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Tang Soo Do United

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Brief History Hyungs Korean Language (Hangul) Merchandise

Tang Soo Do (Hangul: ) is the Korean pronunciation of the Chinese characters . In Japanese, these characters mean "karate-do", but in contemporary Japanese karate-do is written with different characters (). The Japanese pronunciation of both sets of characters is the same, but the newer version means "Way of the Empty Hand" rather than "Way of the T'ang (China) Hand", although it could also be interpreted as "Way of the China Hand". Prior to the unification of the Kwans under the Korea Taekwondo Association, most of the major Kwans called their style Tang Soo Do, Kong Soo Do, or Kwon Bup. The first recorded use of the term "Tang Soo Do" in contemporary history was by Chung Do Kwan founder, Won Kuk Lee. The Chung Do Kwan, along with the rest of the Kwans, stopped using the name 'Tang Soo Do' and 'Kong Soo Do' when they unified under the name Taekwondo (and temporarily Tae Soo Do). The Moo Duk Kwan, being loyal to Hwang Kee, pulled out of the Kwan unification and remained independent of this unification movement, continuing to use the name 'Tang Soo Do'. Some Moo Duk Kwan members followed Hwang's senior student, Chong Soo Hong, to become members of a unified Taekwondo. Their group still exists today and is known as Taekwondo Moo Duk Kwan (Moo Duk Hae) with an office in Seoul, Korea. In 1995 the late Hwang Kee officially changed the name of the Moo Duk Kwan style to Soo Bahk Do. Most schools of Tang Soo Do use the transcription "Tang Soo Do". However, scientific texts apply the official transcription 'tangsudo', written as one word. Some authors write "Tang Soo Do" and give "tangsudo" or "dangsudo" in the parenthesis. Founder Unlike most contemporary martial arts, the origin of Tang Soo Do can not be traced to any single person. However, the history of the Moo Duk Kwan (from which the majority of all modern Tang Soo Do stylists trace their lineage) can be traced to a single founder: Hwang Kee.[1] Hwang Kee claimed to have learned Chinese martial arts while in Manchuria. He also was influenced by Japanese Karate, and the indigenous Korean arts of Taekkyon () and Subak. Hwang Kee also was highly influenced by a 1790 Korean book about martial arts called the Muye Dobo Tongji ( / ).

Early history Much like Tae Kwon Do, historians have described ancient connections to Korean history to legitimize the art. According to texts published by Hwang Kee, the ancestral art of Korean Soo Bahk Do can be traced back to the period when Korea was divided into three kingdoms: Silla, Baekje, and Goguryeo. Goguryeo was founded in 37 BC in northern Korea. The Silla Dynasty was founded in 57 BC in the southeast peninsula. The third kingdom, Baekje (sometimes written "Paekche") was founded in 18 BC. Finally, after a long series of wars, the Silla Dynasty united the three kingdoms in 668 AD. During this period, the primitive martial arts (including an art known as Soo Bakh) were very popular as a method of self-defense in warfare. This is evident in the many mural paintings, ruins, and remains, which depict Tang Soo Do in those days. Among the three kingdoms, the Silla Dynasty was most famous for its development of martial arts. A corps composed of a group of young aristocrats who were called "Hwa Rang Dan" () was the major force behind the development of the art. These warriors were instrumental in unifying the Korean peninsula under the new Silla Dynasty (668 AD - 935 AD). Many of the early leaders of that dynasty were originally members of the Hwa Rang Dan. Most Korean martial arts trace their spiritual and technical heritage to this group. In fact, the names of some martial arts such as Hwa Soo Do, still reflect this origination. The united Silla Kingdom was ultimately overthrown by a warlord, Wang Kun, in 918 AD. The new kingdom, Goryeo, lasted for 475 years (918 AD - 1392 AD). During the Wang Dynasty, the "Hwa Rang Dan" became "Gook Sun Dul" or "Poong Wal Dul." "Gook Sun" or "Poong Wal" is considered as modern army general, each could have several hundreds to several thousands private armies to protect the country and the region. This system was later adapted by the Japanese and became the Samurai (Hangul: , Hanja: ) system. In 1392, the Yi Dynasty succeeded the Goryeo kingdom. The Yi Dynasty remained intact for 500 years. During the 1000 year period of the Goryeo Kingdom and the Yi Dynasty, what we today know as Tang Soo Do was increasingly popular with the military. More importantly however, the art also became very popular with the general public. During this period, Tang Soo Do was referred to as Kwon Bop, Tae Kyun, Soo Bahk, Tang Soo and other names. The first complete martial arts book was written at this time, the "Mooyae Dobo Tongji". It was written in 1790 and its illustrations show that Tang Soo Do (formally called "Soo Bahk Ki") had developed into a very sophisticated art of combat. Although it was popular among the public, it was eventually banned by the Yi Dynasty due to fear of rebels. Therefore, the Korean traditional

martial arts were taught as one teacher has only one student throughout the teacher's life. Later, this force the Korean martial arts practitioners to retake the Japanese martial arts. 20th Century During the Japanese occupation of Korea (1910-1945), many Koreans were exposed to Japanese versions of Chinese martial arts such as Karate. As the Japanese moved deeper into the continent, Karate was adopted and mixed with more traditional Korean martial arts such as Taekkyon, as well as traditional Chinese martial arts studied by Koreans in Manchuria and China. Around the time of the liberation of Korea in 1945, five martial arts schools were formed by men who were mostly trained in Japanese Karate. They taught an art they called Kong Soo Do or Tang Soo Do, and their schools were called the Kwans. The Kwans and their founders were the Chung Do Kwan (Lee Won Kuk), Jidokwan (Chun Sang Sup), Chang Moo Kwan (Yoon Byung In), Moo Duk Kwan (Hwang Ki), and Song Moo Kwan (Roh Byung Jick). Around 1953, shortly after the Korean War, four more annex kwans formed. These 2nd generation kwans and their principle founders were: Oh Do Kwan (Choi Hong Hi and Nam Tae Hi), Han Moo Kwan (Lee Kyo Yoon), Kang Duk Kwan (Park Chul Hee and Hong Jong Pyo) and Jung Do Kwan (Lee Young Woo). In 1955, these arts, at that time called various names by the different schools, were ordered to unify by South Korea's President Syngman Rhee. A governmental body selected a naming committee's submission of "Taekwondo" as the name. Both Sun Duk Song and Choi Hong Hi both claim to have submitted the name. In 1959, the Korean Taekwondo Association (KTA) was formed in an attempt to unify the dozens of the kwans as one standardized system of Taekwondo. The first international tour of Taekwondo, by General Choi Hong Hi and Nam Tae Hi (founders of the Oh Do Kwan) and 19 black belts, was held in 1959. In 1960, Jhoon Rhee was teaching what he called Korean Karate (or Tang Soo Do) in Texas, USA. After receiving the ROK Army Field Manual (which contained martial arts training curriculum under the new name of Taekwondo) from General Choi, Rhee began using the name Taekwondo. Despite this unification effort, the kwans continued to teach their individual styles. The Korean government ordered a single organization be created and, on September 16, 1961, the kwans agreed to unify under the name 'Korean Tae Soo Do Association'. The name was changed back to the 'Korean Taekwondo Association' when Choi became its president in August 1965.

