Read ases34v6n3y2011.pdf text version

S.D. Narkhede, S.B. Attarde and S.T. Ingle, 2011. Study on Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Vermicompost on ISSN 0126-2807 Growth of Chilli Pepper Plant (Capsicum annum). V o l u m e 6 , N u m b er 3 : 327 - 3 3 2 , S e p te m b er , 2 0 1 1 © T2011 Department of Environmental Engineering Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya & Indonesian Society of Sanitary and Environmental Engineers, Jakarta Open Access http://www.trisanita.org/jases

International peer-reviewed journal

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Research Paper

STUDY ON EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER AND VERMICOMPOST ON GROWTH OF CHILLI PEPPER PLANT (CAPSICUM ANNUM)

S.D. NARKHEDE*, S.B. ATTARDE and S.T. INGLE

School of Environmental and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, P.B. No. 80, Umavinagar, Jalgaon, India.

*Corresponding Author: Phone: +919420381337; Email: [email protected] Received: 9th July 2011; Revised: 22nd July 2011; Accepted: 9th August 2011

Abstract: Increase in application of inorganic fertilizers in agriculture has detoriated the soil quality. Vermicompost as a soil conditioner has been emerging as a potential end use for maintaining soil productivity. The paper examines the effect of chemical fertilizer and vermicompost on the growth of Capsicum annum crop. Initially analysis of soil was done in order to know its composition and lacking nutrients. Urea as chemical fertilizer was applied for the comparative study with vermicompost. Fertilizer at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentration was applied in the plot. Plant height, leaf length, number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content in leaves, fresh weight, dry weight etc. were measured. Significant increase in plant height, leaf length and fruit yield of pepper plants was observed in plots treated with vermicompost. Maximum leaf chlorophyll content, 2.9% was estimated from the vermicomposting plot of 20%. Effective results were obtained after application of organic fertilizer as compared to the chemical fertilizer. Hence, in some fields if organic fertilizer applied at appropriate dose, it shows the potential to act as growth promoter for particular crop.

Keywords: Biodegradable waste, organic fertilizers, soil fertility

INTRODUCTION Organic agriculture is one among the longest spectrum in production methods that are supportive of the environment. Application of inorganic fertiliser to agriculture is now common practice, using composts derived from various green wastes in agriculture is tardily coming back. Compost contains variable amounts of N, P and K, and is a valuable source of plant nutrients. Among various sources of organic matter, vermicompost have been recognized as having considerable potential as soil amendments [1]. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the 327

Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 6 (3): 327-332.

S.D. Narkhede, S.B. Attarde and S.T. Ingle, 2011. Study on Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Vermicompost on Growth of Chilli Pepper Plant (Capsicum annum).

potential of vermicomposts, which is a product of a non-thermophilic biodegradation of organic materials through interactions between earthworms and microorganisms, as plant growth media and soil amendment [2].Cost of inorganic fertilizers is very high and sometimes it is not available in the market for which the farmers fail to apply the inorganic fertilizers to the crop field in optimum time. On the other hand, the organic manure is easily available to the farmers and its cost is low compared to that of inorganic fertilizers. As with other vegetable crops, peppers are still usually grown using conventional applications of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides [3]. Most often this new type of technology (organic agriculture) is defined as a system for maintenance of the natural fertility of the soil, biological diversity of the species and the ecological balance of the environment [4]. Application of vermicompost produced by biodegradable waste could be one of the most economical and attractive methods of solving the problems like waste disposal and the requirement to increase the organic matter content of soil. In the present study soil analysis was done prior to the experiment to determine the availability of nutrients in the soil and also to calculate the equivalent amount of organic or chemical fertilizer requirement of soil nutrients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of substrates Urea as chemical fertilizer was purchased from local agro agency. Soil analysis was done to know the lacking nutrients. Vermicompost was prepared from locally available municipal biodegradable waste. Physicochemical analysis of soil and compost samples Parameters like pH, conductivity, organic carbon, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, chlorides, TVC, bulk density, specific gravity, sodium, sulphate etc. were determined as per the standard methods described [5]. Heavy metals detection Metals like Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analyzed on Thermo `S' series Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer [6]. Field Experiments Vermicompost at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% was applied in the field. Nearly about 20 seeds were planted per plot; watering was done at alternate day on each plot. Monitoring was done within 15 days interval period. Plant height, number of leaves, number of buds etc. were measured at 15, 30, 45, and 60 day's interval period. On 60th day all Capsicum annum plants were uprooted to study the fresh wt. and dry wt. biomass. A comparative data was prepared between each level fertilizer concentration on which plants were grown. Estimation of Chlorophyll Chlorophyll content of the plant leaves was estimated Spectrophotometrically [7].

