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iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

ekonomikisa da biznesis fakulteti Jurnali `ekonomika da biznesi~

studenturi eleqtronuli damatebiTi nomeri

(el-JurnalSi Sesulia Tsu-s studentTa 69-e samecniero konferenciis CarCoTi, ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetze saprizo adgilebze gasuli da saqarTvelos sxva universitetebis mier gamocxadebul konferenciebSi amave fakultetidan monawile gamarjvebul studentTa moxsenebaTa Sinaarsebi)

Tbilisi

2008-2009 saswavlo weli

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organizatorebisagan

saqarTvelos, romlis saukeTeso tradiciebi ganaTlebis sferoSi sayovelTaod iyo cnobili (fazisis filosofiisa da ritorikis skola kolxeTSi (IV saukune), gelaTisa da iyalTos akademiebi (XII saukune), samonastro-saganmanaTleblo centrebi palestinaSi (V saukune), siriaSi (VI saukune), saberZneTSi (X-XI saukuneebi), bulgareTSi (XI saukune)) politikurekonomikuri dauZlurebisa da bolos ruseTis koloniad gadaqcevis Sedegad ramdenime saukunis ganmavlobaSi aRar gaaCnda erovnuli umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebuleba. erT-erTi pirveli nabiji, romelic qarTvelma xalxma gadadga meoce saukunis dasawyisSi 1918 wels, erovnuli damoukideblobis mopovebisa da erovnuli demokratiuli saxelmwifos gamocxadebisTanave, TbilisSi erovnuli universitetis Seqmna iyo. igi im dros pirveli da erTaderTi universiteti iyo mTels kavkasiaSi. Semdgom bolSevikur da komunistur periodSi, Tavsmoxveuli idologiisa da cenzuris miuxedavad, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetma SeZlo erovnuli suliskveTebis SenarCuneba, zogadsakacobrio idealebisadmi msaxureba, aRzarda erovnuli inteligenciis saukeTeso warmomadgenlebi, Camoayaliba sayovelTaod cnobili samecniero skolebi maTematikaSi, fsiqologiaSi, filosofiaSi, lingvistikaSi, istoriografiaSi. safuZveli Cauyara mravali umaRlesi saswavleblisa da saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis Seqmnas. ekonomikis fakulteti damoukidebeli saxiT 1931 wels Camoyalibda. manamde ekonomikuri specialobebi, iuridiul specialobebTan erTad, socialur-ekonomikur fakultetSi iyo gaerTianebuli, romelic 1922 wlidan Seudga saqmianobas. fakultetis misiaa sistemurobis, memkvidreobiTobisa da uwyvetobis principebze dafuZnebuli maRalxarisxiani, xelmisawvdomi da Tanamedrove donis ekonomikuri da biznes-ganaTlebis uzrunvelyofa, Sromis saerTaSoriso bazarze konkurentunariani specialistebis momzadeba, samecniero kvlevebis warmarTva saerTaSoriso samecniero wreebTan mWidro kavSirSi. fakultetze sxvadasxva samsaxurebisa da kaTedrebis iniciativiT mTeli rigi konferenciebi da Sexvedrebi imarTeba. maT Soris saTanado yuradReba eTmoba studentur konferenciebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom sauniversiteto konferenciaze gamarjvebuli axalgazrdebi did warmatebebs aRweven saqarTvelos sxva umaRlesi saswavleblebis mier gamocxadebul konferenciebSi, rasac qvemoT warmodgenili moxsenebebi adasturebs. Tsu-s ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetze 2008 wlis ianvridan gamoicema saerTaSoriso referirebadi da recenzirebadi samecniero-praqtikuli Jurnali `ekonomika da biznesi~. fakultetis xelmZRvanelobis, Jurnalis redaqtorisa (prof. r. gogoxia) da teqnikuri redaqtoris (prof. m. turava) TanadgomiT gaweuli iqna didi moculobis saorganizacio samuSao saimisod, rom ganxorcielebuliyo kidev erTi saintereso wamowyeba - yovelwliuri eleqtronuli studenturi damatebiTi nomris Seqmna. es idea organizatorebs swored studentur konferenciebze wakiTxul moxsenebaTa maRalma donem ukarnaxa. JurnalSi arsebuli moxsenebebis gamosaqveyneblad mzaoba dadasturebulia Sesabamisi kaTedris xelmZRvanelTa da studentebis mecnier-xelmZRvanelTa vizirebiT, xolo moxsenebebSi gamoTqmul mosazrebebze pasuxismgebelia avtori. aRniSnulis miuxedavad, batonebma rezo gogoxiam da murman turavam studentTa naSromebi didi gulisyuriT waikiTxes, risTvisac gvsurs maT guliTadi madloba gadavuxadoT.

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studentur eleqtronul JurnalSi Sesulia 2008-2009 saswavlo wels iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis studentTa 69-e samecniero konferenciis CarCoTi, ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis kaTedrebze saprizo adgilebze gasuli da saqarTvelos sxva universitetebis mier gamocxadebul konferenciebSi amave fakultetidan monawile gamarjvebul studentTa moxsenebaTa Sinaarsebi. sauniversiteto 69-e konferenciis yvela gamarjvebuli studenti dajildovda sigeliT, xolo I-III adgilze gasuli studentebi ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis studenturi TviTmmarTvelobis mier dajildoebul iqnen wignis maRaziis vauCerebiT. sazeimo viTarebaSi samaxsovro saCuqrebi gadaecaT aseve maT, vinc universitetis saxeliT gamarjveba moipoves sxva umaRlesi saswavleblebis mier organizebul konferenciebze. studenturi eleqtronuli Jurnali teqnikurad moamzades Tavad konferenciis monawileebma. imis gamo, rom momxsenebelTa nawilma naSromebi winaswargamocxadebul vadaSi da saTanado formatiT ar warmoadgina, Jurnalis sasurvel doneze momzadeba sakmaod rTuli gasamarTi aRmoCnda. Sedegad el-Jurnali mcireodeni xarvezebiT qveyndeba, risTvisac mkiTxvels bodiSs vuxdiT. maT vinc obieqturi mizezebis gamo ver moaxerxes naSromis warmodgena, ganaxlebuli variantis gamoqveynebis saSualeba miecemaT momdevno nomerSi. vimedovnebT, rom samomavlod studentebi ufro meti yuradRebiT moekidebian naSromebis warmodgenis moTxovnebis dacvas. gisurvebT warmatebebs.

Tsu-s ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis samecniero kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis samsaxuris ufrosi asoc. prof. i. gagniZe Tsu-s IV kursis bakalavri TaTuli duSuaSvili

studenturi saredaqcio kolegia: TaTuli duSuaSvili (xelmZRvaneli)

TinaTin axvlediani Tamriko facia Tamuna akofaSvili qeTevan adeiSvili

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S i n a a r s i

giorgi yufaraZe ,,saqarTvelo da evrointegracia~ - saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris TanamSromlobis axali perspeqtiva (mecn-xelm. asoc. prof. i. gogoriSvili) ................................ 6 irakli giorbeliZe Tavisufali industriuli zonebi saqarTveloSi da maTi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi XXI saukuneSi (momzadebulia damoukideblad)...................................................................... 15 nino fxikiZe finansuri krizisi - `binaTmflobelobis mania~ (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof m. julayiZe) ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 giorgi nikuraZe informaciuli revolucia da ekonomikuri politikis evolucia (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. i. gogoriSvili) ....................................................................................................................................... 29 mariam WurWelauri sarkinigzo klasteri saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. i. gagniZe)........................................................................................................................................................................................ 35 TinaTin axvlediani sareklamo biznesis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. T. Sengelia) .................................................................................................................................................................................... 40 valeriane joxaZe, qeTevan pirveli sastumro biznesi saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. T. Sengelia) ............................................................................................................................................................................... 45 daviT gabriWiZe, mariam kevliSvili rZis poduqtebis bazari saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. T. Sengelia) .............................................................................................................................................................. 50 qeTevan RuduSauri sabanko riskebis marTvis srulyofis koncefcia (mecnier-xelmZR. asist. prof. c. oqruaSvili) .................................................................................................................................................... 54

e k o n o m i k i s m i m a r T u l e b a

givi melqaZe inflaciis TargeTireba saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: ek. akad. doqt. g. xasia) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59 salome jaSi msoflio finansuri krizisi da saqarTvelo (mecn-xelm: asist. prof. n. kakulia) ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 64 zurab ziraqaZe sapensio sistemis reforma saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: sruli profesori n. xaduri) ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 bela CaCibaia, baia CaCibaia reklamis gavlena ludis gayidvebis moculobaz (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. e. xaraiSvili) .................................................................................................................................................... 73 naTia meliTauri riskebi da dazRvevis imitaciuri modelebi (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. e. xaraiSvili) ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 qeTevan jibuti qarTuli mineraluri da mtknari wylebis konkurentunarianoba (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. e. xaraiSvili)........................................................................................................................................ 85 nino patariZe, lili wverava, salome samxaraZe evropis biznes angelozTa qseli da saqarTvelo (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. S. SaburiSvili) .............................................................................. 91 nika grZeliSvili, SoTa kupataZe transnacionaluri kompaniebi saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. d. sixaruliZe) ........................................................................................................... 97 nino oqruaSvili globaluri finansuri krizisi da saqarTvelo (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. S. SaburiSvili) .................................................................................................................................................................... 103

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TaTuli duSuaSvili mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis warmatebis strategia (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. r. gvelesiani) .......................................................................................................................................................... 108 mariam gogiaSvili inflacia: arsi, mizezebi, Sedegebi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. j. janjRava)...................................................................................................................................................................................... 114 mixeil dvaliSvili inflaciis statistika da makroekonomikuri tendenciebi saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. m. mindoraSvili)...............................................................................................................119 Salva giorgaZe saqarTvelosa da msoflios mosaxleobis ricxovnobis prognozebi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. m. xmalaZe) ...................................................................................................................... 123 irakli makalaTia siRaribe uaxlesi periodis saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. b. gabiZaSvili) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 126

b i z n e s i s

a d m i n i s t r i r e b i s m i m a r T u l e b a

gvanca dgebuaZe mcire biznesis ganviTarebis donis faqtobrivi analizi (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. T. Sengelia) ............................................................................................................................................................ 132 lana sulakaZe, salome vaSakiZe fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis biznesi saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. g. erqomaiSvili) ....................................................................................................................................... 138 irakli xubua globaluri finansuri krizisi da misi gavlena saqarTvelos finansur sistemaze (mecn-xeml: asoc. prof. lela baxtaZe) ........................................................................................ 143 qeTevan adeiSvili sigaretis brendebis marketinguli kvleva qarTul bazarze (mecn-xelm. asoc. prof. m. veSaguri) ........................................................................................................................................... 148 giorgi abulaZe momsaxurebis marketingis axali mimarTulebebi saqarTveloSi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. C. jaSi) ......................................................................................................................................................... 153 nino gemazaSvili sainvesticio proeqtebis dafinansebis strategia (mecn-xelm: asist. prof. Gg. qeSelaSvili) ............................................................................................................................................................. 158 zviad siWinava testuri gamocdebis Casatarebeli programuli produqti `TEGAPRO~ (mecnxelm: asoc. prof. d. siWinava) ............................................................................................................................... 163 nikoloz cxadaia informaciuli sazogadoebis ekonomikis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. enver lagvilava) ..................................................................................................... 167 nino CarTolani internet-tqnologiebi da sagadasxado sistema (mecn-xelm: sruli prof. m. maRraZe) ............................................................................................................................................................................... 173 nano samyuraSvili buRaltruli balansis analizuri mniSvneloba (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. i. WilaZe)....................................................................................................................................................................................... 179 Tamriko facia, giorgi fanjikiZe sasaqonlo maragebis TviTRirebulebis Sefasebis meTodebis gavlena mogebis maCvenebelze (mecn-xelm: prof. i. WilaZe) ........................................... 183 Tamaz deviZe turistuli gamofenebi da bazrobebi (mecn-xelm: asist. prof. m. baramiZe)... 187 giorgi burduli internet-teqnologiebi turizmSi (mecn-xelm: asist. prof. m. melaZe)........................................................................................................................................................................................... 191 nino gogoberiZe umuSevroba saqarTveloSi da misi daZlevis gzebi (mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. n. paiWaZe) ................................................................................................................................................... 196

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,,saqarTvelo da evrointegracia~-saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris TanamSromlobis axali perspeqtiva1

giorgi yufaraZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm. asoc. prof. i. gogoriSvili msoflio ekonomikaSi qveyanaTa integraciuli gaerTianebebi sul ufro metad mzard rols asruleben. qveyanaTa es gaerTianebebi afarToeben TavianTi kompetenciis sferoebs, Rrmavdeba gaerTianebis wevr qveynebs Soris konvergenciis procesebi. Tanamedrove etapze saerTaSoriso ekonomikur integraciaSi monawileoba qveynis konkurentunarianobis amaRlebis erT-erTi mamoZravebeli faqtoria msoflio bazarze. es procesebi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania patara qveynebisaTvis, romelTa ekonomikuri zrda efuZneba pirdapir ucxour investiciebs da saeqsporto potencialis zrdas grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi. saeqsporto bazrebis stabiluroba da ucxour investiciaTa mozidva arsebiTi faqtoria saqarTvelos makroekonomikuri wonasworobisaTvis. amasTan, FDI-is ganxorcilebas saqarTveloSi xels Seuwyobs qveynis mier Tavisufali vaWrobis reJimis miRweva, iseT msxvil bazarze, rogoric evrokavSiris bazaria_ucxoeli investorisaTvis sxva potenciurad arsebul upiratesobebTan erTad, saqarTevloSi investireba niSnavs evrokavSiris bazarze Sesvlasac. (Tu es ukanaskneli miRweul iqna) am mxriv mniSvnelovania qveynis swrafva evrokavSiris wevrobisaken; es procesi mimdinareobs etapobrivad da igi qveynis mier miRweul progress efuZneba. am etapze saqarTvelo ar ganixileba rogorc kandidati qveyana; magram evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris urTierTobebi sul ufro did masStabebs iZens. 2008 wlis zafxulSi wamoyenebul iqna iniciativa ,,aRmosavleTis partniorobis Sesaxeb", romelic samezoblo politikis erTgvar gagrZelebad da TanamSromlobis ufro mWidro formatad gevevlineba. evrokavSirTan sruli integraciis gzaze mniSvnelovania yoveli axali formatis wamoyenebisas moxdes ukve miRweuli progresis Sefaseba, wevri qveynebis gamocdilebis gaziareba, axali SesaZleblobebis gamovlena, raTa sabolood miRweul iqnas saqarTvelos sagareo politikis mTavari mizanievrokavSiris wevroba. amasTan - ,,istoria TavisTavad ar meordeba, yvela kandidati qveyana aris unikaluri da aqedan gamomdinare ar SeiZleba molaparakebebis gamocdileba pirdapir iqnes gadmoRebuli, magram amave dros EU, yvela sxva didi gaerTianebebis (organizaciebis msgavsad) iyenebs ukve aprobirebul meTodebsa da instrumentebs-evropis gafarToebis principebis CaTvliT''2

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moxseneba wakiTxul iqna Tsu-s evropuli kvlevebis institutis mier organizebul studentTa II samecniero konferenciaze da daikava I adgili. avtorma sxva Temis momzadebis Sedegad aseve I adgili daikava Savi zRvis universitetis mier organizebul studentTa konferenciaze 2009 wels. 2 Lithunia's Road to the European Union: Unification of Europe and Lithuanias EU accession negotiation'' ed. By Klaudijus Maniokas, Ramunas Vilpisausamkas, Darius Zeroulis; Vilnius:Eugrimas 2005 pp5-6

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imisaTvis, rom SevafasoT miRweuli progresi saqarTvelosa da evrokavSiris urTierTobebSi, gamovyoT is axali SesaZleblobebi, rac arsebobs `aRmosavleTis partniorobis iniciativaSi~ mizanSewonilia ganvixiloT dRemde arsebuli urTierTobebis evolucia evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris. amasTan, Cveni kvelevis ZiriTadi yuradReba gadatanilia ,,aRmosavleTis partniorobis iniciativis'' sakiTxebze. Ddamoukidebel saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris urTierToba daiwyo 1992 wlidan. Aam wels evrokavSirma saqarTvelo damoukidebel saxelmwifod scno da daiwyo masTan aqtiuri TanamSromloba. 1993 wlidan evrokavSirma miznad daisaxa gaemravalferovnebina Tavisi sagareo urTierTobebi mTeli rigi regionebisa da qveynebisaTvis daxmarebebis gaweviT. erT-erTi regioni, romelsac evrokavSirma didi daxmareba gauwia samxreT kavkasia iyo. 1994 wlidan saqarTvelom daiwyo evrokavSirTan partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis SeTanxmebaze muSaoba. am SeTanxmebam, romelic luqsemburgSi 1996 wlis 22 aprils iqna xelmowerili, gansazRvra is ZiriTadi CarCo, romelSic unda ganviTarebuliyo saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris momavali urTierTobebi. 1996 wlis 22 aprils luqsemburgSi aRniSnul xelSekrulebas xeli moaweres evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebis warmomadgenlebma, evrokomisiis prezidentma da saqarTvelos prezidentma. is ZalaSi Sevida 1999 wels. 2003 wlis 7 ivliss evrokavSirma samxreT kavkasiis regionSi Tavisi specialuri warmomadgeneli daniSna, riTac kidev erTxel gausva xazi am regionis qveynebisadmi Tavis interess. 2004 wlis 14 ivniss evrokavSiris (ministrTa) sabWom miiRo gadawyvetileba azerbaijanis, saqarTvelos da somxeTis evropis samezoblo politikaSi CarTvis Sesaxeb. amis Semdeg saqarTvelos evrokavSirTan urTierTobebi axal fazaSi Sevida da kidev ufro intensiuri xasiaTi miiRo. dReisaTvis evrokavSiris daxmarebis farglebSi mimdinareobs iseTi programebi, rogoricaa teqnikuri daxmarebis programa TACIS, humanitaruli daxmarebis programa ECHO, sasursaTo usafrTxoebis programa FSP, gansakuTrebuli finansuri daxmarebis programa EFA, sareabilitacio programa post-konfliqtur regionebSi, demokratiisa da adamianTa uflebebis dacvis evropuli programa EIDHR, erToblivi aqcia erTiani sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikis farglebSi Joint Action in the framework of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); aseve saxelmwifoTaSorisi proeqtebi (TRACECA, INOGATE, garemos dacvis proeqtebi da sxva). aRmosavleTis partnioroba 1 aris evropis samezoblo politikis evolucia. evropis samezoblo politika SemuSavda EevrokavSiris 2004 wlis gafarToebis konteqstSi, rac ZiriTadad ukavSirdeboda imas rom evrokavSiri miiswafvoda ar gaCeniliyo axali gamyofi xazebi gafarToebul evrokavSirsa da mis danarCen mezobel qveynebs Soris; nacvlad amisa gaZlirebuliyo stabiluroba, usafrTxoeba da keTildReoba; dasawyisSi samezoblo politika iyo gamiznuli UuSualo

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mocemuli sakiTxebi ZiriTadad damuSavebulia evrokavSiris oficialuri saitidan : htpp://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/eastern/index_en.htm

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mezoblebisaTvis: alJiri, belarusi, egvipte, isreli, iordania, libani, libia, maroko, palestinis avtonomia, siria, tunisi da ukrina. 2004 welSi politika gafarTovda da moicva samxreT kavkasiis qveynebi. aRmosavleTis partniorobis ZiriTadi elementebi SemuSavda barselonas procesze da gansakuTrebiT xmelTaSua zRvis iniciativaze. aRmosavleTis partnioroba miznad isaxavs gaxados evrokavSiris partniroba xmelTaSua zRvisa da aRmosavleTis evropis qveynebTan ufro simetriuli. Aamave dros ori veqtoris dasaxva niSnavs gansxvavebul geografiul, istoriul, da kulturul realobas evrokavSiris ori samezoblosa. Easeve asaxavs SesaZleblobas ufro axlo urTierTobisa evrokavSiras da aRmosavleT mezoblebs Soris, rac aZlevs Sans am qveynebs warmatebiT ganaxorcielon reformirebis procesi da dauaxlovdnen evrokavSirs. aRmosavleTis partniorobis iniciativa agreTve iTvaliswinebs im gamocdilebas, rac axlda evrokavSiris gafarToebas centraluri da dasavleT evropis mimarTulebiT, gansakuTrebiT politikis instrumentebSi. magaliTad, mravalmxrivi formati rCeba struqturul dialogad evrokavSirsa da asocirebul qveynebs Soris. ruseT-saqarTvlos omma uSualod ganapiroba es iniciativa. man cxadyo samezoblo politikis naklovanebebi da dasva saWiroeba SemuSavebuliyo axali TanamSromlobis instrumenti regionis stabilurobisTvis. Eevropuli sabWos riggareSe sxdomaze 2008 wlis 1 seqtmebrs miRebuli gadawyvetileba ,,gadaidgas damatebiTi nabijebi vizis gacemis procedurebis gamartivebis Taobaze da sruli Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb uaxloes droSi, roca miRweul iqneba winapirobebi~ es mosazreba meordeba ufro struqturuli formiT ,,aRmosavleTis parniorobaSi~. aRmosavleTis partniorobis ZiriTadi elementebi: evropuli komisia eswrafvis gaaRrmavos urTierTobebi somxeTTan, azerbaijanTan, saqarTvelosTan. moldovasTan, ukrainasa da belorusiasTan(es ukanaskneli damokidebulia imaze Tu rogor ganaviTarebs Tavis urTierTobebs evrokavSirTan). es saWiroebs axal asocirebis xelSekrulebas, rac moicavs Rrma da Tavisufal vaWrobis xelSekrulebebs am qveynebTan, romlebsac aqvT survili da SesaZlebloba ufro Rrma CarTulobis, TandaTanobiTi integraciis evrokavSiris ekonomikaSi - ufro martivi gadaadgilebiT evrokavSirSi savizo mimosvlis TandaTanobiTi gamartivebiT, rasac Tan axlavs aralegaluri imigraciis SezRudva. TanamSromloba, aseve miznad isaxavs demokratiisa da kargi mmarTvelobis xelSewyobas, energiis usafrTxoebis gaZlirebas da garemos dacvas. aseve, xeli Seuwyos xalxTa Soris kontaqtebis gaRrmavebas, mxari dauWiros ekonomikur da socialur ganviTarebas damatebiTi dafinansebis SeTavazebis gziT sxvadasxva proeqtebisaTvis, raTa aRmofxvril iqnes disbalansi da gaizardos stabiluroba. aRmosavleTis partniprobis 5 mTavari elementi: 1.asocirebis xelSekrulebebi 2. bazarze gaumjobesebuli SeRwevadoba Rma da Tavisufali vaWrobis xelSekrulebebiT

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3. maRali mobiluoba, rac ganxorciledeba moblurobis da usafrTxoebis paqtebiT, savizo xelSekrulebebiT, saerTo Zalisxmeva korufciasa da organizebul danaSaulTan brZolaSi, aralegaluri migracis sakiTxebSi 4. energiis usafrTxoeba 5. regionaluri ganviTarebis mxardaWera, aseve wevr qveynebs Sorisac iniciativa sakmaod mravalferovania detalebSi da uzrunvelyofs samoqmedo rukas 5 elementiT. igi Camoyalibebulia ormxivi da mravamxrivi formatebiT. ormxrivi formati iTavliswinebs zemoT CamoTvlil sakiTxebs. aRmosavleTis partniorobis iniciativis mTavri elementia-asocirebis SeTanxmeba. saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi igi cvlis ,,partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb~ SeTanxmebas axali formatiT. es SeTanxmeba efuZneba Tavisufal vaWobaze TandaTanobiT gadasvlas da sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT politikis daaxloebas. saqarTvelosaTvis es niSnavs: ufro metad mWidro kavSirebs EU-sTan; Tavisufali vaWrobis perspeqtivas, infrastruqturis ganviTarebaSi met daxmarebas. qveyanasTan gaformebul farTo da yovlismomcveli Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebebs (Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements). aRniSnuli mizani warmoadgens asocirebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebebis Semadgenel erT-erT ZiriTad elements. Tavisufali savaWro zona SemoRebul iqneba im partnior qveynebTan, romlebic msoflio savaWro organizaciis wevrebi arian. Tavisufali savaWro reJimi Seexeba mTlianad savaWro da aseve energetikul seqtorebs da gulisxmobs Tavisufali vaWrobis umaRles SesaZlo dones. evrokomisiis dokumenti grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi iTvaliswinebs aseve partnior qveynebs Soris Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb analogiuri SeTanxmebebis gaformebas, romlis Sedegic SesaZloa iyos samezoblos ekonomikuri gaerTianeba (Neighbourhood Economic Community). ekonomikuri integraciis gzaze Tavisufali vaWrobis reJimis miRweva ganixileba, rogorc mniSvlelovani pirvelsawyisi sruli ekonomikuri integraciisaTvis. saqarTvelosa da evrokavSiris savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebi SeiZleba SevafasoT iseTi maCveneblebiT, rogoricaa sagareo savaWro brunva evrokavSiris regionis mixedviT, ganxorcielebul ucxour investiciebSi evrokavSiris qveynebis wili, eqsport-importis kvotebi amave regionis mixedviT. qveyanaTa kavSiris arsebiTi maxasiaTebelia maT Soris ufro mWidro savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis arsebobaa, vidre danarCen msofliosTan; Sesabamisad, qveyana romelic eswrafvis evrokavSiris wevrobas, miznad isaxavs gazardos Tavisi savaWro-ekonomikuri urTierTobebi amave gaerTanebasTan. am mxriv sainteresoa, rom evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis erT-erTi raodenobrivi kriteriumi (e.w. kopenhagenis krteriumi) aris evrokavSirTan saeqsporto vaWrobis wili vaWrobis saerTo moculobaSi - 53.6 %. am maCvenebels saqarTvelo sagrZnoblad CamorCeba 2007 wels - 21.6%. 2006 wels evrokavSirTan savaWro balansSi deficiti 200 milion evros Seadgenda. evrokavSirTan importis procentuli maCveneblebi 2000-2008 wlebSi izrdeboda; misi wili mTlian importSi 26.55dan 37.8% mde meryeobda (sqema #1); eqsportis maCveneblebi procentul gamosaxulebaSi CamorCeboda importis analogiur

9

maCveneblebs da ufro didi meryeobebiT xasiaTdeboda vidre importi. Sesabamisad, 2000-2008 wlebSi 17.7% dan 25.0%mde (sqema #2). saqarTvelos umsxviles sagareo-savaWro partniorebis ricxvSi evrokavSiris qveynebidan 2005 wels Sediodnen: germania (brunvis 7%), bulgareTi (brunvis 3.4%), safrangeTi (brunvis 2.8 %); 2006 wels _ germania (brunvis 8.5 %), bulgareTi (brunvis 3.8%), italia (brunvis 2.7%); 2007 wels _ germania (brunvis 6.9%), bulgareTi (brunvis 3.8%). sqema #11 evrokavSiridan importirebuli produqciis wili mTlian importSi (procentobiT)

40 26.5 20 0 2000

32

37.8 29.2

35.6

29.7

30

29.3

28.7

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

ganxorcielebul pirdapir ucxour investiciebSi evrokavSiri gvevlineba ZiriTad partniorad. (sqema #3) ekonomikuri integraciis erT-erTi faqtoria kapitalis koncentracia da gadaxlarTva, rac ayalibebs mZlavr winapirobas ekonomikebis urTierTdaaxloebisaTvis. am mxriv evrokavSiris qveynebi, evrokavSiris regioni gvevlineba ZiriTad partniorad; swored am regionze modis ganxorcielebuli FDI-is didi wili. amasTan, mniSvnelovania, rom evropis samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegmis erTerTi punqti(4.5) gulisxmobda investiciebis ormagi dabegvris Tavidan acilebis xelSekrulebebis gaformebas evrokavSiris wevr qveynebTan, rac ZiriTadad miRweulia. saqarTvelos finansTa saministros monacemebiT aRniSnuli xelSekrulebebi gaformebulia evrokavSiris wevr 16 qveynasTan, inicirebulia sam qveyanasTan. igi moicavs evrokavSiris wevr yvela im qveynas, saidanac ganxorcielda pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi bolo wlebis manZilze. 2007 wels umsxviles investorebs evrokavSiris qveynebidan warmoadgenda: niderlandebi, safrangeTi, gaerTianebuli samefo, CexeTi, dania. evrokavSirTan vaWrobisas saqarTvelo sargeblobs evrokavSiris SeRavaTebis (preferenciebis) zogadi sistemis meore reJimiT, romelsac ewodeba mdgradi ganviTarebis da kargi mmarTvelobis xelSewyobis specialuri sitema (GSP+). es reJimi saqarTveloze gavrcelda 2005 wlidan da igi moicavda periods 2008 wlis CaTvliT. 10 dekembers, 2008 wels evrokavSirma saqarTvelos sami wlis

1

wyaro: statiaSi gamoyenebulia saqarTvelos statistikis departamentis monacemebi da piradi gaangariSebebi

10

vadiT 2009-2011ww. SeRavaTiani savaWro reJimi gaugrZela. saqarTvelos garda aRniSnuli reJimi msoflios 16 qveyanaze vrceldeba. sqema #21 evrokavSiris qveynebis wili mTlian eqsportSi (procentobiT)

40 20 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 23.7 19.4 18.3 17.7 19.8 25 24.1 21.6

24.7

sqema # 3 evrokavSiris qveynebis mier ganxorcilebeuli pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi (%uli wili mTlian FDI-Si)

80 60 40 20 30

63.4 34.9 39.2 28.2

54.3

34.2

56.7 41.9

0

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

mdgradi ganviTarebisa da kargi mmarTvelos xelSewyobis specialuri reJimi evrokavSirma saqarTvelos kargi mmarTvelovbisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis mxardasaWerad mianiWa. saqarTvelos calmxrivad mieniWa Semcirebuli tarifiT an sabaJo mosakrebelis gareSe saqonlis saqarTvelodan evrokavSirSi eqsportirebis ufleba. es reJimi SesaZleblobas aZlevs eqsportiorebs: Seamciron saqonlis Rirebuleba da uzrunvelyon misi SedarebiT ufro maRali konkurentunarianoba Semcirebuli tarifebis xarjze, ukeT gavidnen saeqsporto bazrebze, ufro metad gazardon saeqsporto potenciali, moaxdinon Semdgomi investireba da zrda, gazardon pirdapiri ucxouri investirebis potenciali, miiRon

1

moyvanili monacemebi 2004 wlamde moicavs evrokavSiris wevr 25 qveyanas, 2004 wlidan ki 27 qveyanas bulgareTisa da rumineTis CaTvliT.

11

ekonomikuri sargebeli TavianTi biznesisagan da masTan dakavSirebuli erTeulebisaTvis (kompaniebi, mSromelebi, dasaqmebulebi da momxmarebelebi) GSP+ reJimi 7200 dasaxelebis saqonelze vrceldeba. saqarTvelodan am saqonlis eqsportireba xorcieldeba sabaJo mosakreblebis gadaxdis gareSe an Semcirebuli sabaJo mosakreblebis gadaxdis Semdeg. kerZod, advaloremuli tarifi uqmdeba im saqonelze, romelic mxolod am moskreblis gadaxdas eqvemdebareba; asevea specialuri mosakrebeli, xolo im saqonelze, romelzec orive mosakrebeli unda iqnes gadaxdili, mdgradi ganviTarebisa da kargi mmarTvelobis specialuri reJimi mxolod ad valoremuli mosakreblis gauqmebas iTvaliswinebs. amave dros mniSvnelovania, rom evropis kavSiri sabaJo kavSiria, romlis wevri saxelmwifoebi erTmaneTTan vaWrobisas arc moskrebels ixdian da arc sabaJo formalobebs aformeben. evrokavSirSi importze erTani sabaJo tarifia dawesebuli. amitom, mas Semdeg, rac eqsportiori evrokavSiris wevr erT romelime wevr saxlemwifoSi sabaJo formalobebs gaformebs da mosakreblebs gadaixdis, saqoneli evrokavSiris savaWro qselSi Tavisuflad brunavs da erTi qveynidan meoreSi gadaadgildeba. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom kargi mmarTelobis xelSewyobis specialuri reJimi ar aTavisuflebs qarTul saqonels im teqnikuri da fitosanitaruli normebis Sesrulebis aucilebobisagan, romlebic evrokavSiris mieraa dadgenili.1 CASE/Global Insigh 2 -is kvlevebis daskvnis mixedviT, evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris martivi Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb xelSekruleba ar gamoiwvevs mSp-s zrdas. es arc aris gasakviri, radgan tarifebi saqarTvelodn eqsportze ukve isedac dabalia an zog SemTxvevaSi, saerTod gauqmebulia. FTA+ (Rrma da yovlismomcvleli Tavisufali vaWroba) evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris mniSvnelovnad gazrdis vaWrobis sargebels. CASE/Global Insight-is kvlevis mixedviT Rma da yovlismomcveli FTA-is SemTxvevaSi momdevno xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi mSp-s zrdis tempi saqarTeloSi 1.5%-iT meti iqneba. usafrTxo garemoSi mobilurobis xelSewyoba `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ prioritets warmoadgens. am mizniT, evrokavSirma unda SesTavazos partnior qveynebs `mobilurobisa da usafrTxoebis paqtebis~ gaformebis perspeqtiva, romelic moicavs mobilurobis xelSewyobis aspeqtebsa da usafrTxo garemos Seqmnis valdebulebebs. aRniSnuli paqtebi SesaZloa moicavdes TanamSromlobis Semdeg sferoebs: aralegaluri migraciis winaaRmdeg brZola; TavSesafris sistemis evrokavSiris standartebTan miaxloeba; integrirebuli sazRvris marTvis struqturebis Seqmna da am sistemis evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana; sasamarTlo sistemisa da policiis SesaZleblobebis gaZliereba, gansakuTrebiT korufciisa da organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolis

1

ufro vcrlad ixileT: evrokavSirTan vaWrobaSi arsebuli satarifo da arasatarifo barierebi, k. zaldastaniSvili Jur. saqarTvelos ekonomika #7-8. 2008 w. gv 34-45. htpp://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/ 2 CASE/Global Insight(2008), economic Feasibility, Genaral Economic Impact and Implications of A Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and Georgia, Final Report, May.

12

TvalsazrisiT. aRniSnuli paqtebi gaformdeba TiToeul partnior qveyanasTan maTi saWiroebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. `mobilurobisa da usafrTxoebis paqtis~ mobilurobis elementis ganmaxocielebeli instrumenti iqneba `partnioroba mobilurobisaTvis~, romelic moicavs aseve TanamSromlobas savizo politikis sferoSi. es ukanaskneli ganxorcieldeba etapobrivad, romlis saboloo mizania uvizo mimosvla konkretuli valdebulebebisa da Tanmdevi RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebiT, maT Soris ek-is finansuri daxmarebis gaTvaliswinebiT. SromiTi migraciis sferoSi evrokavSirsa da partnior qveynebs Soris TanamSromlobis kuTxiT evrokomisia gegmavs Sesabamisi Semafasebeli kvlevis Catarebas, romlis Sedegebis mixedviT evrokavSiri miiRebs gadawyvetilebas konkretuli partniori qveynis muSaxelisaTvis sakuTari SromiTi bazris gaxsnis, agreTve wriuli migraciis xelSewyobis Taobaze; evropuli samezoblo politikis farglebSi partniori qveynebis mier ukve aRebuli politikuri da samarTlebrivi valdebulebebis Sesrulebis xelSewyoba, rac uzrunvelyofs mobilurobis ganviTarebisaTvis usafrTxo garemos Seqmnas, kerZod zemoxsenebuli paqtis farglebSi yuradReba daeTmoba sazRvrebze maRali donis sazRvris marTvis procedurebis Camoyalibebas; pirad monacemTa dacvis efeqturi sistemis Seqmnas; organizebuli danaSaulis, trefikingisa da maRali donis korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolis kuTxiT erovnuli gegmebis SemuSavebasa da ganxorcielebas evrokavSiris standartebis Sesabamisad da sxva. A`aRmosavleTis partniorobis iniciativa~ iTvaliswinebs partniori qveynebis ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebis xelSewyobas, romelic gulisxmobs evrokavSiris ekonomikuri da socialuri politikis gamocdilebisa da meqanizmebis gaziarebas. TanamSromloba am sferoSi SesaZloa moicavdes Semdeg RonisZiebebs: urTierTgagebis memorandumis gaformeba regionul politikaze; partnior qveynebSi regionuli ganviTarebis programebis ganxorcieleba, romelTa mizania adgilobrivi infrastruqturis, adamianuri resursebis, mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa ganviTarebis xelSewyoba; evrokavSiris regionebsa da partniori qveynebis regionebs Soris uSualo TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba samxreT-aRmosavleT, centralur da CrdiloeT evropaSi arsebul transnacionalur programebSi monawileobis gziT; sazRvrispira TanamSromlobis (CrossBorder Cooperation) programis gafarToeba partnior qveynebs Soris TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis xelSewyobis mizniT. amgvari midgoma, regionaluri politikis ganxorcileba mniSvnelovania TviT evrokavSiris Siga regionebisaTvis. ase magaliTad, 2000-2006 wlebis fiskalur struqturaSi evrokavSirma ganaTavsa 213 miliard evro(daaxlobiT erTi mesamedi EU-s biujetis) regionaluri politikis transferebisaTvis. am transferebma miaRwia 30.4 miliard evro weliwadSi, daaxlobeiT 0.35 % mSp-s da miaxlobiT 3.2% beneficiari qveynebis regionis mSp-s. evrokavSiris regionaluri politika formalurad SemuSavebuli iyo evropis regionebis disproporciulobis Sesamcireblad. am politikis CarCoebSi dafinanseba modis mravali fondidan, erToblivad cnobili rogorc `struqturuli fondebi~; zogierTi maTgani

13

Seqmnilia TviT am politikaze adre. regionebs, romelTac aqvT mSp erT sulze naklebi evrokavSiris saSulos 75%-isa arian mTavari benficiarebi.1 rac Seexeba iniciativis dafinansebas, evrokomisiis rekomendaciiT saWiroa finansuri resursebis mniSvnelovnad gazrda, raTa miRweul iqnas iniciativis farglebSi dasaxuli miznebi. evropuli samezoblo da partniorobis instrumentis mimdinare biujetiT 2008 wlisaTvis partniori qveynebisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia daaxloebiT 450 milioni evro. evrokomisiis winadadebiT, mocemuli Tanxa etapobrivad unda gaizardos da 2013 wlisaTvis Seadginos 750 milioni evro, rac gulisxmobs damatebiT 350 milioni evros gamoyofas; xolo axali biujetis dagegmvisas, evrokomisia mizanSewonilad miiCnevs, finansuri daxmarebis kidev ufro gazrdas. `aRmosavleT partniorobis~ regionuli komponentis dasafinanseblad, evrokomisia SesaZleblad miiCnevs evropuli samezoblo da partniorobis instrumentis 2009 wlis regionuli programebis saxsrebidan gamoiyos 250 milioni evro, raTa iniciativis farglebSi daigegmos prioritetuli regionuli proeqtebi. amrigad, aRmosavleTis partniorobis iniciativa saqarTvelosaTvis niSnavs axal SesaZleblobebs evrokavSirTan integraciis gzaze. qveynis sagareo veqtors ganapirobebs misi civilizaciuri resurebi, geografiuli mdebareoba da politikur-ekonomikuri mizanSewoniloba. patara qveynebis erovnuli interesebisa da usafrTxoebis prioritetebSi ekonomikuri kavSirebis stabilurobisa da eqsportis uzrunveyofis sakiTxebma TvalsaCino adgili daikaves. saqarTveloSi mTavari sagareo orientiri evrokavSirTan integraciaa, aRmosavleTis partiorobis iniciativa niSnavs saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris axal asocirebis xelSekrulebas, Tavisufali vaWobis reJimis perspeqtivas, maRal mobilurobas, savizo mimosvlis gamartivebas da regionaluri ganviTarebis mxardaWeras. evrokavSiris wevroba niSnavs qveynis konkurentunarianobis zrdas msoflio ekonomikaSi, saeqsporto potencialis zrdas da evrokavSirsa da saqarTvelos Soris urTierTvaWrobis tempis daCqarebas. qveynis ganviTrebis procesis xelSewyobas da saqarTvelos aRiarebas, rogorc demokratiuli qveynis myari ekonomikuri safuZvlebiT.

1

European Integration, Regional Policy and Growth/ Ed by Bernard Funck and Lodovico Pizatti-Washington World bank, 2003 p 1-5

14

Tavisufali industriuli zonebi saqarTveloSi da maTi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi XXI saukuneSi1

irakli giorbeliZe

Tsu bakalavri

momzadebulia damoukideblad sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlam, finansuri globalizaciis masStabebis zrdam, konkurentuli garemos gafarToebam da daxvewam dResdReisobiT axali gamowvevebis winaSe dagvayena. qveynis ganviTarebisaTvis saWiro gaxda meti novaciebisa da reformebis danergva _ ganxorcieleba. investiciebis Semodineba da maTi efeqtianad warmarTva saqarTvelos ekonomikis aRorZinebisa da ganviTarebis arsebiTi maCvenebelia da Tu qarTvel eqspertebs vendobiT, am etapze qveyanaSi `sainvesticio SimSili~ SeiniSneba. qvemoT mimovixilav Tu ra mniSvneloba aqvs Tavisufali industriuli da zogadad ekonomikuri zonebis Seqmnas erovnuli ekonomikis

ganviTarebisTvis. vidre uSualod Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Sesaxeb visaubrebde, ganvixilav zogadad Tavisufal ekonomikur zonebs. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebi (Tez), igive ofSoruli zonebi me-20 saukunis meore naxevris msoflio ekonomikis mniSvnelovani movlenaa. isini xelsayreli warmonaqmnebia, zemogebis misaRebad da mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben Ria ekonomikis principebis realizaciaSi. aq moqmedi ekonomikuri wesebi, berketebi da specialuri administraciuli kanonebi amsubuqeben samarTlebriv da sameurneo reJims. sabaJo, sainvesticio da sagadasaxado reJimi nebismieri sagareo da Sida investiciebisaTvis xelsayrelia da aqedan gamomdinare ofSoruli zonebi Tavisebur mimzidvel `xafangs~ warmoadgenen ucxouri kapitaldabandebebisaTvis. Tez-is ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelia sxvadasxva saxis preferenciebisa da stimulebis gamoyeneba, maT Soris: fiskaluri (saqmianobis garkveuli saxeobis sagadasaxado stimulireba);

1

sakonferencio moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna kavkasiis universitetis mier organizebul studentTa saerTaSoriso konferenciaze `XXI saukunis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi~ da daimsaxura III adgili. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT. moxsenebis sruli versia ganTavsebulia inglisur enaze gamocemul konferenciis amsaxvel krebulSi, Tb. 2009, gv. 138-143. http://www.fes.ge/geo/images/Fes_Files/Pulications08files/GEo09Publications/cu_2009.pdf

15

finansuri (pirdapiri - uSualod sabiujeto saxsrebiT subsidireba da SeRavaTiani saxelmwifo kreditebi, arapidapiri - komunaluri momsaxurebis dabali fasis daweseba, nakveTis sai-

jaro gadasaxadis Semcireba da sxv.); administraciuli _ sawarmos registraciisa da ucxo qveynis moqalaqeTa Sesvla-gasvlis procedurebis gamartiveba; sagareo ekonomikuri _ sagareo vaWrobaSi sabaJo mosakreblebis Semcireba an sulac gauqmeba. Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis erT-erTi nairsaxeobaa Tavisufali industriuli zona (sxva saxeobebia: Tavisufali savaWro zona, Tavisufali sabaJo teritoria da sxv. ). konceptualuri TvalsazrisiT zonis or saxeobas ganasxvaveben. erTi maTgani teritoriul midgomas eyrdnoba da mkafiod gansazRvrul teritorias warmoadgens, sadac zonis yvela rezidentze zonaSi dadgenili ekonomikuri saqmianobis SeRavaTiani reJimi vrceldeba. meore konceptualuri midgoma funqcionalur xasiaTs atarebs da warmoadgens SeRavaTian reJims, romelic garkveuli saxeobis samewarmeo saqmianobis mimarT gamoiyeneba imis miuxedavad, Tu ekonomikuri agenti, romelic am saxeobis saqmianobas eweva, qveynis romel nawilSia. sazogadod, Tavisufali industriuli zona SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc mkafiod

Semofargluli teritoria, romelzec myardeba ekonomikur-finansuri saqmianobis gansakuTrebuli reJimi, mewarmeobis stimulirebis, meurneobis prioritetul sferoebSi ucxouri investiciebis mozidvisa da axali teqnologiebis danergvis mizniT.