Modern Tang Soo Do Tang Soo Do continues to expand and flourish under numerous federations and organizations that, for various reasons separated from the Moo Duk Kwan. It can be argued that Tang Soo Do is one of the most widely practiced martial arts in the United States, although no official "census" of martial arts practitioners exists. Despite the style's nation of origin being different, many Tang Soo Do schools continue to advertise themselves as Karate schools, for reasons that can usually be traced back to the ease of marketing under that moniker. Belt System By and large, Tang Soo Do uses the colored belt system instituted by Jigoro Kano, with minor deviations according to organization and/or individual school. One differentiating characteristic of the style however, is that the traditional black belt is frequently replaced by a Midnight Blue Belt for students who attain Dan rank, although many schools and organizations opt to use the black belt. Furthermore, Tang Soo Do incorporates a red-striped midnight blue (or black) belt to denote individuals who have reached the rank of Sabumnim (/), or Master Instructor (usually awarded at Fourth Dan). What are the origins of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan? In Korea the indigenous arts of self defense (Soo Bahk Ki and Tae Kyun) we combined with other fighting principles (Northern and Southern Chinese Kung Fu) and moral guidelines such as the philosophy of Do (Tao), No Ja (Lao Tzu) and Kong Ja (Confucius) by Founder Grandmaster Hwang Kee, into what is now known as Soo Bahk Do (Tang Soo Do) Moo Duk Kwan . This combination of techniques and philosophy resulted in the development of a form of self defense and mental conditioning unrivaled in the modern world. Grandmaster Hwang Kee created the Moo Duk Kwan on November 9 1945. Grand Master Hwang Kee was first inspired to study the Martial arts in 1921 when he was about seven years old. At a traditional Festival called "Dan O" he was visiting a nearby village, where they had archery, wrestling and many other festivities. As Grand Master was enjoying the festival, a group of seven or eight men had a dispute with another man. Suddenly the group of men attacked the lone man, who began evading and counter attacking with his feet, eventually defeating the group of men. This ability to defend oneself against several attackers so impressed Grand Master Hwang Kee that at that moment he knew he wanted to learn the martial arts. For several years Grand Master Hwang Kee studied and researched every available source, and at the age of 22 he was recognized as a Master among other martial artists. In May of 1935 Grand Master

Hwang Kee began working for the Korean railroad company which allowed him to travel. In May of 1936 he met a Chinese Kung Fu master named Yang, Kuk Jin. Grand Master trained with Master Yang until 1946, at that time China became a communist country. The training consisted of Seh Bop (postures), Bo Bop (steps), Ryun Bop (conditioning) and Hyung (Forms) with their applications. November 9th 1945 Grandmaster Hwang Kee founded the Moo Duk Kwan. The basic ideal of the Moo Duk Kwan is the development of its participants. Strong individuals in Spirit and Body make strong communities, strong communities make strong nations, Strong and peaceful nations make a strong and peaceful world. Scientific Analysis of The Development of Power* Article 1. Force and Newton's 2nd Law. According to Newton's 2nd law, force is defined as mass times acceleration, which is illustrated by the formula: F=ma. Now let us concentrate our attention on this formula. When force acts upon a mass, the initial velocity increases as the mass proceeds to move. The final velocity is determined by the formula: V=Vo+at. The rate of Vo is usually low in order to obtain a higher velocity. By means of adding to acceleration, we move our body up and down or twist the waist, thereby the kinetic energy is also increased. Article 2. Force As seen in the formula F=ma, weight and acceleration are the two important factors in producing force. To increase force, therefore, either weight or acceleration must be increased. In this sense, a heavy weighted person generally has more advantages in Sado (martial arts in general) then one with less weight. Article 3. Acceleration Acceleration is the ratio of velocity to time: A=dv/dt. It is evident by this formula that either increasing velocity or lessening time leads to increased acceleration. Article 4. Velocity Velocity is defined as the ratio of distance to time: V=dx/dt. In short, velocity increases when we move a comparatively long distance in a short time. Additionally the formula V=Vo+at shows increased acceleration also contributes to velocity.

Article 5. Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy (eK) is defined as eK=½mv². In light of the momentum equation M=mv together with the above, the increase of velocity is responsible for kinetic energy and momentum. To summarize, mass (m), velocity (v), time (t), distance (x), acceleration (a), gravity (g), and energy (e) have close correlation with one another. Article 6. Force and its Practical Application Now it is necessary to study actions of Sado in terms of practical application of the preceding definitions. As mentioned above, increasing mass (weight) is essential to a more powerful attack or defense. However, since we can not instantaneously increase our weight at will, we must learn to compensate for it. The key to this problem is applying your weight properly in order to generate more power. For example, in the case of a middle attack, we have both arms intercrossing each other, one (left) ready to attack, while the other (right) is projected forward to attack the middle part of the opponent. As the attacker's right arm stretches out while the left one is pulled back, a twisting motion occurs. In this manner, the right side together with the left forms a couple, created at the axis of the body producing greater power. When attacking with the right arm if its weight is 3kg, theoretically, the force produced is F=3kg(m) a by Newton's formula F=ma. However, to reinforce our attacking power, we rely simultaneously on expansion and contraction of our body, namely waist twisting. Waist twisting results in the addition of weight to various parts of the body and the weight of the whole body in motion. To explain specifically, if the weight of the right arm is 3kg, and the body in motion is 28kg and of it is assumed to be added to the hand, it yields F=(3+28) a. This is remarkable in comparison with the case F=3kg a. Article 7. Actions in Terms of Acceleration By the definition A=dv/dt, we found acceleration and force are increased by either increasing speed or shortening the duration of attack. When attacking with the hand, it naturally gets an initial speed (Vo). If we don't think it is great enough, we increase V by increasing acceleration (see V=Vo+at), which is actually done through twisting the waist. This means that if it takes one second to attack with the hands, and that time shortened say ½ second by waist twisting, acceleration increases (A=dv/dt) and so does force (F=ma).

Article 8. Distance Now let's consider the advantages of distance. We have already verified by the formula V=dx/dt that velocity increases if we attack over a long distance in a comparatively short time. If it takes 1 second to attack at 100cm and ½ second to attack at 120 cm, the latter produces a velocity much greater then that of the former (100cm/1 sec: 120cm/ 0.5 sec = 1:2.4). Needless to say, the force also becomes greater. Specifically, in either attack or defense, complete extension of the arms and twisting of the waist with proper techniques are the essential elements needed to obtain maximum power. It might not be an exaggeration to say that they are of themselves theories of physics put into practice. This is not confined to hand attacks, but also true of foot attacks. Those who have been instructed by the author show superiority in the hand and foot attack in as much as they were well aware of the theories of applied physics. Article 9. The Relationship between Kinetic Energy and Motion. I wish to explain kinetic energy in relation to the theory of physics. The equation eK=½mV² shows that kinetic energy becomes greater with increased speed (V). The volume of kinetic energy will be produced from the pattern M=mV. Article 10. Physical Interpretation of Practical Performance and Breaking. Now let's explain certain physical phenomenon taking place in practical performance and the breaking of objects. The Case of the Jumping Attack. When you attack your opponent or protect yourself by means of "jumping side thrust kick" or "jumping front thrust kick" or "jumping spin kick." you are required to jump then the potential energy (e=mgh) of your body increases in proportion to height regardless of weight. The jump attack has another advantage in that it covers a greater radius.. Breaking in Regard to Structure The force causing an object to break in a vertical direction is known as shear force (stress) designated as Ss. As the formula Ss=F/b c suggests, stress is proportional to the force used on objects, and if the force is constant, we can get greater stress by diminishing the striking area. This is applicable not only to breaking but to practical performance as well.

Article 11. Conclusion The author felt there was a need to scientifically analyze the general methods of Sado. Middle attack was used as an example in order to explain the specific usage of the body axis (hands, feet, and waist). For the other part, requirements in Sado will be explained in the future and will be based upon the basics of this art. Another important point you should remember in the art of Sado is your spirit and biological condition. The motion of your body (twisting waist) coincides to this formula: F=m a. Develop skill in the martial art and strengthen your force in the method of attack and defense. It is important how you use your body (body axis) in the performance of the art of Sado. Besides the previous explanations, there is also centrifugal force, centripetal force, speed force, reaction force, air resistance force, and gravity force, etc. Many other detailed problems also relate to the art of Sado.