328

Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 6 (3): 327-332.

S.D. Narkhede, S.B. Attarde and S.T. Ingle, 2011. Study on Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Vermicompost on Growth of Chilli Pepper Plant (Capsicum annum).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Table 1: Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil and Vermicompost (n=3) Soil (Average ± SD) Sr. No. Parameter Vermi Compost (Average ± SD) 1 pH 7.1 ±0.1 8.7 ±0.3 oC) 2 Temperature ( 35.7 ±0.5 32.4 ±0.2 3 Conductivity (mmhos) 1.4 ±0.4 0.6 ±0.1 4 C/N ratio 32.2 ±0.12 57.0 ±0.4 5 Chloride (%) 5.6 ±0.2 3.3 ±0.9 6 Organic matter (%) 39.47 ±0.8 44.68 ±0.21 7 Moisture (%) 39.6 ±0.6 32.0 ±0.4 3) 8 Bulk Density (gm/cm 4.02 ±0.12 3.10 ±0.7 9 Nitrogen (%) 0.02 ±0.3 1.2 ±0.1 10 Potassium (%) 0.2 ±0.5 0.9 ±0.4 11 Phosphorus (%) 0.6 ±0.1 1.4 ±0.5 6 12 TVC (CFu/1ml) 4 x 10 65 x 106 Physicochemical analysis of soil and compost Analysis was done in triplicate (n=3) to known actual composition of macro and micro nutrients of soil (Table 1). Soil was having neutral pH and 35.70C of temperature. Nitrogen content of soil was 0.02% which was very low as compared to other two key nutrients viz. Potassium and Phosphorous. Hence, Urea was selected as a chemical fertilizer for the study of Capsicum annum crops. NPK content in vermicompost produced was in the optimum range required for plant growth, pH of compost was alkaline (suitable for plant growth) and acts as growth enhancer. Figure 1 shows the heavy metals content in soil and vermicompost. Mn was found higher in the soil followed by Mg. Fe was higher in vermicompost which indicates its potential as micronutrient supplier. Vermicompost have trace amount of metals except Cu and Zn.

Fig. 1: Heavy metal content of soil and vermicompost (n=3)

Fig. 2: Chlorophyll content of soil and vermicompost (n=3) 329

Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 6 (3): 327-332.

S.D. Narkhede, S.B. Attarde and S.T. Ingle, 2011. Study on Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Vermicompost on Growth of Chilli Pepper Plant (Capsicum annum).

Table 3: Growth parameters of Capsicum annum after application of Urea at various doses (n=3) Sr. No. 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 Observation Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds No. of fruits Fresh/ Dry wt. (g) 0% (Control) (Avg±SD) 4.6 ± 0.3 2.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.2 10.9±0.3 5.2±0.4 3.3±0.2 23.5±0.7 9.4±0.3 4.2±0.2 31.2±0.5 10.3.±0.1 6.9±0.9 7.3±0.3 17.6 ±0.3 5.32±0.1 05% (Avg±SD) 4.9±0.1 3.1±0.3 1.1±0.1 12.2±0.4 7.2±0.1 3.5±0.1 26.0±0.1 10.3±0.8 4.5±0.6 32.9±0.2 13.5±0.3 7.2±0.1 7.9±0.1 18.1±0.5 6.11±0.6 10% (Avg±SD) 5.6±0.5 3.8±0.2 1.9±0.5 13.8±0.6 8.5±0.3 3.9±0.4 27.1±0.3 11.2±0.1 4.8±0.1 33.5±0.1 15.1±0.6 7.6±0.3 8.5±0.1 19.4±0.1 7.12±0.4 15% (Avg±SD) 6.9±0.3 4.8±0.6 2.6±0.4 14.2±0.1 9.1±0.1 4.3±0.2 28.2±0.1 12.9±0.3 5.2±0.5 34.4±0.7 17.4±0.1 7.9±0.7 8.9±0.2 22.1±0.2 09.13±0.6 20% (Avg±SD) 8.4±0.1 5.1±0.4 3.8±0.1 14.8±0.4 9.6±0.2 5.9±0.3 29.2±0.5 13.9±0.6 6.7±0.1 35.1±0.9 18.1±0.1 8.2±0.2 9.5±0.1 24.3±0.1 10.31±0.3 Days After 15 days After 30 days After 45 days

