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Thomas Wenstrom Ed 200 Curriculum Project December 2006 "Two Sides of the Revolutionary War; Loyalists and Patriots" The American Revolution was a key time in history for the making of the United States. However, in many cases only one side of the story is told. I would like teaching my students about the two sides colonists chose to fight for during the American Revolution; the Loyalists and the Patriots. We will take a deep unbiased look into both sides revealing the qualities and drawbacks of being both a Patriot and a Loyalist. This American Revolution lesson will be taught in a sixth grade classroom at Moylan Elementary School located in Hartford, Connecticut. Many of these students are between the ages of eleven and twelve years old. They have already been taught about the American Revolution, however they have not studied it in great depth nor have they taken an unbiased look at the Loyalists that were involved in the war. There are about twenty students in the classroom, with an even amount of male and female. Most of the students are minorities that were born in America, and already know many of the solid facts about the Revolutionary War.

There are many objectives that are involved in this project. The first is to create a setting in which the students can create their own ideas using primary sources. Students will learn how to analyze and use primary sources to develop their own individual ideas. This analysis will help the students reach the second highest level of Bloom's Taxonomy, by analyzing these primary sources and creating and developing their own individual ideas on the subject. The analysis of primary and secondary sources will also allow for the students to be able to differentiate the difference between primary and secondary sources. Another objective for this curriculum project is to create a setting for students to intellectually interact with each other by academically helping fellow classmates within their groups through cooperative learning. When these students are broken down into smaller groups, or called on to work together, they will develop new skills of intellectual peer interactions. At this age the students in sixth grade do not usually question one another or help one another for academic means. These students would now be engaging in scholarly conversations with their peers. Another objective for the students in the classroom is to develop the skills to detect bias and propaganda. For most of their academic career these students have simply

believed everything they have been taught. Now, the students will be able to detect bias in situations, and realize how propaganda could affect many. This will not only be beneficial to the students for this project but will help the students understand the two great, because they will come into play many more times in the rest of their lives. Another objective for the students in the class is for them to develop skills and thoughts of their own; when these ideas are questioned they are to argue their point. This will teach the kids to evaluate their own thoughts and the ideas of others, which is the highest point of Bloom's Taxonomy. Also the highest point of Bloom's Taxonomy is the final objective for the students in this sixth grade classroom, which is to make predictions using the information various information, and using their own judgments. The activities that will be involved in the curriculum project "The many faces of the American Revolution" will cover a four-day period. Over these four classes, the students will be engaging themselves in many different activities that will eventually lead to a conclusion as a debate between two sides of the classroom. Day one of the curriculum project will start off by the teacher telling the students that this project will be

about the American Revolution. However, the teacher will state that they are going to take look at all the sides that were involved in the war, and this experience will be nothing like they have previously been part of regarding the American Revolution. The teacher will than present and pass out a fact sheet, which will give a brief over view of the facts regarding the American Revolution and the two different sides of American inhabitants; the loyalists and the patriots. This fact sheet will be completely unbiased, simply stating the facts. The students will read the fact sheets on their own. Than the teacher will have all the students in the classroom pretend they were patriots, and as a class they will make a list of all the reasons why they are fighting against England. The teacher will chart all of these reasons on the blackboard. After they list all of the reasons, as a class, along with the teacher, they will discuss all of the ideas they created. After discussing for a little while, the teacher will than ask the students to pretend that they were all loyalists, and list all the reasons on a chart why they were supporting England. The teacher will than lead a discussion involving the entire classroom, going over all the different ideas they came up with on which why the loyalists supported England. This class will come to an end with all the

students starting to develop ideas about both the patriots and the loyalists and why they each chose to go the way the way they did. Day two of the project will involve primary sources, and the detection of bias and propaganda. At the start of the class the teacher will distribute two pieces of propaganda from the American Revolution. The teacher will not reveal which piece of propaganda belongs to which group, the teacher will simply ask the students to evaluate and analyze the pieces in front of them. The two pieces in each student will receive will be Paul Revere's Boston Massacre engraving, which is propaganda for the Patriots, and a picture of an English army dominating the empty streets of New York which is for the Loyalists. The children however do not know which picture belongs to which group. They were simply told to analyze each picture and create their own ideas on each picture. The teacher will than divide the class up into five different groups of four. The teacher will ask the students to discuss these pictures within their groups. The teacher would pose a few questions for each group to discuss, which picture is loyalist's propaganda and which is patriot propaganda. Also, for the students to create any ideas on why these pictures may be a little extreme in one sides favor. After

giving the students sufficient time to discuss the questions, the teacher will open the discussion to the entire classroom. Each group will be invited to give his or her answers to the questions the teacher posed to the groups. The teacher will chart on the board all the different answers each group came up with, regarding which picture belonged to which group and why the pictures seem so extreme. The teacher will ask for the answers to these questions, and will push the kids to question whether propaganda is good thing or bad thing. Day three will start off with a brief overview discussion calling on the kids to review what they had previously learned about loyalists and patriots in the previous days. The teacher will than call on the students to help make a list of all the qualities and drawbacks of each group as a class. He will start will the Loyalists and ask all the students to present the qualities and reasons American civilians stayed loyalists. Than the teacher will ask for the students to state the drawbacks in being a loyalist, and list the reasons why they should not stay loyal to England. He will chart these two lists on the board and leave them up there. The teacher will than call on the students to state the reason why a qualities and reasons patriots fought against England. Like that of