Article 12. The Explanation of Symbols and Formula. 1. F=ma F=Force m=weight (mass) a=acceleration 2. M=mv M=Amount of quality in motion m=Weight (mass) 3. V=dx/dt 4. a=dv/dt a=acceleration dv=Change of speed dt=Change of time 5. eK=½mV² eK=Kinetic Energy m=Mass V²=square velocity 6. e=mgh g=Gravitation h=Height 7. g=980cm T ½ = (g=980 cm/sec²) g=Gravitation t=time (second) 8. Ss=F/bc Ss=Shear force F=Force bc=Cross sectional area 9. l=2r l=Circumference =Ratio of circumference r=Radius Force

Momentum

Velocity (Speed) Acceleration

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

Acceleration against Gravitation

Congelation Force

Hyung A hyung, poomsae or tul (casually referred to as forms) is a martial arts form that is typically used in a Korean martial art. A hyung is a performance of a sequence of typical techniques from the martial art, either with or without the use of a weapon. This sequence is sometimes called "imaginary fighting" as it involves pre-determined and choreographed routines, sequences and patterns which resemble real combat, but are artistically non-combative or cooperative. These hyungs are performed as a way of practicing basic and advanced techniques in the martial art as well as in open competitions. In competition, routines are evaluated by a panel of master-level judges who base the score on many factors including energy, precision, speed, and control. Many Korean martial arts refer to their forms as hyung. Of these forms, there are two classifications; creative and standard. Creative forms are created by the performer and are generally more acrobatic in nature. (As an example, a performer may break several boards that have been arranged in a shape.) The early standard forms are more true to the original martial art basics of their time period. Tang Soo Do hyung There are several different [Tang Soo Do] organizations around the world, but they generally follow a similar course with regard to hyung. Most TSD hyung are related by borrowing from Japanese/Okinawan [kata], with the names often directly translated from the Japanese. Gicho /Kicho Hyung Some schools teach new students the gicho/kicho, "basic," hyung:

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(Gicho) Hyung Il Bu (Gicho) Hyung Ee Bu (Gicho) Hyung Sam Bu

These hyung are very basic, comprised of simple attacks in a very measured pace, easy for beginners to learn. Pyong Ahn Hyung The pyong ahn/pyung ahn hyung are a series of five forms cognate in many ways to the pinan kata series of karate. They are: *Pyong Ahn Cho Dan The first of the pyong ahn series, much of this form is a combination of gicho hyung il bu and ee bu. This form also employs low knife-hand blocks.

*Pyong Ahn Ee Dan This hyung is typically one count/technique longer than the other lowrank forms, due to one of its techniques, a side kick, which is performed in two counts, the first to set up and the second to deliver. It is also one of the only low-level hyung to have a yell on the last move. The most-often used technique in this hyung is the middle knife-hand block. *Pyong Ahn Sam Dan The third of the pyong ahn series, this is also the shortest. While the forms before it involve an I-structure for movement, this form instead goes along an inverted T-structure, cutting out several counts. Its series of outside-inside kicks to sideways elbow strikes and hammerfist strikes is its most recognizable feature. It also ends with a yell. *Pyong Ahn Sa Dan This form starts out much like Pyong Ahn Ee Dan, except that where Pyong Ahn Ee Dan has closed fists on its first blocks, Pyong Ahn Sa Dan has open hands. It is cognate to the Shotokan kata Pinan Yondan. *Pyong Ahn O Dan Cognate to Pinan Godan, this is the final hyung of the series, as well as the most involved. The phrase "pyong ahn" is often translated as "well-balanced" and "peaceful." These forms are usually taught after the gicho hyung. They are said to represent the turtle. Bassai/Passai/Palche/Bal Sak Hyung The "Bassai" pattern, meaning "to penetrate a fortress," has cognates in both Chinese, Japanesen and Korean martial arts. Moreover, there are many variations upon the two Bassai hyung present in TSD, Bassai(Palche) So and Bassai(Palche) Deh. Some schools only practice Palche De, the "greater" of the two forms. These are usually higherbelt forms, as they are very complex and hard to master. The animal these forms represent is the snake.

Naihanchi Hyung The Keema hyung series are borrowed from the naihanchi series of karate, and in fact some schools use the name Naihanchi for these forms. The level at which they are taught varies, but their difficulty and technicality means that they are most often reserved for red/black belts, though not always directly after each other. The animal they represent is the horse. They are:

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Naihanchi Cho Dan Naihanchi Ee Dan Naihanchi Sam Dan

Kicho Hyoungs

The first forms that a student learns are the . Pronounced Kee Cho they mean in essence the Basic forms. These are the foundational forms that each student must learn before moving on to the more advanced forms. , are the three forms that are taught by the majority of organizations, and were created by Grandmaster Hwang Kee in 1947. There are two other Kicho forms that are practiced as well but not so widely known. and

Hangul

English Kicho Ill Boo Kicho Ee Boo Kicho Sam Boo Kicho Sa Boo Kicho Oh Boo

Definitions Basic Form #1 Basic Form #2 Basic Form #3 Basic Form #4 Basic Form #5

,

Required for: 9th Gup 8th Gup 7th Gup 6th Gup 5th Gup

Pyong Ahn Hyoungs All Pyong Ahn Forms were created approximately in 1870. The place of creation was Hwa Nam, China. Creator's name - Master Idos. This character, whose shape resembles that of a balanced scale, corresponds to the English terms: well balanced, calm and peaceful This character corresponds to the English terms: safe, confident and comfortable. Pyong Ahn Hyoungs were originally called Ja Nam Hyoung. It was devised by separating Ja Nam Hyoung into five components. Pyong Ahn forms to some symbolizes the "Turtle"

Required for:

5th Gup 4th Gup 3rd Gup 2nd Gup 1st Gup

English Pyong Ahn Chodan Pyong Ahn Eedan Pyong Ahn Samdan Pyong Ahn Sadan Pyong Ahn Ohdan

Translation

The first step to being balanced and safe The second step to being balanced and safe The third step to being balanced and safe The fourth step to being balanced and safe The fifth step in being balanced and safe

Origin of form's Name - The Original name of this form was . means "the selection of the best choice". In addition, also means "fast". means "collect". Movements of this form are selected from the most famous and effective movements of So Rim Sa ( a southern Chinese temple) Hangul English Translation Required for:

lugnaH

Hyungs Bassai Hyungs

Bassai So Bassai Dai

The Lesser Form*

The Greater Form*

1st Gup

1st Dan

Naihanchi Hyungs

Hangul

English

Naihanchi Chodan Naihanchi Eedan Naihanchi Samdan

Translation

Required For: 1st Dan 2nd Dan 2nd Dan

We are going to analyze the hyungs/katas/forms and break them down to where it is easy to understand. All of these forms are available on DVD for study and practice. Kicho Ill Boo

Number of moves: 20 Gi-yups: 8, 16 Start in ready position. 1. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 2. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 3. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 4. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 5. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 6. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 7. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 8. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 9. Turn 270° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 10. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 11. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 12. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 13. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 14. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 15. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 16. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 17. Turn 270° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 18. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 19. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 20. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. Return to ready position.

Kicho Hyung Ee Boo

Number of moves: 20 Gi-yups: 8, 16 Start in ready position. 1. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 2. Step forward into right front stance, high punch with right hand. 3. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 4. Step forward into left front stance, high punch with left hand. 5. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 6. Step forward into right front stance, high block with right hand. 7. Step forward into left front stance, high block with left hand. 8. Step forward into right front stance, high block with right hand. Gi-yup! 9. Turn 270° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 10. Step forward into right front stance, high punch with right hand. 11. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 12. Step forward into left front stance, high punch with left hand. 13. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 14. Step forward into right front stance, high block with right hand. 15. Step forward into left front stance, high block with left hand. 16. Step forward into right front stance, high block with right hand. Gi-yup! 17. Turn 270° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 18. Step forward into right front stance, high punch with right hand. 19. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 20. Step forward into left front stance, high punch with left hand. Return to ready position.

Kicho Hyung Sam Boo

Number of moves: 20 Gi-yups: 8, 16 Start in ready position. 1. Turn 90° to the left into right back stance, side middle block with left hand. 2. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 3. Turn 180° to the right into left back stance, side middle block with right hand. 4. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 5. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 6. Step forward into right side stance, middle punch with right hand. 7. Step forward into left side stance, middle punch with left hand. 8. Step forward into right side stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 9. Turn 270° to the left into right back stance, side middle block with left hand. 10. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 11. Turn 180° to the right into left back stance, side middle block with right hand. 12. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 13. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 14. Step forward into right side stance, middle punch with right hand. 15. Step forward into left side stance, middle punch with left hand. 16. Step forward into right side stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 17. Turn 270° to the left into right back stance, side middle block with left hand. 18. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 19. Turn 180° to the right into left back stance, side middle block with right hand. 20. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. Return to ready position.