Tavisufal industriul zonebSi import-eqsportze sabaJo mosakrebeli moxsnilia. amis miuxedavad, mewarmeebi valdebulni arian awarmoon aRricxva da yovelwliurad waradginon deklaracia, sadac yvela produqcia da operacia unda iyos asaxuli. mraval qveyanaSi (makedonia, TurqeTi, gana, gvatemala, kosta-rika) mewarmeebi Tavisufldebian saSemosavlo gadasaxadisaganac. Tumca kosta-rikaSi, gvatemalaSi da ganaSi es SeRavaTebi mxolod pirveli 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi moqmedebs. dRg-sgan mewarmeebi gaTavisuflebulni arian ruseTis,

gvatemalisa da ganas Tavisufal industriul zonebSi, aqcizis gadasaxadisagan _ ruseTis federaciaSi, uZrav qonebaze gadasaxadisagan _ gvatemalaSi da a.S (ix. cxrili #1).

cxrili #1. msoflios qveynebi da Tavisufali industriuli zonebi

qveyana zonis Seqmnis iniciatori mTavroba zonis moqmedebis vada 20 weli, dauSvebel ia vadis gagrZeleb akrZalvebi gadasaxadebisgan gaTavisufleba sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, dRg, aqcizis gadasaxadi xelmZRvaneloba

ruseTi

nedeulis mopoveba, garemosaTvis saxifaTo produqciis

aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis federaluri organo

16

a

warmoeba, radioaqtiuri da birTvuli nivTierebebi sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi, gadasaxadi fulad gadmoricxvebze -

TurqeTi

mTavroba

mTavrobas Tan SeTanxmebiT 50 weli (vadis gasvlis Semdeg SeiZleba kidev 25 wliT gagrZeldes) saministr osTan SeTanxmebi T 10 weli vrceldeb a gadasaxadebze SeRavaTebi

makedonia

mTavroba

kostarika

sagareo vaWrobis saministro ekonomikis saministro

garemosaTvis saxifaTo produqcia, radioaqtiuri da birTvuli nivTierebebi, narkotikebi, iaraRis warmoeba, qimiuri, biologiuri produqcia garemosaTvis saxifaTo produqcia navTobis da gazis mopoveba,Tevzrewva, turizmi, xe-tyis rewva, Saqris warmoeba, yavis, kardamonis moyvana, bambis, bananis, sezamis, kauCukis warmoeba, msxvilfexa saqonlis moSeneba, radioaqtiuri nivTierebebis warmoeba -

Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis saTavo ofisi (qmnis makedoniis mTavroba)

gvatemal a

sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi, uZrav qonebaze gadasaxadi, dRg,

korporacia (iqmneba mTavrobis mier)

mTlianad ekisreba zonis damaarsebel firmas

palestin a

ministrTa kabineti

ara umetes 49 wlisa

sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze

industriuli sakuTrebisa da Tavisufali industriuli zonebis sabWo (industriis saministrosTan arsebuli) Tavisufali zonis administracia (iqmneba mTavrobis mier) Tavisufali zonis administraciuli sabWo (qmnis ministrTa kabineti) Tavisufali zonis gubernatori

irani

ministrTa kabineti

mTavrobas Tan SeTanxmebiT parlament Tan SeTanxmebiT

-

sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, uvizo reJimi sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, specialuri savaluto reJimi sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze,

uzbekeTi

parlamenti (olii mejlisi)

monRole Ti

parlamenti (didi

parlament Tan SeTan-

iseTi produqciis warmoeba, romelic zians ayenebs bunebriv resursebs da garemos akrZalulia iseTi produqciis Semo-

17

xurali)

xmebiT

gana

prezidentis brZaneba

mozambiki

mTavroba

10 weli vrceldeb a gadasaxadebze SeRavaTebi adgens mTavroba

tana da warmoeba, romelic ikrZaleba monRoleTis kanonmdeblobiT garemosaTvis saxifaTo produqcia

dRg

(iniSneba premierministris mier) Tavisufali zonis sabWo (xelmZRvanelobs vaWrobisa da industriis ministri) mTlianad ekisreba zonis damaarsebel firmas

sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze, saSemosavlo gadasaxadi sabaJo mosakreblebi import-eqsportze,

garemosaTvis saxifaTo produqcia

Tavisufali industriuli zonebi Sromis axali saerTaSoriso danawilebis erT-erTi elementia. ekonomikis globalizaciis pirobebSi Tavisufali zonebi efeqturi instrumentia qveynis sagareo-ekonomikuri saqmianobis gasaaqtiureblad. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia, rom Tavisufali zonebis Seqmnisas aucileblad unda iqnas gaTvaliwinebuli uaryofiTi gamocdilebac: infrastruqturis gaumarTaoba - saqarTvelos rkinigzis dabali gamtarunarianoba, portebis mwiri infrastrutura adgilobrivi bazris simcire. sasurvelia gvaxsovdes, rom: 1). ucxoeli investorebi, rogorc wesi, `cariel adgilze~ ar modian. isini Tavisufali zoniT interesdebian mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu iq ukve aris saTanado infrastruqtura, an misi Seqmnis xarjebis adgilobrivi biujetidan dafinansebis saSualeba. infrastruqturis Seqmnis xarjebi ki zogjer mTliani investiciis TiTqmis 80%-s Seadgens. ase rom, mosazreba yvela xarjis ucxoeli investoris mier dafarvis Taobaze yovelTvis ar marTldeba. 2). zogierT qveyanaSi Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Seqmna korufciis wyarod iqca. garkveuli garigebis safuZvelze mTavrobis mier ucxouri kompaniebisaTvis Tavisufal industriul zonaSi dawesebuli SeRavaTebi zogjer adgilobrivi mewarmeobisa da nis interesebis sazianod moqmedebs. ganvixiloT magaliTze.

SWOT

mTlianad qvey-

analizi

konkretulad

foTis

Tavisufali

industriuli

zonis

Zlieri mxareebi:

axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba; mimzidveli kapitaldabandebebi; konkurentuli garemos Seqmna; mzardi gadazidvebi;

18

ganviTarebadi infrastruqtura; axali terminalis aSeneba.

susti mxareebi:

problemuri regioni; ganuviTarebeli infrastruqtura; naklebi kontroli qarTuli mxridan.

SesaZleblobebi:

iafi muSa-xeli; naklebi biurokratia; fiskaluri da administraciuli upiratesobebi;

saSiSroebebi:

riski mezobeli qveynidan; sainvesticio SimSilis zrda mTel qveyanaSi. amrigad, zemoaRniSnuli Camoyalibebuli Teoriuli aspeqtis safuZvelze, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom saqarTveloSi Tavisufali industriuli zonebis Seqmna ar gamoiwvevs investiciebis nakadebis fokusirebas mxolod am regionSi, radgan foTis adgilmdebareobas Tu gaviTvaliswinebT ZiriTadad eqsportze orientirebuli produqcia Seiqmneba, romelic Savi zRvis saSualebiT gava evropaSi. TiTqmis ganulebuli gadasaxadebi da umartivesi administraciuli procedurebi aris erT-erTi gza (Tuara erTaderTi) mzardi konkurenciis pirobebSi davainteresoT ama Tu im regioniT ucxoeli investorebi.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

parlamentis kvleviTi departamenti www.articlesbase.com www.economy.ge www.finchannel.com www.gbw.ge www.georgia.gov.ge www.georgiatoday.ge www.mof.ge ww.magazine.amcham.ge

19

finansuri krizisi (`binaTmflobelobis mania~)1

nino fxikiZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof m. julayiZe

dResdReisobiT finansuri krizisi msoflios erT-erT ZiriTad problemas warmoadgens. man gavlena iqonia ara mxolod sabanko seqtorze, aramed dasaqmebis maCvenebelsa da sxva socialur problemebze. mokled rom vTqvaT, `msoflioSi naRdi fulis deficitia~. mosaxleoba cdilobs krizisis pirobebSi gaakeTos garkveuli saxis sadazRveo danazogebi. amavdroulad bankebic amcireben gasacemi kreditebis odenobas. msoflios finansuri krizisis Sedegemi saqarTvelos ekonomikazec aisaxa. momxmareblebi aRar yiduloben imden saqonels, rasac isini yidulobdnen uwin. miuxedavad imisa, rom savaWro centrebi did fasdaklebebs iuwyebian ­ momxmareblebi mainc erdidebian ZviraadRirebuli produqciis yidvas.

15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 .00 .01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 US retail sales, % change

wyaro: ekonomikuri analizis biuro (aSS)

1

sakonferencio moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna kavkasiis universitetis mier organizebul studentTa saerTaSoriso konferenciaze `XXI saukunis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi~. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT. moxsenebis sruli versia ganTavsebulia inglisur enaze gamocemul konferenciis amsaxvel krebulSi, Tb. 2009, gv. 164-169. http://www.fes.ge/geo/images/Fes_Files/Pulications08files/GEo09Publications/cu_2009.pdf

20

sabazro subieqtebs aRar aqvs sakmarisi Tanxa, rom dafaron saprocento gadasaxadebi. swored amitom, imata komerciuli da sayofacxovrebo farTebis giravnobebis raodenobam. aSS-Si gadauxdeli sesxebis odenoba wina wlebSi saSualod mxolod 2%-s Seadgenda. axla ki 5-6%-mdea gazrdili.

wyaro: ekonomikuri analizis biuro (aSS)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 00 Q1 00 Q3 01 Q1 01 Q3 02 Q1 02 Q3 03 Q1 03 Q3 04 Q1 04 Q3 05 Q1 05 Q3 06 Q1 06 Q3 07 Q1 07 Q3 08 Q1

.08 .08

Residential mortages

Commercial mortgages

`bolo 16 weliwadSi umuSevroba aRwevs umaRles maCvenebels~ ­ wers The New York Times. msoflioSi samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebuli personalis odenoba nel-nela matulobs.

9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0

US unemployment rate, %

.01 .02

.00 .00 .00 .01 .01 .02 .02 .03 .03 .03 .04 .04 .04 .05 .05 .05 .06 .06 .06 .07 .07 .07 .08 .09

08 Q3

21

wyaro: ekonomikuri analizis biuro (aSS)

mosaxleoba amjobinebs dazogos fuladi saxsrebi, radganac maT ar aqvT momavlis imedi: SeiZleba isinic gaaTavisuflon samsaxuridan, an xelfasis odenoba Seumciron. swored amitom cdiloben dazogon fuli, vidre xarjon ZviradRirebul produqciasa Tu momsaxurebaze. amis Sedegia is, rom ZviradRirebul kurortebze damsvenebelTa odenobam iklo.

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

.95

30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 -10.0 -20.0 -30.0 -40.0 .00

.96

.00

.97

.98

.99

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

wyaro: ekonomikuri analizis biuro (aSS)

ukanasknel wlebSi msoflio, gansakuTrebiT ki ganviTarebadi qveynebi mSeneblobis bumiT xasiTdeboda. Tumca finansurma krizisma, maTac daamCnia kvali da bevri mSenebloba SeCerda kidec. evropaSi mSeneblobebis krizisi jer kidev 2007wels daiwyo, rodesac evrozonaSi asaSenebel sacxovrebel saxlebze mSeneblobis nebarTvebis maCvenebelma kleba iwyo da nuls qvemoT Camovida. 2008 wlis ganmavlobaSi mSeneblobebze nebarTvebis odenoba 25-30%-iT Semcirda.

.04

.01

.02

.03

.05

.06

.07

22

.08

.03

.07

.05

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.06

.07

.08

.00

.01

.01

.02

.02

.03

.04

.04

.05

.05

.06

.06

.07

.08

.95

.96

.97

.98

.99

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

mniSvnelovnad iklo warmoebuli produqciis odenobam, gansakuTrebiT ki, evrozonaSi. saqonlis warmoebam agreTve mniSvnelovnad daiklo iseT ganviTarebad qveynebSi, rogorebicaa CineTi, taivani, singapuri da sxva industriuli qveynebi. amis ZiriTadi mizezi ki is gaxlavT, rom aziis industriuli qveynebis mier warmoebuli produqciis ZiriTadi momxmareblebi evropelebi da aSS-s mosaxleobaa; maT aRar aqvT sakmarisi Tanxa, Sesabamisad aRar SeuZliaT daxarjon didi odenobiT Tanxa. rogorc vxedavT, msoflios finansur kriziss ekonomikisTvis saxifaTo Sedegebi mohyva. es procesi kvlavac grZeldeba. magram ra aris finansuri krizisis warmoSobis mizezi? amasTan dakavSirebiT ramdenime mosazreba arsebobs. `msoflio finansuri krizisis gaRrmavebis mizezi procesebze mTavrobebis susti reagireba iyo~, _ ganacxada aSS_is prinstonis universitetis profesorma, mklevarma da ekonomikis dargSi 2008 wlis nobelis premiis laureatma pol krugmanma (Paul Robin Krugman, 1953). misi gancxadebiT, `umTavresi mizezi krizisis gaRrmavebisa aris is, rom yovel stadiaze mTavrobebi sustad reagirebdnen procesebze. aman ndobis faqtori Seamcira, rac kriziss ganviTarebisken ubiZgebda~. ekonomistebis umravlesoba pol krugmanis msgavsad miiCnevs, rom finansuri krizisis warmoSobisa da gaRrmavebis mizezebia: axali biznesebis siWarbe, saxelmwifo kontrolis nakleboba, naklebi regulireba, didi raodenobiT sagareo vaWroba, saxelmwifos mxridan naklebi danaxarjebis gaweva. magram arsebobs finansuri krizisis warmoSobisa da gaRrmavebis gansxvavebuli mizezebi, romelsac ZiriTadad "avstriuli skolis" warmomadgenlebi aRiareben. maTi azriT finansuri krizisis gaRrmavebis ZiriTadi mizezi intervenciaa: monetarul sistemaSi _ centraluri bankis funqcionirebis meqanizmi, iuridiuli fuli, centraluri bankis mier garantirebuli rezervebi. saxelmwifo mxridan intervencia da garantiebi _ iafi kreditebis programebi, giravnobebi, saxelmwifos mxridan biznesebi garkveuli saxiT uzrunvelyofa. 23

finansuri krizisis gamomwvevi ZiriTadi mizezi ipoTekuri dakreditebis sistema iyo, romelsac `binaTmflobelobis mania~ vuwode. krizisis Cemeuli interpretacia, SeiZleba aixsnas im faqtebiT, romlebsac adgili hqonda msoflios ganviTarebis tendenciebSi: _ istoriulad dabalma saprocento ganakveTebma, investiciaTa didma odenobam, rwmenam, rom uZravi qoneba ­ binebis saxiT karg investicias warmoadgens da imis warmodgenam, rom binebis fasebi arasdros ecema, gamoiwvia finansuri krizisi. aSS-s saganZuris departaentis mdivani, jon snou, 2005 wels aRniSnavda: `varaudi imisa, rom SesaZlebelia sacxovrebeli saxlebis bazarma marcxi ganicados, sruliad daujerebelia~. am periodSi marTlac bevr ekonomists miaCnda, rom es ekonomikis dausrulebeli bumi iyo. xalxs, romlebsac ukve hqondaT sakuTari saxli, yidulobdnen meores ipoTekuri sesxiT ­ ukve maT mflobelobaSi arsebuli saxlis giravnobiT, ramac gamoiwvia fasebis zrda. aSS_Si saerTo safinanso da sabanko krizisis uSualo winamorbedi iyo 2007 wels maRali riskis mqone ipoTekuri kreditebis krizisi (subprime), anu iseTi pirebis ipoTekuri dakrediteba, romlebsac gaaCndaT dabali Semosavlebi da cudi sakredito istoria, anu saerTo jamSi, bankebi gascemdnen ipoTekur sesxebs yvelaze, visac surda sakuTari saxli. saboloo jamSi ki Sedegad miviReT argadamxdelTa didi odenoba. swored `saxlis flobis maniam~ gamoiwvia qalaqebis gadaWedva sacxovrebeli saxlebis mSeneblobebiT. imis gamo, rom miwodeba ukve aRemateboda moTxovnas, daeca binebze fasebic. Tumca visac ukve didi odenobiT ipoTekuri krediti hqondaT gamotanili da maT dafarvas veRar axerxebdnen, ekargebodaT ukve maT mflobelobaSi arsebuli dagiravnebuli uZravi qonebac (radganac giravnoba Tavisi SinaarsiT mocavs SedarebiT nakleb Tanxas, vidre binis realuri sabazro fasi). banki veRarc argadamxdelebisTvis CamorTmeul saxlebs veRar yidda, ramac gamoiwvia sabanko krizisi. bankebi veRar gascemdnen sesxebs, ramac 24

gamoiwvia maTi aqciaTa fasis mkveTri vardna. `Cven didi problemis winaSe vdgavarT~, ­ jorj buSi 2008 wlis seqtembers. rac Seexeba umuSevrobis dones, finansuri krizisis pirobebSi man SedarebiT mateba ganicada 2008 wlis bolos. sxvadasxva bankidan da safinanso organizaciebidan saerTo umuSevrobis raodenoba jamSi daaxloebiT 6000-mde (2002-2007wlebi) TanamSromeli gaaTavisufles. aTasi kaci developerulma biznesebmac ganicades kraxi. developerebis mier 280 dasaqmebulTa saerTo odenoba 260 agvistos movlenebsa da finansur krizisamde 70 000 adamiani iyo. 240 dResdReisobiT ki naxevari maTgani 220 dausaqmebelia. WiaTurmanganumis, madneulis (bolnisi), azotis (rusTavi) 200 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 da sxva msxvili sawarmoebidanac etapobrivad xdeba momuSaveTa gaTavisufleba. momsaxure personals amcireben agreTve kvebis obieqtebsa da supermarketebSi. momuSave personalis gaTavisuflebasTan erTad iklebs momuSaveTa xelfasis odenobac. swored amis Sedegia is, rom daqmebulTa 35% saarsebo minimumze nakleb xelfass iRebs. dasaqmebulebis raodenoba (2002-2007 wlebi)

aTasi kaci 1900 1800 1700 1600 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis

departamenti

saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis done 2005-2007 wlebSi nel-nela mcirdeba, Tumca es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom dasaqmebulTa odenoba iklebs ­ piriqiT dasaqmebulebis maCvenebelic umuSevrobis proporciulad iklebs. rac Seexeba umuSevrobis dones aSS-Si. aSS-s mTavrobis pres-relizis mixedviT umuSevrobis donem aSS-Si 7.2%-s miaRwia. aseve gasaTvalis25

winebelis is faqtic, rom umuSevarTa raodenobaSi ar Sedis milionobiT adamiani, romlebic naxevar ganakveTSi muSaoben da ver pouloben srulganakveTian samsaxurs. aseTi saxis umuSevrebi miekuTvnebian U-3 dones. umuSevrobis U-6 done warmoadgens umuSevrobis realur maCvenebels, romelic 13.5%-s warmoadgens. rogorc vxedavT, arsebuli realuri umuSevrobis done sakmaod maRalia, magram SeiZleba isic vTqvaT, rom miuxedavad aseTi maRali maCveneblisa, igi mainc araa didi depresiis periodSi arsebuli umuSevrobis donis odenobis. rogorc viciT, didi depresiis periodSi umuSevrobis done 25%-s warmoadgenda ­ yoveli meoTxe amerikeli umuSevari iyo. magram Tu arsebuli umuSevrobis gamoangariSebisas 1930-iani wlebSi gamoyenebul meTods mivmarTavT, 13.5 %-is nacvlad 17.5%-s miviRebT. ase, rom aucilebelia umuSevrobis winaagmdeg garkveuli saxis qmedebebi ganaxorcielos aSS-m, Torem didi depresiis msgavsi periodi gardauvali iqneba. kvlavac rogorc vxedavT, farTod ganviTarebuli saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebidan gamomdinare, aSS_Si dawyebuli finansuri krizisi jaWvuri reaqciiT moedo mTels msoflios, gansakuTrebiT ki im qveynebs, romelTac aSS_sTan sagareo ekonomikuri urTierTobebi aqvT (maT Soris bunebrivia, saqarTvelosac). gamomdinare iqidan, rom saqarTvelos ekonomika msoflio ekonomikis Semadgeneli nawilia, msoflio finansurma krizisma saqarTvelos ekonomikazec iqonia gavlena da qveyana mravali gamowvevis winaSe daayena. krizisis pirveladi Sedegebi ukve saxezea da misi gaRrmaveba wlis ganmavlobaSi gardauvalia. msoflio ekonomikur krizisamde saqarTvelos xelisufleba nominalur mSp_s 21535,9 mln laris moculobiT prognozirebadia, xolo krizisis Sedegebis gamovlenis Semdeg xelisuflebis prognozi 21308,7 mln laria (Semcireba navaraudevia 227,2 mln lariT, rac daaxloebiT 1,05%_iani Semcirebaa). realuri mSp_s zrda Tavdapirvelad navaraudevi iyo 4,0%_is odenobiT, xolo krizisis Sedegebis gamovlenis Semdeg _ 2,5%_iT. 2008 wels realuri mSp_s zrda, nacvlad dagegmili 8%_isa, xelisuflebis prognoziT iqneba mxolod 2,0%. saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis monacemebis mixedviT, depozitebsa da sesxebs Soris uaryofiTi balansi 2008 wlisaTvis daaxloebiT mTliani Siga produqtis 13%-s warmoadgens. sabanko sistemaSi, depozitebsa da kreditebs Soris mniSvnelovani Seusabamoba SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes diamond-dibvingis modelis mixedviT. rac Seexeba investiciebs, saqarTveloSi investiciebis mniSvnelovani Semcireba jer kidev agvistos movlenebis Semdeg daiwyo. mimdinare etapze aseve gvaqvs msoflio finansuri krizisiT gamowveuli investiciebis Semcirebis tendencia. igi aseve ukavSirdeba saqarTveloSi msxvili saprivatizacio obieqtebis nusxis amowurvas, xolo mcire saprivatizacio 26

1.

obieqtebi mniSvnelovan aminds ver qmnian. xelisuflebis prognoziT, 2008 wels saqarTvelom miiRo 2,17 mlrd aSS dolaris investicia, xolo 2009 wels dagegmilia mxolod 1,7 mlrd dolaris mozidva. investiciebis Semcirebis magaliTebidan mxolod ramdenimes dasaxeleba sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom finansuri krizisisa da agvistos movlenebis Semdgomi periodis sainvesticio krizisSi davrwmundeT: agvistos cnobili movlenebis Semdeg, msoflio finansuri krizisis fonze, yazaxurma kompania `yazmunaigazma~ (KazMunaiGaz) uari ganacxada saqarTveloSi dagegmil 1 mlrd dolaris investiciaze, romliTac baTumSi navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana unda aSenebuliyo; amerikulma kompania `qliar sTrim holdingma~ saqarTveloSi gamocxadebul investiciaze uari Tqva. kompaniam auqcionze `vai maqsis~ sixSire 9 milion 300 aTas larad SeiZina da ukabelo internet_servisis awyobas gegmavda. kompaniis qarTveli partniorebis gancxadebiT, proeqti CaiSala da `qliar sTrimi~ safasurs, romelic noembris bolosTvis unda gadaexada, aRar gadaixdis. ra aris yvelaze saxarbielo finansur krizisTan dakavSirebiT 2009 wels? esaa: msoflio finansurma krizisma gavlena iqonia ara mxolod safinanso an sawarmoo sferoze, aramed realur ekonomikazec; Sinameurneobebis mier danazogebis odenoba izrdeba; bankebi aRar gacemen sesxebs; eqsportis moculoba iklebs; farTo moxmarebis saqonlis fasebi ecema; ganviTarebad qveynebs didi sabiujeto deficiti aqvT ­ wina wlebSi, isini biujetis deficitis pirobebSi deficitis Sesavsebad Tanxebs sesxulobdnen `mdidari qveynebidan~, magram axla ukve isinic, krizisSi imyofebian, ris gamoc ver xorcieldeba sagareo sesxebis gacema. ase rom, mevale erebi iZulebi xdebian, rom daagrovon aqtivebi da maTi gayidviT dafaron sagareo valebi. aSS_s finansTa ministrma henri polsonma, federaluri sarezervo sistemis da kongresis warmomadgenlebTan erTad 2008 wlis seqtemberSi daasrula ekonomikis stabilizaciis sagangebo gegmaze muSaoba (Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008), romelsac mogvianebiT polsonis gegma ewoda. aRniSuli gegma iTvaliswinebda aSS_s federaluri sarezervo sistemidan 700 mlrd aSS dolaris gamoyofas, romliTac specialurad amisTvis Seqmnili saxelmwifo korporacia moaxdenda bankebisgan problemuri aqtivebis gamosyidvas. gegma sami mTavari mimarTulebisgan Sedgeba: problemuri aqtivebis gamosyidvis programa; 27

2. biznesisa da mosaxleobisTvis sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi; 3. energetikis sferos specialuri stimulireba. 2008 wlis 25 noembers cnobili gaxda federaluri sarezervo sistemis ganzraxva, aSS_s bankebSi damatebiT Caedo 800 mlrd aSS dolari, rac mimarTuli unda yofiliyo momxmarebelTa sacalo dakreditebis stimulirebisTvis. gamocxadebuli programa iTvaliswinebda federaluri sarezervo sistemis mier 600 mlrd aSS dolaris kreditis gamosyidvas, rac gacemuli da garantirebuli iyo Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae ipoTekuri saagentoebisa da federaluri bankebis samomxmareblo kreditebiT. polsonis gegmam gamoiwvia eqspertebisa da kongresmenebis nawilis ukmayofileba. igi exeboda saxsrebis wyaroebs da fulis aseTi emisiis Sedegebs, rasac SeuZlia miiyvanos aSS_s valuta devalvaciamde. maTi azriT, bankebisgan problemuri aqtivebis gamosyidvaze efeqtiani iqneboda hejirebis fondis Seqmna, romelic daazRvevda am aqtivebiT gamowveul danakargebs bankebsa da sxva safinanso institutebSi. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos samomavlo qmedebebs, qveynis xelisuflebam arsebuli problemebi unda warmoidginos erTianad, ris safuZvelzec spontanuri RonisZiebebis gatarebidan unda gadaerTos Tanmimdevruli RonisZiebebis gatarebaze. prioritetebi unda iyos mkafio, realuri da qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebaze orientirebuli. amasTan, aucilebelia donorebidan miRebuli daxmarebebis da kreditebis gegmazomieri xarjva. qveynis xelisuflebas mudmivad unda axsovdes, rom dagegmili 4,5 ar aris mxolod daxmareba da misi didi nawili ramdenime wlis Semdeg ukan unda iqnas dabrunebuli, Tanac Sesabamisi saprocento ganakveTebis gadaxdiT. Sesabamisad unda gaviTvaliswinoT ganviTarebadi qveynebis krizisidan gamosavlis gzebi da ar davuSvaT uaresi Sedegebis miReba "binaTmflobelobis maniiT" warmoSobili finansuri krizisidan.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. gamoyenebuli literatura: saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikis departamenti, 2002-2008 wlis maCveneblebi; saqarTvelos erovnuli banki Asia News Reports ­ The straits times (Publication Date: 28-11-2008) The Economist ­ Economist Intelligence Unit (January/February 2009) Bureau of Economic Analysis (http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm) Bureau of the census (http://www.census.gov/

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informaciuli revolucia da ekonomikuri politikis evolucia1

giorgi nikuraZe

Tsu magistranti

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. i. gogoriSvili

Tanamedrove msoflio aris mxilveli im TiTqos warmoudgeneli movlenisa rasac hqvia informaciuli revolucia da ekonomikuri politikis evolucia. XXI saukuneSi ukve realuria qveynis ekonomikuri politikis gamtareblebsa da moqalaqeebs Soris diskusia da urTierToba Suamavlebis gareSe, rac informaciuli teqnologiebis revoluciurma ganviTarebam moitana. axlo momavalSi igegmeba gadaadgilebis globaluri kontrolis sistemis Seqmna romelic revoluciur cvlilebebs gvpirdeba. saxemwifos ekonomikuri politikis gatarebis axali revoluciuri instrumentebi Seqmnis procesSia, romlis Semdeg saxelmwifos mmarTvelobas SeeZleba miiRos ufro mdgradi da optimaluri prevenciuli zomebi raTa qveynis keTildReobis xelisSemSleli procesebis identificireba CanasaxSive ganxorcieldes da Semdeg misi ara ganadgureba, aramed gadaprogrameba moxdes, rac TavisTavad resursebis efeqtianad gamoyenebis saSualebas mogvcems. globalizaciis procesis yvelaze xelisSemwyob faqtorad SeiZleba CaiTvalos teqnologiuri progresi da informaciuli revlucia, rac Tavis mxriv gulisxmobs msoflios rogorc erT organizmad xedvis saSualebas. globaluri informaciis damuSavebiT SesaZlebelia ara marto tendenciebis winaswarmetyveleba, aramed maTi marTva da modelireba. yvelaze arsebiTad SeiZleba CaiTvalos globaluri ganviTarebis modelis simulaciis SesaZlebloba, rac Tavis Tavad msoflios mmarTvel organoebs saSualebas miscems dainaxon miliardobiT ganviTarebis proeqcia da amoirCion yvelaze optimaluri saerTo globaluri interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. aRsaniSnavia gardamaval etapze myofi adamianTa bedi, romlebic iSviaTad iyeneben an sulac ar iyeneben personalur kombiutersa da sxva Tanamedrove informaciul teqnologiebs. mecnierebma aqac miagnes gamosavals da daiwyes specialuri ganaTlebis sistemaze muSaoba, romelis Sedegadac bevrad gamartivdeba XXI saukunis infor1

sakonferencio moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna kavkasiis universitetis mier organizebul studentTa saerTaSoriso konferenciaze `XXI saukunis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi~. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT. moxsenebis sruli versia ganTavsebulia inglisur enaze gamocemul konferenciis amsaxvel krebulSi, Tb. 2009, gv. 129-132. http://www.fes.ge/geo/images/Fes_Files/Pulications08files/GEo09Publications/cu_2009.pdf

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maciuli teqnologiebis aTviseba maT Soris vinc gaurboda swavlas informaciuli teqnologiebis auTviseblobis SiSis gamo. sainteresoa semantiur programebze dafuZnebuli globaluri biblioTekis proeqtis Sesaxeb saubari. jer-jerobiT is Canasaxovan procesSia, magram axlo momavalSi Semecnebis individualuri algoriTmiT albaT iqneba amgvari biblioTekebis erTwliani xSiri stumrobebis Sedegad, XIX saukunis yvelaze ganaTlebul adamianze ganaTlebuli gaxdeT. XXI saukunis ekonomikur-politikuri procesebi sruli transformaciis tendenciis winaSe dgas. mimdinare saukuneSi prioritetulia swavlaze orientirebuli da da swavlis unaris mqone axalgazrdebis xelisSemwyobi politikis gatareba yvela saxelmwifoSi, raTa jansaRi konkurenciis pirobebSi gamovlindes saxelmwifoTa inteleqtualuri potenciali romelic maT gasuli saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi daagroves. aRniSnuli mniSvnelovani etapia informaciuli revoluciis labirinTidan swori gzis sapovnelad. aucilebelia oqros Sualedis povna informaciis aTvisebasa da miwodebas Soris, swored am sferoSia ekonomikuri politikis specialistebis ZiriTadi roli, radgan maT SeswevT unari Seqmnan sawyisi algoriTmi romelic xels Seuwyobs informaciis aTvisebis da masSi elastiurad moZraobis unaris ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas. saWiroa saqarTveloSi mimdinare movlenebsa da tendenciebze ramdenime sityviT mogaxsenoT. dRes saqarTvelos aqvs Zalian didi potenciali _ mas SeuZlia awarmoos informaciis amTvisebelTa da analizatorTa mTeli `armia~. mniSvnelovania am kuTxiT qveynis ekonomikuri politikis mizanmimarTuli da efeqtiani qmedebebis ganxorcieleba saxelmwifos mxridan, raTa xeli Seewyos niWieri axalgazrdebis dasaqmebas am sferoSi da, rac mTavaria, Cveni potenciali am sferoSi eyofa ara mxolod saqarTvelos, aramed bevr sxva qveyanasac. bolo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobs ganviTarebuli qveynebis mier TavianTi kompetenturobis da potencialis dasabuTebisa da gamovlenis procesi. aucilebelia saqarTvelo droulad iqnes CarTuli globaluri strategiuli ganviTarebis procesSi da dasabuTebul iqnes saqarTvelos moqalaqis kompetenturoba informaciuli teqnologiebis flobis saqmeSi msoflio masStabiT, raTa saqarTvelom daikavos misTvis kuTvnili strategiuli adgili. mniSvnelovnad izrdeba SemoqmedebiTi samuSaoebis wili. axali organizaciebi ejibrebian erTmaneTs ara sidideSi, aramed siswrafeSi, moqnilobaSi, cvlilebebis swrafad ganxorcielebaSi. erTi mxriv, informaciaze orientirebuli sazogadoebis Seqmnam da, meore mxriv, efeqtiani administraciuli menejmentis, racionaluri strategiuli gadawyvetilebisa da maRali donis administraciuli servisebis saWiroebam ganapiroba eleqtronuli mTavrobis, eleqtronuli marTvis meqanizmebis danergvis aucilebloba. dRe30

isTvis msoflios mravali qveynis mTavrobam kargad gaacnobiera elmTavrobis saWiroeba da konkretul RonisZiebebs atarebs am mimarTulebis praqtikaSi realizaciisaTvis. informaciuli revoluciis gardamavali etapis gavlis Semdeg ekonomikuri politikis evoluciis Sedegad Camoyalibdeba axali cnobiereba da informaciasTan dRevandeli damokidebuleba Seicvleba dRemde warmoudgeneli revoluciuri damokidebulebiT. gamoqveynda seulSi msoflios wamyvani qveynebis ministrebis Sexvedraze miRebuli deklaracia. Sexvedra gaimarTa koreaSi 2008 wlis 17-18 ivniss da eZRvneboda internet ekonomikis perspeqtivebs. deklaraciaSi dadasturebulia am qveynebis valdebuleba xeli Seuwyon internet ekonomikis ganviTarebas, mxari dauWiron inovaciebs, investiciebsa da konkurencias informaciuli da sakomunikacio teqnologiebis seqtorSi. gansakuTrebulad aris xazgasmuli, rom mTavar zrunvas warmoadgens internetis arsis SenarCuneba, rogoricaa misi Ria xasiaTi, decentralizebuloba da dinamiuroba. mxardaWerili iqneba inovaciebi, monawileoba da misawvdomoba. didi yuradReba daeTmoba usafrTxoebis da inteleqtualuri uflebebis dacvis sakiTxebs. mxars dauWeren ganviTarebad qveynebSi mosaxleobisaTvis internetis misawvdomobis uzrunvelyofas. tomas fridmani aris avtori wignisa `The World Is Flat~ (msoflio brtyelia). am wignSi aRwerilia is tendenciebi, romlebic `abrtyeleben~ (aTanabreben) XXI saukunes da amiT saSualebas aZleven Raribi qveynebis moqalaqeebs konkurencia gauwion ganviTarebuli qveynebis moqalaqeebs, rac cota xnis win TiTqmis SeuZlebeli iyo. msoflioSi mTavari ekonomikuri konkurencia mimdinareobs ara saxelmwifoebs So-ris, ara kompaniebs Soris, aramed Cvensa da Cvens fantazias (warmosaxvas) Soris. Se-moqmedebiTi warmosaxvis unari aris gadamwyveti adamianis momavlisaTvis. swrafad izrdeba moTxovnileba iseTi samuSaoebisa, sadac saWiroa eqspertuli azrovneba da kompleqsuri komunikacia. problemas warmoadgens ara samuSao adgilebis simcire, aramed Seusabamoba samuSao Zalis saWiro da arsebul unarebs Soris. bevr moswavles mouwevs sxvadasxva, xSirad urTierTkavSirSi armyofi sferoebis aTviseba cxovrebis manZilze. unari viswavloT is, rac xval SeiZleba dagvWirdes ufro faseulia, vidre is, rac dRes viciT. adre adamianebis umravlesobas ekisreboda mcire roli ekonomikaSi. es iyo an pasiuri momxmarebeli masobrivi produqtebis an organizaciis biurokratiul struqturaSi dakarguli TanamSromeli. dRes sainformacio teqnologiebis mzardi misawvdomoba yvela adamians aZlevs instrumentebs, romelTa saSualebiT SesaZlebelia TanamSromloba, faseuli produqtebis Seqmna da komunikacia. es aZlevs adamianebs Tavisuflebas, miiRon monawileoba inovaciebSi da simdidris SeqmnaSi ekonomikis yvela seqtorSi.

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Cven vcxovrobT didi cvlilebebis periodSi. cvlilebebi ar aris droebiTi da ar unda gvegonos, rom garkveuli drois Semdeg yvelaferi Tavis normas daubrundeba. yalibdeba uwyveti, swrafi cvlilebebis periodi. es aris swrafi cvlilebebis era. warmovadgen oTx ZiriTad tendencias, romlebic udides gavlenas axdenen Cven cxovrebaze: muris kanoni_intelis TanadamfuZnebelma jon murma 1963 wels Jurnal `elektronikaSi~ dawera statia, sadac Camoayaliba `muris kanoni~, romelic ase JRerda: `yovel 24 TveSi integrirebul sqemaSi tranzistorebis raodenobis gaormagebaa SesaZlebeli~. es kanoni dRemde moqmedebs da ufro gaZlierda kidevac. fotonis kanoni _ 1983 wlidan qselebis gamtarianoba erT dolarze yovel 12 TveSi sammagdeba. internetis revolucia _ 1992 wels internetis momxmarebelTa ricxvi Seadgenda 300 adamians. dRes maTma ricxvma miliards gadaaWarba. interneti orjer izrdeba yovel 120 dReSi. mozRvavebuli informacia _ wina sami tendencia ganapirobebs meoTxe tendencias, romelic gamoixateba informaciis mozRvavebaSi. swrafi tempebiT izrdeba sityvebis, terminebis, cnebebis ricxvi. dReSi gamoicema 3000 wigni. konceptualurad moazrovne muSakebi - XXI saukunis moTxovnilebaa. konceptualurad moazrovne adamianebis momzadeba - XXI saukunis ganaTlebis sistemis mTavari amocanaa. sainformacio sazogadoebis gaCenam gansazRvra Tanamedrove demokratiul saxelmwifoSi Tvisebrivad axali _ efeqtiani, moqnili, gamWvirvale da sazogadoebaze orientirebuli mTavrobis Seqmnis aucilebloba. eleqtronuli mTavroba, romelic sainformacio sazogadoebis aucilebeli elementia, miznad isaxavs iseTi sistemis Seqmnas da ganviTarebas, romelic uzrunvelyofs erTi mxriv, saxelmwifo marTvis efeqtian gazrdas, meore mxriv, ki moqalaqeze, sazogadoebaze orientirebul, maRali donis samTavrobo momsaxurebas. eleqtronuli mTavrobis formirebis procesSi mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala TviTon saxelmwifoa. saxelmwifom unda uzrunvelyos eleqtronuli mTavrobis warmatebiT ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebeli pirobebis Seqmna da gadawyvitos misi ZiriTadi amocanebi: politikuri gadawyvetilebebis miReba, pasuxismgebeli organoebisadministraciuli struqturebis Camoyalibeba, erovnuli informaciuli da sakomunikacio infrastruqturebis ganviTareba, sayovelTaod misawvdomi informaciuli resursebis Seqmna da maTi gaerTianeba erTiani `eleqtronuli mTavrobis~ sistemaSi. amave dros, moqalaqis aqtiuri monawileoba da mxardaWera warmatebuli eleqtronuli mTavrobis aucilebeli wina pirobaa. eleqronuli mTavrobis miznebia: mosaxleobis erTjeradi, uwyveti momsaxureba misi saWiroebidan da survilebidan gamomdinare, nebismier dros da nebismier adgilas; eleqtronuli dokumentbrunva, rac el-mTavrobis xerxemalia. igi uzrunvelyofs 32

danaxarjebis Semcirebas da administraciuli produqtiulobis gazrdas; marTvisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis optimizacia sxvadasxva uwyebaSi, departamentebsa da rgolebSi gabneuli codnisa da informaciis integraciisa da maT Soris barierebis moxsnis gziT. eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTarebisaTvis, misi dafinansebisa da proeqtebis promouSenisaTvis sakanonmdeblo baza Zalian mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs. mxolod ramdenime qveyanam moaxerxa, rom Seeqmna integrirebuli kanonmdebloba pirdapir eleqtronul mTavrobasTan dakavSirebiT. umetes qveynebSi eleqtronuli mTavrobis ganviTareba eyrdnoba informatizaciis sferoSi moqmed kanonmdeblobas. informaciulma revoluciam moitana informaciis rolis umniSvnelovanesi daniSnulebis aRiarebis tendenciebi. XXI saukunem informaciuli teqnologiebis revoluciuri ganviTarebis mowmed gvaqcia. mniSvnelovania saqarTvelom ipovos Tavisi mniSvnelovani adgili msoflios ganviTarebul qveynebs Soris da SeZlos progresuli qmedebebis ganxorcieleba da qarTveli eris inteleqtis, rogorc demonstrireba, aseve qveynis interesebidan gamomdinare, aqtiuri ekonomikuri politikis gatareba, rogorc qveynis SigniT aseve mis faglebs gareT. ekonomikuri politikis gatarebisas saxelmwifom unda imoqmedos globaluri interesebisa da qveynis Siga interesebs Soris oqros Sualedis povnis principiT da moaxdinos revoluciuri cvlilebebis kalapotSi Cayeneba da misi marTva mowinave informaciuli teqnologiebis saSualebiT. sayuradReboa da sagangaSo zeganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebis damokidebuleba erTiani msoflio informaciuli qselis mimarT, radgan maT aqvT ambicia iaraRad aqcion mTeli globaluri informaciuli sistema da mizanmimarTulad marTon saxelmwifoebi TavianTi piradi interesebis Sesabamisad. sanam informacia yvelasTvis xelmisawvdomia da sxvadasxva socialuri qselebis saSualebiT xdeba cnobierebis sinqronizacia msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis moqalaqeebs Soris, manamde sagangaSo araferia, magram Tu moxdeba informaciis centraluri bazis monopolizacia romelime saxelmwifos mier globaluri masStabiT, maSin es movlena msoflios saxelmwifoebis dabyrobis tolfasi iqneba. saWiroa Seiqmnas informaciuli teqnologiebis usafrTxoebis globaluri sistema romelSic gawevriandeba msoflios yvela saxelmwifo Tanabari uflebebiT. momavlis ekonomikuri politikis gamtarebeli unda iyos aRWurvili analitikuri azrovnebiT, siaxlis aTvisebis unariT, mudmivad unda anviTrebdes rogorc sakuTar inteleqtualur da fizikur SesaZleblobebs, aseve misi garSemomyofebis cnobierebasTan sinqronizaciis ganuwyvetel procesSi unda iyos CarTuli, rasac informaciuli teqnologiis revoluciuri monapovari SesaZlebels gaxdis.

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ekonomikuri politikis evoluciis etapebi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli informaciuli da cifruli teqnologiebis gamoyenebasTan mis ganviTarebis etapebtan da TanmimdevrobasTan qveynis mimdinare politikur, kulturul da religiur poziciebTan da miznebTan, saxelmwifo mniSvnelobis ekonomikur-politikuri amocanebis dasmisa da maTi gadawyvetis siswrafesTan, Cveni qveynis politikosebisa da ekonomistebis konkurentunarianobasTan sxva saxelmwifos mmarTvelebTan mimarTebaSi. saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri politikis gatarebaSi aucilebelia integrirebis da transformirebis unaris qona radgan, msoflio politikuri da ekonomikuri tendenciebidan gamomdinare msoflio ganuwyvetliv viTardeba da Sesabamisad anviTarebs ekonomikur, politikur da sxva strategiul unarebsa da instrumentebs raTa globalur konkurencias gauZlos da qveynis Tavisuflbis sakiTxi kiTxvis qveS arasodes daayenos. saqarTveloSi SesaZlebelia globalur integrirebasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxeebis aRmofxvra informaciuli teqnologiebis sworad gamoyenebiT da swori ekonomikuri politikis gatarebiT. qveynis ekonomikuri politikis gatarebisas ar SeiZleba piradi interesebis win wamoweva da amiT saxelmwifo interesebze zianis miyeneba. aRniSnulis mogvarebis Semdeg aucilebelia Semdeg etapze gadasvla da integrirebis procesis usafrTxoebis sakiTxebis garkveva. Semdeg SesaZlebeli iqneba sxva Tanabar pirobebSi erTiani globaluri sainformacio sistemis marTvasa da srulyofaSi monawileoba da saxelmwifo interesebidan gamomdinare globaluri interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT mniSvnelovan, revoluciur cvlilebebSi mionawileobis miReba da adamianTa saerTo interesebis gatareba globaluri interesebis CarCoebis dacviT da qveynis ganviTarebis tendenciebis xe-lis SewyobiT.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

r. gvelesiani i. gogoriSvili ekonomikuri politika, Tbilisi 2008

Being Fluent with Information Technology, NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. Larry Allen The Global Economic System since 1945 © 2005 Kenneth W. Dam The Rules of the Global Game A New Look at US International Economic Policymaking © 2001 Edited by Leonardo AuernheimerInternational Financial Markets The Challenge of Globalization © 2003 ICT Development Framework for Georgia. UNDP Georgia, www.undp.org.ge The Internet revolution: the not-for-dummies guide to the history, technology, and use of the Internet By J. R. Okin Published by Ironbound Press, 2005 Gourevitch, James Shinn. 2005

8. Political Power and Corporate Control: The New Global Politics of Corporate Governance, by Peter A. 9. Information Technology for Management: Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy, by Efraim Turban,

James Wetherbe. March 2007.

