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Chris Brahler

President/CEO President/CEO TT Technologies, Inc. TT Technologies, Inc.

Merging Pipe Ramming & Directional Drilling

With Case Histories

OVERVIEW

Gulfstream Pullback Assist Project Coden, AL

· · · ·

3 Speakers Chris Brahler- TT Technologies Eric Skonberg- Trenchless Engineering Mark Laney- Laney Directional Drilling

Pipe Ramming

PIPE RAMMING

Pipe Ramming

BASICS

STANDARD RAMMING

· 4-in through 80-in casings · 118-in, 122-in & 138-in casings Successfully Rammed · Eliminates Slump or Rise · Tools Configure to a Range of Casing Diameters

THE PROCESS: Typical Pipe Ramming Configuration

ROUTINE 12" Thru 36"

CHALLENGING 36" Thru 80"

ADVANCED 80" Thru 144"

Pipe Ramming

BASICS

VERTICAL RAMMING

· Ideal for Difficult Soil Conditions · "Swallow Up" Large Obstructions · Access Areas Where Larger Equipment Can't · "Rat-Hole" Casings for Oil Field Applications

THE PROCESS: Vertical Pipe Ram Configuration

Pipe Ramming

BASICS

MINI RAMMING TOOLS

· Various Tool Diameters Available · Designed for Tight Spaces · Compact, But Powerful · Configure to a Wide Range of Casing Diameters

THE PROCESS: Mini Pipe Ram Configuration

Pipe Ramming

HDD RESCUE TECHNIQUES

Pipe Ramming

TECHNIQUES

CONDUCTOR BARREL

· Ram Casing Through Difficult Soils · Preferable Starting Point for Drilling · Guide for Down-hole or Mud Motors · Friction-Free Section for Pullback

Pipe Ramming

TECHNIQUES

DRILL STEM RECOVERY

· Rammer Fitted with Special Sleeve · Drill Stem Welded to Back of Sleeve · Percussion Frees Stuck Drill Stem · Push Through or Pull Out

Drill Stem Retrieval Drill Stem Retrieval

Pipe Ramming

TECHNIQUES

PIPE REMOVAL/ BORE SALVAGE

· Rammer Attached to Product Pipe · Percussion Removes Pipe from Bore · Salvage Job · Bore Again

Pipe Ramming

TECHNIQUES

PULLBACK ASSIST

· Rammer Attached to Pipe During Pullback · Percussion Keeps Pipe Moving · Helps Prevent High Stress Levels · Overcomes Hydrolock, Frees Pipe

Pipe Ramming

TECHNIQUES

PIPE RAM RESCUE

· Used to Retrieve Stuck TBMs · Reverse Line & Grade · Casing Diameter Larger than Bore · Ram Casing to Meet Trapped TBM · Remove Spoil & Retrieve TBM

Pipe Ram Rescue-Job Site Pipe Ram Rescue-Job Site

Eric Skonberg

P.E. P.E. Trenchless Engineering Corporation Trenchless Engineering Corporation

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDY: GULFSTREAM PROJECT

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

GULFSTREAM PROJECT

· Supply Line starts near Pascagoula, MS & transverses Mississippi Sound to Coden, AL · Gas compressed at Coden and shipped across the Gulf of Mexico arriving onshore · 753 miles of 36-in. pipeline

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

HDD APPROACHES

· Florida- at Spoil Island (near Port Manatee), 4,000 ft. of 36-in. pipe · Mississippi- near Pascagoula, 2,650 ft. of 36in. pipe · Alabama- near Coden, Two parallel installations, each 4,500 ft. of 36-in. pipe

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

DESIGN PARAMETERS

· Two parallel 36-in. Bores, 4,500 ft. long · Drill through elevation change of 90 to 100 ft. · Crossing under sensitive near-shore vegetation · Two crossings of the Coden Navigation Channel

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

DESIGN PARAMETERS

· Exit into a pre-dredged transition pit at - 20 ft. · MSL transitioning from 5 deg. · To horizontal in 4-6 ft. of water · Soils described as loose sands, firm sands, stiff clays, & silts

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

PIPELINE SPECS

· 36-in. x 1.25 in. wall thickness pipe · Pipe Coated with Fusion Bond Epoxy w/ Abrasion Resistant Overlay · Pipe weight in Air- 460 lbs. per ft. · Submerged weight in seawater- 16 lbs. per ft. · Buoyant weight in 1.2 SG drill mud- 60 lbs. per ft. · Anticipated pull forces < 500,000 lbs.- AGA Engineering Design Guide

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

SCHEDULE

· Meet gas delivery dates · Minimize offshore support · Dual drilling rigs utilized

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

EVENTS: SUPPLY LINE

· Nov 7- Commence pilot hole drilling · Nov 25- Commence reaming

st · Dec 5- Commence 1st Pullback- Pipe Stuck 1,500 ft. into pullback

· Dec 11- Retract pipeline string from drilled hole · Dec 14- Commence 60-in. preream & swab

nd · Dec 20- Commence 2nd pullback- pipe stuck 1,200 ft. from completion

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

EVENTS: MAIN LINE

· Nov 13- Commence pilot hole drilling · Nov 16-Commence reaming · Dec 3- Drill Pipe Parts on 48-in. ream

nd · Dec 21- Drill 2nd Pilot hole

· Dec 14- Commence 60-in. preream & swab

nd · Dec 27- Commence 2nd preream ­ up to 60 in.

· Jan 7- Commence Pullback

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

WEAK CLAY STRATA

· Between 80 ft. & 100 ft. · After the drilling difficulties, additional soil boring was undertaken · These borings indicated very weak clays in the area at the elevations of the pipelines · Analysis indicated these very low strength clays were prone to collapse

0

20

B4 B5

40 Depth (ft)

MB1 MB2 Skempton

60

80

100

120 0 500 1000 1500 Undrained Shear Strength (lb/ft2 )

Supply Line Recorded Pull Forces

Mark Laney

President President Laney Directional Drilling Laney Directional Drilling

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

GULFSTREAM PROJECT

· Pullback Assist · (2) 4,500-ft. (1,433 m) Bores · 36-inch (914 mm) Epoxy Coated Steel · 24-inch (610 mm) Grundoram Taurus

CASE STUDY REVIEW

Pipe Ramming

CASE STUDIES

LANEY DIRECTIONAL

· Santa Cruz, Bolivia SA · Pullback Assist · 6,400-ft. Bore · 32-inch PE Coated Natural Gas · 18-inch Goliath & 24-inch Grundoram Taurus · Rio Grande River Crossing

Questions?

Thank You!

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