THE TRUTH ABOUT PYONG AHN HYUNG

Among the striking arts, such as Karate, Tae Kwon Do, or Tang Soo Do, the forms (hyung) are elaborate series of movement (technique) linked together which are performed solo, incorporating rhythm, points of focus and patterns of repetition. A form performed with a partner, which may include grappling or throwing, is most often classified as Il Soo Sik Dae Ryun (one step fighting) or Ho Shin Sool (SelfDefense technique). The Pyong Ahn Hyung is a perfect example of a group of forms with great diversity. This series is the most common group of forms used world wide today. Hundreds of styles use a version of these forms. If two hard style martial artist from differing schools are placed in separate rooms and asked to perform any five inter- mediate forms they know, both will usually show you versions of at least three of the same Pyong Ahn forms. All the while, as great as their differences might be, each would be easily recognizable as a Pyong Ahn series form. Tang Soo Do tradition has always held that Grandmaster Hwang Kee, founder of the Moo Duk Kwan, brought these forms to Korea from China where he had studied in his youth. Most Tang Soo Do Masters will tell you, "Hwang Kee bring Pyong Ahn Hyung back from China, " The Grandmaster' s son himself, Hwang Hyun Chul, Director of the United States Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation (Springfield, NJ), has stated, "My father bring the forms back from China." As much as any of these masters may wish to convince you of this fact, they should not...because it is not true. The Pyong Ahn forms are not Chinese...they're Okinawan in origin. The fact that this is common knowledge to students of Japanese and Okinawan Karate had led to a good number of insults and more than one rumor that Hwang Kee had traveled to Japan or Okinawa and studied the forms. One myth even claim's Hwang Kee spent a few months on Okinawa studying Shorin-ryu and Goju-ryu Karate. Another states that both Hwang Kee and Funakoshi Ginchin (the founder of ShotoKan Karate) created the Pyong Ahn series. The story goes 'Funakoshi and Hwang traveled to China where they studied Chinese martial arts. Together, they created the Pyong Ahn forms. Each then returned to his respective country and began teaching his own version'. Stories such as this bring mild amusement in their most benign form, and do a great deal of damage to the credibility of Tang Soo Do masters at their worst. A simple check of facts can quickly show how great a fallacy the story is. While Hwang Kee did travel to China, there is no evidence he and Funakoshi were traveling companions. This is easily denounced by the fact Funakoshi never traveled to China. He was an Okinawan who re- located to Japan where he lived out his life. Lastly, Hwang and Funakoshi were not contemporaries in the sense the story implies. Funakoshi was born in 1868. In 1927, he relocated to Japan where he remained until his death in 1957 (Funakoshi, 1975). Hwang Kee was born in 1914 just north of Seoul, Korea. In 1935, following completion of High School, Hwang traveled to China as part of his job, and remained until 1937 (Hwang, 1995). If you do the math you will see that Funakoshi was 46 years old when Hwang was born. By the time Hwang left for China, Funakoshi was 67 years old, while Hwang was only 21. Unless the Japanese Empire regularly sent senior citizens into hostile occupied areas, it isn't at all likely Hwang and Funakoshi even ever shared the same train. Contemporaries...not! Nonetheless, some rumors have perpetuated that Hwang Kee studied from Funakoshi at the

Shoto-Kan. However, no evidence has ever surfaced that Hwang and Funakoshi ever trained together, nor even ever met one another. Pyong Ahn is the Korean pronunciation for the Chinese characters associated with this series. The forms were first created in 1901 by Itosu Yasutsune, a Shorin-ryu Karate master on Okinawa. The Okinawan dialect pronounces these characters 'Pin An'. The study of Karate was still a secret practice during Itosu's early life. Dojo (martial art schools) were no more than small groups of initiates who carried out their practice discretely and in private. The training was typically brutal and the curriculum focused on forms training and its application in prearranged sparring sequences. Itosu himself was a schoolteacher and he recognized in Karate a method by which Okinawan youth could strengthen their bodies while building good characters. Itosu, however, did not believe that young people should be taught the secrets of Karate with its potentially fatal uses until they had successfully proven themselves. Therefore, he set out to create a style of Karate that could be easily instructed and learned. His brainchildren were the Pinan Kata which were created by combination of two older forms, Kushanku (Korean: Kong Sang Koon) and Chiang Nan (Korean: Jae Nam) (or, at least, that is the oral history). A total of five forms were created and introduced into the Okinawan public schools as instruction for children at the elementary school level. From 1905 to 1909, one form was introduced each year. Itosu, in time, would teach his art to another Okinawan, Funakoshi Ginchin, who eventually would prove to be a significant figure in the migration and modernization of Karate. Funakoshi was destined to travel to Japan and teach a version of the Pinan forms and to eventually rename them Heian. Other former students of Itosu, such as Mabuni Kenwa (founder of Shito-ryu), would also relocate to Japan and teach versions of the Pinan Kata. This series eventually would make its way into Korea through Koreans who studied in Japan, such as Lee Won Kuk (Chung Do Kwan), Choi Hong Hi (Oh Do Kwan), Yoon Byung In (Chang Moo Kwan), and Ho Byung Jik (Song Moo Kwan). In 1978, Hwang Kee published Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do). On page 372 of this book, Hwang elaborates on the Pyong Ahn Hyung as follows: Originally, this form was called 'Jae Nam' Approximately 100 years ago an Okinawan Master, Mr. Idos, reorganized the Jae Nam form into a form closely resembling the present Pyong Ahn forms... In his latest book, The History of Moo Duk Kwan (1995), which is available through the United States Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation, Hwang Kee states on pages 15 and 16 that his knowledge and understanding of the majority of forms taught within Tang Soo Do, including the Pyong Ahn Hyung, came through reading and studying Japanese books on Okinawan Karate. Hwang discovered these books in the Library of the train station in Seoul where he worked in 1939 (Hwang, 1995). We can only speculate as to which books these were, but it is known that Funakoshi and others published books on Karate as far back as 1922. While the above information was withheld for 50 years, the clue could always be found within the forms themselves. It has been known for many years that the Karate-Ka in Japan switched the order of the first two forms from their original. Hence, anyone who trains in a traditional Okinawan school have the original order, while those that trace lineage through a Japanese school have Pinan No. 2 as their version of Pinan No. 1, and vice versa. Tang Soo Do practitioners need to take note here as their order is the same as used by the Japanese schools. In the late 1960's, Bruce Lee started a revolution in the martial arts community. Lee felt that forms had out-lived their usefulness as training and teaching tool. A theme that has been occasionally echoed by a good number of recognized experts within this country.

As so very few people questioned the meaning behind forms or examined the forms for meaning through historical context, it is easy to understand how Lee' s premise appeared sound. Virtually no one had but a mere basic understanding of the forms, either historic- ally or functionally. A great majority of schools still teach only the most rudimentary explanation for the movements within these patterns. Some are just plain untrue and potentially dangerous to the user. Even Asian teachers often expound on applications of forms that simply are not logical or practical. We frequently assume that because a teacher is of Asian heritage he automatically knows deep secrets to the arts. Shiroma Shinpan (Shito-Ryu) "...often admitted to not knowing the technical functions of certain movements and hand forms in the Katas and would quite blankly state that Itosu (Shorin-ryu master and creator of the Pinan Kata) had not known the functions either, merely explaining that they were for 'show'" (Bishop, Okinawan Karate, 1989). Most schools still utilize forms as criteria for evaluating a student's progress for rank. Forms are not simply static executions of individual techniques but compilations of inter- connected and related movements within acceptable standards of deviation. The execution against a living, breathing, moving and aggressive opponent requires variance and adaptation within parameters that still retain the overall pattern, giving the motions recognizable continuity, or form. In the early part of the previous decade, an Okinawan Kempo master named Orate Seiyu (Independence, MO) began to gain attention when word got out he was teaching nerve strikes. What was so intriguing was not just Oyata 's skill, but that he was able to show how these strikes are hidden within the classical forms. Oyata went further to explain how all forms are more than simple combinations of blocks and strikes, but are also traps, joint locks and sequences of accupoint manipulations. George Dillman (Reading, PA) studied for a time with Oyata then conducted his own research that led him to go public in the late 1980's and early 1990's espousing his own interpretations of the classical forms. When Master Itosu created the Pinan Kata in 1901, he essentially combined what was considered as two distinct martial art styles into a third and new style. In that day, Kara Te was composed of many styles, each represented by a Kata which was the art itself. Pinan was intended to be an encompassing art that could stand on its own merits. It was the art of 'peace and confidence'. Through its study you could attain this serene state of being. In 1994, Terence Dukes (aka Shifu Nagaboshi Tomio), a Buddhist monk and teacher states in his book, The Bodhisattva Warriors, that the forms are an outgrowth of ancient Buddhist doctrine concerning the Five Elements and their relationship to increasing accomplishment of psychological and spiritual evolutions. Accordingly, the form was designed in five parts, each relating to an elemental level, which were studied over a 15 year period. "This series of Hsing (forms) seem to have been preserved in China for many years, but in the Tang Dynasty was renamed the Ping An (peaceful equanimity) Hsing." A much later Ryukuan student of Chuan Fa (Kempo) named Itosu (Chinese: yi Tsu) mentions studying a set of Ping An Hsing under the Chinese esoteric monk, Li Tsun San (Japanese: Rijunsan) in the late 1800's" (Dukes, 1994). In the book, Okinawan Karate (1989), historian Mark Bishop relates that Itosu received instruction in the Chiang Nan Kata from a Chinese master living on Okinawa. Bishop goes on to state Itosu "...remodeled and simplified this into five basic Kata, calling them Pinan because the Chinese Chiang Nan was too difficult to pronounce." In Karate-do History and Philosophy (1986), Kakaya Takao stated that "...Channan is a Chinese