10. Information Systems Today: Managing the Digital World, by Leonard Jessup, Joseph S. Valacich. 2007. 11. Principles of Information Security, Michael E. Whitman, Herbert J. Mattord, Herbert Mattord. December 2004. 12. Tomorrow's Technology and You: Complete, by George Beekman, Michael J. Quinn, Mike Quinn. 2007. 34

sarkinigzo klasteri saqarTveloSi1

Mmariam WurWelauri

Tsu magistranti

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. i. gagniZe

sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvla, Ria ekonomikis pirobebSi msoflio globalur bazarze sakuTari niSis mopoveba da iq mtkiced damkvidreba did Zalisxmevas moiTxovs nebismieri qveynis rogorc mTavrobaTa, ise moqalaqeebis mxridan. sazogadod, reformis mimarTulebebis gansazRvraze didad zemoqmedebs qveynis Taviseburebani, misi ganviTarebis done, sastarto pirobebi, tradiciebi, sabazro mentalitetis xarisxi, ekonomikuri Teoriis progresuloba, inovaciuroba, politikosebisa da ekonomistebis momzadebis done, reformebisadmi sazogadoebis mxardaWeris xarisxi. aRniSnulis gamo, mkiTxvelis yuradReba minda gavamaxvilo kon-kurenciis Teoriis erT-erTi mkvlevaris m. porteris naSromSi `qveynebis konkurenciuli upiratesobebi~ ganxilul klasterebis koncefciaze. klasteris koncefcia warmoadgens qveynis ekonomikis xedvis axal saSualebas. miuTiTebs kompaniebis, mTavrobisa da sxva organizaciebis axal rolze konkurenciuli upiratesobebisken swrafvis procesSi. `yvelaze mniSvnelovani konkurenciuli upiratesobebi globalur ekonomikaSi xSirad aRmocendeba klasteris niadagze~. `qveyana ver iqneba konkurentunariani yvela dargSi an Tundac maT umravlesobaSi. arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi TiToeuli qveynis konkurentunarianobis struqturaSi. garkveul dargebSi qveynebi warmatebas aRweven imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom Sesabamis SemTxvevebSi maTi Sida pirobebi aRmoCndeba ukeTesi, dinamiuri da perspeqtiuli sxvebTan SedarebiT~. klasteri anu samrewvelo jgufi ­ esaa geografiulad mezobeli urTierTdakavSirebuli kompaniebis jgufi da masTan dakavSirebuli organizaciebi, romlebic moqmedeben gansazRvrul sferoSi da xasiaTdebian saqmianobis erTianobiT da erTmaneTTan urTierTSevsebiT. aqve gvsurs CamovayaliboT qveynis ekonomikis klasterebis prizmaSi xedvis sxva upiratesobebic, kerZod: klasterebis koncefcia efuZneba firmebsa da regionebs Soris konkurenciis procesis ufro farTo xedvas mwarmoeblurobis zrdis safuZvelze;

1

sakonferencio moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna kavkasiis universitetis mier organizebul studentTa saerTaSoriso konferenciaze `XXI saukunis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi~. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT. moxsenebis sruli versia ganTavsebulia inglisur enaze gamocemul konferenciis amsaxvel krebulSi, Tb. 2009, gv. 152-157. http://www.fes.ge/geo/images/Fes_Files/Pulications08files/GEo09Publications/cu_2009.pdf

35

klasterebi konkurenciul brZolaze gavlenas axdenen sami saSualebiT: 1. masSi Semavali dargebisa da firmebis mwarmoeblurobis amaRlebiT; 2. inovaciebisadmi unaris amaRlebiT; 3. axali biznesis stimulirebis saSualebiT; klasterebi warmoadgenen mamoZravebel Zalas eqsportis gazrdasa da pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mosazidad, rac dRes saqarTvelos mTavrobis erT-erT upirveles amocanas warmoadgens; klasterebis funqcionirebis gaumjobesebisaken mimarTul saxelmwifo da kerZo investiciebs erTdroulad mravali firmisTvis moaqvT winsvla; interesdebian cnobili firmebi da mimdinareobs erTgvari sawarmoo jaWvis Seqmna; klasterebis monawileTa umravlesoba erTmaneTs ar uweven konkurencias uSualod. ubralod isini dargis sxvadasxva segmentebs emsaxurebian; janmrTel da sicocxlisunarian klasterSi firmebis sawyisi kritikuli masa aZlierebs TviTgaZlierebis process. grovdeba informacia; adgilobriv institutebSi iwyeba specialuri momzadeba, mimdinareobs kvlevebi, viTardeba infrastruqtura da muSavdeba Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo normebi, amasTan klasteri xdeba ufro SesamCnevi da izrdeba misi prestiJi. klasterebis gadakveTa gviCvenebs maTi ganviTarebis axal impulsebs, rac amcirebs biznesSi Sesvlis barierebs; rogorc ki klasteri Camoyalibdeba, jgufSi yvela dargebisadmi urTierTmxardaWera aRmocendeba; mwarmoeblebi an individebi, visac aqvs sakuTari idea, migrireben zrdadi klasteris regionSi. es ki saqarTvelodan migraciis didi problemis garkveulwilad gadaWrasac Seuwyobs xels; klasterSi Semaval firmebs ufro swrafad SeuZliaT gansazRvron samomavlo moTxovnis tendenciebi, vidre maT metoqe, calkeul firmebs; klasterebis arsebobas SeuZlia Seamsubuqos cvalebad ekonomikur pirobebze adgilobrivi firmebis morgebis procesi, rac ufro metad amcirebs adgilobrivi ekonomikis risks. Mme-19 saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi rkinigzebi msoflios xuT qveyanaSi iyo agebuli. saqarTveloSi rkinigzis gayvanis idea gamoiTqva samTo saqmis specialistebSi me-19s. 40-ian wlebSi, rodesac 1845 w. cnobili gaxda tyibulSi qvanaxSiris sabados arseboba. 1883 w. maisSi Tbilisi-baqosa da samtredia-baTumis xazebi saqspluataciod gadaeca. saqarTvelos aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris satranzito mimosvlis mniSvnelobiT es gza yvelaze mokle da moxerxebuli iyo evropasa da azias Soris tvirTbrunvisaTvis. rkinigzis pirveli magistralis gayvaniT safuZveli Caeyara saqarTvelos ekonomikur aRorZinebas: ganviTarebis gzas daadga vaWroba, soflis meurneoba da mrewveloba. 1969 wlidan saqarTveloSi rkinigza mTlianad eleqtrificirebulia. 36

Tanamedrove pirobebSi saqarTvelos rkinigzis Semosavlebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc gadaziduli tvirTebidan da gadayvanili mgzavrebidan miRebuli Semosavlebis erToblioba. mTliani gadaziduli tvirTis raodenobaSi mniSvnelovani wili ukavia tranzitiT gadazidul tvirTs da tranzitiT gadaziduli tvirTebis saxeobebidan: nedli navTobi, navTobproduqtebi da danarCeni tvirTi. Semosavlis cvlileba pirdapir kavSirSia gadazidvis saSaualo manZilTan. 2006w 326km, 2007w gegmiuri monacemi iyo 328km, 2007 w. faqtiurma monacemebma Seadgina 312 km. tranziti _ tranzitiT gadazidul tvirTSi mniSvnelovani wili modis nedl navTobze da navTobproduqtebze. Sesabamisad, maTi raodenobis cvlilebac mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens Semosavlze. 2006 wels _ 16141 aT. tona, 2007 wlis gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli iyo 16685 aT. tona, xolo 2007 wlis faqtiuri monacemi Seadgens 14396 aT. tonas. Semosavlic msgavsi dinamikiT xasiaTdeba. Semosavlebis grafikis mixedviT 2005 w. monacemis Tanaxmad, tranzituli gadazidviT miRebuli mTliani Semosavlis moculoba Seadgenda 170667 lari, 2006 w. _ 199158 lari, 2007 w. gegma _ 202257 lari, faqtiurma monacemma ki Seadgina _ 183385 lari). nedli navTobidan miRebulma Semosavalma 2005 wels Seadgina 57005 lari; 2006 w. _ 73252 lari; 2007 w. gegma iyo 69688 lari, 2007 w. faqtiuri monacemi ki _ 52458 lari iyo. 2005 w. Semosavalma Seadgina 57878 lari; 2006 wels _ 58412 lari, 2007 wlis faqtiuri Semosavali 57171 lari iyo. 2005 w. Semosavalma Seadgina 55807 lari; 2006 wels ­ 67495 lari; 2007 wlis faqtiurma monacemma Seadgina 73768 lari. eqsporti _ 2005 wlis monacemiT eqsportidan miRebulma Semosavalma Seadgina 10893 lari, 2006 w. _ 12238 lari, 2007 w gegmis mixedviT gaTvaliswinebuli iyo 12886 lari, faqtiurma monacemma ki Seadgina _ 12238 lari. importi _ rac Seexeba importidan miRebul Semosavals, 2005-2007 ww-Si zrdis tendencia axasiaTebda. 2005 w. _ 17701 lari, 2006 w. _ 223189 lari, 2007 w. gegma _ 23903 lari, 2007 w. ­ 31611 lari. adgilobrivi _ adgilobrivi satvirTo gadazidvebidan miRebulma Semosavalma 2005 wels Seadgina _ 16457 lari, 2006 w. _ 22534 lari, 2007 w gegma _ 27054 lari, 2007 w. ­ 22989 lari. rogorc yvela sxva qveynisaTvis saqarTveloSi rkinigza momgebiani iqneba did moculobebze da did manZilebze. 600_700 km_is mere rkinigza Semosavliani xdeba, amitomac tranziti yvelaze momgebiania. meore mxriv, Cveni Semosavlis 80_85% damokidebulia tranzitze. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri zrda da mdgradi ganviTareba metwilad damokidebulia misi, rogorc satranzito qveynis potencialis efeqtian gamoyenebaze. 1992 wels saqarTveloSi daibada idea evropa-kavkasia-aziis satransporto derefnis Sesaxeb. 1993 wels briuselis deklaraciiT Seiqmna regionuli programa TRACECA, romelic mowodebuli iyo xeli Seewyo axali satransporto derefnis

37

sarkinigzo klasteri

sakanonmdeblo baza IT teqnologiebi eleqtromarTva

sarkinigzo klasteri

xe-tyis klasteri

Sida da gare samarTlebrivi sivrce

samTavrobo struqturebi

saswavlo/sakvali fikacio centrebi

kavSirgabmulobis klasteri

turistuli klasteri

garemos dacvis klasteri

relsebi

kvebis mrewveloba (mSrali kveba)

ganaxleba, remonti.

sarkinigz o klasteri

liandageb i

Spalebi

Savi/feradi liTonis warmoeba

samSeneblo infrastruq tura

vagonebi

spec.tansac. warmoeba

fardebida sxva ,,aqsesuarebi''

qimiuri mrewveloba detalebis qimiuri damuSaveba

saRebavebis warmoeba

rezinis warmoeba rez. xelTaTmane bis warmoeba rez. feqxsqcmli s warmoeba

plastmasis warmoeba

safeiqro mrewveloba

poligrafi a ganaTebis sistema

eleqtro mowyobilobis warmoeba

sqema # 1. sarkinigzo klasteri

mSeneblobisaTvis. 1996 wels daiwyo ,,Sevronis'' navTobis rkinigziT transportireba yazaxeTidan baTumis portamde, aqedan ki zRviT saerTaSoriso bazarze. globalur ekonomikaSi saqarTvelos konkurentunarianobis asamaRlebeli erT-erTi efeqturi instrumenti qveynis ekonomikis klasteruli ganviTarebis strategiaa. aqve vfiqrobT sarkinigzo klasteris Camoyalibeba gansakuTrebiT Seuwyobs xels rkinigzis funqcionirebis efeqtianobis amaRlebas saqarTveloSi. sarkinigzo klasteris sqema (sqema #1) gviCvenebs biznesis im saxeebisa da kavSirebis ganviTarebis mi38

marTulebes rac SesaZlebelia am dargis klasteruli dagegmviT ganxorcieleba. klasterebs SeuZliaT moicvan erTi an meti samrewvelo seqtori. regionuli da regionTaSoriso klasteri warmoadgens ekonomikis urTierTdamokidebul seqtorebs, moicavs sabazo dargs, mimwodebel dargebs da maTi produqtebis momxmarebel dargebs, aseve Sesabamisi mowyobilobebisa da momsaxurebis mwarmoeblebs, pirvel rigSi, samecniero_saganmanaTleblo da maRalteqnologiuri. politika, rac iwvevs klasterebis srulyofas xSirad icvleba. istoriuli gamocdilebidan gamomdinare realuri konkurenciuli upiratesobis misaRwevad klasterebs sWirdebaT 10 an meti weli ­ esaa erT-erTi im mizezTagani, ris gamoc, mTavrobebi ar arian dainteresebulni Seqmnan klasteri. Tumca, rodesac klasteris agebis gamocdileba ukve cnobilia, saxelmwifos mizanmimarTul mcdelobas SeuZlia gacilebiT nakleb droSi gamoiRos sasurveli Sedegebi.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. i. gagniZe, `saqarTvelos ekonomikis ganviTarebis strategiis Sesaxeb~, Jurn. `saqarTvelos ekonomika~ #1, 2008w. 2. l. gejaZe, m. beTxoSvili, g. afciauri, Sps ,, saqarTvelos rkinigzis'' saoperacio maCveneblebis 2005-2007ww. Aanalizi, praqtikis angariSi; 3. saqarTvelos rkinigza, problemebi da perspeqtivebi. fondi Ria sazogadoeba saqarTvelos Sida proeqti ,,Sps. saqarTvelos rkinigza-analitikuri angariSis momzadeba'' www.osgf.ge;

4. m. CorgolaSvili, saqarTveloSi rkinigzis transportis ganviTarebis istoria (1846-1925), disertacia Tb. 1972;

5. A. Gegeshidze, National Assessment Report for Sustainable Development, www.gfsis.org 6. M. PORTER - ON COMPETITION, A HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW BOOK; HARVARD BUSINESS PRESS,1998 (Russian version; 2002 ) 7. Booz Allen Hamilton: Georgian Railways Restructuring Assistance. Assessment Report, May 2005. 8. Statistical Yearbook of Georgia: 2008 / Department of Statistics under Ministry of Economic Development of Georgia. ­ Tbilisi, 2008. 9. The European Cluster Memorandum, Promouting European Innovation through Cluster: An Agenda for Policy Action. www.clusterobservatory.eu 10. www.traceca-org.org. 11. www.railway.ge

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sareklamo biznesis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi1

TinaTin axvlediani

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: prof. T. Sengelia

dResdReobiT, reklama TiToeuli moqalaqis cxovrebis da, rac mTavaria, biznesis warmoebis ganuyofeli nawilia. biznesSi reklamis warmoSobas rTuli istoriuli sa-fuZvlebi aqvs. igi udaod dakavSirebulia Sromis sazogadoebriv danawilebasTan, ramac TavisTavad Seqmna produqciis namatis miRebis SesaZlebloba, rac dakavSirebuli iyo gasaReba-gacvlis problemasTan. mravali aseuli aTasi mwarmoebelis mier gamoSvebul aTeul da aseul milion saqonels Soris romelime erTi konkretuli kompaniis produqciis an momsaxurebis gayidva mxolod reklamas Tu SeuZlia. reklama aris info-macia, gavrcelebuli nebismieri meTodiT, nebismieri formiT da xerxiT, mimarTuli sa-zogadoebis farTo masebisTvis, reklamirebis obieqtis mimarT maTi yuradRebis mi-pyrobis da interesis gaRvivebis mizniT. Tanamedrove komerciuli saqmianoba warmo-udgenelia kargad organizebuli reklamis gareSe. sul oriode aTeuli wlis win gasaRebis formula iyo aseTi: produqcia + gayidva = gasaRebas dRes es formula mniSvnelovnad garTulda da man miiRo Semdegi saxe: produqcia + ganawileba + kvleva + agentebi + gadaadgileba + reklama + gayidva = gasaRebas produqciis TviTRirebulebaSi produqciis reklamis wili 40_50%_ia, magram es araa axali, radgan istoriidan viciT, rom `koka_kolis~ xarjebis 70% reklamaze modis. raSia `koka_kolas~ unikaluroba? araferSi! maS ratom iyideba yvelaze metad? imitom, rom yvelaze didi reklama aqvs da moqmedebs adamianis, gansakuTrebiT mozardebis fsiqikaze. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom koka-kola dges ukve momxmareblis TavSi zis da mas azrovnebis inercia hqvia! reklamis industriis sawyis etapad me-19 saukunes miiCneven, Tumca misi primiti-uli formebi jer kidev uZveles periodSi SeimCneva. warwerebma qvebze, kedlebze, papirusebze Zveli babilonidan, egviptidan, romidan, Tu saberZneTidan Semogvinaxes Se-tyobinebebi, romlebSic mocemulia informacia gasayid saqonelsa Tu momsaxurebaze, uaxloes droSi mosalodnel movlenebze, gaqceuli monebis povnisTvis dawesebul jildoebze da a.S. pirveli sareklamo saagento sruli momsaxurebiT 1891 wels niuorkSi jorj batenma daaarsa. meoce saukunis bolosTvis es kompania

1

sakonferencio moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis mier organizebul studentTa me-10 samecniero konferenciaze. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT.

40

erT-erTi giganti gaxda sareklamo biznesSi, romlis wliuri brunvac 3,26 mlrd dolars Seadgenda. me-19 saukunis bolos sagazeTo reklamam saqarTveloSic mniSvnelovnad moikida fexi. gasakuTrebiT sainteresoa is, rom am periodisTvis ukve ganviTarebulia sareklamo teqstis xelovneba, fasdaklebis cneba da Tanamedrove reklamisTvis damaxasiaTebeli bevri sxva niSani. magaliTisTvis moviyvanoT gazeT `iveriis~ 1886 wlis gamocemidan Semdegi gancxadeba: `qalaq baTaumSi vagzalis maxloblad axlad gavaRe mebelirovani oTaxebi `venecia~. miuxedavad imisa, rom baTaumSi siZvire aris, maqvs ##-bi sufTad mowyobili dReSi 50 kapeikidam 1,5 manaTamde, TveobiT 10 manaTidam 30 manaTamdis~. Tumca konkurenciis Tema droebiT kapitalizms Cabarda. im dros, rodesac saqarTvelos `komunizmis mze dahnaToda~, dasavleT evropasa da amerikaSi reklama sul ufro da ufro viTardeboda. 1914 wels `jeneral motorsma~ gamouSva axali kadilaki 8 cilindriani ZraviT. reklamaSi ki araferi ar yofila amis Sesaxeb naTqvami. aseve ar yofila arc axali manqanis foto, mxolod ramdenime sityviani teqsti: `gadaixade liderobisTvis~. gaCnda pirveli sloganic. dResdReobiT sareklamo bazari miekuTvneba msoflioSi yvelaze dinamiurad mzardi bazrebis ricxvs. misi tevadoba uaxlovdeba msoflio produqtis 1,25% (daaxloebiT 0,5 trln aSS dolari). calkeul qveynebSi es cifri gacilebiT metia. iseve rogorc mTels msoflioSi, saqarTveloSic sareklamo kampanias, rogorc wesi, sareklamo saagentoebi awarmoeben. CvenTan saagentoebi 16_17 welia rac arseboben da TavianT sareklamo saqmianobas axorcieleben. umravlesoba mcire zomis da biujetis mqone kompaniebia. unda aRiniSnos, rom Tu sazRvargareT saagentoebi garkveuli sferos specifikis mixedviT iyofian, CvenTan saqme sxvagvaradaa. Cvens kompaniebs muSaoba sakmaod rTul pirobebSi uxdebaT. iqidan gamomdinare, rom bazari pataraa, maT yvelafris keTeba Tavad uxdebaT _ es iqneba sareklamo kampaniis dagegmvaze, ganTavsebasa Tu kreatiul mxareze zrunva. Tumca arian iseTi saagentoebic, romlebic mxolod dagegmvasa da mis ganTavsebaze specialistdebian. sareklamo saagento `ei_si jgufis~ direqtoris, baton zurab iobaSvilis TqmiT, sazRvargareT farTomasStabian sareklamo kampanias moculobiT didi organizaciebi, holdingebi Tu transnacionaluri kompaniebi axorcieleben. Cvens SemTxvevaSi ki es ase ar xdeba. amis mTavari mizezi isaa, rom bazari sakmaod pataraa. bazari pataraa, magram rogorc saagento `media_artis~ kreatiuli menejeri giorgi CikvilaZe ambobs, qarTuli sareklamo bazari kreatiulad Zalian kargia. sareklamo saagentoebi sareklamo kampaniis ganxorcilebis dros masobrivi informaciis iseT saSualebebs iyeneben, rogoricaa _ te-levizia, radio, presa, gare reklama da interneti. Tuki msoflios sareklamo bazars gadavxedavT, gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs Soris yve-laze didi procenti televiziasa da presaze modis. magaliTad, espaneTSi televizia sa-reklamo bazris 41

daaxloebiT 50%_s ikavebs. saqarTveloSi sareklamo saSuelebebi kvlavac formirebis procesSia. dResdReobiT reklama xorcieldeba Semdegi saxeebiT --teleeTeriT-bazris 60%, bilbordebiT quCaSi da sxvadasxva sanaxaobebze-8%, beWdviTi saSualebebiT-12%, internetis saSualebiT-18%, sxva saSualebebiT-2%. rogorc vxedavT, ganviTarebulia telemauwyebloba da beWdviTi media. televiziiT reklamis drois 70% wamlis reklamas ukavia . calsaxad lideroben iseTi arxebi, romlebsac gaaCniaT dafarvis maRali maCvenebeli. SedarebiT naklebad arian ganviTarebuli adgilobrivi mauwyeblebi. isini CamorCebian sareklamo saSualebebis Sefasebis saerTaSoriso standartebs. maTi umravlesoba ver axerxebs TviTdafinansebas, rac Tavis mxriv, xels uSlis damoukidebel ganviTarebas. rogorc cnobilia, biznes-aqtivoba ZiriTadad TbilisSia koncentrirebuli, xolo TbilisSi arsebuli biznes seqtori prioritets erovnul mauwyeblebs aniWeben, radganac aseT telearxebze ganTavsebuli reklama mTel saqarTvelos faravs da saWiro aRar aris sxvadasxva regionalur arxebTan molaparakeba. saqarTvelos mosaxleobas saSualeba aqvs uyuros TiTqmis yvela erovnul telearxs. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom TiTqmis yvela regionSi arsebobs regionaluri televizia, rac kidev ufro zrdis konkurencias qarTul da ucxour arxebs Soris. 2004 wlis seqtembridan qarTul bazarze moRvaweobs kompania `AGB Nielsen Media Research~. is saerTaSoriso organizaciaa da msoflios 45 qveyanaSi aqvs Tavisi warmomadgenloba, maT Soris saqarTveloSic. esaa delegirebisa da monitoringis sakmaod seriozuli struqtura, romelic Tavis momsaxurebas tele Tu sareklamo kompaniebs sTavazobs. `AGB Nielsen~_ma Tavis momxmarebels specialuri programa, `Rianna~ SesTavaza. esaa satelevizio reitingebi, romelze dayrdnobiTac saagentoebi TavianT sareklamo kampaniebs SeimuSaveben. `AGB Nielsen~ am kvlevebs fiflmetrebis saSualebiT axorcielebs. isini saqarTveloSi daaxloebiT 300 ojaxSia damontaJebuli da maTi saSualebiT Tvalyurs adevneben, mayurebeli meti sixSiriT romel gadacemas Tu telearxs uyurebs. `AGB Nielsen~_is momsaxurebiT Semdegi sareklamo saagentoebi sargebloben: `ei_si jgufi~, `ad korporacia~, `imperiali~, `imedi-kontaqti~, `GSG~ `sarke~, `starkommediavesti~, `TV~, `TV+~. es saagentoebi, romlebic am monacemebs yi-duloben, arian wamyvani kompaniebi saqarTveloSi, isini, reitingebze dayrdnobiT, Se-sabamisi programuli uzrunvelyofis safuZvelze sworad gegmaven da sakmaod maRal-kvalificiur doneze warmarTaven sareklamo kampaniebs. ar SeiZleba ar aRvniSnoT is faqtic, rom nel-nela umjobesdeba reklamis xarisxi. ramdenime studia Zalian sa-interesod muSaobs am mimarTulebiT. rac Seexeba reklamis ganTavsebis Rirebulebas, televiziisa da radios SemTxvevaSi fasebi saeTero drois reitingzea mibmuli, xolo beWdviTi mediis SemTxvevaSi fasebi damokidebulia gverdebis poziciebsa da rubrikebis Janrebze. yvela telearxs fasebi gansazRvruli aqvs aSS dolarebSi (dRg-s CaTvliT). rogorc wesi, gansxvavdeba 42

fasebi gadacemebis pirvel, meore da mesame sareklamo blokebisaTvis. reklamis ganTavsebis fasebi yvelaze maRalia saRamos sainformacio gamoSvebebSi. beWdviT mediaSi maRalia fasi pirvel da bolo gverdebze, sadac gan-Tavsebulia politikisa da ekonomikis Temebze momzadebuli statiebi. saqarTveloSi Seiqmna sistema, romlis meSveobiT sareklamo da telekompaniebs So-ris urTierToba ufro civiluri formiT xorcieldeba. jer kidev 2004 wels kompania `mediahausi~, xolo ukve 2005 wlidan `videointerneiSenali~ Semovidnen qarTul bazarze da isini eqskluziuri uflebiT uzrunvelyofen telekompaniebis sareklamo drois miyidvas sareklamo saagentoebisTvis. yovelive zemoTqmulis simtkiceSi dasarwmuneblad ganvixiloT erT-erTi warmatebuli sareklamo kompania `pasportis~ funqcionireba da saqmianoba. sareklamo kompania `pasporti~ daarsda 2006 wels, damfuZneblebis mier sazRvaargareT SeZenili 13 wliani gamocdileba gaxda kompaniis dafuZnebis mizezic da Sedegic. saqarTveloSi 2 welia rac funqcionirebsKda misi muSaoba mimarTulia sareklamo programebis dagegmarebasa da misi Tanmxlebi masalebis momzadebaze .kompaniis klientTa SemadgenlobaSi Sedian saqarTveloSi: `artifaqti~, `elit eleqtroniqsi~, `nikora~, `investbanki~, `taoprivatbanki~, `mecxreca~, `irao~, `babilina~, `Tbilisi~ `centrali~, xolo sazRvargareT: `kenvudi~, `Topdizaini~, "BVK", `stolari~, `latviis banki~, `luma~. kompania produqciis reklamirebas axdens mediaSi, qmnis socialur da gare reklamebs, muSaobs veb dizainsa da grafikul dizainze, prezentaciebsa da sxvadasxva Ronisziebebze. kompania Dsakmaod warmatebulia sareklamo bazarze, misi warmatebis ga-rantad ki SeiZleba dasaxeldes sworad SemuSavebuli da organizebuli servisi, romelic moicavs: dagegmarebas, SemuSavebas, damzadebas da koordanicias. sabolood, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cvens qveyanaSi multinacionaluri kompaniebis damkvidrebis da popularizaciis aucilebel pirobas saerTaSoriso reklamis Semosvla warmoadgenda. qarTul sareklamo bazarze giganti saagentoebis gamoCenam ufrosi partniorebis rangSi, adgilobrivi saagentoebis muSaobis xarisxi gaaumjobesa da qarTuli reklama saerTaSoriso standartebs dauaxlovda. am faqtorebTan erTad sareklamo bazris zrdas xels uwyobs konkurenciis ganviTareba biznesis sxvadasxva sferoSi. CvenTan konkurencia gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda mobiluri kavSirgabmulobis, safinanso, mSeneblobis, farmaciis sferoebSi. maT Zalian kargad ician reklamis mniSvneloba. satelevizio drois ZiriTad nawils swored aRniSnul sferoebSi moTamaSe kompaniebi avseben. isini, dResdReobiT sakmaod Zlier, msxvilbiujetian, swori strategiis mqone organizaciebs warmoadgenen da warmatebulebic arian. kompaniebi ufro met investirebas axorcieleben reklamaSi, vidre ramdenime wlis win. qarTuli sareklamo saagentoebi ki sareklamo obieqtis specifikidan gamomdinare, gegmaven sareklamo kampanias da reklamis ganTavsebisTvis TiTqmis yvela arsebul saSualebas iyeneben 43

kombinirebulad. unda aRiniSnos aseve rogoria saqarTveloSi reklamis sakanonmdeblo regulireba. saqarTveloSi moqmedebs kanoni ,,reklamis Sesaxeb~ da kanoni: ,,momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb~. kanonSi aRniSnulia: _ Tu momxmarebeli gaxda arakeTilsindisieri reklamis msxverpli, mas ufleba aqvs wamoayenos miyenebuli zaralis anazRaurebis moTxovna. kanoni ,,reklamis Sesaxeb" awesebs garkveul kvotebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu saeTero drois ra nawili SeiZleba daeTmos sareklamo tixrebs. calke WrilSi ganixileba saganmanaTleblo gadacemebi. aseTi tipis gadacemebi SesaZlebelia Sewydes ara umetes 15 wuTSi erTxel da ara umetes 45 wamiT, xolo sxva gadacemebi, romelTa xangrZlivoba 1 saaTze naklebia _ ara umetes 3-jer translirebis ganmavlobaSi. zogadad ki radio da telegadacemebSi reklama dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi ar unda aRematebodes mauwyeblobis saeTero moculobis 15%-s, xolo yoveli erTi saaTi saeTero drois ganmavlobaSi _ 20%-s, garda socialuri reklamisa da specializebuli sareklamo radio da telegadacemebisa,romlebic registrirebulia rogorc sareklamo gadacemebi. saqarTvelos statistikis departamenitis 2005 wlis monacemebiT sareklamo bazari 5 mln lars Seadgenda, 2006 wlis monacemebiT _ 12 mln lars, 2007 wlis monacemebiT _ 18 mln lars, 2008 wlis monacemebiT _ 21 mln lars. sareklamo bazris ganviTarebaze dadebiTi gavlena iqonia reklamis gadasaxadis moxsnam anu reklamis ganmaTavsebels gamouTavisuflda garkveuli saxsrebi, romlebic savaraudod isev reklamaSi daixarjeba. garda amisa unda aRiniSnos, rom ganviTarebul bazrebze reklamis kvlevaze ixarjeba Semosavlebis 0,5-1,5 %, saqarTveloSi ki am maCvenebelma 2007 wels 1,3% Seadgina. erTi SexedviT es indikatori dadebiTad asaxavs qarTul sareklamo bazars, Tumca unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom auditoriis kvlevebze gaweuli xarjebis 60%-ze meti dafinansebulia saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier mediis ganviTarebis xelSewyobiT.ra Tqma unda, ganviTarebisTvis kidev bevri muSaobaa saWiro, magram dReisTvis ukve iqmneba kargi adgilobrivi produqti.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. Teimuraz Sengelia, `biznesis administrirebis safuZvlebi~, Tb. 2008. 2. www.passport-ac.ge

3. www.statistics.ge 4. www.nbg.ge

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sastumro biznesi saqarTveloSi1

valeriane joxaZe qeTevan pirveli

Tsu bakalavrebi

mecn-xelm: prof. T. Sengelia

pirvelma da meore samrewvelo revoluciam gamoiwvia samewarmeo biznesSi adamianis fizikuri Sromis minimumamde dayvana da warmoebis kompiuterizacia. gamoTavisuflebuli Sromis nakadi gadaerTo samomsaxureo biznesSi, sadac maT alternativa ar gaaCniaT. msoflioSi samomsaxureo biznesi mkveTri zrdiT xasiaTdeba da mravali ganviTarebuli qveynis ekonomika swored mas efuZneba. magaliTad: aSS-Si masze modis biujetis Semosavlis 70%, iaponiaSi_74%, xolo germaniaSi_62%. Uukanasknel aTwledSi elviseburi siswrafiT ganviTarda momsaxurebis iseTi sferoebi, rogoricaa: transporti da komunikaciebi, kerZo samedicino dawesebulebani, sabavSvo baRebi, skolebi, fitnes klubebi da sxva. unda aRiniSnos, rom yvelaze didi perspeqtiva gaaCnia turizmsa da sastumro bizness, romelic ukve gaxda mravali iseTi qveynis prioriteti, rogoricaa: saberZneTi, italia, malta, egvipte, israeli da sxva, maT Sorisaa saqarTveloc. saqarTveloSi sastumro biznesis ganviTareba ganpirobebulia ramdenime faqtoriT, maTgan umniSvnelovanesia misi unikaluri geografiul-klimaturi maxasiaTeblebi, rac, cxadia, uamrav damsvenebels izidavs saqarTveloSi. bolo wlebis gamavlobaSi, gansakuTrebiT 2004-2007 wlebSi, saqarTvelos ekonomikam zrda ganicada, saqarTveloSi investiciebis namdvili bumi Seiqmna, ramac kidev ufro saWiro gaxada umaRlesi klasis sastumroebis arseboba. aRniSvnis Rirsia qveynis politikuri mdgomareoba. 7 noembris, agvistosa da sxva movlenebis Sesaswavlad msofliodan uamravi Jurnalisti, sazogado moRvawe da politikosi Camovida, rac, cxadia, kidev erTi stimuli iyo sastumroebis mflobelebisaTvis. yvela eqsperti adasturebs, rom saqarTveloSi arsebobs sastumroebis biznesis ganviTarebis udidesi potenciali. am biznesis wamowyeba da bazarze konkurenciis daZleva ramdenime wlis win sruliadac ar moiTxovda Zalian did finansebs. amJamad mdgomareoba mkveTrad Seicvala. sastumro ,,VIP-viqtoria~ naTeli magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor SeiZleba mcire resursebiT momgebiani biznesis Seqmna. es saojaxo biznesi 2002 wels iqna daarsebuli qalbaton viqtoria qurdiSvilis mier. sastumro gaTvlilia spe-cifikur momxmarebelze, saqmian xalxze. es sam varskvlaviani sastumro

1

sakonferencio moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis mier organizebul studentTa me-10 samecniero konferenciaze. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT.

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momxmarebels sTavazobs ojaxur da myudro garemos, rac erTob izidavs klientebs. sastumros menejeris azriT, swored es aris misi biznesis warmatebis saidumlo. erTadgiliani nomris Rirebuleba 100-150$ aSS-s dolaramde meryeobs, oradgiliani 120-180$ aSS-s dolaramde, xolo luqsebi 150-200$ aSS-s dolari Rirs. sastumro qalaqis centralur ubanSi mdebareobs, oTaxebi sakmaod komfortuli da mdidrulad gaformebulia, sastumro idealuria saqmiani adamianebisaTvis, gonebrivi muSaobisa da gantvirTvisaTvis. rodesac vmsjelobT sastumro biznesis ganviTarebis tendenciebze saqarTveloSi, upriania ganvixiloT ori periodi: 2008 wlamde da 2008 wlidan dRemde. 2008 wlamde arsebulma ekonomikurma zrdam ganapiroba Cvens qveyanaSi axali sastumroebis masobrivi mSenebloba, amasTan, kerZo investorebi orientirebulni iyvnen stabilur, grZelvadian mogebaze. ,,interkontinetali~, ,,haiati~, ,,kempinski~ ­ es is brendebia, romlebic saqarTvelos bazarze Semosvlas gegmavdnen. es TavisTavad kargi precendenti iyo. am kompaniebis SemosvliT gaizrdeboda konkurencia, daixveweboda servisi, daregulirdeboda fasebi. Pparalelurad gaizrdeboda momsaxurebis donec qarTuli sastumroebisa, romelTa umravlesoba jer kidev ver akmayofilebs saerTaSoriso standartebs, Tumca gamonaklisia: ,,marioti~, ,,Seraton metexi palasi~, ,,vere palasi~ da sxvani. aRsaniSnavia is, rom 2004-2007 wlebSi sastumroebis bazris mkveTri zrda. Aam sferoSi Catarebulma kvlevebma gviCvena, rom 2005 wlisTvis Tbilisis masStabiT sul 76 sastumro funqcionirebda. 2006-2007 wlebSi situacia radikalurad Seicvala, qveyanaSi 227 sastumros, 376 gesthauss da sastumros tipis dawesebulebas viTvlidiT. maTgan 8.9% saxelmwifo sakuTreba iyo, xolo 91.1% - kerZo sakuTreba. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom sastumroebisa da sastumros tipis dawesebulebebis mTlianma Semosavalma 2006 wels (dRg-sa da aqcizis gareSe) 107.0 milioni lari Seadgina. Semosavalebis 53.0% moRebuli iyo nomrebis sargeblobidan. stumrebis raodenoba 217 095 kaci iyo, maTgan yvelaze meti, 49.9% Camosuli iyo saqmiani da profesiuli mizniT. amrigad, rogorc davinaxeT, saqarTvelom 2004-2007 wlebSi daiwyo warmatebuli marketinguli kampania turistebis mosazidad. am periodSi iyo dReebi, rodesac Tbilisis sastumroebi gadaWedili iyo da winaswari dajavSnis gareSe nomris daqiraveba seriozul problemas warmoadgenda. Pparalelurad mimdinareobda aqtiuri muSaoba sastumroebze moTxovnis gasazrdelad, rogorc Tbilissa da aWaraSi, aseve svaneTSi, SatilSi, borjom-bakurianSi, gudaursa da baxmaroSi. sainteresoa isic, rom am periodSi saqarTveloSi sastumro biznesiT dainteresda araerTi ucxouri kompania. Ddaigegma 6-7 erTmaneTze ufro didi sastumros mSenebloba, rasac savaraudoa, rom patara sastumroebis mSeneblobac mohyveboda. Tu

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es proeqtebi ganxorcieldeboda, maSin Cvens bazarze marTlac Semovidodnen zemoT aRniSnuli gigantebi: ,,interkontinentali~, ,,haiati~ da ,,kempinski~. sagulisxmoa isic, rom Cvens sastumroebSi fasebi Zalian Zviri iyo. spekulaciuri fasebis bazarze damkvidreba ganapiroba ZiriTadad iman, rom sastumroebis nomrebze didi moTxovna iyo. miuxedavad fasebisa, produqti mainc iyideboda, radgan bazarze miwodebac ar iyo sakmarisi. cxadia, am mxrivac ucxouri brendebis gamoCena dadebiTi movlena iqneboda. amave periodSi gamoikveTa ZiriTadad 4 da 5 varskvlaviani sastumroebis gaxsnis tendencia. zemoT aRniSnuli brendebi swored umaRlesi klasis sastumroebiT cdilobdnen Cvens bazarze Semosvlas. Aam movlenas Tavis mxriv ori mxare gaaCnda. cxa-dia, aseTi sastumroebis arseboba qveynis prestiJze dadebiT zegavlenas moaxdenda da Seqmnida qveynis stabilurobis, ekonomikuri siZlieris, simdidris imijs. moizidavda ucxoel investorebs da zogadad, gaamyarebda qveynis bizness, magram amavdroulad 4 da 5 varskvlaviani sastumroebiT cxadia SeuZlebelia masobrivi turizmis ganviTareba, radgan turistebis absoluturi umravlesoba upiratesobas aniWebs 2 da 3 varskvlavian sastumroebsa da gesthausebs. amdenad, gaCnda qveyanaSi saSualo klasis sastumroebis arsebobis aucilebloba. cxadia, iseTi brendebi, rogoricaa: ,,interkontinentali~, ,,haiati~ da ,,kempinski~ floben 2 da 3 varskvlaviani sastumroebis qselsac. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba gvevarauda, rom qveyanaSi saSualo klasis sastumroebis mSeneblobac warmatebiT gagrZeldeboda, rac xels Seuwyobda saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebas. amdenad, prognozebi metad pozitiuri iyo, yvelaferi rom gegmis mixedviT warmarTuliyo 2009_2010 wlebSi Cven unda gvenaxa am biznesis ayvaveba Cvens sam-SobloSi. Seiqmneboda erTgvari nazavi erTi mxriv, gesthausebisa da saSualo klasis sastumroebisa, romlebic ZiriTadad iqneboda orientirebuli turistebze da meore mxriv, umaRlesi klasis 4 da 5 varskvlaviani sastumroebisa, romlebic umaspinZlebda biznesmenebs, politikosebsa da mdidar xalxs. 2004-2007 wlebSi qveyanaSi sastumro biznesis popularobaze metyvelebs kadrebis momzadebis maRali donec. saberZneTis mTavrobis daxmarebiT, igegmeboda turistuli skolis gaxsna, romelic erT-erTi yvelaze Zlieri baza iqneboda aramarto kavkasiis regionSi, arames mTels evropaSic. seriozuli kontaqtebi damyarda evropul da amerikul skolebTan. aseve aRsaniSnavia qarTuli gadamzadebis programebi, romlebic mcire da saSualo biznesis ganviTarebisa da dasaqmebis farglebSi xorcieldeba. dRes saqarTveloSi samwuxarod sapirispiro tendenciaa. jer agvistos ruseTsaqarTvelos omma da Semdgom ki didma ekonomikurma krizisma didi kvali datova sastumro biznesis ganviTarebaze. Ppirvel rigSi, sagulisxmoa, rom agvistos omma saqarTvelos imiji msoflios masStabiT mkveTrad dasca. Cveni qveyana ucxoeli 47

investorebis mier aRiqmeba rogorc arastabiluri, politikurad aramdgradi saxelmwifo. Mmeore mxriv, ruseTTan diplomatiuri urTierTobis Sewyvetam mniSvnelovnad Se-amcira saqarTveloSi Camosul biznesmenTa da turistTa raodenoba. ,,Cven faq-tobrivad davkargeT ara mxolod rusi, aramed ukraineli da yazaxi klientebic." - acxadebs saqarTveloSi erT-erTi warmatebuli saSualo klasis sastumros ,,VIP viqtoria~ mflobeli q-ni viqtoria qurdiSvili. Aam movlenas Tan daerTo mwvave ekonomikuri krizisic, ramac faqtobrivad momxmareblebis raodenoba gaunaxevra qarTul sastumroebs. SeCerda da gaurkvevel dromde gadaido ,,interkontinentali~-s da sxva umaRlesi klasis sastumroebis mSenebloba. SeimCneva bazarze egreT wodebuli ,,yaCaRuri~ fasdakleba, anu fasebi katastrofulad ecema klientebis SesanarCuneblad, rac, cxadia, ganpirobebulia moTxovnis mkveTri SemcirebiT. dRes msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis Ffonze axali biznesis wamowyeba did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli. firmebis didi umravlesoba amcirebs warmoebis masStabebs, rac ga-moixateba TanamSromlebis daTxovniT, an saerTodac bazridan gasvliT. cxadia, pirvel rigSi es krizisi samewarmeo bizness Seexo, radgan maT veRar miiRes saWiro Tanxa ban-kebidan kreditis saxiT produqciis sawarmoeblad. saqarTveloSi samomsaxureo biznesze krizisi jer kidev ar moqmedebs sruli simwvaviT. gansakuTrebiT sagangaSo prognozi sastumroebis menejerebis mier keTdeba 2009 wlis meore naxevarSi. ,,am dros ukve sastumroebis absolutur umravlesobaSi nomris saSualo fasi savaraudod iqneba dRe-vandeli fasebis 60_70%~, _ acxadebs saqarTveloSi am sferoSi erT-erTi yvelaze ga-mocdili eqsperti q-n marina metreveli. sainteresoa ra mdgomareobaa dRevandel bazarze, vin dominirebs, romeli sastumro sargeblobs klientebis didi ndobiT. Aam mizniT Cven CavatareT kvleva. Tbilisis aeroportSi gamovkiTxeT 500 respodenti. maTgan 61.6% cxovrobda sastumroebSi. yvelaze meti_14.3% ,,Tbilisis mariotSi~, xolo yvelaze cota_1.3% ,,mTiebSi~. aRsaniSnavia, rom ara mxolod am gamokiTxviT, aramed 2006_2007 wlebis monacemebiTac, ucxoel turistebSi didi popularobiT sargeblobs sastumro ,,Tbilisi-marioti~. Ees sastumro mdebareobs centralur ubanSi. saSualod, nomris fasi meryeobs 250_350 aSS dolaramde, xolo luqsebi 400 aSS dolari da meti Rirs. sastumros TiToeuli oTaxi aRWurvilia yvela sasurveli atributiT, angariSsworeba SesaZlebelia rogorc naRdi fuliT, aseve sakredito baraTebiTac. rogorc sastumros menejerma ganacxada, miuxedavad am segmentSi dominirebisa, maT mainc mouwevT uaxloes momavalSi fa-sebis mkveTri daweva. rac ganpirobebulia zemoT xsenebuli problemebiT. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom evrokavSiris qveynebTan savizo reJimis gamartiveba xels Seuwyobs saqarTveloSi turizms. dRes ki ZiriTadad Tbilisis sastumroebi 48

humanitaruli misiiT Camosul stumrebs, Jurnalistebsa da politikosebs maspinZloben. Jurnalistebis gansakuTrebiT didi raodenoba april-maisSi dafiqsirda, radgan am pe-riodSi saqarTveloSi Zlier daZabuli politikuri mdgomareoba iyo. G garda zemoT aRniSnuli faqtorebisa, saqarTveloSi am biznesis Semaferxebeli sxva garemoebebic arsebobs. maTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovania enobrivi barieris arseboba _ regionebsa da kurortebSi arsebul sastumroTa absolutur umravlesobas ar hyavs inglisuri enis mcodne TanamSromlebi.Ddid problemas qmnis regionebSi infrastruqturis dabali xarisxi. magaliTad, maRalmTian regionebSi arsebul sastumroebSi saerTod ver ESexvdebiT internets da sxva saqmiani turistebisaTvis saWiro atributs. Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT Tbilissa da baTumSi arsebul ramdenime brends, praqtikulad arcerTi sastumro da gesthausi ar atarebs bazris safuZvlian marketingul kvlevas, maT arc saTanado TanamSromlebi hyavT da arc gamocdil firmebs mimarTaven. Aam kuTxiT gamonaklisebs miekuTvnebian zemoT xsenebuli popularuli brendebi. MmagaliTad: ,,Tbilisis mariotSi~ arsebobs specialuri samsaxuri, romelic orientirebulia bazris marketingul Seswavlaze.Aam mxriv seriozul samuSaoebs atarebs agreTve ,,Seraton metexi palasi~-c, rac maTi warmatebis erT-erTi faqtoria.Mmwvaved dgas regionebSi kompetenturi, gadamzadebuli personalis ararsebobis sakiTxic, riTac aris gamowveuli am sastumroebisa da gesthausebis araswori menejmenti da arasaxarbielo mdgomareoba. Y yovelive zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom saqarveloSi sastumro bizness gaaCnia didi potenciali. samosaxureo biznesis am umniSvnelovanes dargs zogadad axasiaTebs zrdis mkveTri tendencia. Oorientirebulia, rogorc saSualo Semosavlian turistebze, aseve maRal Semosavlian da pretenziul momxmarebelze, gaaCnia gasaRebis farTo areali, rogorc qveynis SigniT, aseve evrokavSiris, dsT-s qveynebsa da aSS-Si. cxadia, es udidesi ekonomikuri krizisi, romelic Tavs daatyda bizness, nawilobriv aferxebs mis ganviTarebas, magram davesesxebi q-n. m. metrevels da vityvi, rom am dargis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi aris Seuferxebeli da Seuqcevadi procesi.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. r. asaTiani, "ekonomiqsis" ganmartebiTi leqsikoni. Tb. 1996. 2. g.gamsaxurdia, "finansebis roli gardamaval ekonomikaSi". Tb. 1997. 3. d.ZnelaZe, "msoflio ekonomika" Tb. 1997.

4.

5.

www.statistics.ge www.nbg.ge

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rZis poduqtebis bazari saqarTveloSi1

daviT gabriWiZe mariam kevliSvili

Tsu bakalavrebi

mecn-xelm: prof. T. Sengelia ukanasknel wlebSi saqarTveloSi sagrZnoblad imata rZis produqtebis mwarmoebel kompaniaTa ricxvma. Tu wlebis win qveyana Caize, Rvinosa da citrusze iyo orientirebuli da rZis warmoebas TiTqmis ar eTmoboda yuradReba, dResdReobiT merZeveobis seqtori sakmaod ganviTarebulia da rZis biznesi erT-erT yvelaze momgebianad iTvleba saqarTveloSi. qveyanaSi rZis produqtebze maRali da stabiluri moTxovnaa, rac qmnis SesaniSnav SesaZleblobas rZis seqtoris ganviTarebisaTvis. es produqcia warmoadgens saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi sxvadasxva asakobrivi jgufis racionis Seucvlel nawils. rZis produqtebis bazari sakmaod farTo da konkurentulia. `eko-fudi~, `sante~, `amalTea~ (romelic kvlav gamoCnda bazarze), `sando~ da a.S. - es kompaniebi bazris mTavari moTamaSeebi arian. momxmarebels mzardi konkurencia komfortul pirobebs uqmnis, radgan konkurencia TavisTavad fasebis stabilurobaze, produqciis xarisxis SenarCunebagaumjobesebasa da inovaciebze udides gavlenas axdens. swrafad cvalebadi garemo da mzardi konkurencia ki kompaniebs didi gamowvevebis winaSe ayenebs. konkurentuli upiratesobis SenarCunebisa da saqmianobis mudmivi gaumjobesebisaTvis saWiroa resursebis efeqtiani gamoyeneba, arsebuli problemebis gamovlena da daZleva. problemebs ki arcTu ise cotas awydebian kompaniebi. yvelaze mwvave problema am sferoSi naturaluri rZis deficitia. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi mewveli pirutyvis suladoba 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisTan SedarebiT mkveTrad momatebulia, Tumca daeca misi produqtiuloba, rac sakvebi bazis gauaresebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. yvelaze didi problema is aris, rom am pirutyvis genetika ver SevinarCuneT. bolo TxuTmeti wlis ganmavlobaSi qveyanaSi genetikuri xazebi saerTod ar Semodioda. magram bolo erTi welia, soflis meurneobis saministroSi am mimarTulebiT aqtiurad muSaoben. naturaluri rZis deficitis gamo qyveyanaSi sawarmoebi iZulebulebi arian produqciis waroebisas rZis fxvnili gamoiyenon. rZis fxvnilis importi sakmaod Zviri jdeba da xelsayreli ar aris, Tumca mimdinare wels imdenad gaaZvires rZis mwarmoeblebma nedleuli, rom SesaZloa, rZis fxvnilisagan produqciis warmoeba ufro iafic dajdes. amis miuxedavad, kompaniebi produqtebis warmoebas mainc adgilobrivi naturaluri rZisagan arCeven, radgam am gziT miRebuli produqti ufro gemrielia. es ki momxmareblis arCevanze did gavlenas axdens, zrdis gayidvebs da, Sesabamisad, kompaniis warmatebulobas. evropul da rusul produqciasTan SedarebiT, adgilobrivi nawarmi metad naturaluria da naklebad aris damokidebuli rZis fxvnilze. Tu ucxouri `iogurtis~ Senaxvis vada ori wels grZeldeba,

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sakonferencio moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis mier organizebul studentTa me-10 samecniero konferenciaze. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT.