After 60 days

Table 4: Growth parameters of Capsicum annum after application of vermicompost at various doses (n=3) Sr. No. 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 Observation Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds Height (cm) No. of leaves No. of buds No. of fruits Fresh/ Dry wt. (g) 0% (Control) (Avg±SD) 4.6 ± 0.3 2.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.2 10.9±0.3 5.2±0.4 3.3±0.2 23.5±0.7 9.4±0.3 4.2±0.2 31.2±0.5 10.3.±0.1 6.9±0.9 7.3±0.3 17.6 ±0.6 5.32±0.3 05% (Avg±SD) 6.9±0.8 3.6±0.2 2.1±0.5 13.2±0.4 8.4±0.1 5.9±0.2 28.0±0.5 12.9±0.1 7.9±0.9 36.4±0.6 16.9±0.1 8.1±0.2 9.3±0.5 23.9±0.1 8.65±0.7 10% (Avg±SD) 7.6±0.3 4.5±0.1 2.7±0.6 14.8±0.1 9.1±0.8 6.1±0.5 30.1±0.6 13.6±0.2 8.1±0.2 37.5±0.3 17.8±0.5 8.4±0.5 10.4±0.1 24.8±0.3 9.21±0.2 15% (Avg±SD) 8.9±0.1 5.6±0.7 3.6±0.2 15.4±0.9 9.6±0.2 6.8±0.01 32.2±0.1 14.4±0.1 8.6±0.8 39.4±0.1 18.3±0.4 9.4±0.3 12.1±0.3 27.1±0.6 13.05±0.1 20% (Avg±SD) 9.5±0.4 5.9±0.1 4.5±0.6 16.6±0.1 10.6±0.4 7.5±0.6 33.4±0.2 15.5±0.6 9.2±0.3 40.7±0.5 19.8±0.2 10.3±0.1 12.9±0.7 27.9±0.4 13.38±0.2 Days After 15 days After 30 days After 45 days After 60 days

330

Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 6 (3): 327-332.

S.D. Narkhede, S.B. Attarde and S.T. Ingle, 2011. Study on Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Vermicompost on Growth of Chilli Pepper Plant (Capsicum annum).

Field experiment observations

In vermicompost plot at 20% concentration, effective results were obtained. On 15th day, plant height was 9.5cm and highest among the other plots. Besides that higher the leaf number and flowering buds of the plants were observed. Comparatively low results, at 15% concentration dose of vermicompost has been observed. On 30th day at 15 and 20% concentration of vermicompost plot shown height of plant 15.4cm and 16.6cm and that of chemical fertilizer showing 14.2cm and 14.8cm respectively (Table 3 & 4). Whereas, control plot has shown 10.9cm height, after the same period growth without any fertilizer dose. Considerable difference in the heights of plant has been observed on 30th day in chemical fertilizer and vermicompost dosed plants. Also, highest no. of buds in 20% concentration plot of vermicompost has been observed. Compared to chemical fertilizer plots and control plots all other vermicompost applied plots shown maximum increase in plant height, no. of leaves, no. of buds has been noted. Plant high yields, depend on many factors, the most important factor amongst them is plant nutrition [8]

At semi maturation stage of plants

On 45th day, control plot shown 23.5cm height, 9.4 leaf no. and 4.2 no. of buds in an average. Whereas, in chemical fertilizer applied plot, at 20% dose shown 29.2cm plant height, 13.9 no. of leaves and 6.7 no. of buds in an average. However, in vermicompost applied plot at the same concentration dose, 33.4cm of plant height, 15.5 no. of leaves and 9.2 no. of buds was observed on an average.

Final observations

On 60th day of trial period at final observation, vermicompost plot at 20% dose shown 40.7cm plant height which was highest among all other plots (Table 4).Also, the no. of buds measured was 10.3 in an average, which was maximum among all other plots and no. of pods obtained were 7.3 in control and 9.5 in chemical fertilizer applied plots. Whereas, average 12.9 no. of fruits per plant were observed at 20% concentration of vermicompost on 60th day of trial period. Not only height of plant has been increased but the no. of leaves and flowering buds of each plant also shown an increase in ratio due to application of vermicompost. No. of buds on plant at 60th day was higher in both 15 and 20% vermicompost plots. Moreover from the beginning results obtained by 15% concentration plot were comparable with 20% which indicates that beyond 15% dose, application of vermicompost for a Capsicum annum crop at field, the productivity of crop does not increases. Productivity depends upon the exact required dose which differs from species to species of plants. Vermicompost have the potential for improving plant growth when added to soil and also beneficial for soil fertility. The greatest plant growth responses and yields have occurred usually when vermicompost constituted a relatively small proportion (10­40%) of the total volume of the plant growth medium in which they are incorporated [9].