word that would be used as the name of a town or the last name of a person." Hwang (1978) asserts the form had its origin in the Jae Nam region. These characters translate to mean 'south border' or 'southern frontier'. This fits as the oral tradition states the Chiang Nan form is a Southern style. However, there is another set of characters also associated with this form. These are which are pronounced Chian Nan (or Chiang Nan) or Kang Nam in Korean. These characters translate to mean 'southern river'. In Introduction to Shaolin Kung Fu (1990) by Wong Kiew Kit (London), there is mention of one Chiang Nan a Buddhist monk of the famed Shaolin Temple. Wong states that this monk escaped from the temple following its destruction and lived to be 90 years old, eventually passing on his knowledge of martial arts to the progenitors of Wong's particular school of Shaolin Kung Fu (Wong, 1990). The Manchu Army during China's Ching Dynasty (1644-1911) destroyed Fukien Shaolin Temple. The Fukien style became known as Nan Chuan or 'Southern Boxing' (Canzonieri, 1996). The culmination of the above information goes a long way in supporting Bishop's statements about Itosu having studied at the hand of a Chinese master and what we have learned about the nebulous style, Chiang Nan. It also allows us to make an estimation of the form's age. If we can assume the Chiang Nan form existed in some fashion prior to the burning of the Fukien Shaolin Temple, we can then estimate the form to be at least 236 years old. The above information, however, only explains half of the history behind the Pyong Ahn hyung. Remember that the oral history states that the forms are a combination of Chiang Nan and Kong Sang Koon (Kushanku) forms. The Kong Sang Koon Hyung is named after the Chinese official who purportedly practiced this style and taught it to Itosu's teacher, Bushi Matsumura. Literally, the words mean, "Imperial Governor Generals". While the form Kong Sang Koon is often attributed contribution to the Pyong Ahn Hyung, no where but the oral tradition is there mention of this. The fact may be that Kong Sang Koon, the person, may have been a practitioner of the Chiang Nan style and that in it accounts for the similarities between our modern Pyong Ahn Hyung and the Kong Sang Koon Hyung. This style was most probably a familiar one to the temples of southern China. If Li Tsun San, Itosu's reputed teacher, was indeed a monk, he himself may have been a student of the Venerable Chiang Nan; thus, Li Tsun San may have given credit to his teacher by naming the style after him. Speculatively, this system may have indeed been based upon the Ping An Hsing Dukes mentions (that is if we allow that Dukes' research is accurate and such forms existed). Chiang Nan (the monk) then could have been familiar with some variation of this 'five element fist', which he may have referred to as Ping An Hsing, that in turn might have been studied by Li Tsun San and eventually passed on to Itosu Yasutsune (dizzy yet?). Therefore, it is reasonable that Itosu could have received instruction in the esoteric meanings of these forms. However, as with all things passed down through time and across cultures, the forms have been made subject to the speculations and interpretations of those who translate them for modern times. Itosu constructed his own interpretation in the Pinan Kata. His students (Funakoshi, Mabuni, etc.) added their own emphasis and carried these with them to Japan. Their students in turn took their own versions with them to Korea, Manchuria, China, Malaysia and everywhere else the Japanese Empire reached. Yet, the forms remain and retain those qualities that make them readily recognizable to all students of the series. Whether Pyong Ahn indeed is an evolution of a Chinese form with ties to the Shaolin style may never be definitively proven. However, it is apparent that Tang Soo Do owes its understanding of the forms to Japanese Karate-ka. Teaching the true history of the Pyong Ahn Hyung may be ethnically offensive to some Koreans. The same ethnic prejudice can be seen in the reluctance of some Japanese schools to teach the

Okinawan and Chinese origins of the forms. Regardless of how much revisionist history is applied, the truth still remains. What is amazing is not how much we have uncovered about the Pyong Ahn Hyung, but that anything survived time to be rediscovered. Indeed, truth has significance and endurance.

Pyong Ahn Chodan

Number of moves: 23 Gi-yups: 11, 19 Start in ready position. 1. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 2. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 3. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 4. Slide right foot back into left back stance while disengaging and bottom-fist striking with right hand. 5. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 6. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 7. Without stepping, outward knife-hand block with left hand. 8. Step forward into right front stance, high block with right hand. 9. Step forward into left front stance, high block with left hand. 10. Step forward into right front stance, high block with right hand. 11. Withough stepping, reverse middle punch with left hand. Gi-yup! 12. Turn 270° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 13. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 14. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 15. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 16. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 17. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 18. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 19. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 20. Turn 270° to the left into right back stance (left foot forward), double low knifehand block to the left. 21. Turn 45° to the right stepping into left back stance (right foot forward), double low knife-hand block to the right. 22. Turn 135° to the right into left back stance (right foot forward), double low knifehand block to the right. 23. Turn 45° to the left stepping into right back stance (left foot forward), double low knife-hand block to the left. Return to ready position.

Pyong Ahn Eedan

Number of moves: 29 Gi-yups: 2 Start in ready position. 1. Slide left foot to right foot, bring fists into check position on left hip. Step out to left side with left foot into right back stance, side middle block with left hand, high block with right hand. 2. Without stepping, draw back right hand and upper cut, pulling left hand toward body in a guard. 3. Draw left hand back to left hip, slide left foot out into side stance and side punch with left hand. 4. Turn 180° to the right sliding left foot to right and stepping out into left back stance, side middle block with right hand, high block with left hand. 5. Without stepping, draw back left hand and upper cut, pulling left hand toward body in a guard. 6. Draw right hand back to right hip, slide right foot out into side stance and side punch with right hand. 7. Slide right foot to left foot, facing up the center bar. Pivot and side kick with right foot behind you (hands in side kick guard position). 8. Set right foot down next to left foot, step out with left foot up the center bar into right back stance, double high knife hand block to left side. 9. Step forward intl left back stance, double high knife hand block to right side. 10. Step forward into right back stance, double high knife hand block to left side. 11. Blocking solar plexus with left palm, step forward into right front stance, spear hand with right hand. Gi-yup! 12. Turn 270° to the left into right back stance, double high knife hand block to the left side. 13. Turn 45° to the right, stepping into left back stance, double high knife hand block to the right side. 14. Turn 225° to the right, stepping into left back stance, double high knife hand block to the right side. 15. Turn 45° to the left, stepping into right back stance, double high knife hand block to the left side. 16. Turn 45° to the left, pivoting into left front stance, twist and duck body while executing a "scooping" middle block with right hand. 17. Staying level, front kick with right foot. 18. As the right foot sets down into right front stance, middle punch with left hand. 19. Without stepping, twist and duck body while executing a "scooping" middle block with left hand. 20. Staying level, front kick with left foot. 21. As the left foot sets down into left front stance, middle punch with right hand. 22. Straighten up while bringing right foot up next to left foot, windmill block (middle block with right hand, low block with left hand). 23. Step forward into right front stance, middle block with right hand, middle punch with left hand. Gi-yup! 24. Turn 270° to the left into left front stance, low block with left hand. 25. Without stepping, middle knife hand block with left hand. 26. Turn 45° to the right, stepping into right front stance, high block with right hand. 27. Turn 225° to the right into right front stance, low block with right hand. 28. Without stepping, middle knife hand block with right hand. 29. Turn 45° to the left, stepping into left front stance, high block with left hand. Return to ready position.