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qarTuli produqti or Tveze mets ar inaxeba. xaWos, araJnisa da kefiris Senaxvis vada ki 34 dRes ar aWarbebs. garda amisa, aranaturaluri rZisgan SeuZlebelia yvelis damzadeba. imaze, rom qarTul bazarze naturaluri rZis produqtebis wili izrdeba, erTi tendenciac miuTiTebs: regionebSi Sesabamisad mravldeba rZis Cambarebeli punqtebi, romlebic pirdapir amarageben kompaniebs. kidev erTi problema bazris am segmentSi is aris, rom rZis warmoebaSi wamyvani roli wvril, ojaxur meorneobebs eniWebaT. moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsi maT privilegirebul mdomareobas aniWebs da aTavisuflebs yovelgvari gadasaxadisgan. es, rasakvirvelia, kompaniebs arcTu saxarbielo mdgomareobaSi ayenebs. isini iTxoven iaffasiani warmoebebisgan Tavdacvis berketebis amoqmedebas, amis erT-erT gzad ki fermeruli meurneobebis Seqmnas moiazreben. rac Seexeba am ukanasknels, dResdReobiT fermeruli meurneobebi, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, mwarmoeblebs naturaluri rZiT ver uzrunvelyofen. amis mizezi ki is aris, rom ar gvyavs saWiro raodenobis piutyvi da, zogadad, biznesis es saxeoba ganviTarebuli ar aris. Tumca, qveyanaSi sakmarisi bunebrivi pirobebia am dargis ganviTarebisaTvis. ra Tqma unda, saamisod mxolod calmxrivi midgomebi ar iqneba sakmarisi. paralelurad warmodgenili unda iyos gegma, Tu ras vapirebT mecxoveleobis im donemde misayvanad, rom saqarTveloSi nedleulis, am SemTxvevaSi ­ rZis, deficiti ar arsebobdes. statistikuri monacemebiT, bolo 2 wlis ganmavlobaSi industriulad warmoebuli rZis produqtebis samomxmareblo bazari yovelwliurad daaxloebiT 20-25%-iT izrdeba, rac ZiriTadad imiT aris ganpirobebuli, rom sakveb racionSi rZis produqtebis wilma, wina wlebTan SedarebiT, moimata. adgilobrivi produqciis momZlavreba, didi xania, imports gasaqans ar aZlevs. arsebuli statistikiT, saqarTveloSi rZis produqtebis saxiT ucxoeTidan, ZiriTadad, rZis fxvnili, iogurti da karaqiRa Semodis. ase, rom qarTulma produqtma ucxouri produqcia TiTqmis gaaZeva bazridan da es qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis namdvilad kargia. bazris gaanalizebis Semdeg, SegviZlia, daskvnis saxiT aRvniSnoT, rom rZis poduqtebis biznesi sakmaod perspeqtiulia dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi da ganvixiloT am bazris lideri kompaniis ­ `eko-fudis~ magaliTi. rZis produqtebis mwarmoebeli kompania `eko-fudi~ mimdinare wels mesamed gaxda `Golden Brand~-is sertifikatis mflobeli. kompania 2004 wlis aprilSi daarsda da swrafad daikava mniSvnelovani adgili rZis produqtebis bazarze. eko-fudi 100% qar-Tuli investiciebiTaa Seqmnili da mis menejmentsac qarTvelebi akontroleben. es biznesi SeiZleba faqtobrivad nulidan dawyebulad CaiTvalos. damfuZneblebma TavianTi saxsrebiT SeiZines firmis aRWurviloba da biznesi Zalian mcire masStabebiT daiwyes. dRes igi evropuli menejmentis mqone warmatebuli kompaniaa. kompania dResdReisobiT daaxloebiT 40 dasaxelebis produqts awarmoebs..sawarmos arsebobis manZilze ramde-njerme Seicvala misi struqtura. 2006 wlis Tebervlis Tvidan `eko-fudis~ savaWro niSnis mflobelia Sps `jorjian-eko~. Sps `jorjian-eko~-s mier moxda saerTaSriso standartebi ISO 22000:2005-isa da ISOO 9001:2000-is moTxovnebis Sesabmisad sursaTis uvneblobisa da xarisxis marTvis integrirebuli sistemis danergva da ganxorcieleba. 2007 wels kompania UKAS-is sertifikatebis mflobeli gaxda.

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dReisaTvis rZis produqtebis bazarze liderobs 2 kompania. esenia `eko-fudi~ da `sante~. mimdinare Tvis monacemebiT, maTi procentuli wili bazarze Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: `eko-fudi~-s uWiravs bazris 44% xolo `sante~-s 41%, xolo TbilisSi `ekofudis~ wili bazarze 50%-a. amdenad, eko-fudi liderobs qarTuli rZis produqtebis bazarze. misma wliurma brunvam gasul wels wina welTan SedarebiT 20%-iT mo-imata. produqciis realizaciis procentuli maCvenebeli wlebis mixedviT yovelwliurad imatebs. rogorc mogaxseneT, kompania awarmoebs 40 dasaxelebis produqts. misi produqcia iyideba mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT. gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiT gamoirCevian kaxeTi da qarTli. Tbilisze modis daaxloebiT 80% gayidvebis. produqcia eqsportze ar gadis, radgan produqtis vargisianobis vada daaxloebiT 5 dRea. da saerTod rZis produqtebis umetesoba gaTvlili ar aris didi xnis vargisianobaze, magaliTisTvis aviRoT iogurti an xaWo, romlebsac cocxali produqti ewodebaT rac imas niSnavs rom, misi realizaciis periodSi mis SemadgenlobaSi mimdinareobs biologiuri procesebi. ase rom is iogortebi, romlebic sxva qveynbidan Semodis, ar aris namdvili. `eko-fudma~ ukve gamouSva pirveli qarTuli iogurti, romelic absoliturad naturalur receptzea damzadebuli. igi bazarze dekemberSi gamoCnda produqciis realizaciis, anu fuladi gardaqmnis cikli Zalian swrafia. sawarmos uwevs Tavisi produqciis ara umetes 3%-sa bazridan amoiRos vadagasulobis mizeziT, danarCeni 97% srulad iyideba. kompaniisTvis yvelaze rTul periodebSi, Semosavali maqsimum 30%-T iklebda. bolo wlebSi kompaniam naturaluri rZis xarjebis Semcirebis mizniT gaxsna 30-mde rZis Cambarebeli punqti, romelic saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionSia ganTavsebuli. esenia: kaxeTi, Sida qarTli, qvemo qarTli, mcxeTa-TianeTi da sxva. procentuli maCvenebliT yvelaze meti rZe kaxeTSi bardeba, rac mTeli rZis daaxloebiT 80%-s Seadgens. Tumca naturaluri rZis raodenoba sezonebis mixedviT SezRudulia. igi sakmarisi odenobiT mxolod zafxulSi moipoveba aprilis bolodan oqtombris dasawyisamde. zamTarSi ki es maCvenebeli 90%_iT iklebs, Tu kompania zafxulSi dReSi 20 tona naturalur rZes ibarebda, zamTarSi es dReSi 2 tonas ar aWarbebs. am periodSi misi Canacvleba importirebuli rZis fxvniliT xdeba. kompanias ar Semoaqvs rZis fxvnili, is mas sxva importiorebisgan yidulobs, radgan sawyobebisa da Senaxva-movlis xarjebi TiTqmis utoldeba im xarjebs, romlebsac kompania importiorebs uxdis. amdenad, sawarmoSi miRebuli rZis fxvnili pirdapir warmoebaSi midis. naturaluri rZis fasi sezonurad icvleba da is 50-80 TeTris farglebSi meryeobs. kompaniis menejerebis gancxadebiT naturaluri rZiT produqtis warmoeba SedarebiT Zviri jdeba gansakuqrebiT maSin, roca rZe Zvirdeba, magram es absoluturad ar moqmedebs produqciis fasebze an xarisxze. kompania meti danaxarjebis amogebas sezonurad axerxebs. Znelia zusti mizezis dasaxeleba, magram morxmareblis aqtiuri moxmareba piks TebervalSi aRwevs. am periodSi faqtobrivad 100%-ani gayidvaa. yvelaze gayidvadi mawonia, magram Semosavlis mxriv xaWos yvelaze meti mogeba moaqvs. rac Seexeba uSualod warmoebis process: `jorjian-eko~ Tanamedrove manqana-danadgarebiT aRWurvili kompaniaa, rac saSualebas iZleva nakleb droSi meti produqciis warmoebisa. es ki xels uwyobs momxmareblis didi moTxovnis dakmayofilebas. kompaniaSi menejmentianad dasaqmebulia 350-mde kaci.

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`eko-fudi~ rZis produqtebis mwarmoebeli kompaniaa da cxadia misi produqtebis umetesoba rZisgan mzaddeba. rogorc ukve vTqviT, rZe sezonuradaa xelmisawvdomi, aqe-dan gamomdinare, kompania `eko-fudi~ produqciis 90%-is dasamzadeblad, iseve rogorc sxva qarTuli rZis mwarmoebeli kompaniebi, rZis fxvnils iyenebs. azri imis Se-saxeb, rom produqcia pirdapir rZis fxvnilisgan mzaddeba mcdaria. rZis fxvnilisgan miiReben aRdgenil rZes, romelsac TiTqmis igive Tvisebebi aqvs rac naturalurs. rac Seexeba naturalur rZes, misi Semowmeba rZis Cambarebel punqtebSive xdeba laqto-skanerebiT. es aris mowyobiloba romelic amowmebs rZis xarisxs. Tu rZe uvargisia, anu im standartebs ar Seesabameba romelsac warmoeba moiTxovs, skaneri ar miiRebs. skaneridan vargisi rZe did macivarkonteinerSi gadaedineba, amdenad uaRresad mniSvnelovania rZis xarisxis zusti analizi raTa ramdenime litrma uvargisma rZem mTeli rZis maragi ar gaafuWos. `jorjian-eko~-s produqcia sxvadasxva kategoriis mixedviT iwarmoeba. de luqsi _ es aris SedarebiT ZviradRirebuli produqcia. misi fasi misive Tvisebebidan gamomdinarea, sxvebTan SedarebiT maRali. eqskluziv klasi saxelidan gamomdinare eqskluziurad warmoebuli produqciaa. xolo ekonom klasi es aris produqcia ekonomikuri SefuTviT, gansakuTrebiT xelsayrelia muSaobis pirobebSi, roca sadilisTvis Zalzed cota dro gaqvT. bolo dros `eko-fudma~ gamouSva axali klasis produqcia, saxelad `axali eko~. es aris qvelmoqmedebis mizniT warmoebuli produqcia, romelic naklebi fasi Rirs. TiToeuli gayiduli produqtidan 2 TeTri iricxeba sapatriarqos angariSze. rac Seexeba nedleuls, rZis fxvnilis garda cximic sazRvargareTidanaa Semo-ta-nili, radgan qarTuli zeTiT damzadebuli maionezi nakleb xarisxiania. sxva danarCeni yvela nedleuli adgilobrivia. Tavdapirvelad prodiqtis SesafuTi masala kompanias TurqeTidan Camohqonda ukve mza mdgomareobaSi, magram dReisTvis kompanias SefuTvas sa-qarTveloSi arsebuli qarxana umzadebs. Tumca de luqsis klasis produqtis SefuTva ukrainidan Camodis, radgan marali xarisxisaa, romlis damzadebac adgilobriv qarxnebs jer ar SeuZliaT. axlo momavalSi eko-fudi axali gegmebis ganxorcielebas apirebs. kompaniis mesveurebis gancxadebiT ekonomikuri krizisi jerjerobiT aranairad ar aisaxeba arc fasebze da arc muSaxelis radenobaze. kompania cdilobs daabrunos saqarTveloSi erT dros ar-sebuli rZis moxmarebis tradicia da warmatebebi vusurvoT mas.

gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. T.Sengelia "biznesis administrirebis safuZvlebi" Tb.2008 2. www.eco-food.ge 3. www.statistics.ge

53

sabanko riskebis marTvis srulyofis koncefcia1

qeTevan RuduSauri

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm. asist. prof. c. oqruaSvili dReisaTvis, saqarTveloSi sabanko saqmianoba erT-erTi aqtiuri da TvalsaCino biznesia. qarTulma bankebma daZlies ekonomikuri krizisis siZneleebi. Camoyalibda msxvili, ganviTarebuli bankebis rigi, romelTa saqmianoba srulad Seesabameba saerTaSoriso moTxovnebs. qarTuli bankebis moqmedebis areali, didi xania gascda qveynis sazRvrebs da ufro masStaburi gaxda. miuxedavad miRweuli warmatebisa, sasurvelia qarTuli bankebis xelmZRvanelobam gaiTvaliswinos ucxoeTis gamocdileba, raTa ufro gaZlierdes qarTuli sabanko sistema. bankebis zust kvalificiur moRvaweobazea damokidebuli umTavresad ekonomikis sijansaRe. swored komerciul safuZvelze moqmedi bankebis ganviTarebuli qselis gareSe mxolod keTil survilad rCeba miswrafeba realuri da efeqtiani sabazro meqanizmis Sesaqmnelad. komerciuli bankebi warmoadgenen safinanso sistemis centrebs, romlebic erTad Tavs uyrian mTavrobis, saqmiani wreebis da milionobiT kerZo pirebis anabrebs. komerciuli bankebi sasesxo da sainvesticio operaciebis meSveobiT gzas uxsnian TavianTi fondebisaken sxvadasxva msesxeblebs _ kerZo pirebs, kompaniebs, mTavrobas. sabanko operaciebi aioleben rogorc saqonlis da momsaxurebis moZraobas warmoebidan momxmareblamde, ise mTavrobis safinanso saqmianobas. komerciuli bankebis erovnulma sistemam mniSvnelovani roli unda Seasrulos qveynis ekonomikis funqcionirebaSi. komerciuli bankebis SesaZlebloba imuSaon unarianad da saxelmwifos saWiroebisa da ekonomikuri miznebis Sesabamisad mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli misi marTvis efeqtianobaze. yovelgvari saorganizacio saqmianoba unda iyos kvalificiuri. riski imdenad didia, rom, Tu gvinda, sabanko sistema iyos myari, mzardi, moqnili da imis unaris mqone, daakmayofilos sazogadoebis moTxovna, bankma Tavisi operaciebi saWiro sifrTxiliT unda ganaxorcielos. komerciuli banki miekuTvneba kerZo organizacias, romlis saqmianoba momgebiani unda iyos likvidobis da usafrTxoebis SemzRudvel pirobebSic. amasTan, bankis, rogorc qveynis fuladi masis didi nawilis maregulirebelis roli ekonomikis am sferos warmomadgenlebs did pasuxismgeblobas akisrebs sazogadoebis winaSe.

1

moxseneba wakiTxul iqna q. doneckSi (ukraina), studentTa samecniero konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprzo adgili.

54

sazogadoebas ar unda mieces sababi, eWvi Seitanos sabanko sistemis gadaxdisunarianobaSi, likvidobasa da simtkiceSi, xolo bankis meanabreebi darwmunebulni unda iyvnen bankis saimedoobaSi. bankis saxsrebis ganTavseba unda moxdes iseT aqtivebSi, romelic banks moutans sakmaris mogebas, vinaidan Tu sabanko saqmeSi Semosavali kapitalze ufro dabalia, vidre sxva dargebSi, kapitali gadadindeba sxva, ufro momgebian sferoSi. Zvel droSi iTvleboda, rom sabanko saqme warmoadgens ZiriTadad aqtivebisa da pasivebis sifrTxiliT marTvas. Tanamedrove pirobebSi sabanko saqme uzomod didi xarisxiT dakavSirebulia riskTan. amitom, axla bankebis winaSe dgas ZiriTadi sakiTxi, rogor aicdinon riski da amave dros miiRon sakmaod didi Semosavali meanabreebis saxsrebis dacvisa da gadarCenisaTvis da bankis Semdgomi saqmianobisaTvis. sabanko dawesebulebis riskis Sefaseba da marTva sabanko biznesis erT-erTi rTuli sakiTxia, vinaidan banki, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sabazro meqanizmis yvelaze mtavari safinanso institutia, is aris kreditis ZiriTadi wyaro, gansakuTebiT patara sawarmoebisaTvis. rogorc erovnul, ise saerTaSoriso bazarze banki Tavis klientebs ufro met samomxmareblo kredits aZlevs, vidre nebismieri sxva safinanso dawesebuleba. qarTulma bankebma aqtiurad unda SesTavazon sawarmoebs grZelvadiani sesxebi axali danadgarebis da mowyobilobebis SesaZenad. bankis depozitebi unda gaxdes ekonomikis ganviTarebis mTavari wyaro da ZiriTadi instrumenti. yovelive aRniSnulis gamo didi mniSvneloba eniWeba bankis riskebis regulirebas da marTvas. bankis mTavari funqcia mdgomareobs mis mzadyofnaSi, gasces mcire riskiani sesxi msesxebelze da gamouSvas, aseve mcire riskiani fasiani qaRaldebi investorebisaTvis. arsebiTad, banki finansuri bazris saSualebiT monawileobs riskian gasesxebasa da dakreditebaSi. banki akmayofilebs, agreTve, mravali klientis moTxovnilebas likvidur saxsrebze. aqedan gamomdinare, qarTuli bankebis zrdis erT-erTi mizezi unda gaxdes informaciis Sefasebis maRali unari. banki flobs codnas da gamocdilebas, romelic saSualebas aZlevs safinanso instrumentebidan SearCios is, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebeli iqneba riskis da Semosavlianobis donis sasurveli Tanafardoba. ufro metic, bankis unarma, Sekribos da gaanalizos safinanso informacia, Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi bankis arsebobis mizezebis kidev erTi axsna warmoSva _ regulirebuli monitoriumis Teoria. TiTqmis yvela msesxebeli da meanabre Tvlis, saidumlod Seinaxos Tavisi safinanso angariSgeba, emijneba ra bazarze konkurentebsa da `mezoblebs~. regulirebuli monitoriumis Teoria amtkicebs, rom banks SeuZlia moizidos msesxeblebi, ramdenadac sesxs gascems giraos qveS konfidenciur safuZvelze, bankis meanabreebsac ki ar aZlevs msesxeblebis safinanso angariSebis gacnobis saSualebas.

55

piriqiT, gamodis, rom meanabreebi garigebas deben bankTan, rogorc saimedo kontroliorTan, raTa man gaanalixos perspeqtiuli msesxeblis safinanso mdgomareoba da moawyos mimRebi klientebis monitoriumi, imisaTvis, rom meanabreebs daubrundes saxsrebi. Bbankis monitoriuli momsaxurebis sazRaurad meanabreebi banks uxdian gansazRvrul Tanxas, romelic SeiZleba imaze naklebia, rac daexarjebodaT maT, Tu msesxeblebs TviTon gaakontrolebdnen. mravalricxovani kreditebis gacemiT, banks, rogorc saimedo kontroliors, SeuZlia daajgufos da Seamciros riski, rac ganapirobebs depozitebis maRal usafrTxoebas. garda amisa, bankis mxardaWeriT, klients uadvildeba da iafad iRebs sesxs. bolos, rodesac banki depozitebis nawils iyenebs kreditis dasafinanseblad, TviT es faqti aris safinanso bazrisaTvis signali, laparakobs ra, rom msesxebeli imsaxurebs ndobas da daabrunebs miRebul sesxs. bankis TanamSromlebma unda miiRon gadawyvetileba, Tu rodis gascen krediti, rogor gaaumjobeson bankis likvidoba, rogor SearCion aqtivebi bankis investiciebisaTvis, rogor gayidon depozitebi, moizidon Tanxebi da rogor SeinarCunon kapitalis saTanado done. bankis es amocanebi praqtikulad mWidro kavSirSia erTmaneTTan. magaliTad, aqceptirebuli gadawyvetileba klientebis gazrdili moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebaze damokidebulia bankis SesaZleblobaze, gazardos depozituri da aradepozituri fondebi. Kreditebis gacemasTan dakavSirebuli riski unda gaanalizdes bankis kapitalTan SefardebiT, rac SesaZleblobas miscems maT Tavisi aqcionerebi da mepaieebi daicvas kreditis daubruneblobasTan dakavSirebuli danakargebisagan. dReisaTvis, banki Tavisi aqtivebis da pasivebis portfels unda ganixilavdes rogorc erT mTlianobas, romelic gansazRvravs bankis erTobliv portfels, romelic saWiroa saerTo miznebis, maRali mogebisa da riskis minimumamde Semcirebis misaRwevad. aqtivebis da pasivebis gaerTianebuli marTva SesaZleblobas miscems banks daicvas depozitebi da sesxebi. agreTve, banks SesaZlebloba eZleva Camoayalibos aqtivebis portfeli, rac xels Seuwyobs dasaxuli miznis realizacias. bankis aqtivebis da pasivebis marTvis logikuri Sinaarsi mdgomareobs strategiis formirebasa da iseTi RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebaSi, romelic bankis balansis struqturas mis strategiul programasTan SesabamisobaSi moiyvans. Cveulebrivad aqtivebis da pasivebis marTvis mizani unda iyos bankis marJis stabilizacia, riskis dasaSvebi donis pirobebSi. didi mniSvneloba eniWeba aqtiv-pasivis da sakuTari saxsrebis marTvaSi integrirebul midgomas, romlis amocanaa aqtivebTan da pasivebTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebis koordinacia TiToeuli bankis SigniT, dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad. tradiciuli midgoma, rom bankis mTeli mogeba miiReba sesxebidan da investiciebidan, gzas uTmobs im azrs, rom banki yidis safinanso momsaxurebis mTel pakets, es iqneba kreditebi, saSemnaxvelo Tu sxva saxis momsaxureba da

56

TiToeulis fasma unda dafaros sesxis miwodebasTan dakavSirebuli bankis danaxarjebi. balansis pasivebis marTvis safuZvelze miRebul mogebas SeuZlia banks daexmaros miznis miRwevaSi, vinaidan sabanko kapitalis Rirebuleba damokidebulia ara marto Semosavlianobaze, aramed riskis donezec. amitom, riskis marTva warmoadgens metad mniSvnelovan amocanas. am aTwleulis sabanko seqtorSi xSirad `riskis marTvis eras~ uwodeben. riskis yvela saxeobas Soris, romelTanac banks aqvs urTierToba, ar moiZebneba sxva, romlis analizsa da kontrols eTmoba imdeni dro, rogorc saprocento ganakveTebis risks, vinaidan saprocento ganakveTebis moculobis zrdam SeiZleba negatiuri zegavlena iqonios Semosavalze da sabanko aqtivebis, pasivebisa kapitalis Rirebulebaze. qarTuli bankebis xelmZRvanelobam unda gaiTvaliswinos, rom bazarze saprocento ganakveTis cvlilebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios bankis mogebis Semcireba, danaxarjebis zrda, aqtivebis Semosavlebis Semcireba, rac Seamcirebs aqcionerebis investiciebis Rirebulebas. amitom, bankis menejerebma yuradReba unda gaamaxvilon portfelis Semadgenel im nawilebze, romlebic gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiarea saprocento ganakveTis cvlilebis mimarT, Cveulebriv portfelis aqtiur nawilSi aseTia: kreditebi da investiciebi fasian qaRaldebSi, xolo pasivebis farglebSi esaa depozitebi da sesxebi fulad bazarze. imisaTvis, rom daicvas bankis mogeba sainvesticio ganakveTebis cvlilebis negatiuri zegavlenisagan, misi xelmZRvaneloba unda cdilobdes fiqsirebul doneze SinarCunos wminda saprocento marJa, romelic Semdegnairad gamoiangariSeba: saprocento danaxarjebi kreditze da investiciebze _ saprocento danaxarjebi depozitebze da nasesxeb saSualebebze = momgebiani aqtivebis Rirebuleba

wsm

wminda saprocento Semosavali = momgebiani aqtivebis Rirebuleba sabanko dawesebulebebis riskis Sefaseba da marTva aris sabanko biznesis erT-erTi rTuli sakiTxi, vinaidan is dakavSirebulia mraval faqtorTan. Tu bankis menejeri SesZlebs maqsimalurad zustad gansazRvros riskis moculoba, es niSnavs, rom bankis Semdgomi warmatebuli saqmianoba garantirebulia. sasurvelia qarTuli bankebis xelmZRvanelobam yuradReba gaamaxvilos riskebis marTvasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze.

57

Cvens mier gaanalizebuli iqna saqarTvelos komerciuli bankebis efeqtianobis maCveneblebi retrospeqtivaSi. 1998 wlidan SeimCneva pozitiuri dinamika, Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom 2000 wels kvlav negatiuri tendencia aRiniSna. 1999 weli ki yvelaze efeqtiani iyo, rogorc wina periodTan, ise Semdgom wlebTan SedarebiT. aRniSnul wels efeqtianobis maCvenebeli, gaangariSebuli mogebis SefardebiT aqtivebTan _ ROA 2,2%, xolo gaangariSebuli mogebis SefardebiT kapitalTan _ ROE 6,4%, rac aRemateboda 1995 wels, Sesabamisad, 15 da 2,5%-iT, xolo 2001 wels 0,6% da 1,2%-iT. 2008 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT ROA Seadgenda 1,9%, xolo ROE _ 9,6%. 2009 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT ROA Seadgens 0,1%, xolo ROE _ 0,6%, rac bevrad naklebia, rogorc wina wlis, ise wina periodis maCveneblebTan SedarebiT (ix. cxrili 1).

cxrili 1. saqarTvelos komerciuli bankebis saqmianobis efeqtianobis dinamika 1995-2008 wlebSi procentebSi 1

wlebis dasaxeleba efeqtianobis koeficienti mogeba/aqtivebi

ROA

1995 -+2.5

1996 - 1.4

1997 - 1.2

1998 1.2

1999 2.2

2000 - 1.2

2001 1.6

2007 1.9

2008 0.1

efeqtianobis koeficienti mogeba/kapitali

ROE

15.1

-5.4

- 4.1

-3.9

6.4

-4.0

5.2

9.6

0.6

cxrilSi mocemuli maCveneblebi adasturebs, rom qarTuli komerciuli bankebis garkveuli nawilis xelmZRvaneloba ise ver marTavs sabanko riskebs, rom, erTis mxriv, ar Semcirdes momgebianoba da, meore mxriv, SenarCunebul iqnas likvidobis saTanado done. moxsenebiT davikave pirveli adgili doneckis ekonomikis da vaWrobis saxelmwifo institutSi Catarebul ukrainis sauniversitetSoririso konferenciaze 2009 wlis 7 Tebervals.

1

efeqtianobis maCveneblebi gaTvlilia saqarTvelos sabanko seqtoris krebsiTi aqtivebisa da pasivebis safuZvelze

58

inflaciis TargeTireba saqarTveloSi1

givi melqaZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: ek. akad. doqt. g. xasia

inflaciis TargeTireba (Inflation Targeting) monetaruli politikis SedarebiT axali reJimia da misi popularoba TandaTan izrdeba. Tavdapirvelad igi 1991 wels danerga axalma zelandiam, da male mas sxva industriuli qveynebic SeuerTdnen, maT Soris, kanada, didi britaneTi, fineTi, SevedeTi, avstralia da espaneTi (qronologiuri TanmimdevrobiT). mTavari mizezi, ris gamoc am qveynebma monetaruli politikis alternatiul reJimad inflaciis TargeTireba airCies, iyo ukanaskneli 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi fuladi masis TargeTirebisa da inflaciasTan brZolis warumatebeli gamocdileba. industriuli qveynebis mier inflaciis TargeTirebis warmatebiT danergvam sxva qveynebsac misca am reJimis SemoRebis stimuli. XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi gacvliTi kursis reJimis kraxma laTinuri amerikisa da aRmosavleTi aziis qveynebs alternatiuli nominaluri Ruzis Ziebisken ubiZga da sabolood maTma umravlesobam arCevani swored inflaciis TargeTirebaze SeaCera. Tanamedrove etapze inflaciis TargeTirebas 20-ze meti qveynis centraluri banki axorcielebs _ Soris 13 ganviTarebadi da gardamavali ekonomikis qveyanaa, romelTa ricxvSia Cile, argentina, poloneTi, CexeTi, samxreTi afrika, TurqeTi, somxeTi da sxv. aRsaniSnavia, rom yvela maTgani avlens inflaciis sakmaod dabal da stabilur dones ekonomikuri zrdis SesamCnevi tempebis TanxlebiT. mimdinare wlis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos erovnulma bankma sruliad garkveviT gamoTqva survili inflaciis TargeTirebis SemoRebasTan dakavSirebiT. winamdebare statiaSi mimoxilulia inflaciis TargeTirebis efeqtianad danergvisaTvis aucilebeli winapirobebi da Sefasebulia, Tu ramdenad akmayofilebs saqarTvelo am winapirobebs ekonomikuri ganviTarebis arsebul etapze. inflaciis TargeTirebis Sinaarsi Teoriulad ar aris rTuli: centraluri banki akeTebs mosalodneli inflaciis prognozs; prognozi edareba inflaciis miznobriv maCvenebels (inflaciis dones, romelsac centaluri banki miiCnevs ekonomikisaTvis xelsayrelad); gansxvaveba saprognozo da samizne maCvenebels Soris gansazRvravs monetaruli politikis koreqtirebis xasiaTs, kerZod, Tu inflaciis prognozi aRemateba samizne maCvenebels, xdeba monetaruli politikis gamkacreba, xolo Tu piriqiT, maSin centraluri banki arbilebs politikas. imisaTvis rom qveyanam SeZlos monetaruli politikis warmarTva inflaciis TargeTirebis Sesabamisad, saWiroa ori ZiriTadi winapirobis dakmayofileba: (1) centraluri bankis damoukidebloba; (2) centraluri bankis mandatis mkafiod gansazRvra fasebis stabilurobis, rogorc monetaruli politikis upirvelesi miznis, miRwevis saxiT. pirveli winapiroba gulisxmobs centraluri bankis damoukideblobas monetaruli politikis warmarTvaSi, anu damoukideblobas instrumentebis doneze, rac gansxvavdeba miznis doneze

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `makroekonomikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze sadac daimsaxura saprizo adgili, xolo studentTa sauniversiteto 69-e konferenciaze I adgili.

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damoukideblobisagan. rodesac monetaruli politikis mizani gansazRvrulia centraluri bankis an mTavrobis mier an erToblivad, centralur banks unda gaaCndes sruli Tavisufleba politikis instrumentebis SerCevasa da gamoyenebaSi dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad. imisaTvis rom es winapiroba dakmayofildes, monetaruli politika ar unda ganicdides fiskalur zewolas, anu centraluri bankis mier mTavrobisaTvis gasacemi sesxis moculoba unda iyos mkacrad SezRuduli an, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, nulis toli. saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb organuli kanonis me-3 muxlis mixedviT `erovnuli banki damoukidebelia Tavis saqmianobaSi~. amasTan, imave kanonis Sesabamisad erovnuli banki saqarTvelos parlaments dasamtkiceblad warudgens momavali wlis fuladsakredito da savaluto politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebis proeqts, romelSic erovnuli banki sruliad avtonomiurad (damoukideblad) adgens inflaciis miznobriv maCvenebels momavali wlisTvis da gansazRvravs monetaruli politikis im ZiriTad instrumentebs, romlebsac gamoiyenebs miznobrivi inflaciis miRwevisaTvis. es niSnavs imas, rom erovnul banks gaaCnia sruli damoukidebloba instrumentebis doneze. miuxedavad iuridiuli damoukideblobisa, erovnuli banki 2006 wlamde mTavrobis pirdapiri dafinansebis wyarod gvevlineboda; organuli kanonis 57-e muxlis mixedviT gansazRvruli iyo sesxis limitirebuli moculoba, romlis gacemac erovnul banks saxelmwifo dawesebulebebze SeeZlo, Tumca imave muxlis me-6 punqtis Sesabamisad erovnul banks, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, limitis moxsnis ufleba hqonda. 2006 wlis maisSi ki moxda kanonis 57-e muxlis modificireba da erovnul banks mTavrobisaTvis finansuri daxmarebis gaweva aekrZala.1 ase rom, inflaciis TargeTirebis pirveli winapiroba saqarTvelos konteqstSi srulad aris dakmayofilebuli. inflaciis TargeTirebis SemoRebisaTvis aucilebeli meore winapiroba gulisxmobs, rom fasebis stabiluroba unda warmoadgendes monetaruli politikis upirveles mizans da centralur banks institucionalurad unda evalebodes fasebis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofa. aRniSnuli gamoricxavs imavdroulad sxva nebismieri cvladis (nominaluri gacvliTi kursis an dasaqmebis donis) TargeTirebas. es ganpirobebulia imiT, rom moklevadian periodSi, rogorc viciT, inflaciasa da umuSevrobas Soris alternativa arsebobs, Sesabamisad, rTulia orive maTganis sasurvel doneze SenarCuneba. xolo nominaluri gacvliTi kursis TargeTi, kapitalis mobilurobis pirobebSi, adre Tu gvian konfliqtSi modis fasebis stabilurobasTan. inflaciis TargeTirebis meore winapirobis dakmayofilebis TvalsazrisiT 2008 wlis 18 marts erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb organul kanonSi mniSvnelovani cvlileba Sevida. kerZod, cvlilebis Setanamde kanonis me-2 muxlis mixedviT erovnuli bankis ZiriTadi amocana iyo `erovnuli fulis msyidvelobiTi unaris, fasebis stabilurobis miRweva da SenarCuneba~, rac inflaciis TargeTirebis reJimis pirobebSi, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, SeuTavsebadi miznebia. potenciuri konfliqtis Tavidan acilebisa da aseve, sazogadoebisaTvis sruliad garkveuli signalis miwodebis mizniT imis Sesaxeb, rom aseTi konfliqtis warmoSobis SemTxvevaSi prioriteti fasebis stabilurobis SenarCunebas mieniWeba, 18 marts kanonSi Setanili

1

ix. erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos organuli kanonis 57-e da 65-e muxlebi

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cvlilebis Sedegad ganisazRvra, rom `erovnuli bankis ZiriTadi amocanaa fasebis stabilurobis miRweva~. es ki srulad Seesabameba inflaciis TargeTirebis meore winapirobas. winapirobebis dakmayofilebis SeTxvevaSi, qveyanas, romelsac surs inflaciis TargeTirebis danergva, moeTxoveba monetaruli politikis sakuTari strategiis inflaciis TargeTirebis strategiasTan miaxloeba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, moicavs: saSualovadiania inflaciis samizne maCveneblis (TargeTis) sazogadoebisaTvis gacxadebas; informaciis momcvel strategias politikis gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas; monetaruli politikis gazrdil gamWvirvalobasa da centraluri bankis angariSvaldebulebas inflaciis TargeTis miRwevaSi. inflaciis TargeTirebis ZiriTadi elementebia: 1. inflaciis TargeTis sazogadoebisaTvis gacxadeba. saqarTvelos erovnuli banki 2009 wlamde fulad sakredito da savaluto politikis ZiriTad mimarTulebebSi aqveynebda inflaciis saprognozo maCvenebels, romelic safuZvlad edeboda monetaruli politikis warmarTvas. TavisTavad, inflaciis prognozi ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos inflaciis TargeTad. 2009 wlis ZiriTad mimarTulebebSi ki ukve calsaxad ganisazRvra saSualowliuri inflaciis miznobrivi maCvenebeli, anu TargeTi, 9%-is odenobiT, xolo dasaSvebi gadaxris sazRvrebi organuli kanonis mixedviT ± 2%-ia. inflaciis iseTi samizne donis SerCeva, romelic ekonomikisaTvis xelsayreli iqneba, ar aris rTuli. empiriuli kvlevebis Sedegebi xazs usvams saSualo da maRali inflaciis danaxarjebs. magaliTad, m. xanisa da a. senhajis SefasebebiT 1 inflaciis zRvruli done, romlis zemoTac inflacia mniSvnelovnad amcirebs ekonomikur zrdas, Seadgens 1-3%-s industriuli qveynebisaTvis, xolo 11-12%-s ­ ganviTarebadi qveynebisaTvis. 2. mravali cvladis gamoyeneba politikis gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas (inflaciis prognozirebis modeli). imis gamo, rom inflaciis done iseTi samizne obieqtia, romlis kontroli centralur banks pirdapir ar SeuZlia, saWiro xdeba ara erT-erTi parametris (mag. fuladi masis an gacvliTi kursis) kontroli, aramed yvela im makroekonomikuri cvladis Tvalyuris devneba, romelmac SesaZloa gavlena iqonios inflacize, esenia: importisa da eqsportis fasebi, mwarmoebelTa fasebi da xelfasebis done, saprocento ganakveTebi, saxelmwifo xarjebi da sxv. aRniSnuli, Tavis mxriv, moiTxovs inflaciis prognozirebis models, sadac aseTi cvladebi iqneba CarTuli. saqarTvelos erovnul banks SemuSavebuli aqvs inflaciis prognozirebis modeli, romlis meSveobiTac keTdeba mosalodneli inflaciis prognozi 6-9 Tviani horizontiT. gamomdinare iqidan, rom inflaciis TargeTirebisas monetaruli politikis poziciis cvlileba unda moxdes winaswar, sanam inflaciuri wnexebi intensiuri gaxdeba da inflaciis done zrdas daiwyebs, politikis warma- rTvaSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba inflaciis prognozs. l. svensoni 2 miiCnevs, rom inflaciis TargeTi metad gamosadegia Sualeduri orientiris rolSi, vinaidan igi aris inflaciis donesTan mWidrod korelirebuli, gakontrolebadi, advilad dakvirvebadi da gamWvirvale (igulisxmeba, rom prognozi qveyndeba).

1

Khan, M. S., and A. S. Senhadji, 2001, "Threshold Effects in the Relationship Between Infation and Growth" IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 1­21. 2 Svensson, L. E. O., 1996, "Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets," NBER Working Paper no. 5797

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3. centraluri bankis saqmianobis gamWvirvaleba da gazrdili angariSvaldebuleba. inflaciuri TargeTirebis reJimis erT-erT upiratesoba is aris, rom igi uzrunvelyofs nominalur Ruzas inflaciis TargeTis saxiT, anu cvlads, romelze dayrdnobiTac ekonomikuri subieqtebi iReben gadawyvetilebebs da sazogadoebaSi xdeba inflaciuri molodinebis formireba. imisaTvis rom TargeTma nominaluri Ruzis funqcia efeqtianad Seasrulos, saWiroa sazogadoebasTan aqtiuri komunikacia da misi wevrebis informireba centraluri bankis miznebisa da gegmebis Sesaxeb. centraluri bankisadmi sazogadoebis ndobis amaRlebis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania agreTve centraluri bankis mkacri angariSvaldebuleba dasaxuli miznis miRwevaSi. saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis yoveldRiuri saqmianoba sruliad gamWvirvalea, mis vebsaitze pres-relizis saxiT regularulad qveyndeba siaxleebi, maT Soris, monetaruli komitetis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi, aseve monetaruli politikis poziciis amsaxveli sxva informaciac. garda amisa, saqarTvelos erovnuli banki amzadebs da aqveynebs kvleviT gamocemebs, maT Soris inflaciis kvartalur angariSs, sadac mimoxilulia inflaciaze moqmedi faqtorebis da wnexebis ukanaskneli tendenciebi. mimoxilva aseve moicavs inflaciis prognozs. erovnuli banki angariSvaldebulia saqarTvelos parlamentis winaSe. bankis prezidenti waradgens wliur angariSs, sadac Sefasebulia erovnuli bankis ukanaskneli periodis saqmianobis efeqtianoba dasaxuli miznebis miRwevis mixedviT. erovnuli bankis angariSvaldebulebis gazrdis mizniT 2008 wlis martSi organuli kanoniT ganisazRvra, rom, "Tu saqarTvelos saxelmwifo biujeti proficitulia, nebismieri 4 mimdevrobiTi kvartlis ganmavlobaSi faqtobrivi inflaciis miznobrivi maCveneblidan 2 procentul punqtze metad gadaxris Sem- TxvevaSi parlaments ufleba aqvs daayenos bankis prezidentis Tanamdebobidan gaTavisuflebis sakiTxi".4 rogorc Sefasebidan gairkva, saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis strategia Seesabameba inflaciis TargeTirebis CarCos, Tumca aRniSnuli reJimis efeqtianad warmarTvisaTvis es ar aris sakmarisi. imisaTvis rom inflaciis TargeTirebam srulfasovnad imuSaos, saWiroa monetaruli gadacemis saimedo meqanizmis arseboba, rac, Tavis mxriv, moiTxovs sakmarisad Rrma finansur bazrebs. am mxriv ki saqarTvelos ekonomikas seriozuli problemebi gaaCnia, kerZod, ekonomikis monetizaciisa da finansuri Suamavlobis dabali donis gamo saprocento ganakveTisa da kreditis arxis mniSvneloba Semcirebulia. miuxedavad zrdis tendenciisa, saqarTvelos ekonomikis monetizaciis xarisxi mainc dabalia - 22% (ix. diagrama 1), garda amisa, dolarizaciis maRali xarisxis gamo, romelic 75%-s Seadgens, msesxeblebi naklebad mgrZnobiareni arian erovnuli valutis saprocento ganakveTis cvlilebebis mimarT, rac saprocento ganakveTi arxis muSaobas kidev ufro aferxebs. kreditis arxis mniSvneloba Semcirebulia saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi kreditis mcire rolis gamo. gacvliTi kursis arxs ki saqarTvelos sinamdvileSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba, rac gamowveulia imiT, rom samomxmareblo kalaTaSi importirebul saqonelze didi wili modis. gacvliTi kursis cvlileba mniSvnelovnad aisaxeba samomxmareblo kalaTis

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ix. erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos organuli kanonis 63-e muxli.

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Rirebulebasa da, Sesabamisad, fasebis doneze qveyanaSi. gacvliTi kursis mniSvnelobas aZlierebs dolarizaciis maRali maCvenebelic.

a. monetizaciis maCveneblebi

M3/GDP % 25,00 M2/GDP

% 100,00 90,00

b. dolarizaciis maCvenebeli

depozitebis dolarizaciis koeficienti

20,00

80,00 70,00

15,00

60,00 50,00

10,00

40,00 30,00

5,00

20,00 10,00

0,00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

0,00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

diagrama 1. saqarTvelos ekonomikis monetizacia da dolarizacia1 daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis strategiisa da rigi institucionaluri sakiTxebis srul Sesabamisobas inflaciis TargeTirebis CarCosTan, aseve monetizaciisa da finansuri Suamavlobis koeficientebis zrdis aSkara dinamikas, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom saSualovadian periodSi sruliad mizanSewonili iqneba srulfasovani inflaciis TargeTirebis SemoReba.

gamoyenebuli literatura: saqarTvelos organuli kanoni saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos erovnuli banki ­ monetaruli da sabanko statistikis biuleteni (sxvadasxva wlis).

Carare, A., A. Schaechter, and M. Stone, 2002, "Establishing Initial Conditions in Support of Inflation Targeting," IMF Working Paper No. 02/102. Dabla-Norris, E., D. Kim, M. Zermeño, A. Billmeier, and V. Kramarenko, 2007, "Modalities of Moving to Inflation Targeting in Armenia and Georgia," IMF Working Paper No. Debelle, G., 1997, "Inflation Targeting in Practice," IMF Working Paper No. 97/35 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Khan, M., 2003, "Current Issues in the Design and Conduct of Monetary Policy," IMF Working Paper No. 03/56 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Khan, M. S., and A. S. Senhadji, 2001, "Threshold Effects in the Relationship Between Inflation and Growth," IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 1­21. Masson, P. R., M. A. Savastano, and S. Sharma, 1997, "The Scope for Inflation Targeting in Developing Countries," IMF Working Paper No. 97/130. Mishkin, F., 2000, "Inflation Targeting in Emerging-Market Countries," American Economic Review, Vol. 90(2), pages 105-109. Mishkin, Frederic S. "International Experiences with Different Monetary Policy Regimes." Journal of Monetary Economics, June 1999, 43(3), pp. 579- 606. Samkharadze B., "Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Georgia: Analizing Pass-Through of Different Channels"," NBG Working Paper. Svensson, L. E. O., 1996, "Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets," NBER Working Paper no. 5797

1

wyaro: saqarTvelos erovnuli banki ­ "monetaruli da sabanko statistikis biuleteni", 2000-2008

ww.