Chlorophyll content

Chlorophyll content at a 20% dose was 2.4% for chemical fertilizer, 2.9% for vermicompost and 2.1% in control, which indicates that not only the physical characteristics of plant are changed but also the leaf chlorophyll content is enhanced with the application of vermicompost (Figure 2). Berova, et al observed increased photosynthetic pigments and leaf gas exchange in red chilli (Capsicum annum) due to application of vermicompost [10]. Some authors suggested that when the potential toxic metals concentrations of compost are high, the leachability of metals associated with compost is of concern [11].

331

Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 6 (3): 327-332.

S.D. Narkhede, S.B. Attarde and S.T. Ingle, 2011. Study on Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Vermicompost on Growth of Chilli Pepper Plant (Capsicum annum).

CONCLUSION Vermicompost at 15% and 20% concentration dose shown highest results for plant growth parameters compared to chemical fertilizer and control plots. Effective results were obtained after application of vermicompost as compared to chemical fertilizer in the field. Maximum difference can be observed in control and vermicompost plot which indicates not only soil fertility, the rate of productivity has also enhanced with the use of vermicompost. Excessive nutrients available in compost are not uptaken by the crops and they remain in soil. Maximum moisture trapped by plants was 14.05% and 14.52% at 15% and 20% of vermicompost concentration respectively. Thus, between 15 to 20% vermicompost is beneficial for plant growth as well as it will be useful economically. Organic fertilizer when applied at appropriate dose acts as growth promoter for the crop.

Acknowledgements: Authors are highly thankful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi for granting financial assistance for the Major Research Project. We are also thankful to the School of Environmental and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon for providing laboratory facility in the research work. References 1. Arancon, N. Q., C.A. Edwards, P. Bierman, J. D. Metzger and C. Lucht. 2005. Effects of vermicomposts produced from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste on the growth and yield of peppers in the field. Pedobiologia, 49: 297-306. 2. Arancon, N.Q., C. A. Edwards, R. Atiyeh and J. D. Metzger. 2004. Effects of vermicomposts produced from food waste on the growth and yields of greenhouse peppers. Bioresource Technology, 93: 139-144. 3. Bosland, P.W and E.J. Vostava. 2000. Peppers: Vegetable and Spice Capsicums. CABI Publishing, New York, USA. 4. Berova, M and Karanatsidis G. 2008. Physiological response and yield of pepper plants (Capsicum annum L.) to organic fertilization. Journal of central European agriculture, 9(4): 715-722. 5. APHA, American Public Health Association.1995. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and wastewater. 16'th Edition, Washington DC. 6. Sposito, G., C.S. LeVesque, J.P. LeClaire, A.C, Chang 1983. Trace metal chemistry in arid-zone field soil amended with sewage sludge: III. Effect of time on the extraction of trace metals. Soil Sci Soc Am J, 47: 898-902. 7. Arnon, D. I. 1949. Copper enzyme in isolated chloroplasts polyphenoloxidase in Beta Vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24: 1-15. 8. El-Bassiony, A.M., Z.F. Fawzy; E.H. Abd El-Samad and G.S. Riad. 2010. Growth, Yield and fruit quality of Sweet Pepper Plants (Capsicum annuum L.) as Affected by Potassium Fertilization Journal of American Science, 6(12) 722-729. 9. R.M. Atiyeh., S. Lee, C.A. Edwards, N.Q. Arancon, J.D. Metzger. 2002. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth. Bioresource Technology, 84: 7-14. 10. Berova, M and Karanatsidis G. 2009. Influence of bio-fertilizer, produced by Lumbricus rubellus on growth, leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic content of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) Acta Hort, 830: 447-452. 11. Hsu, J.H., S.L. Lo, 2001. Effect of composting on characterization and leaching of copper, manganese and zinc from swine manure. Environmental pollution, 114: 119-127.

332

Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 6 (3): 327-332.

Information

JASES

6 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

926353