Pyong Ahn Samdan

Number of moves: 23 Gi-yups: 2 Start in ready position. 1. Turn 90° to the left into right back stance, side middle block with the left hand. 2. Bring right foot next to left, windmill block (low block with left hand, middle block with right hand). 3. Without stepping reverse windmill block (low block with right hand, middle block with left hand). 4. Turn 180° to the right into left back stance, side middle block with the right hand. 5. Bring left foot next to right, windmill block (low block with right hand, middle block with left hand). 6. Without stepping reverse windmill block (low block with left hand, middle block with right hand). 7. Turn 90° to the left into left front stance, augmented middle block (middle block with left hand, solar plexus guard with right hand so that the right fist rests against the left elbow "augmenting" the block). 8. Step forward into right front stance, solar plexus guard palm down with left hand, solar plexus spear with right hand. 9. Pivot on the right foot 270° to the left into left side stance (facing up center bar) guarding kidneys and back with right hand during the pivot, hammer strike with left hand. 10. Step forward into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 11. Slide right foot in front of left foot, pivot on the right foot 180° to the right, bring left foot next to right, double elbow strike to rear. (Facing down the center bar) 12. Inward crescent sweep with right foot down center bar. 13. Set right foot down into right side stance, elbow block inward with right elbow (fists planted on hips). 14. Without stepping, back fist strike with right hand and return hand to hip. 15. Inward crescent sweep with left foot down center bar. 16. Set left foot down into left side stance, elbow block inward with left elbow (fists planted on hips). 17. Without stepping, back fist strike with left hand and return hand to hip. 18. Inward crescent sweep with right foot down center bar. 19. Set right foot down into right side stance, elbow block inward with right elbow (fists planted on hips). 20. Without stepping, back fist strike with right hand and return hand to hip. 21. Step forward into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. Gi-yup! 22. Bring right foot up to end bar in side stance facing down the center bar. Pivot on right foot 180° to the left into side stance facing up the center bar, elbow strike to rear with left hand, punch over left shoulder with right hand. 23. Shuffle right in side stance, elbow strike to rear with right hand, punch over right shoulder with left hand. Return to ready position.

Pyong Ahn Sadan

Number of moves: 27 Gi-yups: 2 Start in ready position. 1. Slide left foot to right foot, bring knife hands into check position on left hip. Step out to left side with left foot into right back stance, knife hand block with left hand, knife hand high block with right hand. All motions under tension! 2. Turn 180° to the right sliding left foot to right and stepping out into left back stance, knife hand block with right hand, knife hand high block with left hand. All motions under tension! 3. Slide right foot to left foot, step forward into left front stance, low X-Block with fists from right shoulder, right hand on top. 4. Step forward into right front stance, augmented middle block (middle block with right hand, solar plexus guard with left hand so that the left fist rests against the right elbow "augmenting" the block ). 5. Side kick with left foot to left side, hands in side kick guard position. 6. Set foot down into left front stance (still facing the side), elbow strike with right elbow into left palm. 7. Step back onto center bar into left front stance, augmented middle block (middle block with left hand, guard with right hand). 8. Side kick with right foot to right side, hands in side kick guard position. 9. Set foot down into right front stance (still facing the side), elbow strike with left elbow into right palm. 10. Without stepping, knife hand high block with right hand in front of body, knife hand low block with left hand to left side of body (looking up the center bar). 11. Pivot into left front stance facing up the center bar, knife hand high block with left hand, inward knife hand strike with right hand. 12. High front kick with right foot. 13. Without setting the kicking foot down, jump forward into twisted stance (right foot flat and pointing forward, ball of left foot resting on the ground to the right of the right foot), back fist strike with right hand. Gi-yup! 14. Turn 225° to the left, drawing hands to chest in X-Block. Under tension, slide left foot out into left front stance, double "spreading" middle block with hands. 15. High front kick with right foot, withdrawing right hand to hip. 16. Set kicking foot down into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. 17. Without stepping, middle punch with left hand. 18. Turn 90° to the right, drawing hands to chest in X-Block. Under tension, slide right foot out into right front stance, double "spreading" middle block with hands. 19. High front kick with left foot, withdrawing left hand to hip. 20. Set kicking foot down into left front stance, middle punch with left hand. 21. Without stepping, middle punch with right hand. 22. Turn 45° to the left into right back stance, augmented block to left side (middle block with left hand, guard with right hand). 23. Step forward into left back stance, augmented block to right side. 24. Step forward into right back stance, augmented block to left side. 25. Slide left foot forward into left front stance, reach up with both hands to "grab" at neck level. Bring hand down as the right knee comes up. Gi-yup! 26. Set down right foot and turn 225° to the left into right back stance, double high knife hand block to the left side. 27. Turn 90° to the right stepping into left back stance, double high knife hand block to the right side. Return to ready position.

Pyong Ahn Ohdan

Number of moves: 25 Gi-yups: 2 Start in ready position. 1. Turn 90° to the left into right back stance, side middle block to the left side. 2. Without stepping, punch across body to left side with right hand and withdraw left fist to left hip. 3. Slide left foot to right foot (turning feet to face up center bar again), punch across body to right side with left hand and withdraw right fist to right hip. 4. Turn 90° to the right into left back stance, side middle block to the right side. 5. Without stepping, punch across body to right side with left hand and withdraw right fist to right hip. 6. Slide right foot to left foot (turning feet to face up center bar again), punch across body to left side with right hand and withdraw left fist to left hip. 7. Step forward into right front stance, augmented block (middle block with right hand, solar plexus guard with left hand so that the left fist rests against the right elbow "augmenting" the block). 8. Step forward into left front stance, low fisted X-Block (right hand over left). 9. Without stepping, bring both fist back and high knife-hand X-Block (right hand over left). 10. Rotate hands keeping wrists together so that the left hand is on top, clench fists and draw hands to right hip, while lifting right knee. 11. Keeping knee up, outward knife-hand strike off shoulder with left hand. 12. Set right foot down into right front stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 13. Pivot on left foot 180° to the left, stomping into side stance on the center bar, low block to the right side with the right hand (focus eyes down the center bar). 14. Without stepping, turn focus to the left, side outward knife-hand strike to the left side with the left hand. 15. Inward crescent kick with right foot into left hand. 16. Set kicking foot down into side stance moving up the center bar, elbow strike with right elbow into left palm. 17. Step up the center bar with left into twisted stance (left foot crossing behind right), back fist strike with right hand. 18. Hop into the air, uncrossing feet and land in right back stance facing down the center bar, double upper cut to rear. 19. Jump down the center bar (leading with right knee). Land by setting your feet in left tiger stance and crouching, low fisted X-Block between knees. 20. Stand and pivot into right front stance, middle block with right hand and middle punch with left hand. Gi-yup! 21. Turn 180° to the left into left front stance, low spear hand "grab" with right hand (left hand guarding over chest). 22. Withdraw into right back stance, back fist strike to rear with right hand and low block with left hand. 23. Bring left foot back next to right foot (so both feet are pointing to the right side), then twist body 180° to the left into twisted stance, double side middle block (side middle block with both hands). 24. Step forward into right front stance, low spear hand "grab" with left hand (right hand guarding over chest). 25. Withdraw into left back stance, back fist strike to rear with left hand and low block with right hand. Return to ready position.

Bassai Dai

Number of moves: 50

"Storming the Fortress" Gi-yups: 20,26,50 Start in Ready Position.

Bring feet together into attention stance, cover right fist with left hand in front of groin. Rise up on the balls of feet, bring hands to the right side and up to shoulder in a half circle, bringing hands and feet back down at the same time. 1. Twist upper body to the left, jump forward up center bar, land in twisted stance (right foot rested on ground pointing forward), middle block with right hand, supported by left palm against the side of the right hand. 2. Turn 180° to the left into left front stance, middle block with left hand. 3. Without stepping, middle block with right hand. 4. Turn 180° to the right into right front stance, inward middle block with left hand. 5. Without stepping, middle block with right hand. 6. Pivot 90° to the right, lifting right foot and forcefully disengaging right hand as though breaking a grab (right fist should contact right leg during pivot). 7. Set right foot down in right front stance, inward middle block with right hand. 8. Without stepping, middle block with left hand. 9. Turn 90° to the left, stepping into side stance with feet and chest facing up the center bar, hands in check on left hip. 10. Without stepping, outward knife-hand thrust with left hand. 11. Without stepping, middle punch with right hand (body twists to follow punch up center bar). 12. Without stepping, middle block with right hand. 13. Without stepping, middle punch with left hand (body twists in other direction to follow punch up center bar). 14. Without stepping, middle block with left hand. 15. Slide left foot in front of right foot, then step through with right foot into left back stance, two-hand knife-hand block with right hand forward. 16. Step forward with left foot into right back stance, two-hand knife-hand block with left hand forward. 17. Step forward with right foot into left back stance, two-hand knife-hand block with right hand forward. 18. Retreat with right foot into right back stance while using left hand to brush off right arm, ending in a single knife-hand block with the left hand (imagine disengaging a hand that has grabbed the right arm). 19. Without stepping, twist upper body to square off up the center bar and high knife hand block with the right hand, ending by slapping the back of the right hand into the palm of the left hand. 20. Pulling both hands to the left hip, pivot side kick with right foot up the center bar. 21. Set down kicking foot up the center bar in right back stance facing down the center bar, two-hand knife-hand block to left side (down the center bar). 22. Step forward into left back stance, two-hand knife-hand block to right side. 23. Pull right foot back next to left foot into attention stance, drop both fist down in front of groin. 24. Rise up on to the balls of the feet, then drive fists upward in a bull block, block ending as the feet touch the ground again. (A bull block consists of bringing the hands up close in front of the body in a pseudo-x-block and driving them straight up over the head until they are almost locked pointing up) 25. Step forward with right foot into right front stance, bring hands out in semicircles, driving them inward as a double hammer strike to the floating ribs.