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msoflio finansuri krizisi da saqarTvelo1

salome jaSi

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asist. prof. n. kakulia dRes msoflios yuradRebis centrSia msoflio finansuri krizisi da amiT gamowveuli negatiuri mxareebi. gansakuTrebuli aqcenti aSS_zea gadatanili, vinaidan swored am qveynidan aRmocenda msoflio finansuri krizisi. Tanamedrove mecnierebSi am krizisma msoflio sabanko da safinanso krizisis saxelwodeba miiRo, romlis dasawyisadac 2007 wlis zafxuli (ZiriTadad ivlisis Tve) miiCneva, Tumca krizisis gamomwvevi mizezebi ufro adreul periodebs moicavs. 2007 wlis zafxulSi msoflios wamyvanma finansurma indeqsebma (Dow Jones, NASDAQ, DAX, S&P500, NIKKEI da sxva) daiwyes naxtomiseburi vardna. viTareba gaarTula imanac, rom sabanko dawesebulebebi xSir SemTxvevaSi Tanamonawileobis gareSe, dabali procentiT gascemdnen kreditebs uZravi qonebis SesaZenad. ipoTekur bazarze dawyebul kriziss uprecendentod maRali navTobis fasebic daemata, romelmac 2008 wlis ivlisis dasawyisSi barelze 140 aSS dolari da metic Seadgina. eqspertTa nawili msoflio finansuri krizisis gamomwvev meore mizezad ipoTekur krizisTan erTad navTobis xelovnurad maRal fasebsac miiCnevs. amerikeli eqspertebis mosazrebebs garkveulwilad eTanxmeba da ixilavs qarTuli ekonomikis damoukidebeli eqsperti lado papava, romelic amerikeli eqspertebisgan gansxvavebiT ar erideba aSS-s mTavrobis dadanaSaulebas. kerZod igi acxadebs, rom buSis administraciis sagareo politika sakmaod did aramwarmoeblur danaxarjebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. eraysa da avRaneTSi mimdinare samxedro operaciebs mohyva aramwarmoebluri xarjebis zrda, ramac daamaxinja aSS-s ekonomikis struqtura da saboloo jamSi didi ziani miayena ekonomikas. ukan daubrunebelma ipoTekurma sesxebma gakotrebis winaSe daayenes finansuri institutebi da bankebi. rogorc viciT, finansuri korporaciebi erTmaneTis fasian qaRaldebs floben da amitom erT bazarze dawyebuli krizisi jaWvuri reaqciiT gadaecema meore qveynis ekonomikas, ris gamoc finansuri krizisi mTel msoflios moedo. amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom amerikuli dolari rogorc msoflio valuta krizisis gavrcelebis saSualebad iqca, ramac es ,,virusi" evropasa da aziasac mosdo. rogorc ,,sinerji analitksis" kvlevebi adasturebs ipoTekuri krizisi gadaedo uZravi qonebis bazars da 2007 wels ar darCenila arc erTi dasavluri msxvili banki, romelic ar dazaralebuliyo krizisis gamo. iyvnen iseTebic, romlebic centraluri bankis Carevis Sedegad gadaurCnen gakotrebas. msoflios wamyvani qveynebis centraluri bankebis didi mcdeloba iyo, krizisi CarCoebSi

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moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `makroekonomikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

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moeqciaT, Tumca es ver SeZles da krizisi mTeli ZaliT daatyda Tavs msoflios. 2008 wlis seqtemberSi erT-erTi umsxvilesi amerikuli sainvesticio bankis leman brazersis (Lehman Brothers) defoltma finansur bazrebze panika gamoiwvia ramac ufro gaaRrmava msoflio krizisi. ekonomikis sferos mecnierebi da mkvlevarebi krizisis dawyebas Semdeg faqtorebs ukavSireben: · - ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saerTo cikluroba; · - maRali fasebi nedleulze (m.S. navTobze); · - safondo birJebis gadaxureba; · - sakredito bazris gadaxureba da mis Sedegad warmoqmnili ipoTekuri krizisi aSS_Si; · - praqtikaSi axali, gamoucdeli finansuri meTodebisa da instrumentebis gamoyeneba, rogorebicaa sakredito defolturi svopebi (credit default swap) da sxva. sazogadod, finansuri krizisi msofliosaTvis ucxo movlenas ar warmoadgens. didi depresia, globaluri krizisi, romelic 1929 wels amerikaSi ganviTarda, aT welze metxans grZeldeboda, TiTqmis mTeli msoflio moicva. ukanaskneli saukunis ganmavlobaSi ganviTarebul mniSvnelovan movlenaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba 1973 da 1979 wlis navTobis krizisi aSS-Si, 1994 wlis meqsikis ekonomikuri krizisi, 1997 wlis aziis finansuri krizisi, 1998 wlis ruseTis finansuri krizisi, romelmac qveyana defoltamde miiyvana. mimdinare krizisi bolo 100 wlis ganmavlobaSi erT-erTi yvelaze Zlieri da masStaburia. igi mniSvnelovan problemebs uqmnis globalur finansur sistemas. miuxedavad imisa, rom yvela krizisi unikaluria, wlebis manZilze dagrovili codna da gamocdileba iZleva imis imeds, rom krizisi warsuls male Cabardeba. gasaTvaliswinebelia aSS-s senatis mier finansuri sistemis daxmarebisaTvis damtkicebuli 700 miliard dolariani paketic, romelic gasaWirSi myof finansur institutebs krizisidan gamosvlaSi daexmareba. am Tanxis gamoyofa aucilebeli iyo, radgan is aris garanti rom finansuri bazari ar daiSleba da aSS-s mTavroba mas gverdiT daudgeba. es ar aris wminda amerikuli problema, aramed es praqtikulad aris magniti mTeli msoflios safinanso bazrebisac. es pozitiuri tendencia amerikis safinanso bazrebze mTel msoflioSi dadebiTad aisaxeba. Tumca Znelia imis gansazRvra, ramdeni Tanxaa saWiro am krizisis dasaZlevad. es Tanxa ar iqneba gamoyofili erT tranSad, aramed daiyofa nawilebad. swored etapobrivad xarjvis periodSi gamoikveTeba Tu ramdenad midis mdgomareoba stabilizaciisaken. arsebobs mosazrebebi imis Taobaze, rom es Tanxa sul mcire uaryofiT tendenciebs mainc SeaCerebs. rogorc wesi, ekonomikuri krizisi maSin xdeba gansakuTrebiT saSiSi, rodesac igi realur ekonomikas gadaedeboda da TiToeuli adamianis ojaxSi SeaRwevs. msgavsi ram didi depresiis dros yvelaze metad iyo TvalsaCino. garda finansuri bazrebisaTvis miyenebuli zianisa depresiam Semdegi uaryofiTi Sedegebi moitana: umuSevroba da mosaxleobis Semosavlebis Semcireba; sxvadasxva industriebis saqmianobis, gayidvebisa da mogebis moculobis Semcireba;

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saerTaSoriso vaWrobis ­ eqsport-importis moculobis Semcireba. rogorc vxedavT, farTod ganviTarebuli saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebidan gamomdinare, aSS_Si dawyebuli finansuri krizisi jaWvuri reaqciiT moedo mTels msoflios, gansakuTrebiT ki im qveynebs, romelTac aSS_sTan sagareo ekonomikuri urTierTobebi aqvT maT Soris, bunebrivia, saqarTvelosac. gamomdinare iqidan, rom saqarTvelos ekonomika msoflio ekonomikis Semadgeneli nawilia, msoflio finansurma krizisma saqarTvelos ekonomikazec iqonia negatiuri gavlena. krizisis pirveladi Sedegebi 2009 wlis damdegs ukve saxezea da misi gaRrmaveba wlis ganmavlobaSi gardauvalia. msoflio finansurma krizisma yvela qveyanaSi ekonomikuri zrdis Seneleba gamoiwvia. gansakuTrebiT Semcirda moTxovna fufunebis sagnebze, avtomobilebze da sxva produqciaze, rac msoflios wamyvani qveynebis mSp_s Semcirebis safuZveli gaxda. mdidari adamianebis aqtivebi mniSvnelovnad Semcirda, zogierTi maTgani ki saerTod gakotrda, mosaxleoba ki gadavida dazogviT moxmarebaze. gasul wlebSi saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri zrdis ZiriTadi ganmapirobebeli faqtori ucxoeTidan kerZo kapitalis nakadebis (pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi da sabanko kreditebi) da sabiujeto saxsrebis mudmivi zrda warmoadgenda. Tu safinanso krizisi gagrZelda, es imas niSnavs, rom kidev ufro meti problemebi Seeqmneba amerikis saxelmwifo biujets da im Tanxas, romelic maTgan daxmarebis saxiT unda miviRoT 1 mlrd dolaris odenobiT da romlisganac jer mxolod 300 milioni dolaria damtkicebuli. SesaZloa es Tanxebi im tempebiT veRar miviRoT, rogoric imedi gvaqvs. Tan es krizisi mxolod amerikas ar moicavs da SesaZlebelia daxmarebebi sxva qveynebidanac dagviandes. amasTan mosalodnelia im qveyanaSi romelic jer kidev srulad ver akontrolebs sakuTar teritoriebs da omis saSiSroebis winaSe dgas, SemosavalSemcirebulma investorma investicia saerTod ar ganaxorcielos. msoflio krizisiT gamowveuli arasasurveli Sedegebis gamo investori ar moisurvebs sarisko qveyanaSi Semcirebuli saxsrebis Cadebas. amdenad, pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis nakadebis da sabanko kreditebis Semcireba 2009 wels ekonomikuri zrdis Seferxebis mniSvnelovani faqtorebi iqneba. msoflio ekonomikur krizisamde saqarTvelos xelisufleba nominalur mSp_s 21535,9 mln laris moculobiT prognozirebda, xolo krizisis Sedegebis gamovlenis Semdeg xelisuflebis prognozi 21308,7 mln laria (Semcireba navaraudevia 227,2 mln lariT, rac daaxloebiT 1,05%_iani Semcirebaa). realuri mSp_s zrda Tavdapirvelad navaraudevi iyo 4,0%_is odenobiT, xolo krizisis Sedegebis gamovlenis Semdeg navaraudevia 2,5%_is odenobiT. 2008 wels realuri mSp_s zrda, nacvlad dagegmili 8%_isa, xelisuflebis prognoziT iqneba mxolod 2,0%. Tumca, realuri viTareba SesaZlebelia ufro pesimisturi iyos da orprocentiani zrdis miRweva SesaZlebeli gaxdes mxolod donorebidan miRebuli dafinansebis mimarTviT maRali ekonomikuri aqtivobis uzrunvelmyof RonisZiebebze. saqarTveloSi investiciebis mniSvnelovani Semcireba jer kidev agvistos movlenebis Semdeg daiwyo. mimdinare etapze aseve gvaqvs msoflio finansuri krizisiT gamowveuli investiciebis Semcirebis tendencia. igi ukavSirdeba

66

saqarTveloSi msxvili saprivatizacio obieqtebis nusxis amowurvasac, xolo mcire saprivatizacio obieqtebi mniSvnelovan aminds ver qmnian. xelisuflebis prognoziT, 2008 wels saqarTvelom miiRo 2,17 mlrd aSS dolaris investicia, xolo 2009 wels dagegmilia mxolod 1,7 mlrd dolaris investiciis mozidva. investiciebis Semcirebis magaliTebidan mxolod ramdenimes dasaxeleba sakmarisia imisaTvis, rom masStabebis simciresa da xelisuflebis mometebul optimizmSi davrwmundeT. ü agvistos cnobili movlenebis Semdgom, msoflio finansuri krizisis fonze, yazaxurma kompania `yazmunaigazma~ (KazMunaiGaz) uari ganacxada saqarTveloSi dagegmil 1 mlrd dolaris investiciaze, romliTac baTumSi navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana unda aSenebuliyo. ü amerikulma kompania `qliar sTrim holdingma~ saqarTveloSi gamocxadebul investiciaze uari Tqva. kompaniam auqcionze `vai maqsis~ sixSire 9 milion 300 aTas larad SeiZina da ukabelo internet_servisis awyobas gegmavda. kompaniis qarTveli partniorebis gancxadebiT, proeqti CaiSala da `qliar sTrimi~ safasurs, romelic noembris bolosTvis unda gadaexada, aRar gadaixdis. xelisuflebis mier dagegmili ekonomikuri stimulirebis paketidan gamomdinare, infrastruqturis investirebiT mTliani Siga produqtis moxmarebis da saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis komponentebis procentuli wili mniSvnelovnad izrdeba, xolo investiciebis komponenti Semcirdeba, rac, sabolood arasaxarbielo gadanawilebamde migviyvans. warmoebis Seferxeba gazrdis eqsport_imports Soris uaryofiT saldos da, Sesabamisad, wminda eqsportis uaryofiTi maCvenebeli ufro gaizrdeba. safinanso krizisis gaRrmavebis periodSi, Zalian bevrma daqiravebulma dakarga samuSao adgili. bankebis mier kreditebis gacemis Sewyvetam gansakuTrebiT daazarala samSeneblo da avtomobilebiT vaWrobis biznesi. faqtobrivad, gaCerda samSeneblo saqmianoba da sabanko sferos problemebidan gamomdinare, bankebma TavianTi sakredito portfeli mniSvnelovnad Seamcires. Sedegad, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva bankidan da samSeneblo kompaniidan daiTxoves ramdenime aTasi TanamSromeli, riTac gaizarda umuSevrobis isedac kritikulad maRali maCvenebeli. saqarTveloSi ukanasknel wlebSi siRaribis gamudmebul zrdas hqonda adgili. jer kidev agvistos movlenebamde da msoflio finansuri krizisis dawyebamde, siRaribis zRvars miRma myofi adamianebis raodenoba 1 mln_ze meti iyo. gazrdili umuSevrobisa da samomxmareblo produqciaze maRali fasebis gamo 2009 wels kvlav unda velodoT siRaribis maCveneblis zrdas. rogorc vxedavT, saqarTvelo saerTaSoriso safinanso krizisiT gamowveuli sakmaod mniSvnelovani problemebisa da gamowvevebis winaSe dgas. problemebis minimizacias da gamowvevebze pasuxs saTanado reagireba sWirdeba. aucilebelia xelisuflebis mxridan realuri antikrizisuli gegmis SemuSaveba, misi ganxilva eqspertebTan, donor organizaciebTan da sxva dainteresebul pirebTan, Semdeg ki misi dayofa samoqmedo uwyebriv gegmebad da misi Sesrulebis mudmivi monitoringi. amasTan, aucilebelia, saxelisuflebo analitikurma jgufma ganaxorcielos saerTaSoriso movlenebis mudmivi analizi, raTa axal

67

gamowvevebs, romlebsac 2009 wels mudmivad eqneba adgili, qveynis xelisufleba Sexvdes saTanadod momzadebuli. saerTaSoriso safinanso seqtoris koniuqturuli cvlilebebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos mxridan saWiro iqneba mudmivi cvlilebebi da adaptireba. procesebSi mniSvnelovania roli saqarTvelos erovnuli bankisa, romelic institucionalurad unda gaZlierdes da meti funqcia mieniWos safinanso seqtoris gaZlierebis TvalsazrisiT. qveynis xelisuflebam arsebuli problemebi unda warmoidginos erTianad, ris safuZvelzec spontanuri RonisZiebebis gatarebidan unda gadaerTos Tanmimdevruli RonisZiebebis gatarebaze. prioritetebi unda iyos mkafio, realuri da qveynis ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebaze orientirebuli. wminda ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, 2009 wels raime saxis arCevnebis daniSvna da winasaarCevno RonisZiebebze sabiujeto Tu sxva saxis safinanso resursebis mimarTva damRupveli iqneba qveynis ekonomikisTvis. amasTan, aucilebelia donorebidan miRebuli daxmarebebis da kreditebis gegmazomieri xarjva. qveynis xelisuflebas mudmivad unda axsovdes, rom dagegmili 4,5 mlrd aSS dolari ar aris mxolod daxmareba da misi didi nawili ramdenime wlis Semdeg ukan unda iqnas dabrunebuli, Tanac Sesabamisi saprocento ganakveTebis gadaxdiT. rogorc aRiniSna, saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri zrdis ZiriTad maCvenebels ucxoeTidan kerZo kapitalis nakadebi da sabiujeto saxsrebis mudmivi zrda warmoadgenda. gansakuTrebuli SiSi saqarTvelos mimarT investorebs agvistos movlenebis Semdeg gauCndaT, rasac Tan daerTo msoflio finansuri krizisi da amitom isini cdiloben Tavi aaridon sarisko investiciebs. am mxriv saqarTvelos investiciebis Semcirebis didi safrTxe daemuqra, rac ekonomikuri zrdis Semcirebas gamoiwvevs. Tumca calsaxad imis Tqma rom Cven finansurma krizisma dagvazarala samarTliani ar iqneba. Cven ara varT imdenad integrirebulebi msoflioSi, rom recesiam Cvenze Zlieri zegavlena moaxdinos. msoflioSi dagrovili codnisa da gamocdilebis mixedviT imedia krizisi didxans ar gagrZeldeba, raTa ufro ar daazaralos aRmavlobis gzaze myofi saqarTvelos ekonomika.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

www.civil.ge www.books.google.ge Mankiw N.G. Macroeconomics, NY Worth Publishers, 2003 www.geoeconomics.ge nodar xaduri, makroekonomika, Tbilisi 2007 www.statistics.ge Blanchard O. Macroeconomics, 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall. 2000 www.economics.ge vladimer papava, postkomunisturi gardamavali periodis makroekonomika, 2005 www.nbg.gov.ge

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sapensio sistemis reforma saqarTveloSi1

zurab ziraqaZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: sruli profesori n. xaduri

sapensio uzrunvelyofa saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebulad mas Semdeg garTulda, rac ssrk daiSala. Sedegad aramarto airia sistema, aramed daikarga is danazogebi, romlebic iqna Segrovili Cveni mosaxleobis mier gasul aTwleulebSi. upirvelesi amocanaa politikuri gadawyvetilebis miReba _ ra gzas unda davadgeT. Zalze mniSvnelovania moqalaqeebs mivceT saSualeba, sapensio asakisaTvis moemzadon. magaliTad, rig qveyanaSi moqmedebs e.w. samsvetiani sistema, rac gulisxmobs pirveli: pensiis miRebas Senatanebis safuZvelze, roca momuSaveebi istumreben pensionerebs _ e.w. `brtyeli~ pensia, anu fiqsirebuli Tanxa _ saxelmwifo pensia. meore: savaldebulo dagrovebis sistema, roca yvela momuSave kanonis mixedviT valdebulia, Tavisi Semosavlebis garkveuli procenti mimarTos saxelmwifo Tu kerZo sapensio fondebSi. mesame nebayoflobiTi: pensioners saSualeba eZleva, daagrovos fuli kerZo sapensio fondSi, romelic Semdeg mis pensias daemateba. aseTi modelia postsabWour qveynebSi _ baltiispireTSi, ruseTsa da ukrainaSi. socialuri politika, romelic dafuZnebulia socialuri daxmarebis an savaldebulo socialuri dazRvevis sistemaze, warmoadgens resursebis gadanawilebis xelovnur meqanizms, romlis mixedviTac socialur dacvaze pasuxismgeblobas iRebs saxelmwifo, an individebs aiZulebs sakuTari da sazogadoebis sxva wevrebis socialur dacvaze pasuxismgebloba savaldebulo dazRvevis gziT Tavis Tavze aiRon. savaldebulo socialuri dazRvevis gamarTleba xdeba imiT, rom Tu riskis xarisxi didia, adamianis momavali mdgomareoba ar aris damokidebuli mis individualur Zalisxmevaze da nebismieri SesaZleblobis mqone pirovneba maRali riskis qveS imyofeba. socialuri dacva pirobiTad SeiZleba davyoT or nawilad: _ socialuri daxmareba; _ socialuri dazRveva; socialuri dazRveva ganixileba, rogorc socialuri dacvis ZiriTadi, xolo socialuro daxmareba _ damatebiT saSualebad. msoflio praqtikaSi sapensio sistemis formirebisa da organizebulobis xuTi ZiriTadi midgoma arsebobs:

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `makroekonomikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili. ibeWdeba Semcirebuli formatiT, vinaidan warmodgenili iyo 18 gverdis moculobiT.

69

1. rodesac pensiebis gadaxda xdeba saxelmwifo biujetidan; 2. umuSevrebs pensias uxdian dasaqmebulebi; 3. yofil muSaks pensias uxdis sawarmo; 4. pensiebs uzrunvelyofs sadazRvevo kompania; 5. sapensio uzrunvelyofa warmoebs e.w. sapensio fondebis meSveobiT. ganawilebiTi sistemis erTi SexedviT myar konstruqcias bzari pirvelad evropis qveynebSi gauCnda. mizezi martivia: demografiuli suraTis Secvla _ Semcirebuli Sobadoba da sicocxlis saSulo xangrZlivobis gazrda. nebayoflobiTi sapensio sistemis ZiriTad upiratesobebs warmoadgens: _ pensiis sididis damokidebuleba dazRveulTa pirad Zalisxmevaze; _ dazRveulTa aqtiuri roli da arCevnis Tavisufleba; _ sistemis konkurentuloba; _ dasaqmebaze negatiuri zegavlenis Semcireba; _ dagrovili kapitalis zrda. CileSi ganxorcielebulma ekonomikurma reformebma daamtkica, rom SesaZlebelia iseTi socialuri dacvis sistemis Seqmna, romelic individebs arCevnis SesaZleblobas miscems (nebayoflobiT, sakuTar Tavze aiRon socialuri pasuxismgebloba). saqarTveloSi moqmedebs gadanawilebiTi sapensio sqema. es sqema damyarebulia TaobaTa solidarobis principze, rac niSnavs imas, rom pensionerebs pensiebi gaecemaT dRes momuSaveTa mier gadaxdili gadasaxadis xarjze. mTliani sapensio tvirTis saxelmwifos mier tareba arcTu efeqtiania: pensiebis sidide CamorCeba saarsebo minimums; dasaqmebulTa Semosavlebis mniSvnelovani nawili aRuricxavia. aqtiuri dasaqmebulebis ricxvis Sefardeba pensionerebTan 0,75 Seadgens, rac arsebuli sapensio sistemis mniSvnelovan gaumjobesebas uperspeqtivos xdis. socialuri gadasaxadi unda gauqmebuliyo, magram ara im formiT, rogorc moxda. umjobesi iyo momxdariyo misi gardaqmna socialuri dazRvevis anaricxis saxiT, romlebic akumulirdeboda saxelwifo an kerZo sapensio fondebSi; dauSvebeli iyo socialuri gadasaxadis saSemosavlo gadasaxadTan gaerTianeba maTi Tvisobrivad gansxvavebulobis gamo; pensiebis dafinanseba-gacema uSualod mieba saxelmwifo biujetis valdebulebebs. gadasaxadi ki zogadad aris piris mier gaweuli investicia, safasuri imisa, rom saxelmwifom daicvas misi sicocxle, saqmianoba, uflebebi saSianao Tu sagareo xelyofisagan, magram gadasaxadidan momavali socialuri dacvis garantiis miReba gaumarTleblia, radgan: saxelmwifo ver gascems imis garantias, rom uaxloes momavalSi adeqvaturi pensiebi ris xarjze iqneba miRweuli (im fonze roca saSemosavlo gadasaxadi 25-dan 15%-mde unda Semcirdes); 70

socialuri uzrunvelyofis sapensio sistemebi imdenad susti da funqcia moklebulia, misi reformis aucilebloba eWvs ar iwvevs. reformis ganxorcieleba unda daiwyos pirvel rigSi misi Teoriuli, iuridiuli da finansuri dasabuTebis SeqmniT. am masStabis finansuri RonisZiebis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia mxolod yvela detalis gaTvlis Sedegad. klasikosi ekonomistebis cnobilma warmomadgenelma J. b. seim Seqmna kanoni, romlis mixedviT qveyanaSi danazogebi da investiciebi erTmaneTis tolia (zogierT SemTxvevaSi procentuli ganakveTis gamawonasworebeli zemoqmedebis Sedegad), reformis Semdeg kerZo sapensio fondebSi socialuri anaricxis saxiT Sesuli TiToeuli lari avtomaturad gamoCndeba qveynis ekonomikaSi TiToeuli lari investiciis saxiT. yovelwliurad saqarTvelos ekonomika miiRebs da aiTvisebs damatebiT kapitals, samamulo sainvesticio resurs da es kapitali yovelwliurad mzardi iqneba qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebisa da minimum Tundac am investiciiT miRebuli dadebiTi ekonomikuri efeqtis Sesabamisad. socialuri uzrunvelyofis da sapensio sistemebi imdenad susti da funqcia moklebulia, misi reformis aucilebloba eWvs ar iwvevs. reformis ganxorcieleba unda daiwyos pirvel rigSi misi Teoriuli, iuridiuli da finansuri dasabuTebis SeqmniT. am masStabis finansuri RonisZiebis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia mxolod yvela detalis gaTvlis Sedegad. dRes rom daiwyos es reforma, is Taoba, romelic 10-15 weliwadSi gava pensiaze, ukve Rirseul pensias miiRebs, xolo saxelmwifoSi ki dasaqmebulebis mier sapensio fondebSi Setanili Tanxebis xarjebze soliduri kapitali akumulirdeba, rac qveynis sainvesticio SesaZleblobebs mniSvnelovnad gazrdis. magaliTad, 1998 wels msgavsi sapensio sistemis danergva moxda yazaxeTSi. am wlebis manZilze am qveynis sapensio fondSi garkveuli kapitali dagrovda. swored am Tanxebis investirebas axdenen yazaxi investoroebi dRes saqarTveloSi. `kerZo sapensio sistemis danergvis Semdgomi SesaZlo nabijebi: kerZo seqtoris aqtivebis marTvis kompaniebis licenzirebisa da zedamxedvelobisaTvis regulirebis bazis Seqmna da aseve, saanuiteto kompaniebis licenzirebisa da zedamxedvelobisaTvis regulirebis bazis Camoyalibeba~ (devid kalundi britaneli ekonomikis eqsperti). klasikosi ekonomistebis cnobilma warmomadgenelma J. b. seim Seqmna kanoni, romlis mixedviT qveyanaSi danazogebi da investiciebi erTmaneTis tolia (zogierT SemTxvevaSi procentuli ganakveTis gamawonasworebeli zemoqmedebis Sedegad.a), seis kanonis aramarTebuloba SemdgomSi keinsianurma moZRvrebam daasabuTa, Tumc reformis Semdeg kerZo sapensio fondebSi socialuri anaricxis saxiT Sesuli TiToeuli lari avtomaturad gamoCndeba qveynis ekonomikaSi TiToeuli lari investiciis saxiT. yovelwliurad saqarTvelos ekonomika miiRebs da aiTvisebs damatebiT kapitals, samamulo sainvesticio resurs da es kapitali yovelwliurad mzardi iqneba qveynis eko71

nomikis ganviTarebisa da minimum Tundac am investiciiT miRebuli dadebiTi ekonomikuri efeqtis Sesabamisad. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom kerZo sapensio fondebis mier pensiebis ZiriTadi nawilis gacema iwyeba reformis gatarebidan 15-20 wlis Semdeg, amitom mosalodnelia, rom sapensio fondebi TavianTi mobilizebuli finansuri resursebis did nawils ganaTavseben grZelvadian sainvesticio proeqtebSi, uSualod mrewvelobaSi, soflis meurneobaSi, turistul infrastruqturaSi da a.S. es imas niSnavs, rom qveynis ekonomikis momgebiani da prioritetuli dargebi damatebiT iReben investiciebs.

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reklamis gavlena ludis gayidvebis moculobaze1

bela CaCibaia baia CaCibaia

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: sruli prof. e. xaraiSvili Tanamedrove samyaroSi cxovreba televizoris, radios, Jurnalis Tu gazeTis gareSe warmoudgenelia. am CamonaTvals bolo periodSi daemata internetic, romelic cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawili gaxda. maTi saSualebiT vecnobiT axal ambebs, CvenTvis saintereso informacias, filmebs da mudmivad Tvalyurs vadevnebT reklamas, romelic nebismier gadacemas Tan sdevs. reklamis mimarT adamianTa damokidebuleba SeiZleba orgvarad SevafasoT. erTni fiqroben, rom reklama aris ubralod lamazi tyuili, romelic mimarTulia adamianTa Tvalebis asaxvevad da jibeebis dasacarieleblad. sxvaTa azriT reklama saWiro saqonelze saWiro informaciis miRebis uebari saSualebaa. dRes msoflio da adgilobriv bazrebze saqonlis gasaReba SeuZlebelia reklamisa da promouSenis gareSe, romlis daxmarebiTac momxmarebels miewodeba informacia, reklamas gaaCnia orgvari funqcia: pirveli - es aris momxmareblis informireba da meore-momxmareblis motyueba, gabrueba, raTa man rac SeiZleba male SeiZinos aRniSnuli saqoneli. garda am ori funqciisa ikveTeba reklamis mesame funqciac: miaCvios momxmarebeli am produqcias da daikavos bazarze monopoliuri mdgomareoba.

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 60%

8%

12%

18% 2%

tele_radio

bilbordebi quCaSi

beWvdiTi media

interneti

sxva

diagrama 1. sareklamo saSualebaTa reitingi2 firmebi TavianTi biznesis formirebis dros Zalian did mniSvnelobas aniWeben reklamas, radgan swored reklama ganapirobebs momxmarebelTa farTo masebisaTvis aRniSnuli produqciisa Tu momsaxurebis gacnobas da maT mozidvas. msxvil firmebSi arsebobs

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `mikroekonomikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

2

sareklamo saSualebaTa da telearxebis reitingi (diagrama 1 da 2) momzadebulia mier 2007 wels Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT

,,BCG

Research"-is

73

specialuri ganyofilebebi, romlebic uSualod muSaoben reklamis Seqmnaze da mis ganTavsebaze yvelaze optimalur media saSualebaSi. reklama xorcieldeba sxvadasxva arxebiT, maT Soris tele-radio reklamas uWiravs bazris yvelaze didi wili _ 60%, (ix. Ddiagrama 1) igi yvelaze ufro maRali sandoobis xarisxiT xaiaTdeba. gansxvavebulia aseve telearxebis reitingi. 2007 wels Catarebuli kvlevis mixedviT (BCG Research) yvelaze maRalyurebadi arxebis reitingi gadanawilda Semdegi saxiT (ix. diagrama 1).

60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% rusTavi 2 imedi I arxi mze sxva

50.20% 30.20%

4.80%

7.80%

7.00%

diagrama 2. telearxebi4 reitingi

am monacemebis mixedviT liderTa poziciebs inawileben ,,rusTavi 2" da ,,imedi". Sesabamisad maTSi reklamis fasebi yvelaze maRalia, saSualod wuTi 1500_2000$. radioSic moqmedebs analogiuri midgoma, rac ufro maRalreitingulia arxi, miT ufro maRalia masSi reklamis ganTavsebis fasebi. reklama Zalian did daaxarjebTan aris dakavSirebuli da igi gavlenas axdens gayidvebis moculobaze. amitomac, reklamis mniSvnelobis Seswavlisas aucilebelia SevexoT reklamas Teoriuli aspeqtiTac. naxazze 1 mocemulia reklamis efeqtis grafikuli analizi. sadac naTlad Cans rom amonagebi reklamis gareSe bevrad naklebia amonagebze reklamis SemTxvevaSi, rac gamowveulia reklamirebul produqciaze moTxovnis gazrdiT. imisaTvis, rom gagverkvia Tu rogori damokidebulebaa dRes saqarTveloSi reklamis mimarT CavatareT anketuri gamokiTxva. kvlevisaTvis avirCieT konkretuli produqti _ ludi da SevecadeT gamogvekvlia Tu ra gavlenas axdens reklamireba ludis gayidvebis moculobaze, amasTan miznad davisaxeT gagverkvia rogoraa ganwyobili mosaxleoba aRniSnuli produqtis mimarT, ras aqcevs yuradRebas misi SeZenisas da ramdenad axdens reklama gavlenas maT gadawyvetilebaze. Cvens mier gamokiTxul iqna orasi respondenti, romelTagan umravlesobas Seadgendnen 18-dan 25 wlamde asakis axalgazrdebi (43.5%).

74

P

sargebeli reklamiT (A1)

P1

MC

P0 AC0 sargebeli reklamis gareSe 00

AC1

MR0 Q0 Q1

D0

MR1

D1

Q

naxazi 1. reklamis efeqti kiTxvaze ,,xarT Tu ara ludis moyvaruli?" Sedegebi gadanawilda Semdegi saxiT: diax _ 66% (132), ara _ 34% (68) (ix. diagrama 4). kvleviT dadginda, rom ludis moyvarulTa procentuli maCvenebeli sakmaod maRalia, rac SeiZleba imiTac aixsnas, rom gamokiTxulTa 60% (120) aris mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgeneli, rogorc cnobilia, ludis moyvarulTa umravlesobas swored mamakacebi Seadgenen.

34% diax ara

66%

diagrama 4. ludisadmi damokidebuleba1

imis gasarkvevad, Tu romeli dasaxelebis ludi aris yvelaze popularuli, davsviT kiTxva: romeli dasaxelebis luds moixmarT yvelaze xSirad? Sedegis mixedviT lideri firma nataxtaria, romelsac upiratesobas aniWebs gamokiTxulTa 32%, Tu gaviTavaliswinebT imasac rom ,,tride" firma ,,nataxtaris" mier gamoSvebuli ludia, SegviZlia Tamamad davasvnaT, rom gamokiTxulTa umravlesoba _ 47% upiratesobas aniWebs firma ,,nataxtaris" mier gamoSvebul luds (ix. diagrama 5).

75

40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

32% 18% 14.00% 13% 15% 8%

nataxtari

yazbegi

hercogi

tride

lomisi

sxva

Ddiagrama 5. favoriti ludebi1

gamokiTxulTa reklamisadmi damokidebulebis gasarkvevad Cvens mier dasmul iqna SekiTxva: ,,aqcevT Tu ara ludis SeZenisas reklamas yuradRebas"? Sedegebi miviReT Semdegnairi: 65.5% aqcevs reklamas yuradRebas, xolo 34.5% ar aqcevs (ix. diagrama 6). rogorc vxedavT gamokiTxulTa umravlesoba reklamas did mniSvnelobas aniWebs. 34.50%

65.50%

diax ara

diagrama 6. reklamisadmi damokidebuleba1 reklamis moyvaruli respondentebis 71.6% upiratesobas aniWebs da ufro endoba telereklamas, 21% _ radioreklamas, xolo orive maTgani erTnairad misaRebia 6.4%-saTvis (ix. diagrama 7). 6.40% 21% telereklama radioreklama 71.60% orive

diagrama 7. sareklamo saSualebaTa sandoobis xarisxi 1 kvlevidanac naTlad Cans, rom telereklama ufro mniSvnelovania da sandoobis ufro maRali xarisxiT xasiaTdeba.

1 da diagrama 6 momzadebulia Cvens mier Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT

76

anketuri gamokiTxvis mixedviT dadginda, Tu romeli firmis tele da radio reklama moswons ufro momxmarebels. Sedegebis mixedviT rogorc tele, aseve radio reklamaSi lideria ,,nataxtari", misi reklama moswons gamokiTxulTa 35%-s, xolo radioreklama-42%-s.

45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

42% 35%

telereklama radioreklama

22.50% 17% 13% 10% 8% 17.50% 9.50% 6.50% 4% 4%

diagrama 8. firmebis reklamaTa reitingi

gamokiTxulTa 35% ludis biznesis warmatebul sferod gadaqcevis saSualebad miiCnevs ufro efeqtiani sareklamo kampaniis Catarebas.

50% 40% 30% 20%

44% 35.00% 28.50% 13.50% 5.50%

gaaumjobesos xarisxi Seamciros fasebi gazardos reklamireba Secvalos dizaini sxva

10%

0%

diagrama 9. ludis biznesis ganviTarebis gzebi1

aRniSnuli Sedegidan naTlad Cans, rom reklama mniSvnelovania da mas momxmarebeli did yuradRebas aqcevs. ismis kiTxva: rogor unda gadanawildes sareklamo biujeti tele da radio reklamebs Soris? aRniSnulis gasarkvevad Cvens mier zRvruli analizis saSualebiT Catarda ludis gayidvebis moculobaze tele da radio reklamis gavlenis analizi. radio reklama calke aRebuli naklebad zrdis gayidvebis moculobas, miuxedavad amisa, gayidvebis moculobis maqsimizaciis mizniT umjobesia sareklamo kampaniis 77

xarjebi gadanawildes tele da radio reklamaze. am SemTxvevaSi tele reklamaze daxarjuli damatebiTi Tanxis zRvruli efeqtianoba bevrad ufro naklebia, vidre radio reklamaze daxarjuli imave odenobis Tanxis damatebiTi zRvruli efeqtianoba. Sedegebma gviCvena, rom yovel erT litr ludze radio reklama zrdis gayidvebis moculobas 0.0095-iT, xolo telereklama 0.0075­iT. amrigad, tele da radio reklamis SeTanawyobiT izrdeba gayidvebis moculoba da Sesabamisad firmis mogeba. SeiZleba davaskvnaT rom: reklamis ganTavseba mizanSewonilia maRalreitingul sareklamo arxze. aRniSnuli ganapirobebs mosaxleobis farTo masebis informirebas, rac aisaxeba gayidvebis moculobis zrdaze. kvlevebiT dadginda, rom telereklama ufro mniSvnelovania da sandoobis ufro maRali xarisxiT xasiaTdeba, vidre radioreklama. respondentebis 71.6% upiratesobas aniWebs da ufro endoba pirvels, 21% _ radioreklamas, xolo orive maTgani erTnairad misaRebia 6.4%-saTvis radio reklamis zRvruli efeqtianoba aRemateba telereklamis zRvrul efeqtianobas, aRniSnulidan gamomdinare mniSvnelovania tele da radio reklamis erToblivi gamoyeneba gayidvebis moculobisa da Sesabamisad firmis mogebis zrdis uzrunvelsayofad. reklama mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs ,,nataxtaris" gayidvebis moculobis zrdaSi. aRniSnuls adasturebs kvlevis Sedegebi, gamokiTxulTa 65.5% ludis SeZenisas did mniSvnelobas aniWebs reklamas. favoriti sareklamo rgolebi ekuTvnis firma ,,nataxtars", kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT rogorc tele, aseve radio reklamaSi lideria ,,nataxtari", misi telereklama moswons gamokiTxulTa 35%-s, xolo radioreklama-42%-s.

gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. e. xaraiSvili, i. gagniZe, m. CavleiSvili, i. nacvliSvili, m. nacvalaZe, Tbilisi 2008. 2. a. qaTamiZe, media saSualebebis bazari da misi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi saqrTveloSi, Tbilisi 2007. 3. p. leiaSvili, ekonomiqsi, Tbilisi 2007. 4. kotleri, armstrongi, marketingi 5. www.geoeconomics.ge 6. www.media.ge 7. www.parliament.ge 8. www.rustavi2.com 9. www.statistic.ge 10. http://www.amp.aknet.kg/microeconomics/contents.htm

mikroekonomika,

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riskebi da dazRvevis imitaciuri modelebi1

naTia meliTauri Tsu bakalavri Mmecn-xelm: sruli prof. e. xaraiSvili ekonomikur literaturaSi arsebobs riskis mravali gansazRvreba. riski gulisxmobs iseT situacias, rodesac SeuZlebelia SedegTa winaswar ganWvreta. riski, umeteswilad, aris albaTuri kategoriis prognozi, romelic SeiZleba ganisazRvros absoluturi da SefardebiTi maCveneblebiT. pirveli gulisxmobs riskis gansazRvras danakargebis SesaZlo sididiT, materialur- nivTobriv (fizikur) an RirebulebiT (fulad) gamoxatulebaSi. xolo meore risks gansazRvravs SesaZlo danakargTa sididis SefardebiT bazasTan (qonebrivi mdgomareoba, resursebis saerTo danaxarjebi an mosalodneli Semosavali-mogeba). ekonomistebis azriT, adamianTa umravlesobas riski arasasurvelad miaCnia. maT ar aqvT midrekileba riskisadmi da mis srul likvidacias an Semcirebas cdiloben. arsebobs riskebis Semcirebis ramdenime gza; maTgan erT-erTia dazRveva. saqarTvelos sadazRvevo bazarze 2008 wlis mdgomareobiT 13 sadazRvevo kompania moRvaweobs. arsebuli kompaniebidan erTs, azerbaijanul "standart dazRveva saqarTvelos", romelmac licenzia 2007 wels miiRo, bazarze operireba jer kidev ar dauwyia. sadazRvevo kompaniebs Soris moziduli jamuri premiis maCveneblis mixedviT, pirvel adgilzea "aldagi-bisiai". kompaniam 2008 wels 62 mln laris premia miizida da am maCvenebliT sadazRvevo bazris 22,88%-s akontrolebs. meore adgilze 47 mln lariT "jipiai holdingia" da mas bazris 17,3% uWiravs, xolo mesameze 17,1%-iT "imedi el"-ia, romelmac 46,5 mln lari miizida. 2 Cveni kvlevis sfero qonebrivi riskebis dazRvevaa. igi moicavs: mosavlis dazRvevas, saTburebis dazRvevas, mecxoveleobis dazRvevas, Sinauri cxovelebis dazRvevas da sxv. dasaxelebulTagan imitaciuri modelebis Sesaqmnelad SevarCieT mosavlis dazRveva.3 soflis meurneobaSi mosavlis dazRvevis polisiT SeiZleba daizRves, rogorc erTwliani naTesebi, aseve mravalwliani nargavebi, xexilis baRebi,venaxebi da sxv. mravalwliani nargavebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia dazRveul iqnas mosalodneli mosavali da TviTon nargavebi. msoflioSi aRiarebuli meTodikis mixedviT, riskebis jgufisagan mosavlis dazRveva uzrunvelyofs usafrTxoebas da im sayrdens, rac fermerisTvisaa

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `mikroekonomikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili. 2 GBC, media holderis eqskluziuri informacia.

3

saqarTveloSi,mosavlis dazRvevis SemTxvevebis simciris gamo, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRniSnuli saxeobis dazRveva TiTqmis ar xdeba. sadazRvevo bazris lider kompanias- ,,aldagi-bisiais" mosavlis dazRvevis servisi saerTod ar aqvs.

79

aucilebeli sameurneo riskebis samarTavi programis SesamuSaveblad. am meTodikiT dazRvevis privilegiebi mdgomareobs SemdegSi: azRvevs adamianebis qonebas (aqtivebs); garantirebuli Semosavlis wyaroa mosavlis zaralis SemTxvevaSi; gulisxmobs mTavrobis mier subsidirebul premiebs (dazRvevis gadasaxadebs); iyenebs mxolod individualuri mosavlis maCveneblebs garantiis uzrunvelsayofad; erToblivi sesxebi aumjobesebs sesxunarianobas; iTvaliswinebs naadrevi da gviani Tesvis pirobebs; icavs investiciebs da danazogebs; gulisxmobs momaval investiciebs meurneobisaTvis. MPCI (mosavlis dazRvevis polisi) gvTavazobs mosavlis garantias, rac efuZneba individualuri fermeris mier ganxorcielebuli realuri warmoebis (mosavlianobis) maCveneblebs (APH). 1 dasafari riskebi sxvadasxva tipisaa kulturis saxeobebis mixedviT, magram, SesaZloa, gulisxmobdes iseTi saSiSi riskebisagan dacvas, rogoricaa: gvalva, wyaldidoba, mwerebi, mcenareTa daavadebebi, qariSxali da sxva saSiSi bunebrivi movlenebi. mosavlis dazRvevis pirobebi: 100% nayofiereba 0% 75/100 65/100 50/51 50/100 fasis done 100%

rogorc sqemidan Cans, SesaZlebelia mosavlis dazRveva maqsimaluri RirebulebiT, anu fasebis 100%-iani doniT, roca mosavlis raodenoba limitirebulia 50%-75% sazRvrebSi, 5%-iani zrdadobiT. katastrofebisagan dazRveva limitirebulia 50%-mde, Rirebulebis 55%-is pirobebSi. dazRveva SesaZlebelia mosavlis sxvadasxva saxeobebis mixedviT. magaliTad, SeiZleba daizRves: nuSi, vaSli, avokado, alubali, citrusebi, bamba, lobio, yurZeni, qliavi, brinji, mzesumzira, pomidori, kakali, xorbali, qeri, Svria da a.S. statistikuri monacemebis safuZvelze, Cven mier Seswavlil iqna fermerul meurneobebSi yurZnisa da xorblis saSualo mosavlianoba saqarTveloSi. gaviangariSeT qveyanaSi, dazRvevis MPCI polisis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, rogori iqneboda sadazRvevo kompaniis mier anazRaurebuli zaralebi mosavlisa da dafarvis (dazRvevis) sxvadasxva donis pirobebSi. aSS-s magaliTze SevqmeniT yurZnisa da xorblis mosavlis dazRvevis imitaciuri modelebi saqarTveloSi. xorblis mosavlis dazRvevis imitaciuri modeli. nebismieri miwis farTobi, romelic ganadgurda da aRar momxdara masze xelaxali daTesva (Tu masze xelaxali daTesva SesaZlebeli iyo dargvis vadis ukanasknel TariRamde mainc), miCneulia aradazRvevad zonad. aseve, aradazRvevadia: saSemodgomo xorbali, romelic daiTesa

1

www.rma.usda.gov/pubs/rme/fsh_6.html

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gvian, daTesvis bolo vadis (31 oqtomberi) Tan erTad aris daTesili. nayofierebis garantia efuZneba xorblis mebs. dafarvis doneebia: 50%, 55%, 60%, dafarva ganisazRvreba mTliani farTobiT da

Semdeg; xorbali, romelic sxva mosavalmosavlis saSualo nayofierebis monace65%, 70%, 75%. namdvili sadazRvevo ara TiToeul heqtarze.1

xorblis saSualo mosavlianoba wlebis mixedviT saqarTveloSi (t/ha)2 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 xorbali 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.2 1.7 1.5 saSualo mosavali (t/ha-ze) 2003-2007 wlebSi iqneba 1.675; 1 tona xorblis standartuli sabazro fasia 750 lari (xorblis fasi meryeobs wlis sxvadasxva sezonis mixedviT); bolo wlis mosavalia 1.5 t/ha-ze; dafarvis (dazRvevis) done aviRoT 75%. garantiis gansazRvra: saSualo mosavali*dafarvis moculobaze =garantia; 1.675 t/ha*75%=1.256 t/ha. yvela im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mosavlianoba 1.256 t/ha-ze naklebi iqneba, moxdeba sagarantio anazRaureba. sagarantio anazRaurebis moculobis gamoTvla: garantia_mosavali=warmoebis zarali (danakargi); 1.256t/ha_1.5t/ha=-0.244t/ha. am SemTxvevaSi, radgan mosavali metia, vidre garantia, anazRaureba aRar moxdeba. Tu warmoebis zarali iqneboda dadebiTi ricxvi, igi gadamravldeboda xorblis Rirebulebaze da miviRebdiT sagarantio anazRaurebas, anu Tanxis im raodenobas, romelsac gascemda sadazRvevo kompania zaralis asanazRaureblad. amave meTodiT gaviangariSoT Tanxis is raodenobebi, romelsac polisi ixdis TiToeul heqtarze, mosavlianobis sxvadasxva pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. miRebuli Sedegebi mocemulia 1-l cxrilSi.

cxrili 1

mosavali 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.5 0

1 2

75% 0 42 192 342 567 942

70% 0 0 130 280 505 880

dafarvis moculoba 65% 0 0 67 217 442 817

60% 0 0 4 154 379 754

55% 0 0 0 91 316 691

www.agrocropinsurance.com www.statistics.ge

81

MPCI polisiT SesaZlebelia, agreTve, katastrofebisagan dazRveva (CAT). CATis dafarva limitirebulia 50%-mde, maqsimaluri Rirebulebis 55%-is pirobebSi. zemoT moyvanili cifrebis mixedviT, xorblis mosavlis katastrofebisagan dazRvevis raodenoba iqneba: 1.675 t/ha*50%=0.82 t/ha; 1.5, 1.2, 1.0 t/ha-ze mosavlianobis raodenobebis dros araviTari gadaxda ar moxdeba. 0.8 t/ha-ze mosavlianobis dros sadazRvevo kompaniis mier anazRaurdeba 8.25 lari heqtarze. 0.82_0.80=0.02 (tona zarali heqtarze); 0.02*412.5=8.25 (lari anazRaureba heqtarze) (750*0.55=412.5, radgan dafarva maqsimaluri Rirebulebis pirobebSi xdeba). e.i. sadazRvevo kompania, am SemTxvevaSi, aanazRaurebs 8.25 lars heqtarze. analogiuri gamoTvliT miviRebT, rom 0.5 t/ha-ze mosavlianobis dros anazRaurdeba 132 lari heqtarze; 0 t/ha-ze mosavlianobis raodenobis dros anazRaurdeba 338.25 lari heqtarze. yurZnis mosavlis dazRvevis imitaciuri modeli. imisaTvis, rom vazi eqvemdebarebodes dazRvevas, dargvidan minimum 4 weli unda iyos gasuli, xolo, damynobidan _ 3 weli. unda dadgindes saSualo mosavlianobis minimumi heqtarze. mevenaxeebs SeuZliaT airCion sasurveli jiSis yurZeni da, survilisamebr, daazRvion jiSebis raodenoba. savaldebuloa daizRves miwis yvela heqtari, arCeuli TiToeuli jiSisaTvis. roca venaxebi qiravdeba mosavalze wilis miRebis pirobiT, meijaresac da moijaresac cal-calke an orives erTad SeuZliaT daazRvion TavianTi wili mTlian mosavalSi. mosavlianobis garantia eyrdnoba miRebuli da Cabarebuli produqciis saSualo monacems ukanaskneli aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi. axalgazrda venaxebisaTvis, an iseTi venaxebisaTvis, romelTaA monacemi Seadgens oTxi wlis Canawerebs, saSualo nayofiereba dgindeba inspeqciis mier, imave olqSi msgavsi venaxebis mixedviT. dafarvis maqsimaluri zRvari aris saSualo mosavlianobis 75%. SesaZlebelia, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65% da 70% dafarvis doneebi. garantia erT heqtarze mravldeba heqtrebis raodenobaze sxvadasxvagvari yurZnis jiSebis blokebis mixedviT. namdvili sadazRvevo dafarva aris erTeulebis da ara heqtrebis mixedviT.1 yurZnis saSualo mosavlianoba wlebis mixedviT saqarTveloSi (t/ha) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 yurZeni 4.0 3.6 4.9 3.2 4.5 3.9 saSualo mosavlianoba (t/ha-ze) 2003-2007 wlebSi iqneba 4.05; 1 tona yurZnis sabazro fasia 500 lari (ufro zustad, 1 kg yurZeni Rirs 0.43-0.45 lari); bolo wlis mosavlainobaa 3.9 t/ha-ze; dazRvevis done aviRoT 75%. garantia: 4.05*0.75=3.04; yvela im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mosavlianoba 3.04t/ha-ze naklebi iqneba, moxdeba sagarantio anazRaureba.

