bear, bird, chicken, duck, lion, peacock, rabbit Task #6 Classification: Solids, Liquids 2 word category cards solid, liquid 6 picture cards apple, carrot, ice, juice, milk, water 6 word cards apple, carrot, ice, juice, milk, water Task #7 Classification: Real, Make-Believe 2 word category cards real, make-believe 7 picture cards bird reading a book, cat in clothes, children playing, man driving a car, man with a cape flying in the sky, witch on a broom, woman on a telephone Task #8 Classification: Seasons 4 word category cards 8 picture cards

fall, winter, spring, summer fall tree, winter tree, spring tree, summer tree, pumpkin, planting flowers, snow sledding, swimming

Task #9 Classification: People, Actions 2 word category cards person, action 6 picture cards baby, climb, girl, jump, man, write 6 word cards baby, climb, girl, jump, man, write Task #10 Classification: Things, Actions 2 word category cards thing, action 6 picture cards apple, book, desk, ride, sing, swim 6 word cards apple, book, desk, ride, sing, swim Task #11 Classification: People, Places, Things 2 word category cards person, place, thing 6 picture cards beach, book, car, child, man, playground 6 word cards beach, book, car, child, man, playground

©2002 Teaching Resource Center

Set 2: Early Level Materials

Task #12 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 4 picture cards cup, fork, plate, sandwich Task #13 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 4 picture cards ball, bell, drum, piano Task #14 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 4 picture cards bike, boat, skateboard, wagon Task #15 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 4 picture cards letter, envelope, mailbox, penny Task #16 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 4 picture cards dentist, soap, tooth, toothpaste Task #17 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card steering wheel and car 4 picture cards coin, letter, mailbox, piggybank Task #18 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card milk and ice cream 4 picture cards ketchup, peanuts, peanut butter, tomato Task #19 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card arrow pointing up and arrow pointing down 4 picture cards leaf pointing up, leaf pointing down, triangle pointing up, triangle pointing down Task #20 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card square with three vertical lines, square with three horizontal lines 4 picture cards ball with a single vertical line, ball with a single horizontal line, vertical arrow, horizontal arrow Task #21 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card lock and key 4 picture cards crayon, crayon box, lamp, light bulb Task #22 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card coat and hat 4 picture cards shirt, shoe, socks, tie 4 word cards shirt, shoe, socks, tie Task #23 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card carrot and onion 4 picture cards apple, chicken, hamburger, pear 4 word cards apple, chicken, hamburger, pear Task #24 Simple Analogy: Seeing Relationship Between Common Objects 1 picture category card basketball net and basketball 4 picture cards bat, baseball, football, helmet 4 word cards bat, baseball, football, helmet

Task #25 Syntactic Associations: Words That Belong Together 6 word cards kick, football, fly, kite, fire, burn

Set 2: Early Level Materials

Task #26 Syntactic Associations: Words That Occur Together in Language Order 10 word cards white, cloud, blue, sky, pretty, girl, yellow, school bus Task #27 Syntactic Associations: Words That Occur Together in Language Order 8 word cards bright, star, muddy, water, cloudy, sky, loud, music Task #28 Syntactic Associations: Words That Occur Together in Language Order 8 word cards tiny, ant, tall, giant, windy, day, delicious, meal Task #29 Syntactic Associations: Words That Occur Together in Language Order 8 word cards spotted, dog, green, beans, juicy, apple, tall, man Task #30 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 6 word cards big, huge, little, small, shiny, bright Task #31 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards ask, inquire, yell, shout, laugh, giggle, saw, spotted Task #32 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards argue, quarrel, hit, slug, creep, crawl, investigate, explore Task #33 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards afraid, scared, pain, agony, baby, infant, fix, repair Task #34 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards fly, soar, glad, pleased, kiss, peck, late, tardy Task #35 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards mean, cruel, pal, friend, shake, shiver, seep, ooze Task #36 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards trash, garbage, tumble, fall, stare, gape, brief, short Task #37 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 6 word cards mean, nice, friend, enemy, joy, sorrow Task #38 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards sunrise, sunset, sweet, tart, thin, thick, short, tall Task #39 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards sloppy, tidy, rested, tired, bottom, top, tough, easy Task #40 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards false, true, tiny, huge, under, over, beautiful, ugly