26. Jump (don't shuffle) forward, staying in right front stance, middle punch with right hand. Gi-yup! 27. Turn 180° to the left into left front stance, spear hand to groin with right hand (palm up as a grab) with left hand augmenting palm down under right elbow. 28. Withdraw left foot into right back stance, low block to left side (up center bar) with left hand, back fist strike to nose (down center bar) with right hand. 29. Withdraw left foot further into attention stance, feet pointing to right, eyes focused up center bar, windmill block to bring arms back to previous position (low block left side, middle block right side). 30. Pivot 180° to the left into twisted stance, middle block to both sides (body faces left, head faces up center bar, right hand middle blocks up center bar, left hand middle blocks down center bar). 31. Side kick up center bar with right foot, hands in guard position. 32. Stomp right foot down into right side stance up center bar, low block to right side with right hand. 33. Turn 180° left into left front stance facing down the center bar again, backhand strike chest level with left hand. 34. Inward crescent kick with right foot into left palm. 35. Set right foot down in right side stance down the center bar, elbow strike with right elbow into left hand. 36. Without stepping, focus to the left (the direction feet and chest are pointing), low block with right hand (keeping left hand over right elbow) and return right hand to previous position. 37. Without stepping, low block with left hand (cover left elbow with right hand) and return left hand to previous position. 38. Without stepping, low block with right hand (cover right elbow with left hand) and return right hand to previous position. (Steps 36-38 are circle blocks, arms rotating around each other) 39. Turn 90° to the right into right front stance, U-punch (left hand punches high, right hand punches low). 40. Withdraw right foot next to left foot into attention stance while withdrawing fists into check on left hip. Rise up on balls of feet, slowly move hands across waist to check on right hip, finishing hand motion as the feet touch down again. 41. Inward crescent kick with left foot. 42. Set left foot down into left front stance, U-punch (right hand punches high, left hand punches low). 43. Withdraw right foot next to left foot into attention stance while withdrawing fists into check on right hip. Rise up on balls of feet, slowly move hands across waist to check on left hip, finishing hand motion as feet touch down again. 44. Inward crescent kick with right foot. 45. Set right foot down into right front stance, U-punch (left hand punches high, right hand punches low). 46. Turn 180° to the left into a wide left front stance (almost a twisted side stance), scoop middle block with right hand. 47. Twist into a wide right front stance (still almost a twisted side stance), scoop middle block with left hand. 48. Bring left foot half way to right foot (a little in front of it), then step through with right foot into left back stance, two-hand knife-hand block to right side. 49. Turn 90° to the right into left back stance, two-hand knife-hand block to right side. 50. Step with right foot across left foot up center bar, then step through with left foot into right back stance up the center bar, two-hand knife-hand block to left side.

Retreat a full step back with left foot, then bring right foot back next to it into attention stance, cover right fist with left hand in front of groin. Rise up on the balls of feet, bring hands to the right side and up to shoulder in a half circle, bringing hands and feet back down at the same time. Return to ready position.

Naihanchi Chodan

Number of moves: Gi-yups: Start in ready position. 1. Move right foot next to left into ready stance. Place right hand over left palm in over groin. 2. Lift right foot high and stomp down in right side stance. Right back hand to right side. 3. Pivot hips 90° to right, elbow strike with left elbow into right hand. 4. Pivot 90° back to left into right side stance, place hands in check position (right fist palm up on hip, left hand palm down on top of it). 5. Turn focus to the left and low block with left hand to left. 6. Punch across hip with right hand to left. Bring left hand back to left hip. 7. Step with right foot across to the left into left twisted stance. 8. Step out to left with left foot into left side stance. Punch up over left shoulder with right hand, punch low in front of groin with left hand. 9. Back fist over left shoulder with left hand, pull right fist back to right hip. 10. Inward augmented middle block (left hand blocking, right fist on left elbow). 11. Twist the augmented block to block to the left while lifting left foot off the ground (bring left foot to right knee, but keep left knee out to side). 12. Twist the augmented block to block to the right while switching feet -- right foot to left knee. 13. Back in side stance, back fist straight out to the left with the left fist. 14. Back hand to left side. 15. Elbow strike with right elbow into left hand. 16. Place hands in check position (left fist palm up on hip, right hand palm down on top of it). 17. Turn focus to the right and low block with right hand to right. 18. Punch across hip with left hand to right. Bring right hand back to right hip. 19. Step with left foot across to the right into right twisted stance. 20. Step out to right with right foot into right side stance. Punch up over right shoulder with left hand, punch low in front of groin with right hand. 21. Back fist over right shoulder with right hand, pull left fist back to left hip. 22. Inward augmented middle block (right hand blocking, left fist on right elbow). 23. Twist the augmented block to block to the right while lifting right foot off the ground (bring right foot to left knee, but keep right knee out to side). 24. Twist the augmented block to block to the left while switching feet -- left foot to right knee. 25. Back in side stance, back fist straight out to the right with the right fist. 26. Bring right foot back to left foot into ready stance.

English Salutation A Medium Sized Staff A Method of Developing Ki Abdomen Acknowledgment Adult Advance Advancing Afternoon Again Anatomy Ankle Answer Application April Arm Arm blocking techniques Arm entanglement Arm Strike Art of The Chinese Hand At Ease Attack Attendance Attention Augment August Autumn Ax Kick, Pick Down Kick Back Back Elbow Strike Back Fist Back Kick Basic Form Number One Basic Form Number Two Basic Form Number Three Basic Form Number Four Basic Form Number Five Begin Black Belt Form Body Bow Bow to Flag Bow to Instructor Chest Congratulations Continue Continue (Follow-up) Kick

Korean In Sa Joong Bong Dan Jun Ki Dan Jun In Jong Ha Da Orun Chin Kun Chon Jin Ha Da Ohu Tashi Hae Bu Bahl Mok Hoe Dap Sin Chong Soe Sa Wol P'al Paulro Mahk Kee Pahl Ol Kige Ha Da Pahl Kong Kyuk Tang Soo Do Sui U Kong Gyuk Chul Sok Ch'a Ryut Chum-Ga P'al Wol Kaul Nae Ryu Ch'a Gi Teung Dwi Pal Koop Kong Kyuk Kap Kwon Tuit Ch'a Gi Ki Cho Ill Boo Ki Cho Ee Boo Ki Cho Sam Boo Ki Cho Sa Boo Ki Cho Oh Boo Si Jak Bassai Hyung Mom Kyung Rye Kook Gi E Dae Ha Yu Gyung Rye Sa Bum Nim Gge Gyung Rye Ka Seum Ch'ook Ha Kye Sok Kye Sok Hae Su Ch'a Gi

Hangul

Crescent Kick Crossing Kick Deduction of Point Double Kick Ear Elbow Eye Face Foot Forearm Forehead Front Kick Good Luck Good Morning/Afternoon Groin Hand Head Hip Hook Kick Hopping Side Kick Inside Out Crescent Kick Instructor Form #1 Instructor Form #2 Instructor Form #3 Jaw Jump Kick Kick Knee Leg Neck Nose Outside In Crescent Kick Pre-Warning Ready Stance Right and Left Face Round House Kick Scissor Kick Separate (Break) Shin Shoulder Side Kick Sit for Meditation Stop Stretch (Push) Kick Switch Feet Thank You Thigh Throat Thrusting Kick