1

www.agrocropinsurance.com

82

sagarantio anazRaurebis moculoba: 3.04_3.9=-0.86 (t/ha). radgan mosavlis raodenoba aRemateba sagarantio raodenobas, ar moxdeba aranairi gadaxda. amave meTodiT gamovTvaloT Tanxis is raodenobebi, romelsac polisi gadaixdis TiToeul ha-ze, sxvadasxva mosavlianobis pirobebSi. miRebuli Sedegebi mocemulia me2 cxrilSi.

cxrili 2

dafarvis moculoba mosavali 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 3.5 0 0 0 0 0 2.9 70 0 0 0 0 2.5 270 165 65 0 0 1.9 570 465 365 265 165 0 1520 1415 1315 1215 1115 yurZnis mosavlis katastrofebisagan sazRvevis raodenoba iqneba: 4.05*0.50=2.03 (t/ha); ar moxdeba gadaxda mosavlis Semdegi raodenobebis dros: 3.5, 2.9, 2.5 t/ha-ze. 1.9 t/ha-ze mosavlis raodenobis dros anazRaurdeba 35.75 lari heqtarze; 2.03_1.9=0.13 (tona zarali heqtarze); 0.13*275=35.75 (lari anazRaureba heqtarze); 0 t/ha-ze mosavlis raodenobis dros anazRaurdeba 558.25 lari heqtarze. Amosavlis aRricxvianobis meTodebi. mosavlianobis kargi maCvenebeli zrdis mosavlis dazRvevis warmatebulobas. oTxi an meti wlis manZilze sertificirebuli realuri mosavalwarmoebis maCveneblebi (APH), mosavlis maCveneblebis saSualo ariTmetikuli (aT wlamde) Seadgens dazRvevis safuZvels. Tu ar arsebobs oTxi wlis sertificirebuli maCveneblebi, igi Sualeduri mosavliT Canacvldeba, ramac SesaZloa Seamciros dafarvis moculoba. sadazRvevo garantia swored am maCveneblebs eyrdnoba. monacemTa baza moicavs minimum oTx da maqsimum aTi wlis mosavlianobis maCveneblebs da farTobis raodenobebs. Tu ar moipoveba oTxi wlis realuri mosavlis maCvenebeli, aq Sualeduri mosavali Canacvldeba. Sualeduri "T" mosavlis moculoba aRebulia 1-3 wlis realur mosavalTan erTad 4 wlis monacemTa bazis Sesaqmnelad. Tu ar arsebobs aRniSnuli monacemebi, viRebT oTxi "T" mosavlis 65%-s. an: erTi realuri wlis mosavlis maCvenebeli da sami "T" mosavlis 80%; ori realuri wlis mosavlis maCveneblebi da ori "T" mosavlis 90%; sami realuri wlis mosavlis maCveneblebi da erTi "T" mosavlis 100%. Tu ar arsebobs zusti monacemebi ukanaskneli 4 wlis manZilze xorblis mosavlianobis Sesaxeb, oTxive wlisTvis vigebT "T" Sualedur mosavals. vTqvaT, cnobilia, rom TiToeuli wlis mosavlianoba ar aRemateba 1.5 tona/heqtars da metia 0.4 tona/heqtarze. am SemTxvevaSi SegviZlia aviRoT 1.5-isa da 0.4-is saSualos 65% TiToeuli wlisTvis. es udris 0.13 (0.2*0.65=0.13), e.i. saSualo mosavlianobaa 0.13 83

t/ha. 100%-iani zaralis anazRaurebis SemTxvevaSi anazRaurdeba 75 lari heqtarze (0.1*750=75). Tu gvaqvs mxolod ori realuri wlis mosavlis maCveneblebi, danarCeni ori wlis maCveneblebi Canacvldeba "T" Sualeduri mosavlianobiT. magaliTad, viciT, rom meore da meoTxe wels xorblis zusti mosavlianobaa 0.8 da 1.2 t/ha, aviRebT am monacemebs da pirveli da mesame wlis "T" Sualeduri mosavlianobis 90%-s. vTqvaT, dadginda, rom am wlebSi Sualeduri mosavlianoba aris 0.6 da 1.1 t/ha, maSin saSualo mosavlianoba iqneba: (0.8+1.2+0.6*0.90+1.1*0.90)/4=0.88 (t/ha). 75%-iani dafarvis donis da 100%-iani zaralis anazRurebis SemTxvevaSi anazRaureba Seadgens 495 lars heqtarze. rac ufro meti realuri mosavlianobis maCveneblebis sertificireba xdeba, miT maRalia asanazRaurebeli Tanxis raodenoba. me-3 cxrilis mixedviT, erTi wlis zusti monacemis damatebam asanazRaurebeli Tanxa 75 laridan 495 laramde gazarda. realuri mosavlianobis maCveneblebis serTificireba da asanazRaurebeli Tanxis raodenoba:

cxrili 3

maCveneblebis gareSe maCveneblebiT Ppirveli wlis mosavali 0.13 0.54 meore wlis mosavali 0.13 0.8 mesame wlis mosavali 0.13 0.99 meoTxe wlis mosavali 0.13 1.2 mTliani mosavali 0.52 3.53 saSualo mosavali 0.13 0.88 dafarvis done 75% 0.1 0.66 mosavlis dazRvevis Cven mier ganxiluli meTodika gacilebiT ufro efeqtians xdis fermeris saqmianobas da aZlevs mas moqnili meurneobis warmoebis saSualebas.

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qarTuli mineraluri da mtknari wylebis konkurentunarianoba1

qeTevan jibuti

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm. sruli prof. e.xaraiSvili saqarTvelos teritoria mdidaria mineraluri wylebis bunebrivi resursebiT, maTi fizikur-qimiuri maCveneblebis mravalferovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba gamovyoT mineraluri wylebis bunebrivi maxasiaTeblebi: 1. saerTo mineralizacia; 2. ionuri Semadgenloba; 3. temperatura; 4. airis Semcveloba da sxva. mtknari miwisqveSa wylebi warmoadgens yvelaze Zvirfas wiaRiseuls da yvelaze saimedod dacul wyaros. aseTi wylebis raodenobis mxriv saqarTvelo erT-erTi umdidresi qveyanaa. miwisqveSa mtknari wylebis udides nawils Seadgens­sasmeli wylebi (95%). sasmeli wylebi farTod, magram araTanabradaa gavrcelebuli saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze. maTi saerTo raodenobis 63.4% modis dasavleT saqarTveloze, 24.1% aRmosavleT saqarTveloze, xolo 12.5% samxreT saqarTveloze. bunebrivi resursebis siuxvidan gamomdinare mineraluri da mtknari wylebis Camomsxmeli sawarmoebis ricxvi sakmod didia. adgilobriv bazarze erTmaneTs konkurencias uwevs daaxloebiT TxuTmetamde kompania, maTgan aRsaniSnavia: mineraluri wylebis warmoeba ,,GG&MW", ss ,,wyali margebeli"; samkurnalo-sufris mineraluri wylebis Sps ,,sairme mineral voters", Sps ,,sicocxlis wyaro"; sufris wylebis Camomsxmeli Sps ,,koka-kola boTlers jorjia"; Sps ,,progresi 2000" da a.S. produqciis mravalferovnebis TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia ,,GG&MW", romelic awarmoebs rogorc mineralur, mineralur-sufris, aseve sufris wylebis Camosxmas. TiToeuli saxis produqciis warmoebas igi axdens sxvadasxva qarxanaSi. dReisaTvis Qq. borjomSi 3 Camomsxmeli qarxanaa. #1 qarxanaSi saSualod weliwadSi minis boTlebSi 200 mln boTlis Camosxma xorcieldeba, #2 qarxanaSi - plastmasis 150 mln boTli, xolo #3 qarxanaSi xorcieldeba ,,likanis" Camosxma. amis Sesabamisad borjomis xeobaSi 3 saeqsploatacio WaburRili mdebareobs, romlis nomeri da mdebareoba produqciis etiketzea miTiTebuli. yoveli WaburRili TviTCamosxmis reJimSi funqcionirebs, e.i. moipoveba wylis zustad is raodenoba, rac miwis zedapirze mxolod bunebrivi gziT amodis. kompamniis ZiriTadi produqti aris mineraluri wyali ,,borjomi", romelsac warmoebis moculobis mixedviT pirveli adgili ukavia qarTul mineralur wylebs Soris. igi agreTve gamoirCeva metad originaluri da iSviaTi SemadgenlobiT, mas xSirad adareben viSis (safrangeTis) mineralur wyals. meore umsxvilesi mwarmoebeli mineraluri wylebisa qarTul sabazro sivrceSi aris ss ,,wyali margebeli". igi 1998 wels gamoCnda bazarze erTlitriani plastikisa da

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `mikroekonomikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

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naxevarlitriani SuSis boTliT. dRes kompania bazarze warmodgenilia Semdegi mineraluri wylebiT: ,,nabeRlavis" 0.5 l minis, 0.5 l, 1.0 l PET da wyaros wylis ,,baxmaros" 0.5 PET, 1.5 PET, 5.0 PET, 19.0 PET tevadobis tariT. ,,nabeRlavis" mineraluri wyali naxSirmJavahidrokarbonatul-natrium-kalciumiani tipis wylebs miekuTvneba. ,,nabeRlavis" wylis sabadoebi ganlagebulia Coxatauris raionis sof. nabeRlavSi qarxnis teritoriaze, rac saSualebas iZleva qarxanaSi wyali TviTdinebiT Sevides. saaqcio sazogadoeba ,,wyali margebeli" dReisaTvis amuSavebs 2 qarxanas. sawarmoo procesis gaumjobesebisaTvis man 2004 wels SeiZina Camomsxmeli xazi germanuli lideri mwarmoeblisgan ,,krosme-krones"-sagan. aman saSualeba misca kompanias maqsimalurad aeTvisebina damtkicebuli maragebi da adgilobriv bazarze momxmarebelTa didi raodenoba moezida. aRniSnulze metyvelebs internet gamokiTxvis Sedegebi, romlis mixedviTac momxmarebelTa daaxloebiT 56% upiratesobas swored ,,nabeRlavs" aniWebs.1

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3% 2% 23% 3% 56%

13%

warmoebuli produqciis raodenobis mixedviT mesame adgili uWiravs kompania ,,progresi 2000"-s, romelic axorcielebs hidrokarbonatul-kalciumiani, aragazirebuli wylis ,,raWis wyaroebis" Camosxmas. kompania bazarze warmodgenilia 0.5 l, 1.5 l, 5.0 l PET boTlebiT, misi mineralizaciaa 0.36-0.44 gr/l da weliwadSi saSualod, adgilobriv bazarze, 1.2 mln boTlis (0.5 l) realizacias axorcielebs. Sps ,,progresi 2000"-is konkurentad SeiZleba ganvixiloT ,,koka-kola biTlers jorjia", romelic awarmoebs aragazirebuli sufris wyals ,,BONAQUA". misi mineralizacia ar aRemateba 0.55 gr/l-s da bazarze warmodgenilia 0.5 l da 1.5 l plastmasis tariT. rac Seexeba samkurnalo-sufris wylis Camosxmas Sps ,,sicocxlis wyaros", mis mier iwarmoeba hidrokarbonatuli-kalcium-magniumiani mineraluri wyali ,,flate", romlis saerTo mineralizaciaa 1.7-2.7 gr/l. xolo Sps ,,sairme mineral voters"-is mier warmoebuli gazirebuli mineraluri wyali ,,sairme"-s mineralizaciaa 2.4­5.0 gr/l, da isxmeba 1.0l PET boTlSi. kompania ZiriTadad orientirebulia adgilobriv bazarze da wliurad daaxloebiT 500000 boTlis realizacias anxorcielebs.

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gamokiTxva Catarda 20.03-dan 26.03-mde 2008 wels. gamokiTxulia 1182 momxmarebeli.

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sabazro koniuqturis gaTvaliswinebisa da warmoebis bunebriv ekonomikuri pirobebidan gamomdinare, aucilebelia ganisazRvros ra saxeobisa da odenobis produqciis warmoebaa SesaZlebeli qveyanasa da mocemul regionSi. es, Tavis mxriv, xels Seuwyobs konkurentunariani produqciis warmoebas, romelic gankuTvnili iqneba rogorc adgilobrivi, aseve saerTaSoriso bazrebisaTvis. produqciis xarisxi da saerTaSoriso bazarze misi konkurentunarianoba gansazRvravs mis saeqsporto potencials. am TvalsazrisiT mineraluri wylebis warmoebas erT-erTi wamyvani pozicia ukavia saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros monacemebis mixedviT, 2005 wels ZiriTadi saeqsporto produqciis aTeulSi Sedioda mineraluri wylebi, romlis Rirebuleba iyo 32.5 mln aSS dolari. swored am wels dafiqsirda, bolo eqvsi wlis manZilze eqsportirebuli mineraluri wylebis didi moculoba raodenobriv gamosaxulebaSi. saqarTvelos statistikis saxelmwifo departamentis monacemebis mixedviT am maCvenebelma 33.0 mln. litrs miaRwia. 1 2006 wlisaTvis kompania ,,GG&MW" 235 mln boTlis warmoebas varaudobda, rac wina welTan SedarebiT 50%-ian zrdas warmoadgenda. produqciis 80% gadioda eqsportze, xolo 65% rusuli bazrisTvis iyo gankuTvnili. ruseTis bazarze arsebuli 700 saxis mineralur wyals Soris ,,GG&MW" kompaniis mier warmoebul produqcias ,,borjoms" gayidvebis mixedviT mesame adgili ekava. igi CamorCeboda mxolod ,,BONAQUA"_sa da ,,AQUA MINERALE"-s. 2005 wels kompania ,,GG&MW" mTlianma amonagebma 120 mln dolari Seadgina. 2006 wlis maisSi ruseTis mier mineraluri wylebis importis akrZalvam sagrZnoblad Seamcira eqsportis moculoba.

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 19675 19305 24048 32481 25354

saqarTvelos statistikis saxemwifo departamentis cnobiT 2005 wels ,,borjomis" mwarmoebelma saqarTvelos minisa da mineraluri wylebis kompaniam ruseTSi 22.1 mln aSS dolaris Rirebulebis produqcia Seitana. 2006 wlis pirveli sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi ki _ 7.7 mln aSS dolaris Rirebulebis. am akrZalvis Sedegad mineraluri wylebis mwarmoeblebma sagareo bazris mniSvnelovani nawili dakarges, razec metyvelebs statistikis departamentis monacemebi ruseTis bazarze akrZaluli produqciis eqsportis Sesaxeb.2

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saqarTvelos statistikis saxemwifo departamenti. kvartaluri biuleteni. Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 39. statistikuri biuleteni #34. sasursaTo uzrunvelyofis mdgomareoba. tendenciebi cifrebSi. Tbilisi, 2008w, gv. 8.

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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 33 24,2 15,6 10,6 3,8 1,3 2002 6,3 1,7 2003 6 0,7 2004 0,9 2005 4,2 1,6 2006 2,7 1,8 2007 21,7 21,6 15,1 10,2 3 2008 24,6

miuxedavad ekonomikuri sanqciebis dawesebiT warmoqmnili siZneleebisa ,,borjomis" eqsporti ukrainaSi 50%-iT gaizarda, azerbaijanSi - 60%-iT, aseve gavida axal bazrebze (CexeTi, bulgareTi, monRoleTi, uzbekeTi, tajikeTi da a.S.). 2007 wels saqarTvelos minisa da mineraluri wylebis kompaniam Tavisi produqcia (borjomi, borjomis wayaroebi, likani, bakuriani) 130 milion boTlamde awarmoa, romlis 80% eqsportirebul iqna. ss ,,wyalma margebelma" warmoebuli produqtis mxolod 20% gaitana saeqsportod. rac Seexeba raWis wyaroebs, Coxataursa da sairmis mineralur wylebs, maTi realizacia adgilobriv bazarze moxda. meoce saukunis 80-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi yovelwliurad Camoisxmeboda daaxloebiT 400­500 milioni (0.5 l) boTli mineraluri wyali, maT Soris 300­350 milioni boTli ,,borjomi", romlis 30%-s iTvisebda saqarTvelo, xolo danarCenis eqsportireba xorcieldeboda yofil sabWoTa respublikebSi da sazRvargareT (10-12 mln boTli). 1991 wlidan warmoiqmna falsifikaciis problema, am periodidan Semcirda mineraluri wylebis Camomsxmeli qarxnebis sawarmoo simZlavre da faqtobrivad Sewyda zogierTis miwodeba armarto ucxoeTis, aramed adgilobriv bazarze. aman xeli Seuwyo falsificirebuli produqciis warmoebasa da realizacias. negatiur Sedegebze metyvelebs 1990-1995 wlebSi mineraluri wylebis Camomsxmeli qarxnebis sawarmoo simZlavreebis Semcireba. adgilobrivi sawarmoebi moumzadeblebi aRmoCdnen sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi muSaobisaTvis. warmoebis Semcirebis ZiriTadi mizezebi am periodSi iyo minis taris ukmarisoba, energomatareblebis simcire (igulisxmeba energia da sawvavi), ar xdeboda kooperativebis mier Camosxmuli mineraluri wylebis raodenobis Sesaxeb informaciis mopoveba, savaWro obieqtebze produqciis Senaxvis aradamakmayofilebeli pirobebi, sarealizacio bazrebis uqonloba da a.S. 1996 wlidan iwyeba saqarTveloSi mineraluri wylebis warmoebis aRmasvla. 2002 wels Camoisxa 80.45 mln boTli mineraluri wyali. TandaTanobiT farTovdeboda produqciis asortimenti. am periodSi aTvisebuli iyo dabali mineralizaciis sasmeli wylebis warmoeba. 2006 wels ki ruseTis bazarze xelovnurad warmoqmnilma barierebma xeli Seuwyo falsificirebuli produqciis warmoebasa da realizacias. falsifikaciis procesis dawyebis

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erT-erTi mTavar mizezad 90-ian wlebSi SeiZleba miviCnioT mineralur wyal ,,borjomze" moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris warmoqmnili disbalansi. dReisTvis ki gansakuTrebulad mwvaved dgas falsifikaciis problema saqarTvelos farglebs gareT. amJamad ramdenime firma awarmoebs falsificirebuli produqciis Camosxmas ,,borjomis" etiketiT. realizdeba rogorc naturaluri mineraluri an ,,borjomis" tipis mineralizebuli wyali. 2006 wels kompania «- »-ma daiwyo mineraluri wyali ,,"-is gayidva, romlis etiketic zustad imeorebda amave bazarze sakmaod cnobili qarTuli mineraluri wylis ,,borjomis" etikets. misi Rirebuleba ar aRemateba 20 rubls, qarTuli mineraluri wylebis akrZalvamde ,,borjomis" Rirebuleba ki 30 rubls Seadgenda. mineraluri wyali ,,"-is etiketis Secvlamde aRniSnuli produqcia isxmeboda ramdenime arc Tu ise didi kompaniebis mier. etiketis Secvla moxda 2006 wlis aprilSi da gayidvebis moculoba rusul bazarze 100 aTass ar aRemateboda TveSi. meore kompania romelic Seecada daekavebina ,,borjomis" sabazro sivrce rusul bazarze iyo ,, ", romelmac daiwyo mineraluri wyali ,,-26" Camosxma. igi imeorebda ara marto etikets, aramed dasaxelebac TiTqmis igive hqonda, rac qarTul produqcias. minisa da mineraluri wylebis kompaniam saarbitraJo sasamarTloSi Seitana sarCeli saaqcio sazogadoeba ,, "-is winaaRmdeg, raTa aekrZala saqarTvelos minisa da mineraluri wylebis kompaniis kuTvnili sasaqonlo niSnis gamoyeneba, kerZod kombinirebuli saxelwodeba, romelic Sedgeba sityvebiT ,," da ,,", aseve TaRebiani Senoba da Sadrevani mwvane mTebis fonze. qarTuli kompaniis moTxovna iyo am sasaqonlo niSnis mqone produqciis warmoebis SeCereba, savaWro qselidan amoReba. kompaniis moTxovna sasamarTlom daakmayofila. 2006 wels ruseTis bazris 12.3% ekava qarTul mineralur wyal ,,borjoms" xolo amave wlis mais-ivnisSi bazridan produqciis sruliad gaqrobiT moqmed kompaniebs gayidvebis moculoba gaezardaT. magaliTad: ,," 1%-iT gaizarda, ,, ", ,,Perrier" da ,," zrdam 1% Seadgina, ,,BonAqua" - 2%, ,, "-1,3%, ,,Aqua Minerale"-1%. rac Seexeba ,,-26" da ,," analitikuri saagento ,, "-s monacemebSi, es produqcia saerTod ar aRmoCnda maTi mcire sabazro wilis gamo, Tumca ,,minisa da mineraluri wylebis kompania" maT sabazro wils 0.0007%-mde afasebs. zemoT ganxiluli orive SemTxveva asortimentuli da RirebulebiTi falsifikaciis naTel magaliTs warmoadgens. vinaidan asortimentili falsifikaciis dros xdeba garegnuli da Tvisebrivi niSnebiT namdvili produqciis mibaZva. xolo RirebulebiTis dros falsificirebuli produqti gacilebiT iafia namdvilTan SedarebiT. falsifikaciiT gamowveuli Sedegebi SeiZleba sakmaod mZime aRmoCndes rogorc momxmareblisaTvis aseve mwarmoebeli firmisTvis. falsificirebuli produqti ufro naklebi TviTRirebulebisaa amitom maT saSualeba eZlevaT daikavon bazris garkveuli nawili. es xels uwyobs arajansaR konkurencias, naturaluri produqciis mwarmoeblisaTvis warmoiqmneba barierebi, rac aferxebs produqciis realizacias. mtknari da mineraluri wylebis warmoeba saqarTveloSi erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi samewarmeo saqmianobaa, romelic regulirdeba saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros mier miwis wiaRiT sargeblobis licenziis gacemiT. licenziaSi miTiTebulia is pirobebi, romelic xels Seuwyobs SezRuduli bunebrivi simdidris optimalur gamoyenebas.

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dReisaTvis sabadoebis debetebis sadReRamiso damtkicebuli maragebis bolomde aTviseba jerjerobiT ver xerxdeba. es ZiriTadad gamowveulia adgilobrivi bazris simciriT, ucxour bazrebze xelovnurad warmoqmnili barierebiT, falsifikaciiT da bevri sxva damabrkolebeli faqtorebiT. amave dros gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom sabazro ekonomikis dinamikur garemoSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba mwarmoebeli firmebis konkurentul upiratesobebs da maT gamoyenebas. konkurentuli upiratesobebi ki Tavis mxriv efuZneba: mecnierul-teqnikur miRwevebs da maT danergvas warmoebaSi; saerTaSoriso standartebis serTifikatebis miRebas; axali sasaqonlo niSnebis da etiketis Seqmnas; produqciis fasebs (rogorc saSinao aseve saerTaSoriso bazrebze) warmoebuli produqciis mravalferovnebis gazrdas da a.S. konkurentul upiratesobaTa ricxvis zrda aucilebelia ara marto adgilobriv bazarze lideri firmebisaTvis, aramed yvela mwarmoeblisaTvis. es xels Seuwyobs jansaRi konkurenciis ganviTarebas da saSualebas miscems firmebs Tavisuflad aiTvison ucxouri bazrebi. sakuTari resursuli potencialis gaTvaliswinebiT saqarTvelos SeuZlia mineraluri da mtknari wylebis erT-erTi wamyvani eqsportiori qveyana gaxdes msoflioSi.

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evropis biznes angelozTa qseli da saqarTvelo1

nino patariZe lili wverava salome samxaraZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. S. SaburiSvili

ukanasknel aTwleulebamde `angelozi~ investorebi damoukideblad, faqtobrivad erTmaneTisagan izolirebulad muSaobdnen. amJamad mdgomareoba radikalurad Seicvala _ investorebma daiwyes gaerTianebebis (ZiriTadad asociaciebis) Seqmna. 2 biznesangelozTa asociaciebis (gaerTianebebis) Semdegi formebi arsebobs: 1. `TiToeuli TavisTvis~; 2. gaerTianeba demokratiuli wesebiT; 3. `erTi yvelasaTvis, yvela erTisaTvis~.3 pirveli tipis gaerTianeba _ faqtobrivad aris wevr investorTa anu biznesangelozTa Sekreba. gaerTianebis wevrTa kreba ixilavs mewarmeTa mier dasafinanseblad warmodgenil proeqtebs da axdens maT gadarCevas. mas Semdeg, rac biznes-angelozebi gaecnobian samewarmeo proeqtebs, isini erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad iReben gadawyvetilebas SerCeuli proeqtis dafinansebis Sesaxeb. aseve, damoukideblad awyoben Sexvedrebs da molaparakebebs mewarmeebTan. am tipis asociaciis xelmZRvaneloba ar monawileobs mewarmeebis da `biznes-angelozebis~ urTierTobaSi. misi funqcia aris investiciuri garigebebis moculobebis zrda. meore tipis gaerTianebas hyavs aRmasrulebeli direqtori, romelic saqmis warmoebaze agebs pasuxs. mis StatSi SeiZleba iyos daqiravebuli muSakebi. maTTan erTad aRmasrulebeli direqtori ixilavs mewarmeTa ganacxadebas. xSirad biznesangelozebi TviTon sTavazoben gaerTianebis direqcias sasurvel proeqtebs. proeqtis damfinansebeli investorebi ayalibeben SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebas. gaerTianeba `erTi yvelasaTvis da yvela erTisaTvis,~ muSaobs venCuruli firmis formatSi. mas StatSi hyavs profesionali menejerebi, romlebic marTaven biznez-angelozebis kapitals. gaerTianebis menejeris rols xSirad asrulebs misi komiteti, romelSic gaerTianebis wevrebi Sedian. aRniSnuli komiteti detalurad ecnoba mewarmeebis biznes gegmebs da maT proeqtebs. am tipis gaerTianebebSi mewarmeebi awyoben proeqtis prezentacias, xolo dafinansebis sakiTxi kenWisyriT wydeba.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili. 2 S. SaburiSvili, rogor vipovoT `biznes-angelozi~ saqarTveloSi. Jurn. biznesi da kanonmdebloba, 2008, #9, gv. 32-36. 3 . . , . . , . , . . , -. , , «», 2009.

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Tu investorTa umravlesobam gadawyvita warmodgenili proeqtis (proeqtebis) dafinanseba, maSin iqmneba dafinansebis fondi. biznes-angelozebis formaluri gaerTianebebis garda arseboben araformaluri gaerTianebebi. maTi Semadgenloba mcirericxovania (6-7 kaci). isini araformalur viTarebaSi ixilaven sainvesticio garigebebis SemoTavazebas, iReben dafinanseba-ardafinansebis gadawyvetilebebs da inawileben movaleobebs.1 biznes-angelozebi xSirad sindikatis formiT erTiandebian. es sindikatebi TiTqos venCurul firmebs waagavs, magram maTgan gansxvavebiT ufro mobiluria. ara aqvs rTuli da mouqneli mmarTvelobiTi struqtura. rodesac biznes-angelozebi TviTon xelmZRvaneloben sindikats, maSin isini venCurul fondebTan SedarebiT naklebxarjiania da samarTavadac martivi. sindikatSi 100 da meti investoric ki Sedis. masSi, Tavis mxriv, asociaciebi da kavSirebia gaerTianebuli.2 dResdReobiT, mTeli msoflios masStabiT arsebobs angelozTa uamravi asociacia: 2001-2003 wlebSi 300000-600000-mde `angelozTa" jgufebma Seqmnes adgilobrivi organizaciebi, 10-dan 150-mde akreditebuli investori dainteresda damwyeb firmebSi investirebiT. `angelozTa" pirveli asociacia Seiqmna inglisSi: ­ European Business Angel Association, romelic aerTianebs 27 wevrs; Angel Capital Association (ACA) - angelozuri kapitalis asociaciaa, romelic daarsda 2004 wels aSS-sa da kanadis angelozTa sainvesticio jgufebis mier. dRes is aerTianebs 165 angelozTa jgufsa da 22 organizacias. msoflioSi arsebul `angelozTa~ asociaciebs Soris erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani da cnobilia evropis komisiis xelSewyobiT 1999 wels dafuZnebuli evropis binznes _ angelozTa qseli (EBAN) (ix. Naxazi 1). igi warmoadgens biznesangelozTa interesebs da damwyebi firmebis dafinansebis wyaroa. amJamad EBAN aerTianebs 26 qveynis 87 organizacias, warmoadgens daaxloebiT 250 korporaciul da 10000-ze met individ angelozs mTels evropaSi.3 EBAN-is funqcionireba da urTirTobebi mewarme-subieqtebTan evropis biznes-angelozTa qselis mTavari miznebia: sawyisi kapitaliT evropuli biznesis uzrunvelyofa; kvlevebis Caatareba, faqtebis da tendenciebis analizi; saukeTeso praqtikis identificireba da gaziareba; damwyebi sawarmoebisTvis biznes _ angelozTa qselis rolisa da xilvadobis gazrda; sawarmoebSi sinergizmisa da qseluri SemTxvevebis ricxvis gazrda; evropaSi profesiuli zrda-ganviTarebis xelSewyoba;

1

2 3

. , . . -, , «», 2008. . ., . ., -, , «», 2008.

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saerTaSoriso biznes-angelozebisa da damwyebi sawarmoebis saqmianobis xelSewyoba. nax. 1.

mewarme

biznes-angelozi

qselTan kontaqti

investiciebis miwodeba _ moTxovnis dakavSireba

qselTan kontaqti

biznes-winadadebebis analizi, proeqtis investorisTvis wardgena reziumes momzadeba investorisTvis investorTan molaparakebis momzadebis programa proeqtis prezentaciis momzadeba

biznes-treningi

reziumes da bizneswinadadebis analizi

investiciuri prioritetebis indentifikacia biznes-angelozTa CarTva monacemTa bazaSi

investiciuri garigebebi

biznes-angelozis monawileoba prezentaciebSi, forumebSi da a.S.

Tanadafinansebis programa

dasaxelebuli asociaciis prezidentia entoni klarki, romelic aseve aris britaneTis biznes _ angelozTa gaerTianebis prezidenti. vice-prezidenti gaxlavT frangi qalbatoni brijit baumeni, romelic amave dros sakmaod warmatebuli dizaineri da moqmedi `angelozia~. mas ekuTvnis Zalian saintereso formula biznesangelozebze: A Business Angel = Heart and Money + Brain qalbaton brijitis azriT, `angelozi~ warmoudgenelia fulis, gulisa da tvinis gareSe.1

1

www.eban.org

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EBAN-is mmarTvelobiTi struqtura 3 sxadasxva rgols moicavs: generaluri asambleis wevrebi (52 sruluflebiani wevri), direqtorTa sabWo (19 wevri), aRmasrulebeli komiteti (6 wevri). asociaciis wevrebi arian: transnacionaluri, nacionaluri, regionuli da adgilobrivi biznes _ angelozTa qselebi; damwyebi firmebi; sxva organizaciebi, romlebic exmarebian damwyeb firmebs; biznes _ angelozTa qselis federaciebi. EBAN-Si Semavali qveynebis asociaciebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia ganviTarebis gansxvavebuli doneebi. am mxriv yvelaze srulyofili sistema aqvs gaerTianebul samefos, warmodgenils 34 asociaciiTa da asobiT qseliT; aseve kargad ganviTarebuli sistemebi gaaCnia safrangeTs, germanias, SvedeTs, belgias, fineTs, niderlandebs; SedarebiT mcire moTamaSeebi arian italia, espaneTi da portugalia; xolo umciresi bazrebi aqvs saberZneTsa da portugalias. 2006 wlidan moyolebuli EBAN yovel wels atarebs dajildovebis ceremonials. jildoebi gaicema sxvadasxva nominaciaSi. magaliTad, 2008 wels saukeTeso gundis wodeba moipova Greater London Enterprise (UK); wlis saukeTeso biznes-angelozi gaxda Sotladieli nelson grei, saukeTeso sindikati - SvedeTis venCuruli kapitalis asociacia; xolo saukeTeso axali iniciativa - The ready for equity, project (EU). 2008 wels gamarTul `finansuri inovaciis~ forumze ki Tavad EBAN-ma miiRo jildo wevr `angelozTa~ Soris dadebiTi gamocdilebis gaziarebisaTvis. EBAN-s mWidro kavSiri aqvs evrogaerTianebis administraciasTan, aseve dialogs awarmoebs evropis komisiis warmomadgenlebTan da evroinvestirebis fondTan. evrokomisiis mier organizebul `finansuri inovaciis" forumze miiRes deklaracia, romelic cnobs biznes-angelozTa mzard rols da rekomendacias uwevs maT, rogorc biznesis ganviTarebis adreul etapze saukeTeso, aprobirebul saSualebas. esDdeklaracia damtkicda evropis ministrTa sabWos mier. 2008 wels EBAN-ma partnioruli SeTanxmeba gaaforma 4 organizaciasTan: angelozebis kapitalis asociacia (ACA), mecnieruli biznesi, mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis saerTaSoriso qseli (INSME), menejmentis ganviTarebis upiratesobis saerTaSoriso qseli (EFMD). asociaciis wevrebisaTvis es partniorebi warmoadgens mzard SesaZleblobebs, romelTac aqvT unari Sevidnen axal miznobriv auditoriebSi, moipovon informacia uaxles movlenebze, gaxdnen adgilobriv gaerTianebebis wevrebi da a.S. 2008 wels EBAN-is sponsorebi iyvnen: PERA - The INOVATION NETWORK, konsaltinguri kompania teqnologiur ganviTarebasa da industriaSi, romelic daarsebulia did britaneTSi; ANGELSOFT - amerikuli kompania lideri kompiuterul teqnologiebSi; Greater London Interprise (GLE) - komerciuli da konstitucionaluri, damoukidebeli ekonomikuri ganviTarebis kompania; regionaluri ganviTarebis evropuli asociacia (EURADA), daarsebuli briuselSi. 94

evropis biznes-angelozTa bazrebze SeiniSneba Semdegi tendenciebi: garigebebis mzardi tendencia, magram individi investorebis mier investirebis klebadi moculoba; meti mcire zomis investicia; investirebis mzardi done sindikatebSi; biznes-angelozebis mxridan izrdeba paketirebuli garigebebis ricxvi; bazris organizeba. asociaciaSi Semavali qselebi sxvadasxva gziT zrdian angelozur investiciebze moTxovnas: investirebis programebi, investorTa programebi da sindikatebi. investirebis programebi iTvaliswinebs sawarmoebis momzadebas investirebisTvis. magaliTad, biznes-gegmebis momzadeba, treiningebi, prezentaciebi da a.S. SesaZlebelia struqturuli programebic. investorTa programebi gulisxmobs maT ganaTlebas `angelozebis~ investiciebis sferoSi: rCevebi, Sexvedrebi arsebul angelozebTan, sagadasaxado sistemis Seswavla; sindikati ­ angelozTa jgufi, romlebic erTad afinanseben. evropaSi biznes-angelozTa asociaciebis raodenoba wlidan wlamde izreba. Tu 2000 wels maTi ricxvi mxolod 125 iyo, 2005 wlisTavis ukve 225 asociacia arsebobda. 2008 wlis monacemebiT ki maTma ricxvma 297-s miaRwia. amave wels EBAN-ma gaanaliza 170 maTganidan miRebuli informacia da miiRo Semdegi monacemebi: yvelaze bevri `angelozTa~ qseli arsebobda safrangeTSi (54), did britaneTSi (22), SotlandiaSi (18); yvelaze meti garigeba daido SotlandiaSi (388), safrangeTsa (214) da italiaSi (102); yvelaze meti qseluri biznes-angelozia SotlandiaSi (4991), safrangeTsa (3600) da portugaliaSi (1904), xolo yvelaze meti investicia ganaxorcieles didi britaneTis (73 071 506 evro), Sotlandiisa (41 304 000 evro) da safrangeTis (37 000 000 evro) `angelozebma~.1 EBAN-Si Semavali asociaciebis mier mTeli msoflios masStabiT xorcieldeba uamravi damwyebi firmisa da biznes-ideis dafinanseba. erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi EBANis wevri asociaciebi da qselebi aTasobiT firmasa da biznes ideas afinanseben. marTalia, am organizaciebis saqmianobis umravlesoba warumateblad mTavrdeba, magram arsebobs iseTi firmebic, romlebmac Zalian did warmatebebs miaRwies mTeli msoflios masStabiT. magaliTad, Skype, Apple, amazon.com, Google, HP, DELL, The Body Shop, Alter Eco, Vista Print, innocent da a.S. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos prezidentis samecniero grantebi axalgazrda mecnierTaTvis proeqtis _ `angelozebis~ roli qarTuli biznesis ganviTarebaSi, romlis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciaa ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, xolo donori _ saqarTvelos erovnuli samecniero fondi _ farglebSi dagegmilia `saqarTvelos biznes-angelozTa asociaciis~ Seqmna. asociaciis miznebi iqneba: _ saqarTveloSi perspeqtiuli saqmiani ideebis praqtikuli realizaciis SesaZleblobebis gazrda;

1

www.eban.org 95

_ saqarTveloSi biznes-angelozebis saqmianobis xelsayreli ekonomikuri da samarTlebrivi garemos formirebis xelSewyoba; _ biznes-angelozebis institutis ganviTareba da maTi interesebis dacva; _ saxelisuflebo organoebSi, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebsa da samewarmeo wreebSi asociaciis wevrebis interesebis warmodgena; _ biznes-angelozebs Soris sasargeblo kontaqtebis, informaciis gacvla da gamocdilebis gaziareba; _ saqarTvelos da ucxoeTis biznes-angelozebs Soris TanamSromlobis koordinacia; _ biznes-angelozebis da investiciebis maZieblebis kvalifikaciis amaRleba; _ biznes-angelozebis konferenciebis, seminarebis, forumebis da bazrobebis Catareba; _ biznes-angelozebis sainvesticio SesaZleblobebis gaerTianebis xelSewyoba da koleqtiuri investirebis formebis ganviTareba; _ biznes-angelozebisa da mewarmeebis daxmareba inovaciuri proeqtebis marTvaSi, maTi uzrunvelyofa kvalificiuri sakonsultacio momsaxurebiT da kadrebiT; _ perspeqtiuli samewarmeo ideebis moZieba da eqspertiza (SerCeva, winaswari Seswavla, detaluri Semowmeba, monitoringi); _ biznes-angelozTa adgilobrivi qselebis Seqmna da ganviTareba; _ biznes-angelozTa saerTaSoriso qselebSi integrireba. asociaciis mTavari prioriteti iqneba evropis biznes-angelozTa qselsa da evropis venCuruli kapitalis asociaciaSi gawevrianeba, rac xels Seuwyobs saqarTveloSi `saTesle~ investiciebis sferoSi mowinave saerTaSoriso gamocdilebis gaziarebas, evropul institutebSi integracias, erToblivi proeqtebis ganxorcielebasa da maRalteqnologiuri ucxouri investiciebis mozidvas. asociaciisa da universitetis bazaze Sesabamisi samagistro programis momzadebiT, agreTve, treningebis organizebiTa da konsaltingis sxva formebis gamoyenebiT ganxorcieldeba inovaciuri menejmentis sferoSi specialistTa kvalifikaciis amaRleba. moxdeba samecniero kvlevaTa evropuli sivrcis standartebTan miaxloeba, rac evrokavSiris samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegmis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi Semadgeneli nawili da saqarTvelos ekonomikis inovaciuri ganviTarebis modelze gadasvlis sawindaria.

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transnacionaluri kompaniebi saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi1

nika grZeliSvili SoTa kupataZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asist. prof. d. sixaruliZe kapitalis saerTaSoriso moZraoba da misi aqtiuri migracia Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikis mniSvnelovani nawilia, am procesSi tnk-ebis roli mniSvnelovnad izrdeba. tnk es aris firma ,romelic akontrolebs aqtivebs, axdens saqonlis da momsaxurebis warmoebas erTze met qveyanaSi. tnk-ebis sagareo bazarze gasvlis umTavresi saSualeba aris pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi, (pui). aseTi investiciebi aris msoflio ekonomikaSi, rogorc eqsportiori, aseve importiori qveynis integraciis da maTi konkurentuli upiratesobebis realizaciis umTavresi saSualeba. P pui-s gavlena ekonomikaze Zalian didia, ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofaSi pui-s Sefasebas xangrZlivi istoria aqvs. erT-erTi meTodia leontievis modeli, romlis mixedviT sabaziso wlis faqtobrivi mdgomareobis miuxedavad, gardatexis wertili ekonomikaSi ar miiRweva manam, sanam qveyanaSi ucxouri investiciebis saSualo wliuri tempi ar iqneba daaxloebiT mSp-s 5%, xolo momdevno wlebSi stabilurad unda xdebodes misi zrda. mniSvnelovania is faqtic rom gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebSi gadamwyvetia ara imdenad importirebuli kapitalis moculoba, ramdenadac misi ganawileba dargebis da seqtorebis mixedviT. zogadad pui sasargebloa maSin, roca mTliani investiciebi pui-is zrdis paralelurad izrdeba, da xdeba axali teqnologiebis da menejeruli unar_Cvevebis aTviseba., Tumca transnacionaluri kapitalis Tavisufalma gadaadgilebam SeiZleba safrTxe Seuqmnas erovnuli valutis stabilurobas da qveynis finansur sistemas, tnk-ebis saqmianobis motivacia SeiZleba 4 tipad warmovadginoT: 1. resursebis maZieblebi 2. bazris maZieblebi 3. efeqtianobis maZieblebi 4. strategiuli aqtivebis maZieblebi resursebis maZieblebi arian sawarmoebi romlebic ucxoeTSi axdenen investirebas im mizniT rom miiRon maTTvis gansakuTrebuli resursebi ufro dabali realuri QRirebulebiT, vidre sakuTar qveyanaSi, saqarTveloSi pirdapir ucxour investirebas dRemde ZiriTadad swored resursebis maZieblebi axorcieleben. saqarTveloSi bevri auTvisebeli resursia da maTi aTviseba adgilobrivi saxsreboT ver xerxdeba, Sesabamisad ucxoel investorebs eZlevaT saSualeba aiTvison es resursebi da miiRon sargebeli.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

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bazris maZieblebi arian sawarmoebi, romlebic invetirebas axdenen romelime konkretul qveyanaSi an regionSi, raTa uzrunvelyon saqonlis an momsaxurebis miwodeba am qveynis an mezobeli qveynebis bazrebze. Uunda aRiniSnos rom miuxedavad saqarTvelos bazris mcire moculobisa, saqarTveloSi ucxouri firmebis erTi nawili swored adgilobriv bazarze moTxovnis dakmayofilebis mizniT Semovidnen, (jeoseli, gazpromi, lukoili). efeqtianobis maZieblebi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis saSualebiT kompaniis efeqtianobis amaRleba gulisxmobs resursebis imgvarad ganawilebas rom moxdes maqsimaluri ukugebis miReba, rac riskebis diversificirebiT miiRweva. aseTi tnk-ebi saqarTveloSi ar muSaoben. strategiuli aqtivebis maZieblebi tnk-ebis bolo tipia, da gulisxmobs mocemuli kompaniis mier ucxouri korporaciis aqtivebis aTvisebas da misi GgrZelvadiani strategiuli miznebis , gansakuTrebiT ki konkurentunarianobis SenarCunebas. saqarTveloSi ucxouri investiciebis udidesi nawili swored investorTa aRniSnul jgufs ekuTvnis, maT Semosvlas ZiriTadad qveynis xelsayreli geografiuli mdebareoba ganapirobebs, igi uZvelesi "abreSumis gzis" erT _ erTi sakvanZo punqtia, msoflio bazrebis damakavSirebeli sazRvao, sarkinigzo, saavtomobilo, milsadeni marSrutebi saqarTveloSi warmoebuli biznesisaTvis satransporto xarjebis Semcirebasa da farTo saerTaSoriso kavSirebis ganviTarebis winapirobaa. saqarTvelos teritoriaze uamravi tnk da tnb operirebs. Yyvelaze mZlavri tnk-ebi saTbob_energetikul kompleqsSi muSaobs, ("British Petroleum", "Gazprom" ,,Lukoili" da sxva). magaliTad; baqo_sufsis navTobsadenis mSeneblobaSi monawileobda 12 umsxvilesi tnk. maT Soris - "Exxon", Amoko, "Lukoili" da sxv. mniSvnelovani investiciebi ganxorcielda momsaxurebis sferoSi. Ffexi moikides saerTaSoriso kompaniebma_ "Mariot", "Sheraton", "silk road grup". Ggaixsna safirmo maRaziebi, "Mcdonalds" da tnk-ebis momsaxurebis centrebi. :" Sony", "nokia", " hundai" . " Toyota" , " Nissan". Dda a. S. dafuZndnen germaniis, TurqeTis, israelis, safinanso organizaciebi. sabanko seqtorSi Semovida transnacionaluri banki "Republic". saqarTvelos telekomunikaciebis provaiderma, "kavkasus onlainma" da aSS­s tnk "tyco telecommunications" _ ma xeli moaweres kontrakqts zRvis fskerze 1100 km iani optikur-boWkovani sistemis mSeneblobaze, romelic saqarTvelos Savi zRvis navsadgurs bulgareTis qalaq varnasTan daakavSirebs, es sistema qarTul bazrebs Tanamedrove zRvisqveSa optikur-boWkovani kabeliT pirdapir daakavSirebs dasavleT evropasTan. mas SesaZlebloba eqneba TiTo wyvili boWkovani kabelis meSveobiT 6410 gigibaitis sagrZis talRebi gaataros. TbilisSi univermag "Tbilisis" adgilas Sendeba komerciuli, gasarTobi da saqmiani centri "Willbrook platinum Tbilisi plaza". Aaxal proeqts, romlis Rirebuleba 100 mln dolaria, tnk "Willbrook Management International" da arqiteqturisa da mSeneblobis menejmentSi msoflios erT-erTi wamyvani kompania "Bovis lend

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lease" axorcieleben. Ees proeqti 85 aTas kvadratul metrs daikavebs da masSi aTasamde adamiani dasaqmdeba. 2007 wlamde izrdeba pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis moculoba, rac ganapiroba bolo periodSi SedarebiT stabilurma viTarebam, da metnaklebad warmatebulma reformebma. diagramaze kargad Cans pui-is zrdadi dinamika, samwuxarod Sedegi kargi ar aris, ar izrdeba eqsporti, ar xdeba Tanamedrove menejeruli unar-Cvevebis aTviseba, ar inergeba Tanamedrove teqnologiebi, izrdeba pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi saqarTveloSi 2000-2008 wlebSi1 Ddiagrama 1

importi, sagadamxdelo balansis deficiti izrdeba, eqsporti imports daaxloebiT 4 jer CamorCeba, paradoqsulad Cans, izrdeba investiciebi, da izrdeba sagadamxdelo balansis deficiti. Ddeficiti ramdenime mizeziT aris ganpirobebuli: 1. investiciebi ZiriTadad momsaxurebis sferoSia, sadac ar iqmneba maRali damatebiTi Rirebulebis produqcia, anu saeqsporto saqoneli ar iqmneba, ZiriTadad spekulaciuri kapitali moZraobs da ara produqtiuli. 2. ucxour investiciebsa da adgilobriv investiciebs Soris konkurenciuli brZola ar mimdinareobs, rac ekonomikuri zrdis ganmapirobebeli faqtoria; 3. ar aris kargi biznes-garemo rac xels Seuwyobs ufro meti produqtiuli investiciebis mozidvas. Cven CavatareT kvleva, gamovikiTxeT 100 respondenti (mecnierebi, studentebi da biznesmenebi) da SevimuSaveT biznes-garemos riskis saerTo indeqsis kriteriumebi, (politikuri stabiluroba, ekonomikuri zrda). K

1

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikis departamenti

99

kvlevis Sedegebi Semdegi saxisaa: gamokiTxuli respodentebis 43%-s miaCnia, rom qveyana maRali riskiT xasiaTdeba, rasac umravlesobis azriT politikuri arastabiluroba iwvevs. 25% Tvlis rom ekonomika moumwifebelia, 27%-is azriT, qveyana Zalze maRali riskiT xasiaTdeba, xolo 5%-is gagebiT, qveyanaSi naklebad xelsayreli garemoa inveticiebis ganxorcielebisaTvis. sainvesticio garemos Sefaseba Ddiagrama 2

Zalzed maRali riski qveyana maRali riskiT moumwifebeli ekonomika SedarebiT naklebad xelsayreli garemo

pui-s erT-erTi saintereso Tvisebaa Siga investiciebis ,,CaTrevis" didi SesaZlebloba. mocemuli efeqti moqmedebs Semdegi mimarTulebiT: sasaqonlo da finansur bazrebze konkurenciis stimulirebisa da mimReb qveyanaSi teqnikuri efeqtianobis gadidebis saSualebiT. tnk-ebs SeuZliaT Siga firmebis gaaqtiureba. es xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac aRweven ganviTarebadi qveynebis adgilobriv bazarze, sadac ukve saqmianobas eweva samamamulo firmebi. msxvil ganviTarebad qveynebSic ki, Siga bazari, rogorc wesi, ar aris didi da masze moqmedebs pirobebi, romelic ganapirobebs oligopolis an monopoliis ganviTarebas. aseT pirobebSi, adgilobriv bazarze ucxouri firmebis SeRwevas, romlebic floben Tanamedrove teqnologiebs, SeuZlia uzrunvelyos samamulo firmebis aqtiuroba, ubiZgos maT teqnologiuri efe-qtianobis gadidebisken. empiriuli analizi adasturebs, rom tnk-ebis SeRwevam rigi qveynis zogierT dargSi dadebiTi gavlena moaxdina adgilobrivi firmebis mwarmoeblurobaze.

sxva mxriv cnobilia, rom calkeul SemTxvevaSi tnk-ebis SeRweva mimRebi qveynis zogierT dargSi zrdida sabazro koncentracias. Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare tnkebi Cveulebriv moqmedeben im dargebSi, romelTac aqvT koncentraciis maRali done. garda amisa, maT SeuZliaT gamodevnon SedarebiT mcire an araefeqtiani samamulo firmebi. ganviTarebadi qveynebis SemTxvevaSi, pui-s mniSvnelovani nawili modis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis STanTqmaze privatizebis an adgilobrivi kerZo firmebis gayidvis saSualebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, aris saSiSroeba, rom msxvilma tnk-ebma 100

konkurentuli upiratesobisa da agresiuli taqtikis gamoyenebiT gamoiwvios sabazro koncetraciis gaZliereba da adgilobrivi warmoebis Seviwroeba. ra mdgomareobaa am mxriv saqarTveloSi? ramdenad didia ucxouri seqtoris investiciuri potenciali da ra gavlenas axdens pui saerTo sainvesticio aqtiurobaze? ,,CaTrevis" da ,,gamodevnis" efeqtis analizi moiTxovs zogierTi raodenobrivi maCveneblis gamo-yenebas. amisaTvis CavweroT tolobis ZiriTadi balansi: It=Dt+Ft, sadac I _ investiciebis erToblivi normaa, D _ Siga investiciebis erToblivi wili mSp-Si, F _ ucxouri inve-sticiebis wili mSp-Si, t _ dro.