Set 2: Transitional Level Materials

Task #1 Classification: Prefix dis (not) 2 word category cards word, prefix + word 8 word cards like, dislike, trust, distrust, locate, dislocate, approve, disapprove Task #2 Classification: Prefix un (not) 2 word category cards word, prefix + word 8 word cards certain, uncertain, even, uneven, load, unload, necessary, unnecessary Task #3 Classification: Prefix pre (before) 2 word category cards word, prefix + word 8 word cards pay, prepay, game, pregame, heat, preheat, school, preschool Task #4 Classification: Prefix mis (wrongly) 2 word category cards word, prefix + word 8 word cards lead, mislead, spell, misspell, behave, misbehave, count, miscount Task #5 Classification: Prefix re (again) 2 word category cards word, prefix + word 8 word cards model, remodel, write, rewrite, learn, relearn, fill, refill Task #6 Classification: Suffix ful (full of) 2 word category cards word, word + suffix 8 word cards right, rightful, care, careful, play, playful, hope, hopeful Task #7 Classification: Suffix less (without) 2 word category cards word, word + suffix 8 word cards care, careless, help, helpless, spot, spotless, flaw, flawless Task #8 Classification: Suffix ly (in such a manner) 2 word category cards word, word + suffix 8 word cards glad, gladly, loud, loudly, bad, badly, proud, proudly Task #9 Complex Analogy: Things That Go Together 3 word category cards ball: bat = chalk: ____, cork: float = anchor: ____, salt: pepper = pen: ____ 3 word cards chalkboard, sink, paper Task #10 Complex Analogy: Things That Go Together 3 word category cards library: read = gym: ____, dog: bark = cat: ____, ladder: climb = horn: ____ 3 word cards play, meow, blow Task #11 Complex Analogy: Whole to Part 3 word category cards car: tire = tree: ____, United States: Arkansas = Solar System: ____, house: roof = room: ____ 3 word cards bark, Earth, wall Task #12 Complex Analogy: Part to Whole 3 word category cards string: violin = core: ____, petal: flower = skin: ____, chapter: book = word: ____ 3 word cards apple, potato, sentence

Set 2: Transitional Level Materials

Task #13 Complex Analogy: Thing to Characteristic 3 word category cards ant: tiny = kitten: ____, rock: hard = pillow: ____, ice-cold = coffee: ____ 3 word cards furry, soft, hot Task #14 Complex Analogy: Object to What It Contains 3 word category cards closet: clothes = breadbox: ____, paper: desk = food: ____, flower: vase = water: ____ 3 word cards bread, refrigerator, lake Task #15 Complex Analogy: Synonymous Relationships 3 word category cards cut: shorten = lengthen: ____, disappear: vanish = remain: ____, dull: dreary = interesting: ____ 3 word cards increase, stay, exciting Task #16 Complex Analogy: Synonymous Relationships 3 word category cards cry: weep = laugh: ____, damage: hurt = mend: ____, drowsy: sleepy = alert: ____ 3 word cards giggle, heal, attentive Task #17 Complex Analogy: Synonymous Relationships 3 word category cards tug: pull = push: ____, twinkle: glimmer = dull: ____, blizzard: snowstorm = tornado: ____ 3 word cards thrust, dreary, windstorm Task #18 Complex Analogy: Antonymous Relationships 3 word category cards past: future = old: ____, cheap: expensive = costly: ____, first: last = most: ____ 3 word cards new, free, least Task #19 Complex Analogy: Antonymous Relationships 3 word category cards enlarge: reduce = lengthen: ____, ugly: gorgeous = gross: ____, disconnect: join = separate: ____ 3 word cards decrease, beautiful, unite Task #20 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards stomach, abdomen, storm, hurricane, minimum, least, microscopic, minute Task #21 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards classify, systematize, apprehend, capture, embarrassed, humiliated, annoyed, irritated Task #22 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards autograph, signature, anger, infuriate, patience, tolerance, peculiar, unusual

Set 2: Transitional Level Materials

Task #23 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards announcement, proclamation, approximately, nearly, brilliant, intelligent, false, incorrect Task #24 Synonyms: Words with Similar Meanings 8 word cards extraordinary, remarkable, gigantic, enormous, loyal, faithful, pause, wait Task #25 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards love, hate, friend, enemy, hot, cold, soft, hard Task #26 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards peculiar, normal, permanent, temporary, hectic, peaceful, rise, fall Task #27 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards rigid, flexible, poor, rich, safe, dangerous, buy, sell Task #28 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards send, receive, fat, skinny, fast, slow, big, small Task #29 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards simple, difficult, stale, fresh, stationary, moveable, full, empty Task #30 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards straight, crooked, generous, stingy, true, false, huge, tiny Task #31 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards fail, succeed, exquisite, ugly, dark, light, fake, real Task #32 Antonyms: Words with Opposite Meanings 8 word cards encourage, discourage, use, misuse, like, dislike, loyal, disloyal

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