Pal Dal Ch'a Gi, P'yo Juk Ch'a Gi Pan Dal Ch'a Gi Kam Jum Mo Doom Bal Ch'a Gi Kwi Pal Goop Noon Ul Gool Pal Pal Mok I Ma Ap Ch'a Gi Haeng Oon Eul Bil Gett U Yo An Nyung Ha Sip Ni Gga Nang Sim Son Mu Ri Ung Dung I Nakk A Ch'a Gi I Dan Yup Ch'a Gi Pal Dal Ba Ggat Ch'a Gi Sip Soo Chin Toe Kung Sang Koon T'uk Ttui U Ch'a Gi Ch'a Gi Moo Reup Ta Ri Mok K'o Pal Dal An Ch'a Gi Choo Eui Choon Bi Chwa Oo Hyang Oo Tol Ryu Ch'a Gi Ka Wi Ch'a Gi Kal Ryu Chung Gang I U Ggae Yup Ch'a Gi Anj Uh Mook Nyum Keu Man Ch'a Ol Ri Gi Pal Ba Ggwu Kam Sa Hap Ni Da Nup Juk Da Ri Mok Goo Mung Ch'a Ji Reu Gi

,

,

Tornado Kick Turn Around Turning Side Kick Warning Wheel Kick, Thrashing Kick Wrist You're Welcome

Hwi O Ri Ch'a Gi Tui Ro Dol A Twi Dol Ryu Yup Ch'a Gi Kyung Go Hoo Ryu Ch'a Gi Son Mok Ch'un Man E Yo

Rank Promotions through Tang Soo Do United

White Belt 10th Gup Huin Dee As soon after registering for class, the student will order their uniform which

takes about 2-3 weeks before it arrives. Student puts on uniform and the instructor ties the white belt around the student's waist for the first time to signify that all of the other belts that will come after will also be awarded in a similar fashion.

Yellow Belt 9th Gup No Ran Dee

(To be promoted for this rank, a student would need to be in for 3 months)

Basic Etiquette and Ceremony Stances include: Choon Bi (Ready Stance), Kima Jasha (Horse Stance), Bal Chagi Choon Bi (Ready for Kick Stance), Choon Gul Jasha (Front Stance) Forms Include: 1. Kicho Ill Boo Hyoung 2. Kicho Ee Boo Hyoung Strikes: High, Middle, and Low punches Blocks: High, O/I Middle, and Low Kicks: Front (Ahp Chagi), Side (Yup Chagi) and Round (Dollyro Chagi) Falls: Learn the basics of taking a fall - forward rolls etc.. Ill Soo Sik Dae Ryun - 3 One Steps

Orange Belt 8th Gup

(To be promoted for this rank, a student would need to be in for 6 months)

Basic Commands Charyut, Kyung Kye, Choon Bi, Kuki Bay Rye, Baro, Ahn Jo, Myuk Nim, Sabom Nim Kyung Ye Forms/Hyoungs Kicho Sam Boo Kibon Ill Boo Stances: Hu Gul Jasha (Back Stance) Kicks/Chagis Inside to Outside Crescent (Ahnesi Pahkero Chagi) Outside to Inside Crescent (Pahkesi Ahnero Chagi) Strikes Inside to Outside Knife Hand, Outside to Inside Knife Hand Elbow, Spear hand, Spade hand Blocks Inside to Outside Block Knife hands (all 4) Ill Soo Sik Dae Ryun - 6 one steps Jaeyu Dae Ryun - 1 minute controlled (optional)

Blue Belt 7th Gup

(To be promoted for this rank, a student would need to be in for 9 months)

Basic Terminology Count to ten (10) in Hangul** and in Hanja Recognize the difference between Hangul and Hanja Give Opening Ceremony Commands Forms: 1. Kicho Sa Boo 2. Kibon Ee Boo Ill Soo Sik Dae Ryun: 6 Jaeyu Dae Ryun: 1 minute controlled Stance: Hak Jasha (Crane Stance) Kicks: Dwi Chagi Blocks: Use of Soo Do in all blocks Tuel Oh (reverse) Strikes: Hweng Jin Kong Kyuk Kyuk Pah: 1 Board

Green Belt 6th Gup Cho-Rok-Saek-Dee IL Pon

(To be promoted for this rank, a student would need to be in for 12 months)

Basic History: Tang Soo Do means hinese Hand Way ( ). Modern Tang Soo Do is a combination of Chinese Martial Arts, Korean Soo Bahk Do and Tae Kyun, Japanese and Okinawan Karate, and Western fighting. The Modern System is a development from the school of Tang Soo Do founded by Grandmaster Hwang Kee in 1945 in Seoul, Korea. This School is known as the Moo Duk Kwan Tang Soo Do. . Forms: 1. Kicho Oh Boo Kibon Sam Boo Ill Soo Sik Dae Ryun: All 10 Jaeyu Dae Ryun - 2 minutes (controlled) 1 minute (competition) ­ optional Blocks: Supported Blocks, Ssang Soo, Soo Do Han Dan, Soo Do Chang Dan, Soo Do Sang San Kyuk Pah: 2 Boards

C

.2

Order Your Tang Soo Do Student Uniforms through TSDU and Save...

This easy care, permanent press fabric is woven from a perfect blend of 55% cotton, and 45% polyester creating a comfortable lightweight 6 oz. uniform. Available IN WHITE only. Each set contains a jacket, pants, and a white belt. 6 oz. uniform has an elastic drawstring waistband SIZE 0000 000 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HEIGHT/WEIGHT 3' / 30 lbs 4' / 40 lbs 4'4" / 60 lbs 4'6" / 85 lbs 4'9" / 100lbs 5'2" / 125 lbs 5'6" / 150 lbs 5'11 / 185 lbs 6' 1" / 210 lbs 6'4" / 250 lbs 6'8" / 280 lbs 7' / 325 lbs PRICE $16.95 $17.95 $18.95 $19.95 $20.95 $21.95 $23.95 $24.95 $25.95 $27.95 $29.95 $32.95

Other uniforms are available.

One of our lightest weight uniforms, the ProForce Airlite 6oz. Ultra Lightweight Student Uniform is ideal for students who are looking for a lightweight uniform that is comfortable and cool. What makes this uniform unique is the AirLite mesh fabric across the shoulders, sleeves and the sides of the jacket and pants. The mesh helps you to manage any increase in heat or moisture that can lead to a decrease in athletic performance. Fabric is 55% cotton/45% polyester. Set includes jacket, pants and white belt. Sizes 000 to 8. Airlite mesh fabric measures 2" wide along the outside of both pant legs and jacket sleeves. It measures 4" wide across shoulders and down both sides of jacket. SIZE 000 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HEIGHT/WEIGHT 4' / 40 lbs 4'4" / 60 lbs 4'6" / 85 lbs 4'9" / 100lbs 5'2" / 125 lbs 5'6" / 150 lbs 5'11 / 185 lbs 6' 1" / 210 lbs 6'4" / 250 lbs 6'8" / 280 lbs 7' / 325 lbs PRICE $22.95 $22.95 $22.95 $26.95 $26.95 $26.95 $29.95 $29.95 $29.95 $34.95 $34.95

The ultimate in heavyweight uniforms is now here! This 14 oz. ultra heavyweight uniform is made of 100% brushed cotton canvas. It is also cut oversized for extra room to more making it ideal for all workouts and competitions. Reinforced stitching. Jacket and pants feature 6 rows of stitching along the hems. Available in white. Set includes jacket and traditional drawstring waistband pants. Belt not included. SIZE HEIGHT/WEIGHT PRICE 2 5'2" / 125 lbs $79.95 3 5'6" / 150 lbs $79.95 4 5'11 / 185 lbs $84.95 5 6' 1" / 210 lbs $84.95 6 6'4" / 250 lbs $89.95 7 6'8" / 280 lbs $89.95 Adidas Adikee Martial Arts Sneaker

(White with Blue Stripes) Size 4 Size 4 1/2 Size 12 Size 12 1/2 Size 13 $34.95 $34.95 $34.95 $34.95 $34.95

Ultra Bags - TSD Only $39.95

Tang Soo Do Sport Bag (Navy) Only $19.95

Adidas

TKD-2000 Martial Arts Shoes $30.00 $30.00

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