Ppui-s martivi maxasiaTeblis mixedviT, Siga investiciebis formirebis TvalTaxedviT, SegviZlia gamoviyenoT Siga investiciebis absolituri elastikurobis koeficienti (E ) ucxourTan mimarTebiT. (ix. cxrili 1).

E = D/F

(1)

D da F mniSvnelobebSi Zlieri sxvaobis Tavidan acilebisaTvis, rasac adgili aqvs pui-s mozidvis sawyis stadiaze, SegviZlia gamoviyenoT Siga investiciebis SefardebiTi elastikurobis koeficienti (G) ucxourTan mimarTebiT. (ix. cxrili 7). G = (D/D) / (F/F) (2) Tu E > 0, maSin ekonomikaSi adgili aqvs ucxouri da Siga investiciebis multiplikaciur efeqts, rodesac pirveli CarTavs meores da amiT iZleva saSualebas miT ufro aqtiurad warmarTos kvlavwarmoebis procesi. aseT efeqts ewodeba ,,CaTrevis efeqti". Tu E < 0, maSin adgili aqvs erTi saxeobis investiciebis mier meoreTi gamodevnas, e.i. ,,gamo-devnis efeqts". im SemTxvevaSi, Tu F < 0, da D > 0, maSin Siga investiciebi STanTqaven ucxours, xolo F > 0, da D < 0, piriqiT ucxouri investiciebi devnis adgilobrivs. naTelia, rom ,,CaTrevis efeqti" niSnavs maqsimalurad komfortul sainvesticio klimats, xolo gamodevnis efeqti damaxa- siaTebelia iseTi situaciisaTvis, rodesac adgili aqvs Siga da ucxour investiciebs Soris konkurencias. qvemoT motanili cxrilis mixedviT gaangariSebuli maCveneblebi garkveul warmodgenas gviqmnian saqarTveloSi ganxorcielebul pui-is xasiaTze. investiciebi ZiriTad kapitalSi saqarTveloSi 2000-2006 wlebSi (mln larebSi)1 cxrili 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

259,8 1318,6 1578,4 227,3 1645,5 1872,8 367,0 525 1892,0 728,0 1559,7 2287,7 958,2 1739,4 2697,6 814,1 2447,3 3261,4 2030,7 1493,5 3524,2

wlebi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi Sida investiciebi mTliani investiciebi

1

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikis departamenti

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ucxouri

da

Siga investiciebis elastikurobis maCvenebeli saqarTveloSi 1996-2006 wlebSi cxrili 2

Eelastikurobis absoluturi koeficienti Eelastikurobis SefardebiTi koeficienti

Ddrois intervali

1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2005-2006

-0.195 0.206 -0.865 -0.343 -0.85 0.96 0.78 -0.78

-0.19 0.09 -0.24 -0.4 -0.08 0.07 0.09 -0.06

rogorc meore cxrilidan Cans, gamodevnis efeqti wlebis Sesabamisad aWarbebs CaTrevis efeqts. aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifo politika mimarTuli unda iyos imaze, rom qveyanaSi Seiqmnas maqsimalurad konkurentuli da komfortuli garemo sufTa transnacionaluri kapitalisTvis da moxdes qeynis mier im dadebiTi faqtorebis gamoyeneba, romelic Tan sdevs aRniSnuli saxis kapitalis moZraobas. swored is dadebiTi faqtorebi uzrunvelyofen qveynis ekonomikis grZelvadian zrdas.

102

globaluri finansuri krizisi da saqarTvelo1

nino oqruaSvili

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. S. SaburiSvili

bolo dros gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda msoflio ekonomikuri da finansuri krizisis Tema. gamoiTqva mravali mosazreba misi gamomwvevi mizezebisa da daZlevis saSualebebis Sesaxeb. mecnierTa erTi nawili yvelafris saTaved amerikis finansuri seqtoris gadaWarbebul zrdas asaxelebs. msoflio finansuri krizisis pirveli niSnebi 2006-2007 wlebSi gamoCnda. warmoiSva moxmarebis bumi, romelmac sakvebi produqtebis, navTobis da nedleulis fasi arnaxul niSnulebamde awia. amas moyva fasebis swrafi vardna, Semcirda navTobis, mravali sawarmoo mniSvnelobis nedleulisa da samomxmareblo saqonlis fasebi. sakredito da sabanko sistemis gadatvirtvis gamo warmoiSva ipoTekuri krizisi, romelmac Seanela ekonomikuri ganviTareba. jerjerobiT saxelmwifoTa da finansur dawesebulebaTa CareviT situacia regulirdeba, Tumca zemoqmedeba yovelTvis ver iqneba warmatebuli, mosalodnelia ekonomikuri ganviTarebis mkveTri Seferxeba da finansuri bazrebis gakotreba. ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ciklurobasTan erTad mimdinare krizisis gamomwvev mizezad saxeldeba amerikis safinanso-sabanko sistemis kraxi. aSS-Si 2000-2004 wlebis ekonomikuri aRmavlobisas sabanko sistemaSi Warbad dagrovda finansuri resursebi. saxelmwifo da bankebi uxvad gascemdnen egreTwodebul iaf sesxebs, raTa ekonomikuri zrdisTvis SeewyoT xeli da gaejerebinaT bazari iafi fuliT. amis Sedegad warmoiSva e.w. finansuri buSti. mravalma kreditorma Sewyvita kreditebis dafarva. faqtobrivad moaxloebuli krizisis cikli gaRrmavda. warmoSobilma inflaciam, kreditebisTvis aucilebeli kapitalis ZiriTadi wyaro _ moqalaqeebi, gadaxdisuunaro gaxada. bolo wlis manZilze sagrZnoblad daeca saerTaSoriso indeqsebis maCveneblebi. indeqsebis kleba axasiaTebs rogorc finansur kriziss, aseve recesias. amitom warmoiSoba dapirspireba: recesia ar iZleva saSualebas refinansirebis ganakveTi gaizardos, (cnobisTvis federaluri sarezervo sistemis refinansirebis ganakveTi aris 2%) 2 , xolo zrdadi inflacia moiTxovs refinansirebis wilis gazrdas. situacia stagflaciis xasiaTs iRebda. arsebobs safrTxe realuri seqtorisTvisackreditebi da dafinanseba mcirdeba, mcirdeba ndobac da sul ufro naklebi saSualeba rCeba kerZo biznesis dasafinanseblad.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili. 2 gazeTi "komersanti", 183(4000), 09.10.2008

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krizisi umTavresad Seexo amerikis finansur institutebs. xuTi wamyvani sainvesticio banki Tavisi pirvandeli formiT aRar arsebobs: Bear Stearns gaiyida, Lehman Brothers gakotrda, Merrill Lynch gaiyida, Goldman Sachs da Morgan Stanley-m ki Sewyvites sainvesticio saqmianoba maRal riskebTan da dafinansebis saWiroebidan gamomdinare. krizisis dasaZlevad da qveynis umTavresi bankebis gakotrebisgan dasacavad aSS mTavrobam sarezervo fondidan 250 miliardi dolari gamoyo 1 . agreTve gakeTda gancxadeba, rom aSS-s mTavroba Seisyidda strategiulad mniSvnelovani bankebis aqciebs. Tumca ekonomistTa umetesoba Tvlis rom aseTi saxis erTjeradi daxmarebebi ar iZleva realur safuZvels finansuri krizisidan gamosasvlelad. krizisi agreTve ganapiroba gauwonasworebelma finansurma politikam. aRmavlobis wlebis ganmavlobaSi SeiniSneboda finansuri nakadebis zrda, finansuri garigebebis mzardi tempi ar asaxavda ekonomikis realuri seqtorebis zrdas. faqtobrivad garigebebi ideboda ise, rom haeri da iluzia iyideboda. krizisis pirvelma dartymebma 2008 wlis zafxulSi iCina Tavi. daiwyo inflaciuri procesebi, romelic dolaridan gadaedo masTan mWidrod dakavSirebul savaluto da ekonomikur sistemebsac. fasebi mkveTrad avarda, Semdeg ki dacema daiwyo. navTobis gaZvirebam gazarda sxva produqciis fasic (magaliTad, kvebis produqtebis, radgan maTi transportirebis xarjebi gaizarda) Semcirda avtomobilebis Sesyidvebi. mravali sawarmo Semcirda an sruliad daixura. sawarmoo procesis Seferxebam resursebze moTxovna Seamcira, Sesabamisad Semcirda samompoveblo saqmianobac. udidesma navTobmompoveblebma gadawyvites navTobis mopovebis Semcireba, raTa fasebis niSnuli garkveul zRvarze SeenarCunebinaT. magaliTisTvis wlis dasawyisSi erTi bareli navTobis fasi aWarbebda 100$-s, 11 ivliss 147,27$, xolo 24 oqtombers erTi bareli navTobis fasi 61$-mde daeca. sawarmoo da sabanko sferoebis krizisma mravali momuSavis gaTavisufleba gamoiwvia. daixura sawarmoebi da mcire filialebi, kompaniebma xarjebis Sesamcireblad momuSaveTa gaTavisufleba daiwyes. aman kidev ufro Seamcira bankebis aqtivebi, agreTve Semcirda saxelmwifos Semosavali gadasaxadebidan. umuSevrobam aSSSi 6 procentamde aiwia, Tumca varaudoben, rom es maCvenebeli momavalSi kidev aiwevs. Aman Tavis mxriv gaauaresa mosaxleobis msyidvelobiTunarianoba, erToblivma moTxovnam kidev ufro dabla daiwia da warmoebis moculobac mis kvaldakval Semcirda. amerikaSi dawyebuli krizisi maleve gadaedo evropas, romelsac mWidro finansuri da ekonomikri urTierTibebi qonda aSS-sTan. globaluri msoflios pirobebSi, rodesac arsebobs saerTaSoriso sawarmoebi da finansuri institutebi, erT adgilas dawyebuli tendencia sakmaod swrafad vrceldeba. dolaris kursis dacemam ganapiroba masTan dakavSirebuli valutebis kursis vardnac. mravali qveynis

1

www.k2kapital.com

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bankebs gaaCnda sagareo kreditebi, romlebic saerTo jamSi sakmaod did maCvenebels Seadgendnen. krizisis gamo bankebis realuri aqtivebi Semcirda da isini am sagareo kreditebis aragadaxdisunarianebi gaxdnen. evropis wamyvani bankebi gakotrebis piras aRmoCndnen. zogierTi qveynis mTavrobam strategiuli mniSvnelobis bankebis gadasarCenad maTi garantad dadgoma ikisra. Tumca zogi bankis sagareo vali am qveynis biujetsac ki aWarbebda, magaliTad, islandiis sami wamyvani bankis (Kaupthing, Glitnir da Landsbanki) sagareo vali 106 miliard dolars Seadgenda, roca mTliani Siga produqtis moculoba 14 miliardia.1 krizisis masStaburobis gamo wamyvani qveynebis mmarTvelma organoebma SeTanxmebul moqmedebebs mimarTes, gadawyda saprocento ganakveTebis Semcireba. am RonisZiebaze mxolod iaponiis centralurma bankma ganacxada uari. didi rvianis Sexvedrebze miRebul iqna gadawyvetilebebi, rom saerTaSoriso Tanamegobroba yvela Zalasa da resusrs ixmarda strategiuli mniSvnelobis finansuri institutebis kraxis Tavidan asacileblad. gadawyda agreTve, rom krizisidan gamosvlis dromde saxelmwifoebi daudgebodnen garantad bankebis mier mozidul kreditebs, kreditebi aRebul unda iqnes 5 wliani vadiT. sistemuri mniSvnelobis bankebis kapitalis Sesavsebad ki saxelmwifoebs miecaT ufleba SeesyidaT bankebis privilegirebuli aqciebi da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi biujetidan gamoeyoT daxmareba. krizisis gamo evropaSi ekonomika 0,2%-iT daeca. finansurma krizisma realur seqtorsac miayena dartyma. gansakuTrebiT dazaralda avtomwarmoeblebis industria da samSeneblo sfero. amerikasa da evropaSi Semcirda msubuqi avtomobilebis gayidvaTa moculoba, wamyvanma firmebma Seamcires warmoeba, daxures Svilobili sawarmoebi da filialebi, raTa gakotrebisgan gadarCeniliyvnen. samSeneblo sferoSi ki bolo 5 wlis manZilze mSeneblobaTa gaormagebuli tempi daeca. samSeneblo kopaniebi veRar iRebdnen kreditebs bankebidan da gayidvaTa moculobac sagrZnoblad Semcirda.2 saqarTveloSi msoflio krizisiT gamowveuli mdgomareoba sagrZnoblad gaauaresa agvistoSi ganviTarebulma samxedro moqmedebebma. am movlenam didi zarali miayena qveynis ekonomikas da mosaxleobas. mraval regionSi ganadgurda infrastruqtura, mosaxleobis nawili daiRupa, didi nawili ki iZulebuli gaxda gadasaxlebuliyo. sazRvargareT saxelmwifos mouwia gauTvaliswinebeli xarjebis gaReba saomar moqmedebebze, dazianebuli infrastruqturis aRdgenaze, iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli mosaxleobis daxmarebaze da a.S. omma daazarala soflis meurneoba, turistuli biznesi, samSeneblo da sadazRveo biznesi, agreTve warmoebis mravali dargi. saxelmwifos daawva gazrdili socialuri danaxarjebi, amave dros Semcirda gadasaxadebidan miRebuli Semosavali. eqspertTa SefasebiT mTliani fiskaluri deficiti 2008 wels 804 mln dolars Seadgenda. sagadasaxdelo balansisMmimdinare angariSis deficiti

1 2

www.wikipedia.org www.eib.org

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bolo 3 wlis manZilze 2jer gaizarda, rac samomxmareblo bumiT da importis zrdiT iyo ganpirobebuli, Tumca garRveva ar xdeboda, radgan ucxouri investiciebiT xdeboda deficitis dafarva. gvistos movlenebis Semdgom ucxouri investiciebi Semcirda, magram Semcirda importis moculobac, ase rom deficiti isev imave maCvenebelze darCa. Tumca grZelvadian periodSi mosalodnelia sagadasaxdelo balansis gauareseba Semcirebuli ucxouri dafinansebis gamo, romelic 2004-2007 wlebSi mSps 22,5%-s Seadgenda. pirdapir danakargebTan erTad saxelmwifoSi gauaresda sainvesticio garemo. saomari moqmedebebis gamo mosaxleobam didi odenobiT gaitana bankebidan danazogebi, ramac sabanko seqtors gamoacala ZiriTadi samoqmedo iaraRi. fuladi saSualebebis deficitis gamo bankebma Sewyvites kreditebis gacema, ramac Tavis mxriv Seanela ekonomikuri procesebi da muSaoba im firmebis, romlebic sabanko kreditebze iyvnen damokidebulni, maT Soris samSeneblo biznesi, romelic ZiriTadad bankidan aRebuli kreditebiT axorcielebda Tavis saqmianobas. inflaciis gamo Semcirda mosaxleobis msyidvelobiTunarianoba, ramac Seamcira erToblivi moTxovna da samSeneblo kompaniebis gayidvebi, Semcirda Semosavali da amave dros gaizarda gaZvirebuli masalis SesaZenad gaweuli danaxarjebi1. qveynis arastabiluri politikuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gamo Semcirda ucxoelTa ndoba, ramac Seamcira turistuli nakadebi da am dargidan miRebuli Semosavali. daiklo ucxoel investorTa ndobam, Semcirda rogorc pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi, agreTve sabanko kreditebi, ramac kerZo kapitalis nakadebi sagZnoblad Sekveca. gadaido rigi samomavlo proeqtebi, magaliTad, foTSi navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnis mSenebloba. Semcirda mTliani Siga produqtis zrdis tempebi. wina wlebis ganmavobaSi mSp-s zrda 10%-s Seadgenda, wlis dasawyisSi navaraudevi wliuri 9%-iani mateba saomari moqmedebebis gamo 9%-dan 3.5%-mde Semcirda 1 . danaklisis dafarva garkveulwilad SeiZleba ucxouri daxmarebebis xarjze moxdes, saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobam, bolo periodSi, saqarTvelos 4.5 miliardi dolaris odenobis daxmareba gamouyo, magram Tu saxsrebi grZelvadian miznebSi ar iqna daxarjuli, es erTjeradi daxmareba ver aanazRaurebs ekonomikuri da safinansi sferos danakargebs. krizisidan gamosvlisTvis mizanSewonili iqneba ekonomikis realuri seqtoris zrda, warmoebis reabilitacia da axali sawarmoebis amoqmedeba. iafi kreditebis politikaze produqtiuli iqneba saprocento ganakvetis subsidirebis programa. sabanko sferoSi resursebis mosazidad saxelmwifom unda Seqmnas garantiebis sistema, romelic daicavs meanabreebs da ucxoel investorebs, romelTa saSualebebi bankebis ZiriTad aqtivebs warmoadgens. Tavis mxriv, sabanko sferom unda gaafarTovos sasesxo-sakredito operaciebi, raTa ekonomikurma subieqtebma SeZlon saqmianobis ganxorcieleba da Semosavlis miReba, rac bankisTvis sesxebis dabrunebis winapiroba iqneba. 106

2008 wlis bolos da 2009 wlis dasawyisSi gatarda rigi antikrizisuli RonisZiebebi _ gamoiyo erTjeradi daxmarebebi sabanko sferosa da biznesis kerZo seqtorisaTvis. wlis dasawyisSi SemuSavda saxelmwifo antikrizisuli programis farglebSi gansaxorcielebeli stimulirebis gegma. mis farglebSi gamoiyo 2 miliard 2 milioniani daxmarebis paketi, romelic socialur programebsa da ekonomikis ganviTarebas unda moxmareboda 1 . regionebs aqtiurad unda mieRoT monawileoba sakuTari biujetis marTvaSi. gamoyofili daxmarebis udidesi nawili, miliard 600 milioni unda moxmareboda socialur programebs, xolo 250 milioni uSualod ekonomikis stimulirebas. xelisuflebis gancxadebiT mocemuli programis da krizisis ganmavlobaSi saxelmwifos umTavresi amocanaa samuSao adgilebis Seqmna, adgilobrivi firmebisa da mewarmeebis stimulireba da ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofa. samwuxarod mocemuli antikrizisuli programa umeteswilad erTjeradi daxmarebis saxes ufro atarebs, vidre ekonomikis realurad mastimulirebeli RonisZiebisa. gzebis mSeneblobaze da infrastruqturis aRdgenaze dasaqmebuli xalxi araa sakmarisi biznes-aqtivobis uzrunvelsayofad da mosaxleobis keTildReobis asamaRleblad grZelvadian periodSi. aucilebelia imis gaazreba, rom saqarTveloSi kriziss msoflio krizisisgan gansxvavebuli winapirobebi da maxasiaTeblebi aqvs, da saWiroa maTi gaanalizeba da mizanmimarTuli zemoqmedeba. mxolod amis Semdgom iqneba SesaZlebeli krizisiT gamowveuli zaralis anazRaureba da momavali ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofa.

1

www.presa.ge

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mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis warmatebis strategia1

TaTuli duSuaSvili

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: prof. r. gvelesiani

rogor unda miaRwios qveyanam warmatebas mewarmeobis sferoSi? rogor miaRwies mas msoflios sxadasxa qveynis sxvadasxva sawarmoebma? msoflioSi arsebobs uamravi ucnobi, didi warmatebis mqone sawarmo, romlebic yuradRebis miRma darCnen. es aris msoflio masStabiT saukeTeso mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis sfero, `ucnob liderTa~, igive `farul CempionTa samyaro~. maTi wili msoflio bazarze 70-90%-s Seadgens. miuxedavad imisa, rom isini kvlav ucnobni arian, Cven mudam maTi nawarmiTa da servisiT varT garemoculni. ram ganapiroba am sawarmoebis warmateba? mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis umaRlesi rangis warmomadgenlebi gabneulia warmoebisa da momsaxurebis yvela dargSi. msoflio bazris liderTa mesamedze meti (37%) manqanaTmSeneblobaze modis. isini gansakuTrebiT kargad arian warmodgenilni agreTve eleqtromrewvelobaSi, liTondamuSavebasa da qimiaSi. originalobis, xarisxisa da profesionalizmis gansakuTrebuli SerwymiT mcire da saSualo mewarmeni msoflio bazrisaken gzas ukvalaven TavianT saqonelsa da momsaxurebas. magram amasTanave `faruli Cempionebi~ araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar ugulvebelyofen momxmarebels. qveynis Sida bazarze TavianTi maRalspecializebuli miwodebiT isini inarCuneben saSualod 44%-is Sesabamis wils, maTi udidesi konkurenti ki, piriqiT, am sididis mxolod naxevars aRwevs. iqneb warmatebis mizezi mewarmeobis profilia? msoflio donis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi TavianTi arsebobis 80 wels iTvlian da upiratesad ojaxur sakuTrebas warmoadgenen. nebismier farul Cempions gaaCnia daaxloebiT aTi sazRvargareTuli filiali, rogorc msoflio bazarze mkveTri orientirebis sarkiseburi asaxva. mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi, rogorc msoflio bazris liderebi, emyarebian ufro imas, rac amarTlebs, nacvlad imisa, rom Tavs eqperimentebis ufleba miscen. amis damadasturebelia is, rom maTi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis ori mesamedi imyofeba `sasicocxlo ciklis~ simwifis fazaSi, mxolod 30% danergvis an zrdis fazaSi. amasTan, isini araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar ugulebelyofen inovaciebs. maT warmatebas mewarmeobis politika xom mar gansazRvravs?

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `ekonomikuri politikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

108

`super sawarmoebis~ warmatebebi sxvadasxva faqtorebis mizandasaxuli urTierTqmedebis Sedegia. maT Soris arsebiTia: sakuTari saqonlisa da momsaxurebisaTvis msoflio bazris marTvis miRweva, misi dapyroba; ZiriTad kompetenciebze koncentracia, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebis specializacia gafarToebis nacvlad; nawarmze mudmivi zrunva, uaxloesi miRwevebis warmoebis procesSi danergvisa da gamoyenebis ganuwyvetloba; momxmarebelTan rac SeiZleba meti siaxlove, raTa maTi survilebisa da problemebis gadawyvetis kompetenciis gaTvaliswineba dagegmvis fazaSi iyos SesaZlebeli; mewarmeobis kulturaze orientireba, rac TanamSromelTa motivirebas axdens. marTvis am stilis sazRauria TanamSromlebis avadmyofobis dabali done, naklebi denadoba da didi SemoqmedebiTunarianoba.1 ratom darCnen msoflios donis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebi specialuri presisa da mecnierTa yuradRebis gareSe? amis mizezad SegviZlia miviCnioT is, rom maTi produqcia xSirad uxilavi da SeumCnevelia, radgan sxva saxis nawarmis damzadebis process emsaxureba an saboloo produqtSi iferfleba an kidev mis komponentad iqceva. kidev erT mizezad SegviZlia davasaxelod Tavad mewarmeTa survili ucnobad darCenisa. da mainc vin arian msoflio donis liderebi, romelnic `farul Cempionebad~ gvevlinebian? esenia: `brita~ (`Brita~). saojaxo meurneobis wylis filtris bazari `britas~ mier Seiqmna. is, rogorc am saqmis pioneri, gamudmebiT ibrZoda Tavisi wamyvani poziciebis dasacavad. misi msoflio bazris wili amJamad 85%-ia. `STili~ (`Stihl~). `STilis~ Zraviani xerxebi mTel msoflioSi gamoiyeneba. igi metad inovaciuri sawarmoa. `STilis~ msoflio bazris wili misi uZlieresi konkurentebis wilze daaxloebiT orjer metia. `haribo~ (`Haribo~). `haribos~ `rezinis daTuniebi~ evropasa da aSS-Si erTnairad popularulia. man, rogorc am tkbileulis mwarmoebelma, SeZlo dasavlur samyaroSi msoflio bazris aSkarad upiratesi poziciis mopoveba. `gerietsi~ (`Gerriets~). es sawarmo amzadebs Teatris fardebsa da scenis mowyobilobebs. is aris scenis didi fardebis erTaderTi mwarmoebeli mTel msoflioSi. ase rom, is msoflio bazris 100%-s flobs.

1

revaz gvelesiani.

mcire da saSualo

mewarmeobis

watrmatebis

strategia

da kultura. Tb., 1999

gv. 7

109

`faruli Cempionebis~ umetesoba TavianTi wilis safuZvelze bazris `mmarTvelad~ gvevlineba. maT umetesobas wamyvani poziciebi mravali wlis manZilze uWiravs. isini axerxeben ara mxolod bazris soliduri wilis dakavebas, aramed mis SenarCunebasac. aSkarad gamokveTili bazris wilis ukan imaleba ufro Rrma ramfsiqologiuri xelmZRvaneloba, romelsac aqvs pretenzia daamkvidros dargebis standarti, gansazRvros marTvis wesebi da moaxdinos maTi modifikacia, e.i. pretenzia imisa, rom iyos saukeTeso an #1. `faruli Cempionebi~ miznis dasaxvisa da strategiis formulirebisas sxvadasxva meTodebs iyeneben. erT-erTi aseTia`dagegmvis strategia~. is naTel da kargad Camoyalibebul miznebs saxavs, rac emyareba formalur kontrols, raTa maTi Sesruleba uzrunvelyos. `farul CempionebTan~, didi sawarmoebisgan gansxvavebiT, dagegmvisa da misi ganxorcielebisaTvis pasuxismgebeli erTi da igive pirovnebaa, romelic fsevdozusti cifrebiTa da aramyari grZelvadiani prognozebiT Tavs ar iwuxebs. Tuki gegmebi ar realizdeba ise, rogorc navaraudevi iyo, maSin pasuxismgebeli piri mas strategias Seusabamebs. es meTodi `TviTganviTarebad strategiad~ aris cnobili. rac Seexeba `samewarmeo strategias~, individs, romelic organizacias akontrolebs, SeuZlia misi momavlis ganWvreta mTlianad sawarmoze gadaitanos da radganac mgegmavi imave dros realizatoric aris, mas SeuZlia TandaTanobiT reagireba moaxdinos moqmedebaTa Sedegebze. Seasabamisobis unarianoba ganasxvavebs `samewarmeo strategias~ `dagegmili strategiisagan~. pirveli tovebs sivrces moqnilobisaTvis - zustad aRwerili miznebis sakompensaciod. `super sawarmoebi~ gansazRvraven TavianT bazrebs `viwrod~ da ara `farTod~ da axdenen maT maRalspecializebul damuSavebas. maT mier bazris gansazRvra Semdegi TvisebebiT xasiaTdeba: gaiTvaliswineba rogorc momxmareblebis moTxovnilebebi, aseve saqonlis, momsaxurebisa da teqnologiebis perspeqtivebi; `faruli Cempionebi~ TavianT bazrebs kargad icnoben, rac maT specializaciasa da bazarTan siaxloves gansazRvravs; mravali `super sawarmo~ TviTon qmnis bazris super niSebs. zogierTebi ki aviTareben erTaderTi saxis saqonelsa da momsaxurebas, romelic gansazRvravs maT sakuTar bazaars; bazris asortimenti ufro `Rrmaa~, vidre `farTo~, rac qmnis specializaciis iseT xarisxsa da srulyofas, romelsac konkurentebi Znelad Tu miaRweven; `super sawarmoebi~ msoflio bazris liderebi gaxdnen, imitom rom maT aqvT pirdapiri kontaqtebi TavianT momxmareblebTan filialebis meSveobiT. momxmarebelTan siaxlove ganisazRvreba ori ganzomilebiT: `saqoneli da momsaxureba~ da `interaqcia~. did sawarmoebTan SedarebiT `faruli Cempionebi~ upiratesobiT sargebloben `interaqciis~, xolo mcire sawarmoebTan mimarTebaSi `saqonlisa da 110

momsaxurebis~ TvalsazrisiT. maTi mTavari argumentia faseuloba da ara fasi. isini orientirebulni arian saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze da ara fasze. erTaderTi gza xangrZlivi mtkice warmatebisaken aris ganuwyveteli inovacia. igi `farul CempionTa~ damaxasiaTebeli mniSvnelovani niSan-Tvisebaa. TiTqmis yvela maTganma maiaRwia msoflio bazarze pirvelobas, radgan isini odesRac, teqnologiis arsebiTi aspeqtebisaTvis an saxeobebisaTvis TavianT bazarze biznesi rom waremarTaT, pionerebi iyvnen. xSirad bazrebi winaswar ar arsebobda da pirvelad mxolod maTi inovaciiT Seiqmna. `faruli Cempionebi~ TavianTi inovaciuri saqmianobiT aSkarad gansxvavdebian didi sawarmoebisagan. isini ar arian calmxrivad orientirebuli: arc mxolod teqnologiaze da arc mxolod bazarze. teqnologia da bazari ki ar upirispirdebian, erTmaneTs aramed erTmaneTs avseben, amitom maTi, rogorc `Tanabaruflebiani~ mamoZravebeli Zalebis integrireba unda moxdes. sawarmom `resursebze damyarebuli (`Signidan gareT~) strategiis~ Sesaxeb moZRvreba unda Seusabamos `bazris SesaZleblobebis (`garedan SigniT~) strategias~. Mxolod maSin, roca Sinagani kompetenciebi da garegani SesaZleblobebi erTmaneTs esadageba, sawarmos SeuZlia Tavisi sruli potencialis gamovlena.1 `lideri sawarmoebi~ Zlieri da mkacri konkurentebi arian. konkurenciis upiratesoba ganisazRvreba, rogorc konkurentebTan SedarebiT ufro racionaluri, upiratesobis mqone saqmianoba, romelmac 3 piroba unda daakmayofilos: momxmareblisaTvis mniSvnelovani unda iyos; maT mier aRqmuli unda iqnas; xangrZlivobiT xasiaTdebodes. Tuki, magaliTad, produqciis SefuTva momxmareblebisaTvis umniSvneloa, maSin is, bunebrivia, ar gamodgeba konkurenciis upiratesobis misaRwevad. Tu nawarms SedarebiT xangrZlivi `sicocxlisunarianoba~ gaaCnia, magram momxmarebeli am sikeTes ar icnobs an ver aRiqvams, maSin es konkurenciis upiratesobad ar CaiTvleba. roca sawarmo fass amcirebs ise, rom mas xarjebis mxriv upiratesoba ar gaaCnia, amas SeiZleba maSinve mohyves konkurencia da fasebis TvalsazrisiT upiratesobis xangrZlivad SenarCuneba SeuZlebeli gaxdeba. `farul CempionTa~ konkurenciis upiratesobebi SeiZleba Semdegnairad CamovayaliboT: `arsebobis principi~ iarsebeb mxolod konkurenciis upiratesobiT. es principi `farul Cempionebs~ kargad aqvT gacnobierebuli; `mowinaaRmdegis cnobis principi~ konkurentebze dakvirveba iseTive mniSvnelovania, rogorc momxmareblebze dakvirveba. saWiroa konkurenciis kargi codna, Tumca `faruli Cempionebi~ uaryofen `mibaZvis xafangs~;

2

revaz gvelesiani. mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis warmatebis strategia da kultura. Tb., 1999

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`SesaZleblobebis principi~ konkurenciis yoveli parametri iZleva konkurenciis upiratesobis SeasaZleblobas. upiratesobas SeiZleba mivaRwioT ara mxolod `ZiriTadi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis~ an `servisis~ parametrebSi, aramed, agreTve `programuli uzrunvelyofis~ parametrebSic; `konsistenciis principi~ saqoneli da momsaxureba mniSvnelobas unda Seesabamebodes; `aRqmis principi~ konkurenciis upiratesobad mxolod isini iTvleba, romlebsac momxmareblebi aRiqvamen. `farul Cempionebs~ gaaCniaT Zalian Zlieri da amave dros Taviseburi mewarmeobis kultura. am kulturis aRiareba aris TanamSromelTa sawarmosTan identifikaciisa da motivaciis safuZveli, rac amcirebs avadmyofobisa da denadobis wils. mewarmeobis kultura, saqonlis warmoebisa da momsaxurebis gawevis gaumjobesebazea orientirebuli da Seurigebelia zarmacebis mimarT. msoflio donis mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis xelmZRvanelobis stili SeiZleba an iqneb unda iyos kidec ambivalenturi: avtoritaruli ZiriTad faseulobebSi, xolo monawileobiTi procesebsa da ganoxorcielebis detalebSi. marTva aris ara `an-an~-is, aramed `rogorc-aseve~-s arCeva. rogori mdgomareobaa qarTul mcire da saSualo mewarmeobaSi? oficialurad deklarirebuli monacemebiT, 2008 wels saSualo zomis sawarmoebze modioda sawarmoTa saerTo brunvis TiTqmis 8%, anu 3.5 procentuli punqtiT naklebi 2003 welTan SedarebiT. imave periodSi saSualo zomis sawarmoTa wili produqciis gamoSvebaSi Semcirda 2.7 procentuli punqtiT da 8.5% Seadgina. oficialurad deklarirebuli monacemebiT, 2008 wels saSualo biznesSi dasaqmebulTa mTlianma raodenobam 60909 piri Seadgina, romelTagan 49.3% qalia, xolo 50.7% mamakaci. dasaqmebulTagan daqiravebulia 59782 piri. saSualo zomis sawarmoebSi saSualo Tviurma xelfasma ­ 371.9 lari Seadgina. rac Seexeba, mcire sawarmoebs, oficialurad deklarirebuli monacemebiT, 2008 wels mcire zomis sawarmoebze modioda sawarmoTa saerTo brunvis 8.2%, anu 5.4 procentuli punqtiT naklebi 2003 welTan SedarebiT. imave periodSi mcire zomis sawarmoTa wilma 8.3% Seadgina. 2008 wels mcire biznesSi dasaqmebulTa mTlianma raodenobam 69979 piri Seadgina, romelTagan 41.8% qalia, xolo 58.2% mamakaci. dasaqmebulTagan daqiravebulia 55150 piri. mcire zomis sawarmoebSi saSualo Tviurma xelfasma ­ 285.7 lari Seadgina. ratom ver aRweven damwyebi sawarmoebi warmatebas? amis Taobaze gamoyofen Svid mizezs: 1. dafinansebis simcire (68,6%);

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3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

damaarseblebi xSirad saTanadod ver afaseben TavianT moklevadian moTxovnas kapitalze. problemebi Cndeba maSinac, rodesac momxmareblebis mier gadaxdis procesi Wianurdeba. saSiSia Zalze maRali fasic firmis Sesyidvis SemTxvevaSi. informaciis deficiti (61%); xSirad damaarseblebma Zalze cota ician sabazro procesebis Sesaxeb. isini zedmetad afaseben moTxovnas TavianT nawarmze an momsaxurebaze, naklebad konkurencias. kvalifikaciis nakli (48%); profesiuli kvalifikaciis deficiti ise igrZnoba rogorc arasdros, amitom kidev ufro uaresi mdgomareobaa mewarmeobisa da komerciis codnis mxriv, maSin roca dargobrivi gamocdileba warmatebis miRwevis sawindaria. dagegmvis xarvezebi (30,1%); an dagegmvaa defeqturi an kargia, magram ar sruldeba. ojaxuri problemebi (29,9%); roca meuRles ar surs sawyis fazaSi arsebul familarul datvirTvas didxans Seurigdes. sawarmos Sedegebis gadaWarbebuli Sefaseba (20,9%); aq sawarmos mier realizebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Rirebuleba Zalze mcirea maRal investiciebTan an mudmiv xarjebTan SedarebiT. garegani zegavlena (15,4%). es iseTi mizezebia, romelTa arc gaTvaliswineba SeiZleba da arc maTze zemoqmedeba. magaliTad; cvlilebebi momxmarebelTa qcevaSi, Semcirebuli msyidvelobiTunarianoba potenciur momxmarebelTa jgufSi, ZviradRirebuli manqanebis mxriv zarali teqnikuri progresis Sedegad, satransporto, teqnikuri an finansuri Sedegebi Secvlili komunaluri dagegmvis gamo. damoukidebeli, warmatebuli mewarmeobisaken, swori, Tanmimdevruli orientirebisaTvis saWiroa, gaviTvaliswinoT `farul CempionTa~ warmatebis strategia, miviRoT safuZvliani informacia da eqspertebma gaakeTon konsultacia yvelafris Sesaxeb, rac ki SeiZleba win gvelodes.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

MOLITOR, Bruno, Wirtschaftspolitik, 6. Aulf., Muenchen 2001 MUSSEL, Gerhard, PAETZOLD, Juergan, Grundfragen der Wirtschaftspolitik, 4., erw. U. aktualisierte Aulf., Muanchen 2003 Walter A. S. Koch, Chiristian Czogalla, Grundlagen der Wirtschaftspolitik, 2. Aufl., Stuttgart 2004. EVERS, Marc, Die institutionelle Ausgestaltung von Wirtschaftsordnungen. Eine dogmengeschichtliche Unterschung im Lichte des Ordoliberalismus und der Neuen Institutionenoekonomik, Berlin 2003. SCHNEIDER, Friedrich, ENSTE, Doinik, Schattenwirschaft und Schwarzarbeit. Umfrag, Ursachen, Wirkungen und wirtschaftspolitische Empfehlungen, Muenchen, Wien 2000. WENIG, Alois, Globalisierung und die Zukunft der sozialen Marktwirtschaft, Volkswirtschaftliche Schirften, Bd. 506, Berlin 2000

revas gvelesiani, irina gogoriSvili, ekonomikuri politika, wigni I, Tb., 2008 revaz gvelesiani, mcire da saSualo mewarmeobis watrmatebis strategia da kultura. Tb., 1999

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inflacia: arsi, mizezebi, Sedegebi1

mariam gogiaSvili

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: prof. j. janjRava

erT-erTi mwvave problema, romelic ekonomikaSi SeiZleba warmoiSvas, aris inflacia. sityva `inflacia~ laTinuri warmoSobisaa da `gabervas~ niSnavs. inflacia ekonomikaSi fasTa saerTo donis zrdaa, sabazro msyidvelobiTunarianobis donesTan mimarTebaSi. Sesabamisad, inflacia ise moiazreba, rogorc fulis gaufasureba. mxedvelobaSi misaRebia is faqti, rom fasebis yovelgvari zrda ar iwvevs inflacias; sxvadasxva faqtorebis gavleniT fasebi zogierT saqonelze SeiZleba yovelTvis izrdebodes da amavdroulad sxva saqonelze mcirdebodes. aseT SemTxvevaSi fasebis saerTo done SeiZleba ucvleli darCes, an Semcirdes kidec. inflacias adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac fuli ufasurdeba, e.i. rodesac erTi da igive TanxiT sul ufro naklebi saqonlis SeZena da momsaxurebis anazRaureba SeiZleba.AinflaciasTan dakavSirebuli terminebia: disinflacia, inflaciis donis Semcireba, anu efeqti, romelic amcirebs inflaciur zewolas; deflacia_fasTa saerTo donis vardna, hiperinflacia_swrafi inflacia, wonasworobisken tendenciis gareSe. fridmenisa da sxva ekonomistebis ganmartebiT, inflaciis zrdis tempi da fuladi masa erTmaneTTanaa dakavSirebuli im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac fasebis done swrafad izrdeba xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi; magaliTad, Tu inflaciis donem TveSi Seadgina 1%, (12% wlis ganmavlobaSi), igulisxmeba, rom fasebis done am Tvis, (wlis) ganmavlobaSi ubralod 1%-iT gaizarda. SesaZloa, es iyos fasebis erTjeradi cvlileba da mas hqondes droebiTi xasiaTi. im SemTxvevaSi ki, rodesac inflacia 1%ze metia TveSi, (12%_ze meti weliwadis ganmavlobaSi), ekonomistebi saubars iwyeben inflaciis maRali donis Sesaxeb. aqedan gamomdinare, milton fridmeniseuli inflaciis ganmarteba SeiZleba CamovayaliboT Semdegnairad: fasebis donis zrda monetaruli movlenaa mxolod maSin, Tu is xdeba xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi. Tu inflaciis amgvar ganmartebas daveTanxmebiT MmaSin inflaciis mizezi aris fuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom inflacia ar aris mxolod saqonlisa da momsaxurebis fasebis zrda; is ufro farTo cnebaa da gulisxmobs mTliani ekonomikis masStabiT fasebis yovlismomcvel zrdas. inflacia ganviTarebis sam etaps gadis: pirvel etapze fulis emisiis tempi win uswrebs fulis gaufasurebis temps. am dros saxelmwifo mimoqcevaSi uSvebs zedmet fuls. iwyeba inflacia, Tumca fasebi

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `ekonomikis principebis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

114

imdenad ar aris gazrdili, rom gamoCndes inflaciis niSnebi, anu pirvel etapze inflacia farulad mimdinareobs. meore etapze fulis gaufasurebis tempi win uswrebs fulis emisis temps. mimoqcevaSi arsebuli zedmeti fuli ukve iseT masStabebs aRwevs, rom inflacia farulidan Ria mdgomareobaSi gadadis da iwyeba fasebis zrda. mesame etapisTvis ki damaxasiaTebelia masStaburi inflacia. ganviTarebis tempebis garda, arsebobs: 1. lokaluri infalcia. e.i. rodesac inflacia calkeul qveyanaSi xdeba; 2. msoflio inflacia. e.i. rodesac inflacia yvela qveyanas moicavs, mTels msoflioSi mimdinareobs; 3. "WenebiTi" inflacia. e.i. fasebis zrda saocrad swrafia da amasTanave naxtomiseburi; 4. "mcocavi" inflacia, e.i. fasebi nela, magram ganuwyvetliv izrdeba; 5. "importuli" infalacia. e.i. inflacia, romelic qveyanaSi sxva saxelmwifoebis zegavleniTaa gamowveuli; 6. Sinagani faqtorebiT gamowveuli inflacia; mniSvnelovania imis gaTvaliswineba, rom fulis masa arsebiTad moqmedebs ekonomikis saerTo mdgomareobaze, ris gamoc is dadebiT an uaryofiT zegavlenas axdens mosaxleobis keTildReobaze. inflacia gansxvavebul zegavlenas axdens sxvadasxva socialur fenebze. yvelaze mZimed igi Rarib fenebsa da fiqsirebuli Semosavlebis jgufebs awveba. am adamianebis realuri Semosavali mkveTrad mcirdeba fasebis zrdisa da fulis gaufasurebis gamo. mTavroba cdilobs Tavidan aicilos mosaxleobis ukmayofileba da daakmayofilos maTi moTxovnebi. am yvelafris misaRwevad saxelmwifo mimoqcevaSi uSvebs met fuls. es ufro amwvavebs inflacias, aufasurebs fuls, zrdis fasebs. ase warmoiqmneba e.w. "inflaciuri spirali". mimoqcevaSi gaSvebuli fulis raodenoba da xelfasis paraleluri zrda kidev ufro aZlierebs da aRrmavebs inflacias. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi mimoqcevaSi arsebuli fulis zedmeti raodenoba seriozul gavlenas axdens ara marto socialur fenebze, aramed erovnuli ekonomikis ZiriTadi miznebis ganxorcielebazec. dasaqmebis done, fasebis stabiluroba, ekonomikuri zrda_es sakiTxebi pirdapir Tu iribad dakavSirebulia inflaciasTan da mimoqcevaSi arsebuli fulis zedmet raodenobasTan. aqedan gamomdinare, ukve naTeli xdeba, Tu ratom uSlis xels fuladi masis arabunebrivi zrda saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politikiT gansazRvruli miznebis miRwevas. aRsaniSnavia, rom inflacia uaryofiTad moqmedebs saerTaSoriso urTierTobebze; ucxoeli investorebi eridebian iseT qveynebSi fulis investirebas, romlebSic inflaciis done maRalia.