loyalists the teacher will ask for reasons that patriots should not have fought against England. The teacher will list these two charts on the board and leave them up there as well. The children should be able to develop ideas for all four of these questions, but however if the students need assistance the teacher can help push them to think of different reasons. After they make these four lists, the teacher will introduce a short television show that the class will watch. The show is called "Liberties Kid's", which is a Revolutionary War cartoon based for children from ages eight to fourteen. We will use an episode that involves both the loyalists and patriots. We will watch episode #136 titles "Yorktown". This episode involves a black patriot and his brother. One brother is fighting with the loyalists and the British against the patriots at Yorktown, in order to gain his freedom from slavery. The other brother is already a free man, and is fighting with the patriots. This episode will allow for a classroom based largely of minority students to relate to characters that were involved in the war. This will show the students that there was many different reasons people remained loyal and fought for England and why colonist chose to become patriots and fight against England. This episode also entails the victory for the colonists at Yorktown, where

General Cornwallis surrenders for the British. This battle marked the end of fighting in the Revolutionary War. This

will entertain the children, give them facts regarding the last battle of the Revolution, and at the same time show them that people remained loyal to England for many different kinds of motives and people became patriots and fought against England for many reasons. After this episode is over, the teacher will have the students break up into small groups yet again. They will discuss what they watched on the television episode as a group. Day four will be the last day of the class project. On this day the teacher will hold a debate between the students. Each student will randomly draw either "Loyalist" or "Patriot" out of a hat. The class will be evenly divided into two different groups, loyalists and patriots. The teacher will than distribute red or blue t-shirts, or "practice jersey's" to each side. The patriots will wear the blue t-shirts, which was the color of the patriots during the Revolutionary War. The loyalists will wear red t-shirts, which represents the color of the loyalists, and England during the Revolutionary War, who was also known as "red coats". The teacher will give the students a few different scenarios to discuss and argue between each other, each defending their given side with arguments that

would support their side. The students in the debate are going to be asked to argue and defend their points in hopes of winning the debate. The teacher will present different scenarios that will call for pro's and con's of both sides, the loyalists and the patriots. For example, if the British approach a poor farmer and they offer the poor man an extremely enormous amount of money in exchange for food, should the man sell the crops to the British? Another question that could arise is that after the war should all the loyalists be hung or deported? These questions will be heavily debated between the two groups, both giving their arguments with solid support. Both groups will also question the opposite side, while also having to defend their own thoughts and ideas. The end of the lesson will conclude with an assignment for the students to predict what side they would have been on if their family was around during the Revolutionary War. The students will need to use all the information they learned about the two sides, loyalists and patriots. To figure out what side they would have been on they must be able to incorporate this information on loyalists and patriots along with details about their specific family. This would be a one page long assignment, where the students would be called on to create and develop their own predictions.

The activities that will be used for the curriculum project will allow for all the objectives to be met. The first of the objectives is for the students to create their own ideas using primary sources and learn how to analyze the source to develop their own individual ideas. This objective will be conquered when the students examine the two primary sources of propaganda that the teacher will give out to each student. This activity will also handle the objective of learning to detect bias and propaganda. Another objective is for the students to intellectually interact with their peers in the classroom. This objective will be handled when the students are asked to break up into smaller groups and discuss the given situation. This will create the opportunity for the students to intellectually discuss the topics. One of the main objectives is for the students to argue and defend their own ideas on the subject. This objective will be taken care of during the debate. During the debate the students will be asked to defend and argue their own individual thoughts and ideas using different scenarios regarding patriots and loyalists. The last objective is for the students to use the information they have learned and developed on their own to help make predictions. This objective will be engaged when the students are asked to write a one-page

paper predicting what side they would have been on if they were living in America during the Revolution. All of the objectives will be handled throughout the activities. The students would be academically evaluated throughout the week, regarding their participation and involvement in the discussions throughout the classes. The students will also be evaluated during the class debate; this will be a key time to assess their progress and level of understanding. The students will be evaluated not only their participation in the debate but also the level of their arguments and defenses of their given side. The short paper will also be used to assess the student's creativity, and their level of truly understanding the Revolutionary War, and the many sides involved. According to the Connecticut State Department of Education sixth grade students should be evaluated on short one or two page papers. This evaluation along with the others will make for a good assessment on how well each individual student comprehended and developed ideas on the subject.

Connecticut State Board of Education http://www.state.ct.us/sde/dtl/curriculum/tracemps/socs/tmapsocs.pdf

Liberty's Kids www.libertyskids.com

Summary of Bloom's Taxonomy www.trincoll.edu/depts/educ/resources/bloom.htm

Cooperative Learning Slavin, Robert, Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research, Practice, 2

nd

Edition, chapter 1 and 2

Bring History Alive! A Sourcebook for Teaching United States History

John Bull and Uncle Sam- Four Centuries of British-American Relations ­Loyalists Propaganda http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-2.html

History Comes Alive Teaching Unit: The American Revolution ­ Patriot Propaganda

Loyalists Facts http://education.yahoo.com/reference/encyclopedia/entry/Loyalist

Patriot Facts http://www.patriotresource.com/history.html

I would also like to send a special thanks to Elizabeth Rose Dougherty and the Committee at the Presentations for all the information and help they provided for me

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