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inflacia aZlierebs disproporciebs ekonomikaSi, anu saqonlis fasebis araTanabari zrdis Sedegad erT dargSi warmoeba farTovdeba da mcirdeba meoreSi. magaliTad, inflacia impulss aZlevs samxedro mrewvelobis gafarToebas da aferxebs samoqalaqo dargebis ganviTarebas . inflacia savaluto krizisis erT-erTi mTavari gamomwvevi faqtoria. igi qmnis valutis oficialur da sabazro kurss Soris Seusabamobas, uaryofiTad moqmedebs msoflio fasebsa da firmebis konkurentunarianobaze. inflacias garkveuli cvlilebebi Seaqvs sakredito urTierTobaSi. msesxebeli valdebulia vali misi nominaluri Rirebulebis mixedviT daubrunos gamsesxebels. gaufasureba aq mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba. amis gamo, msesxebeli mTlianad an nawilobriv kargavs sakredito Semosavlebs im mxrivac, rom xdeba kreditis SekumSva, vinaidan am dros bankebs realurad ufro naklebi ubrundeba, bankis sakuTari saxsrebi mcirdeba, ris gamoc igi cdilobs sargeblis ganakveTis gadidebas. imis gasagebad Tu rogor viTardeba da ra Sedegebi mohyveba inflacias, ganvixiloT ori konkretuli magaliTi: 1. hiperinflacia germaniaSi 1921-1923 wlebSi. 1921 wels pirveli msoflio omis Semdeg ekonomikis aRdgenis aucileblobam gamoiwvia germaniis saxelmwifo xarjebis mniSvnelovani zrda. mTavrobas saxelmwifo biujetis Sevseba SeeZlo ramdenime gziT: a) gadasaxadebis gazrdiT. im droindeli mdgomareobiT es ver moxerxdeboda, radganac omgadavlili mosaxleoba siRaribis zRvarze idga. b) imis gamo rom, germaniisadmi mTels msoflios ndoba hqonda dakarguli, mTavroba verc sxva qveynebisgan isesxebda fuls biujetis Sesavsebad. rCeboda erTaderTi gamosavali-fulis beWvda. mTavroba afinansebda Tavis xarjebs axlad dabeWdili naRdi fulis saSualebiT. 1921 wlis bolos daiwyo fuladi masis gamalebuli zrda, rasac Tan mohyva inflaciis mkveTri zrda. magaliTad: 1921 wlis ianvarSi, gazeTi 0,3 marka Rirda, 2 weliwadze naklebi xnis Semdeg ki es ricxvi 70 mln. markamde gaizarda. inflaciis aseT gansakuTrebul swraf zrdas hiperinflacia ewodeba. 1923 wels saxelmwifo biujetTan dakavSirebiT viTareba kidev ufro daiZaba. wlis dasawyisSi safrangeTi daeufla germaniis erT-erT provincias. regionSi safrangeTis moqmedebebs sayovelTao gaficva mohyva. germaniis mTavrobam gadawyvita, gaficulebs fuliT daxmareboda; Sedegad amisa saxelmwifo xarjebma kritikul zRvars miaRwia da mTavroba iZulebuli gaxda kidev ufro swrafi tempebiT ebeWda fuli. 1923 wels fuladi masis afeTqebis Sedegad fasebis donem mkveTrad aiwia, inflaciis tempebma milion procents gadaaWarba. ra SeiZleba yofiliyo am inflaciis mizezi? ra Tqma unda, safrangeTis mier provinciis dapyroba, mTavrobis mier gaficulebis fuliT mxardaWera da germaniis Selaxuli reputacia.

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2. gardamavali periodis dros mimdinare inflacia saqarTveloSi (gamomwvevi mizezebi da Sedegebi) 90-ian wlebSi biujetis deficiti damaxasiaTebeli movlena iyo saqarTvelosTvis. saxelmwifo biujetis deficiti 0.2 %- dan 5 %-mde meryeobda. ekonomikuri krizisis ZiriTadi gamomwvevi mizezi moTxovnis zrdis pirobebSi warmoebis deficiti iyo. aRsaniSnavia, rom biujetis deficiti, Tu igi fulis emisias iwvevs, zrdis fulis miwodebas, rasac saboloo jamSi inflaciamde mivyavarT. imisTvis rom gavaanalizoT Tu ra gavlenas axdenda biujetis deficiti inflaciaze, saWiroa, SeviswavloT biujetis deficitis xasiaTi saqarTveloSi. biujetis dafinansebis ZiriTadi wyaroebi iyo erovnuli bankis pirdapiri sesxi mTavrobaze, finansTa saministros mier gamoSvebuli saxazino valdebulebebi da ucxouri sesxebi. garkveuli xarjebis dasafinanseblad saxelmwifo mimarTavda erovnul banks pirdapiri sesxis misaRebad. faqtiurad es iyo fulis beWvda, romelic pirdapir zrdida fulis masasa da fulis miwodebas. magaliTisaTvis, 1999 wels saqarTvelos mTavrobam 187 milioni lari sesxi miiRo erovnuli bankidan da Sesabamisad amave moculobis xarjebi daafinansa. rac Seexeba ucxour sesxebs, romlebsac mTavroba sesxulobda, maTac garkveuli inflaciuri zewola hqondaT. sabolood, am yvelafris Sedegad qveyanaSi warmoiqmna inflaciuri procesebi, romlebsac Tan mohyva umuSevroba, fasebis zrda, mosaxleobis mTavrobisadmi ukmayofileba da kidev mravali sxva negatiuri movlena. 2006 wlidan saqarTvelos mTavrobam miiRo kanoni romlis mixedviTac aikrZala erovnuli bankis mxridan biujetis deficitis dafinanseba. aRniSnuli umniSvnelovanesi movlena iyo saqarTvelos uaxles istoriaSi, vinaidan amiT gauqmda biujetis dafinansebis inflaciuri wyaro. saqarTveloSi antiinflaciuri politikis ZiriTad mizans, Cveni azriT, unda Seadgendes ara nebismier fasad inflaciis SeCereba, aramed kerZo da saxelmwifo ZalisxmeviT inflaciuri procesebis marTva, erovnuli warmoebis zrdisa da qveynis ekonomikuri interesebidan gamomdinare. ekonomikur literaturasa da praqtikaSi arsebobs magaliTebi, rodesac mcire masStabebis inflacia zrdis msyidvelobiTunarian moTxovnas da xels uwyobs ekonomikur zrdas (e.w. mundel turbin efeqti, romelic warmoadgens damokidebulebas inflaciasa da moTxovnis zrdas Soris ). saqarTvelos pirobebSi aRniSnuli modelis gamoyeneba did riskTanaa dakavSirebuli, radgan mas sWirdeba Sesabamisi stabiluri makroekonomikuri garemo, Sida samamulo warmoebaze dafuZnebuli da saeqsporto potencialis mqone seqtorebis ganviTarebuli ekonomikuri struqtura; aucilebelia imis aRniSvna, rom inflaciur procesebTan

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mimarTebaSi eqsperimentebis Catarebam SeiZleba qveyana katastrofamde miiyvanos, amitom igi mimdinare etapze Teoriulad da praqtikulad unda gamoiricxos. ekonomikuri zrdisken mimarTuli antiinflaciuri politika saWiroebs politikur, ekonomikur da socialur RonisZiebaTa etapobriv gatarebas am mizniT mizanSewonilia antiinflaciuri politikis ganmsazRvreli Semdegi ZiriTadi RonisZiebebi: 1. inflaciis finansuri faqtorebis regulireba. antiinflaciur moqmedebaSi mTavari adgili ukavia biujetis gajansaRebas; saWiroa iseTi ekonomikuri da administraciuli reformebis gatareba, romlebic biujets waadgeba. 2. inflaciis fuladi faqtorebis regulireba. antiinflaciurma politikam wina planze unda wamoswios bankis funqcionireba, mis mier gamoSvebuli fulis odenoba. 3. sakanonmdeblo bazis srulyofa. antiinflaciuri politika unda efuZnebodes iseTi sakanonmdeblo sistemas, romelic uzrunvelyofs bazris funqcionirebas da gaakontrolebs bankis mier saxelmwifoze gacemuli sesxebis odenobas. 4. dawyebuli ekonomikuri reformebis dasruleba gansakuTrebiT ki sabanko, sagadasaxado, sabiujeto sferoSi.

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inflaciis statistika da makroekonomikuri tendenciebi saqarTveloSi1

mixeil dvaliSvili

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. m. mindoraSvili

inflaciisa da mSp ­ is urTierTkavSiris analizi. cnobilia, rom inflaciasa da mTlian Sida produqts (mSp) Soris arsebobs garkveuli urTierTdamokidebuleba. kerZod, inflaciis erTi procentiT Semcirebas Tan axlavs qveyanaSi warmoebuli mSp mniSvnelovanwilad Semcireba. cxrili 1. mSp -is moculoba da dinamika (mimdinare fasebSi, mln. lari) wlebi 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 mSp 8 564.1 9 824.3 11 620.9 13 789.9 16 993.8 19 069.6

rogorc cxrilidan 1 Cans, saqarTveloSi, mTliani Siga produqti 2003 ­ 2008 wlebSi ganuxrelad izrdeboda da, Sesabamisad, 2008 wels miaRwia maqsimalur mniSvnelobas ­ 19 069.6 mln lars. aRniSnul periodSi, permanentulad izrdeboda wliuri inflaciis maCvenebelic. magram 2008 wlis bolosTvis wliuri inflaciis sidide 2007 wlis analogiur maCvenebelTan SedarebiT Semcirda 11 % - idan 5.5 % mde. samomxmareblo fasebis zrdis tempebis Semcireba, ra Tqma unda, dadebiTi movlenaa. Tumca, aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom inflaciis tempebis Semcireba sasurvelia ganxorcieldes etapobrivad, ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi, da ara erTbaSad. radganac wliuri inflaciis maCvenebeli 2008 wlisaTvis Semcirda 5,5 procentiT, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom amave wels mTliani Siga produqtis moculoba mniSvnelovnad unda Semcirebuliyo, wina wlis Sesabamis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT. es ki sakmaod Zlier zians miayenebda saqarTvelos ekonomikas. cxrilSi 1 warmodgenili monacemebis mixedviT, 2008 wlisaTvis, saqarTvelos mTlianma Siga produqtma Seadgina 19 069.6 mln lari. saqarTvelos statistikis departamentis mier dReisTvis warmodgenili monacemebis Tanaxmad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom mTliani Siga produqti(mimdinare fasebSi) 2008 wlisaTvis 2007 wlis analogiur maCvenebelTan SedarebiT araTu Semcirda, rogorc unda momxdariyo, aramed gaizarda 12.21 % - iT.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `statistikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

119

aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom statistikis departamentis mier gamoqveynebuli monacemebis garkveuli raodenoba ar Seesabameba sinamdviles. zemoT warmodgenili analizidan Cans, rom realurad, dReisTvis, inflaciis tempebi saqarTveloSi gacilebiT maRalia, oficialuri statistikis mier warmodgenil monacemebTan SedarebiT. ganvixiloT Tu rogori damokidebulebaa saqarTveloSi saSualo Tviur xelfassa da inflacias Soris. 2003-2008 wlebSi saqarTveloSi saSualo Tviuri nominaluri xelfasis maCvenebeli mudmivad izrdeboda. aRniSnuli naTlad Cans cxrilidan 2. kerZod, 2007 wlisaTvis saSualo Tviuri xelfasi 2003 wlis analogiur maCvenebelTan SedarebiT gaizarda 140.1 lariT da Seadgina 241.6 lari. aRniSnuli SeiZleba gaxdes qveyanaSi inflaciuri procesebis garTulebis mizezi. saSualo Tviuri xelfasis zrda gamoiwvevs erToblivi moTxovnis gazrdas da Tu qveyanaSi ar iqneba warmoebuli mTliani Siga produqti Sesabamisi moculobiT fasebis saerTo done gaizrdeba. da piriqiT, rodesac dasaqmebulTa saSualo Tviuri xelfasis zrdis tempebi SesabamisobaSia, wlis manZilze, amave qveyanaSi, warmoebuli mTliani Siga produqtis zrdis tempTan, maSin samomxmareblo fasebi mniSvnelovnad ar gaizrdeba. amas ganapirobebs is garemoeba, rom saSualo Tviuri xelfasis zrdiT ganpirobebuli erToblivi moTxovnis zrdas daakmayofilebs, qveyanaSi, wlis manZilze, warmoebuli mTliani Siga produqtis zrdiT gamowveuli erToblivi miwodebis zrda. cxrili 2. wlebi saqarTveloSi saSualo Tviuri nominaluri xelfasi 2003-2008 wlebSi 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

saSualo Tviuri xelfasi (larebSi) 101.5 116.4 149.3 190.2 241.6 inflaciisa da umuSevrobis urTierTkavSiri. am or makroekonomikur maCvenebels Soris, gansakuTrebiT drois moklevadian periodSi, arsebobs ukuproporciuli damokidebuleba. sainteresoa sruldeba Tu ara saqarTveloSi zogadad ekonomikaSi miRebuli urTierTdamokidebuleba inflaciasa da umuSevrobas Soris. cxrili 3. wliuri inflacia da umuSevrobis done wlebi inflacia(X) (%) umuSevr. (Y) (%) 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 7,1 7,6 3,6 14,5 19,2 13,8 4 10,3 4,7 11,1 5,6 12,6 4,8 11,5 5,7 12,6 8,2 13,8 9,2 13,6 9,2 13,3 10 120

cxrilSi warmodgenili monacemebis wyviladi regresuli analizidan miviReT, rom, saqarTveloSi inflaciis 1 %- iT Semcirebas (gazrdas) Tan mohyveba umuSevrobis donis 0.14 % -iT Semcireba(gazrda). es damokidebulebas ase gamoisaxeba. Y = 11.2109 + 0.14 X (1) rogorc vxedavT, saqarTveloSi zemoT xsenebul or maCvenebels Soris ekonomikaSi sazogadod miRebuli kanonzomiereba irRveva. miT umetes, rodesac SevamowmeT mocemuli modelis saimedooba miviReT, rom is ver asaxavs marTebul damokidebulebas 1997-2007 wlebSi, saqarTveloSi arsebul inflaciasa da umuSevrobas Soris. saqarTveloSi, aRniSnul wlebSi, arsebuli inflaciisa da umuSevrobis analizis Sedegad ver moxerxda Segvedgina wyviluri regresuli modeli, romelic gamosaxavda raime saxis, miT umetes, ukuproporciul damokidebulebas am or umniSvnelovanes makroekonomikur maCvenebels Soris. aqedan gamomdinare, Zalian Znelia, saqarTveloSi marTebuli, efeqtiani, makroekonomikuri politikis SemuSaveba. is rom, 1997-2007 wlebSi, saqarTveloSi arsebuli inflaciisa da umuSevrobis donis monacemebis ekonometrikuli analiziT ver miviReT raime saxis, miT umetes ukuproporciuli damokidebuleba aRniSnul makroekonomikur maCveneblebs Soris, SeiZleba miuTiTebdes maT mcdarobaze. aqedan gamomdinare, kidev ufro myardeba qarTul sazogadoebaSi farTod gavrcelebuli mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom dReisTvis inflaciis tempebi gacilebiT maRalia, saqarTvelos statistikis departamentis mier gamoqveynebul oficialur monacemebTan SedarebiT. cxrili 4. inflaciis tempi (saS. wl. wina wlis saS. wliurT.) da saS. Tviuri nomin. xelfasi

wlebi inflaciis tempi (saS. wliuri wina wlis saS. wliurTan) saS. Tviuri nomin. xelfasi, gadasaxadebis gareSe 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

4

4.7

5.6

4.8

5.7

8.2

9.2

9.2

10

72.5

82.6

99.1

101.5

116.4

149.3

190.2

-

-

saqarTveloSi arsebuli saSualo Tviuri nominaluri xelfasisa da wliuri inflaciis korelaciuri kavSiris analizidan irkveva, rom maT Soris arsebobs mWidro urTierTkavSiri. kerZod, miviReT, rom aRniSnul makroekonomikur maCveneblebs Soris korelaciis koeficienti udris 0.97 ­s. aqedan gamomdinare, ekonomikuri politikis SemuSavebisas Zalian mniSvnelovania aRniSnuli urTierTkavSiris gaTvaliswineba. 121

wina cxrilSi warmodgenili monacemebis korelaciuri analizidan miviReT, rom mniSvnelovani cvlileba saSualo Tviur nominalur xelfasSi gamoiwvevs inflaciis mkveTrad Secvlas. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saSualo Tviur nominalur xelfassa da wliur inflacias Soris ekonomikaSi sazogadod miRebul damokidebulebas, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom saqarTveloSi saSualo Tviuri nominaluri xelfasis mniSvnelovani gazrda gamoiwvevs qveyanaSi arsebuli saSualo wliuri inflaciis mkveTrad gazrdas.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1) monacemebi saSualo Tviuri xelfasis Sesaxeb ­ ekonomikuri politikisa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis qarTul-evropuli sakonsultacio centri; Jurnali saqarTvelos ekonomikuri tendenciebi; 2) yvela sxva raodenobrivi maCvenebeli saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis

statistikis departamenti, www.statistics.ge

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saqarTvelosa da msoflios mosaxleobis ricxovnobis prognozebi1

Salva giorgaZe

Tsu bakalavriati

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. m. xmalaZe mosaxleobis ricxovnobis prognozireba, eTnodemografiuli ruqebis Sedgena, erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi parametria globaluri da regionaluri ekonomikuri, politikuri da ekologiuri problemebis gadasawyvetad. msoflio mosaxleobis prognozis bolo variantiT, dedamiwis mosaxleoba 2008-2050 wlebSi gaizrdeba 2,647 miliardiT da miaRwevs 9,352 miliards. qvemoT gTavazobT cxrils, sadac warmodgenilia is ZiriTadi qveynebi, romlebic am maCveneblis cvlilebas ganapirobeben. gaeros demografTa mier Catarebuli ukanaskneli reviiziis monacemebiT Semdegia: 2008 msoflio sul afrika amerika azia evropa avstarlia da okeaneTi 6.705 0.967 0.915 4.052 0.736 0.35 2025 8.000 1.358 1.080 4.793 0.726 0.042 2050 9.352 1.932 1.258 5.427 0.685 0.049 % 139.5 % 199.8 % 137.5 % 133.9 % 93.1 % 140.0 %

rogorc xedavT, prognozis mixedviT, evropis mosaxleobis ricxovnoba Semcirdeba, TumcaRa, ufro rom CavuRrmavdeT aRniSnul sakiTxs, evropul qveyanaTa sakmaod did jgufSi mosaxleoba araTu Semcireba, aramed misi matebacaa mosalodneli: evropis mosaxleobis ricxovnobis SemcirebaSi umTavresi wili ruseTsa da ukrainaze modis. yofili ssrk_is qveynebs Tu gamovyobT, clasaxad aRebuli evropa demografiuli TvalsazrisiT sakmao stabilurobiT gamoirCeva. ar SeiZleba ar aRiniSnos erTi metad saintereso momenti, romelic dRevandeli msofliosTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. kerZod, arsebobs garkveuli disproporcia qveyanaTa garkveul jgufsa da sxva danarCen msoflios Soris, rac gulisxmobs am qveyanaTa jgufSi dasaxlebuli mosaxleobis ricxovnobasa da maT mier dakavebul teritorias Soris araproporciul ganawilebas.

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moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `ekonomikuri statistikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili

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qveyanaTa jgufSi _ aSS, evropa, kanada, avstralia da okeaneTi, sadac dasaxlebulia msoflios mTliani mosaxleobis 15%, ukavia dedamiwis teritoriis daaxloebiT 28.2%, es disproporcia 2050 wlis saprognozo monacemebiT kidev ufro gaRrmavdeba da rogorc ukve avRniSneT, dedamiwis mTliani teritoriis 28.2%_ze icxovrebs mosaxleobis 12.9%, danarCen msoflios mosaxleobas, romelic Seadgens 87.1%_s ergeba dedamiwis 71%. xazi unda gaesvas im faqts, rom aRniSnuli disproporcia SesaZlebelia aRmoCndes globaluri teritoriuli konfliqtebis Casaxvisa da gamwvavebis mizezi. aqve unda gaesvas xazi ruseTis mosaxleobis simWidrovesTan dakavSirebul saintereso monacemebs. kerZod, dedamiwis teritoriis 12.6%_is mqone qveyanaa, sadac dasaxlebulia 1.52% msoflo mosaxleobis. aRniSnuli maCvenebeli 2050 wlis prognoziT kidev ufro Semcirdeba da gaxdeba 1.18%. aRniSnuli disproporcia yvelaze mwvavea msoflioSi. rac Seexeba samxeTi kavkasiis demografiul suraTs, igi Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: cxrili 2. samxreTi kavkasiis mosaxleobis ricxovnoba 1913-2050 ww (mln adamiani)

saqarTvelo 1913 1959 1966 1979 2008 2025 2050 2.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 4.6 4.2 3.3 azerbaijani 2.3 3.7 4.6 6.0 8.7 9.7 11.6 somxeTi 1.0 1.7 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.3

istorias Tvals Tu gadavavlebT, saqarTvelo 1913 wlidan dominirebul pozicias ikavebda samxreT kavkasiaSi, Tumca aRniSnuli poziciis Sesusteba 1966 wlidan daiwyo da 2008wels saqarTvelom gadmoinacvla meore adgilze, azerbaijanis mosaxleobis ricxovnobis sagZnobi matebis fonze. mosaxleobis ricxovnobaze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli aramarto demografiuli, aramden samxedro da ekonomikuri usafrTxoebac. am TvalsazrisiT XXI saukunis pirveli naxevari saqarTvelos kargs arafers uqadis. ricxovnobiT is uTanabrdeba somxeTs, romlis ricxov-noba gaizrdeba 2050wlisaTvis 3_jer, xolo azerbaijanis mosaxleoba 2050 wlisaTvis saqarTvelos da somxeTis erTad aRebul mosaxleobas 1.8_jer gadaaWarbebs. saqarTvelos demografiuli prognozi aseT suraTs iZleva. (ix. cxrili 3). Cveni mTavari amocana gaxldaT mogvewodebina gamafrTxilebeli prognozi,

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mosaxleobis aRwarmoebis ucvleli reJimis SenarCunebiT da gvenaxa is suraTi, rac Cvens qveyanas elis im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki is ZiriTadi demografiuli maCveneblebi ar Seicvleba, rac dResdReisobiT damaxasiaTebelia Cveni qveynisTvis. cxrili 3. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ricxovnobis prognozi 2007-2027 wlebSi asaki mosaxleoba 2012 2017 2022 2027 2007 wels (aTasi) 0-4 244.4 200.2 188.2 201.0 162.0 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85 sul 232.8 253.3 284.1 296.1 284.5 262.4 251.4 255.6 262.5 231.2 198.1 188.2 189.5 170.7 128.7 72.8 32.9 3839.2 242.8 229.3 249.4 279.3 290.4 287.1 255.2 242.8 244.3 246.8 212.8 177.0 162.0 154.0 123.9 79.9 35.0 3703.2 198.9 241.2 225.8 245.5 174.5 284.9 271.9 248.3 234.6 233.6 232.1 196.2 158.6 140.1 126.4 91.8 51.3 3643.9 187.0 195.9 239.7 222.5 241.7 269.8 279.5 265.8 241.5 226.7 223.4 218.5 181.1 142.5 121.9 104.7 69.3 3632.6 199.7 184.1 192.8 239.1 219.1 237.9 265.3 274.3 259.8 234.9 219.1 213.7 205.7 167.3 128.4 106.5 87.5 3596.2

125

siRaribe uaxlesi periodis saqarTveloSi1

irakli makalaTia

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. b. gabiZaSvili

siRaribe SefardebiTi da amave dros metad rTuli socialur-ekonomikuri kategoriaa. saukunis win saqarTveloSi soflis glexkaci Tavs Raribad ar miiCnevda Tu mas wlis ganmavlobaSi ojaxis gamosakvebad saWiro sursaTi da cotaodeni tansacmeli hqonda. SemdgomSi sazogadoebis ganviTarebas mohyva moTxovnilebis ganuxreli zrda, adamianebs aRar akmayofilebdaT miRweuli cxovrebis done, maT daiwyes materialuri mdgomareobisa da sulieri cxovrebis gaumjobesebaze fiqri. adamianma jer unda Wamos, svas, Caicvas, daixuros da Semdeg SeeZleba mas ideologiaze fiqri. dRevandel dRes teqnologiuri ganviTarebisa da moTxovnilebaTa zrdis fonze cxovrebis doniT mosaxleobam ukan daiwia. siRaribis maCveneblebi aisaxeba ara marto adamianTa kvebaSi, Cacma_daxurvasa da sxva materialur yofaSi, aramed jandacvaSi, ganaTlebaSi, kulturul da sxva socialur moTxovnilebebSi. adamianis cxovrebis done gansxvavebuli iyo yovelTvis, nebismieri sazogadoebis pirobebSi, adamianis sxvadasxva fenebis mixedviT. jer kidev Zvel saberZneTSi iyo gavrcelebuli devizi: ,,adamianis keTildReoba_umaRlesi mizani." nebismier sazogadoebaSi adamianTa sxvadasxva fenebis mixedviT gansxvavebuli ekonomikuri mdgomareoba obieqturi ekonomikuri mdgomareobiTac aixsneba. politikuri ekonomiis mTavari principis _ ra vawarmooT, mTavar safuZvels warmoadgens sazogadoebaSi arsebuli resursebis SezRuduloba. arasakmarisi resursebi socializmamde arsebul yvela ekonomikur formaciaSi romelime kerZo piris xelSi iyo, amitom es kerZo pirebi yovelTvis TavianT sasargeblod awarmoebdnen ama Tu im saxis materialur dovlaTsa da momsaxurebas. es faqti warmoSobda sazogadoebaSi adamianTa ekonomikur uTanasworobas da dResac ki didia gansxvaveba ganviTarebuli, socialurad orientirebuli qveynebis mdidarTa da RaribTa ekonomikur mdgomareobaSi. mosaxleobis cxovrebis done erT-erTi mniSvnelovani socialuri kategoriaa, romelic gulisxmobs mosaxleobis materialuri da sulieri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis donesa da xarisxs. amitom is moicavs mosaxleobis Semosavlebs, danaxarjebs, mosaxleobis socialuri dacvis sistemas da sapensio uzrunvelyofas. mecnierebi gamoyofen mosaxleobis cxovrebis oTx dones: 1) SeZlebuli cxovrebis done, 2) normaluri cxovrebis done, 3) siRaribe da 4) siRatake.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `statistikis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

126

rogorc g. Tarxan-mouravi aRniSnavs Tavis naSromSi, am ukanaskneli aTwleulis manZilze siRaribis cnebis Sesaxeb sami gansxvavebuli midgoma gamoirCeva: pirveli midgomiT siRaribis cnebaSi igulisxmeba cxovrebiseul SesaZleblobaTa ukmarisoba, rac TavisTavad ukavSirdeba usaxsrobasa da materialuri wyaroebis naklebobas. es ganmarteba dafuZnebulia obieqtur faqtorebze da ugulvebelyofs subieqturi faqtorebis gavlenas siRaribeze. amitom meore midgomis momxreebi siRaribed miiCneven mxolod adamianis subieqtur ganwyobas, miaCnia Tu ara mas Tavi Raribad. es midgomac calmxrivi da arasrulyofilia imdenad, ramdenadac maRali Semosavlis mqone adamiansac SeiZleba gaaCndes ukmayofilebis grZnoba da Tavs Raribad Tvlides. ufro srulyofilia mesame midgoma, romlis mixedviTac siRaribis qveS ara marto materialuri, aramed sulieri faqtorebis erToblioba igulisxmeba. materialurs cxadia sasursaTo da arasasursaTo samomxmareblo Rirebulebani gansaRvraven, xolo suliers _ momsaxureba. sabolood SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom siRaribe aris Semosavlebis (fuladi da arafuladi) ukmarisoba adamianis fiziologiuri da sulieri arseboba-ganviTarebisaTvis saWiro minimalurad aucilebel materialur da sulier RirebulebaTa da momsaxurebis moxmarebisaTvis. am ganmartebaSi asaxulia adamianis rogorc fiziologiuri (sursaTi, tansacmeli, fexsacmeli, sacxovrebeli da sxv.), ise fsiqologiuri (imedi, Tanadgoma, siyvaruli, SiSi da sxv.) da socialuri (usafrTxoeba, Ppativiscema, wesrigi da sxv.) moTxovnilebani. Aqedan, cxadia, Tu qveyanaSi sufevs usamarTloba, ukanonoba, SiSis sindromi, adamianebi ver igrZnoben Tavs daculad da yovelgvari materialuri qoneba fuWia adamianis sulieri ganviTarebisaTvis. msoflio bankis debulebiT Raribad iTvleba pirovneba, romelsac dReSi Semosavali 2 aSS dolarze, xolo Ratakad _ Tu erT aSS dolarze naklebi aqvs. siRaribis statistikuri maCveneblebia: siRaribis done, siRrme da simwvave. siRaribis done ewodeba Raribi mosaxleobis xvedriT wonas mosaxleobis mTel q ricxovnobaSi da gamoiTvleba formuliT k = , sadac q ­ Raribebis ricxovnobaa, nn mosaxleobis saerTo ricxovnoba. siRaribis absolutur zRvrad gamokvlevebiT miCneulia saarsebo minimumi. am ukanasknelSi ki gulisxmoben Sromisunariani asakis (15-dan 65 wlamde) mamakacis saarsebo minimums. siRaribis maCveneblebis gasaangariSeblad gamokvlevebSi gamoyenebulia, agreTve medianuri moxmarebis 60% da medianuri moxmarebis 40%, romlebsac uwodeben siRaribis fardobiT zRvrebs. medianuri moxmareba ki moxmarebis is sididea, romlis qvemoT anu mosaxleobis qvemo naxevari (50%) masze ufro naklebs moixmars, xolo meore naxevari anu zemo naxevari (50%) masze mets.

127

siRaribis done zogadi maCvenebelia da ver axasiaTebs saarsebo minimumidan anu siraribis zRvridan RaribTa daSorebis manZils, amitom statistika angariSobs meore maCvenebels, romelsac ewodeba siRaribis siRrme. siRaribis siRrme axasiaTebs saarsebo minimumidan Raribi mosaxleobis saSualo

(z y )

Semosavlis daSorebis manZils da gamoiTvleba formuliT: P = sadac Z ­ saarsebo minimumia-siraribis zRvaria mocemul periodSi; , nz y ­ Raribi

i 1 i

q

mosaxleobis i- uri wevris Semosavlis sidide, n ­ mosaxleobis ricxovnoba mocemul qveyanaSi; nz ­ mTeli mosaxleobis siRaribis zrvris donis saerTo momarebaa. siRaribis siRrmis maCvenebelic ver iZleva siRaribis srulyofil suraTs, radgan gamokvlevis miRma rCeba TviT RaribTa Soris cxovrebis donis gansxvavebuli suraTi, imdenad ramdenadac Raribebis erTi nawili axlosaa saarsebo minimumTan da uaxloes periodSi qveynis ekonomikis winsvlasTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba gadascildes am zRvars da saSualo mcxovrebTa zonaSi moxvdes, amavdroulad Raribebis meore nawili SeiZleba axlos iyos Ratakebisa da saerTod arafris mqone macxovrebelTa zonasTan. am zonasTan daaxloebis manZilis gasazomad, msoflio statistikur Teoriasa da praqtikaSi SemoRebulia mesame maCvenebeli, romelsac siRaribis simwvave

1 q z yi ewodeba da gamoiTvleba formuliT: P = n i 1 z 2005 wels gamocemul statistikur weliwdeulSi naCvenebia, rom vardebis revoluciis Semdgomi periodis mxolod pirvel wels siRaribis done saqarTveloSi 2.5 %-iT Semcirda. es monacemi niSnavs, rom siRaribis daZlevis samoqmedo gegma warmatebiT amoqmedda. magram igive analizi cxadyofs, rom RaribTa qveda fenaSi (medianuri moxmarebis 60 da 40 procentis mimarT) siRaribe vardebis revoluciis Semdeg ki ar Semcirda, aramed gaizarda kidec, rogorc donis, siRrmis, ise simwvavis mixedviT. siRaribis miRma saqarTveloSi 1997 wels cxovrobda 46,2%, 2000 wels51,8%, 2003 wels_ 54,5%, xolo 2004 wels _ 52,0%. 1 Aqedan, cxadia, rom vardebis revoluciis ASemdgomi periodis saqarTveloSi pirvelive wels siRaribis done 2,5 %-iT Semcirda. imave 2004 wlis manZilze siRaribis donis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikis departamentis mier 2006 wels gamocemul statistikis weliwdeulSi siRaribis donis Sesaxeb gaCnda axali cifrebi, romlebic gviCveneben, rom 2004 wlis pirvelive kvartalSi siRaribis donem Seadgina 32,8% 2 , xolo 2004 wlisaTvis 35,7%, anu daaxloebiT orjer naklebi, vidre es naCvenebi iyo 2005 wels gamocemul statistikur weliwdeulSi.

2

1 2

ix. saqarTvelos Sinameurneobebi 2003-2004 ww. statistikuri krebuli, Tb. 2005 gv. 152 ix. saqarTvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli, 2006. gv.70

128

bunebrivia, rom daismis kiTxva: ram gamoiwvia saqarTveloSi siRaribis donis orjer Semcireba? 2004 wlis siRaribis absoluturi zRvari erTi Sromisunariani asakis mamakacze gaangariSebiT 151,7 laridan 84,3 laramde Semcirda. 1 xolo orjer Semcirebul saarsebo minimumTan mosaxleobis faqtobrivi Semosavlebis Sedarebam ki gamoiwvia saqarTveloSi siRaribis orjer Semcireba. saarsebo minimumi gamoiTvleba samomxmareblo kalaTis damatebiT gadasaxadebsa da Senatanebze. samomxmareblo kalaTa(minimumi) = sasursaTo kalaTa(minimumi) + arasasursaTo moxmareba + gaweuli momsaxurebis Rirebuleba. sasursaTo kalaTa ewodeba kvebis produqtebis im nakrebs, rac fiziologiuri normebis, maTi kaloriulobisa da sabazro fasebis mixedviT, minimalurad mainc saWiroa adamianis fizikuri arseboba ganviTarebisa da sicocxlisunarianobis SesanarCuneblad. sasursaTo kalaTis Rirebulebis gamoTvla xdeba moxmarebis fiziologiuri normebis gadamravlebiT sabazro fasebze. saarsebo minimumis gamoTvlisas mxedvelobaSi miiReba sasursaTo kalaTis Rirebuleba da is faqti, rom saarsebo minimumi erTi Sromisunariani asakis mamakacze gaangariSibiT TiTqmis orjer Semcirda. SeuZlebelia momxdariyo ise, rom ar Semcirebuliyo kvebis produqtebis moxmarebis fiziologiuri normebi. dReis.Tvis saqarTveloSi minimaluri sasursaTo kalaTis rekomendebuli Semadgenloba Sromisunariani mamakacisaTvis Seadgens 2300,0 kkalorias dRiuri moxmarebisaTvis. Tuki dinamikaSi ganvixilavT Sinameurneobebis samomxmareblo fulad xarjebs saSualod TveSi, SevamCnevT, rom sasursaTo nawarmze fuladi xarjebi sagrZnoblad maRali xvedri woniTaa warmodgenili, xolo ganaTlebaze, kulturasa da dasvenebaze fuladi xarjebis xvedri wona minimaluria. sxva xarjebis xvedri wilis TiTqmis ucvlelobis pirobebSi, sasursaTo nawarmze fuladi xarjebis xvedri wona samomxmareblo fulad xarjebSi mcirdeba da procentulad Seadgens: 2004 wels _ 53.6%-s, 2005 wels _ 50.4%, 2006 wels _ 50.6%, 2007 wels _ 48,3%, es monacemebi imis maniSnebelia, rom mosaxleobis cxovrebis done umjobesdeba. axla vnaxoT, Tu rogor icvleba sasursaTo nawarmze fuladi xarjebis xvedri wona mTlian xarjebSi. es monacemebi procentulad Semdegi saxisaa: 2004 weli _ 34.7%, 2005 wels _ 35.0%, 2006 wels _ 35.4%, 2007 wels _ 35.1%. im fonze, roca siRaribis done mcirdeba, Seusabamobaa is faqti, rom sasursaTo nawarmze fuladi xarjebis xvedri wona mTlian xarjebSi TiTqmis uvlelia. Tuki gadavxedavT arasamomxmareblo fulad xarjebs, SevniSnavT, rom qonebis SeZenaze fuladi danaxarjebi mcirdeba da Seadgens: 2004 wels _ 7,5 mln lars

1 ix. saqarTvelos Sina meurneobebi 2003-2004 ww, statistikuri krebuli, 2005w. gv. 150 da saqarTvelos

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikis departamentis kvartaluri biuleteni, Tb. 2008, gv. 80.

129

2005 wels _ 7,7 mln lars 2006 wels _ 6.0 mln lars 2007 wels_4,4 mln laris. xolo maTi xvedri wona mTlian danaxarjebSi TiTqmis 0-s utoldeba, rac mosaxleobis arasaxarbielo finansur mdgomareobaze miuTiTebs. cxril 2-Si mocemuli Sinameurneobebis mTliani Semosavlebi (fuladi da arafuladi) erT sulze gaangariSebiT imaze metyvelebs, rom saSualod vardebis revoluciis Semdeg SinameurneobaTa Semosavlebi erT sulze aWarbebs saarsebo minimums, magram vnaxoT, ras warmoadgens es Tanxebi 1996 wlis ucvlel fasebSi gadayvaniT, deflatoris gamoyenebiT, rac udris 2,0-s. 2007 wels SinameurneobaTa saSualo Semosavlebi erT sulze gaangariSebiT Seadgens 115,2 : 2,0 = 57,6 lars, xolo saarsebo minimumi 105,0 : 2,0 = 52,5 lars. laris dolarze gacvlis dRevandeli kursiT, saqarTveloSi SinameurneobaTa saSualo suladobrivi Semosavali Seadgens 57,6 : 1,65 = 34,9 aSS dolars, xolo saSualo momxmareblis saarsebo minimumi 52,5 : 1,65 = 31,8 aSS dolars. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom msoflio bankis debulebiT Raribad iTvleba pirovneba, romelsac dReSi Semosavali 2 aSS dolarze, xolo Ratakad _ erT aSS dolarze naklebi aqvs, maSin saqarTveloSi yvela Sinameurneoba SemosavlebiT siRatakis zRvarzea, xolo saarsebo minimumi _ Ratakuri, cxrili 1. siRaribis maCveneblebi1

siRaribis done siRaribis siRrme siRaribis simwvave

medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT

medianuri moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT

medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT

medianuri moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT

medianuri moxmarebis 60%-is mimarT

wlebi

2004 2005 2006 2007

24.6 24.1 23.3 21.3

10.9 10.1 9.4 9.2

8.1 7.6 7.2 6.9

3.4 3.1 2.8 2.7

4.0 3.6 3.3 3.2

1.7 1.5 1.3 1.3

saqarTveloSi masobrivi siRaribis ganviTarebas safuZvlad udevs ekonomikis memkvidreobiT miRebuli CamorCeniloba gasuli saukunis 70-80-iani wlebidan. meore mTavari mizezi aris Tanamegobrobis sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT 90-ian wlebSi ekonomikis maRali tempebiT dacema, rac ganapiroba erTiani ekonomikuri sistemis moSlam, mokavSire qveynebTan kavSir-urTierTobis Sewyvetam da sxva mravalma subieqturma faqtorma: samoqalaqo omma, arasworma monetarulma da fiskalurma 130

medianuri moxmarebis 40%-is mimarT

siRaribis maCveneblebi

politikam, korufciis arnaxuli tempebiT ganviTarebam da sxva faqtorebma. Yovelive aman saqarTvelo miiyvana masobriv siRaribemde da saerTo krizisis ganviTarebamde. cxrili 2. SinameurneobaTa Semosavlebi erT sulze da saSualo momxmareblis saarsebo minimumi (lari):2

maCveneblebi SinameurneobaTa Semosavlebi erT sulze (lari) 84.7 92.3 102.7 115.2 saSualo momxmareblis saarsebo minimumi (lari) Sromis unariani mamakacis saarsebo minimumi (lari) 84.3 95.8 106.5 118.6

wlebi

2004 2005 2006 2007

74.7 84.9 94.4 105.0

Tanamedrove msoflioSi mravalsaukunovani istoriis, uZvelesi, maRali kulturis, agreTve mdidari bunebriv-klimaturi da xelsayreli geopolitikuri mdebareobis mqone qveynebidan iSviaTobas warmoadgens saqarTvelo, Tumca gamorCeulia siRaribis maRali doniT. Cvens qveyanas SeuZlia sakuTari sanedleulo bazis maRalefeqtiani gamoyenebiT ara marto sakuTari moTxovnilebani daikmayofilos, aramed awarmoos da miawodos msoflio bazars maRalxarisxovani Rvino, Cai, citrusebi, xili, bostneuli, mineraluri wyali, marganeci, feradi liTonebi, saSeni masalebi, agreTve Tvalwarmtaci bunebiT SeuZlia msoflio turistuli mogzaurobaTa centri gaxdes. sabolood imeds gamovTqvamT, rom sabazro ekonomika adre Tu gvian gonivruli samTavrobo ekonomikuri politikis gatarebiT srulyofilad gamoiyenebs saqarTvelos mdidar bunebriv-klimatur pirobebs, agreTve xelsayrel geopolitikur mdebareobas, ganaviTarebs qveynis ekonomikas da mecnieruli kvlevebi warimarTeba ara siRaribis, aramed upiratesad xalxTa simdidris Sesaswavlad.

gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b. gabiZaSvili, z.kirvaliZe _ siRaribis portreti saqarTveloSi, Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, Tb., 2003 w. g. Tarxan-mouravi _ siRaribe gardamaval sazogadoebaSi, saqarTvelo, Tb., 1998 w. saqarTvelos Sinameurneobebi 2003-2004 ww. statistikuri krebuli. Tb. 2005 w. saqarTvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli, Tb. 2006 w. saqarTvelos Sinameurneobebi 2003-2004 ww. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros statistikis departamentis kvartaluri biuleteni, Tbilisi, 2008.

131

mcire biznesis ganviTarebis donis faqtobrivi analizi

1

gvanca dgebuaZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. T. Sengelia

saqarTveloSi msoflios sxva qveynebis msgavsad mimdinare periodSi finansurekonomikuri krizisia. aseT viTarebaSi qveynisTvis sasicocxlod aucilebelia arsebuli samuSao adgilebis SenarCuneba da axlis Seqma. arsebobs mosazreba, rom am situaciaSi mniSvnelovania mcire biznesis masobrivi formireba da ganviTareba. mcire biznesis ganviTarebas saqarTveloSi xangrZlivi istoria ar gaaCnia, marTalia, XIX saukunis dasawyisisTvis iyo biznesis warmoebis niSnebi,(viTardeboda xelosnoba, vaWroba, mevenaxeoba) magram qveynis bolSekikur mmarTvelobaze daqvemdebarebam erTianad CaaxSo yvelanairi perspeqtiva, vinaidan sabWoTa kavSirSi mewarmeoba miuRebeli saqmianoba gaxldaT, mewarmeebi represiebis obieqtebi xdebodnen. 1991-1994 wlebSi marTalia, qveyanam damoukidebloba moipova, magram samoqalaqo dapirispirebebma da destabilizaciam SeuZlebeli gaxada biznesis warmoeba. 1995 wlidan nel-nela, kus nabijebiT qveyanaSi biznes garemos Camoyalibeba daiwyo, Tumca korufciis manqanam da energo krizisma gamoricxa misi Semdgomi ganviTareba. situacia Seicvala 2003 wlidan, axali mTavrobis pirobebSi qveyanaSi SesaZlebeli gaxda jansaRi biznes garemos Camoyalibeba, gatarda reformebi da arsebuli kanonmdeblobisa da sagadasaxado sistemis pirobebSi gamartivebulia, mcire biznesis wamowyeba da warmeoba. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, wesiT, saqarTveloSi mcire biznesi swrafi tempiT unda viTardebodes. miuxedavad am faqtisa, qyeyanaSi mcire biznesis ganviTareba aradamakmayofilebelia, saqarTveloSi mcire da saSualo biznesSi dasaqmebulia mTlian dasaqmebulTa 25%, massin rodesac inglisSi igive maCvenebeli 49%-s Seadgens, xolo germaniaSi- 80%-s. ra aris amis mizezi? rasakvirvelia, es kompleqsuri problemaa da erT mizezs ar micavs, magram me gadavwyviete yuradReba, erT-erT maTganze gamemaxvilebina. vinaidan am dargis ganviTareba metwilad sazogadoebis iniciativazea damokidebuli, logikuria, problema swored aq veZioT. arsebobs mosazreba, rom sazogadoebis umetesi nawili ufrTxis sakuTari saqmis wamowyebas, maT urCevniaT, monawileoba miiRon sxvisi produqtis warmoebaSi, vidre sakuTari riskis fasad akeTon biznesi. amboben, rom es jer kidev sabWoTa kavSiris gamoZaxilia, vinaidan, kerZo mewarme didi xnis ganmavlobaSi oficialurad sazogadoebisaTvis miuRebel pirad iTvleboda, am xelovnurma stereotipma,

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna ` biznesis administrirebis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili, xolo studentTa 69-e sauniversiteto konferenciaze II adgili.

132

daaSora sazogadoebis farTo masebi biznes garemos, konkretulad ki daaknina maTi riskis sferoSi moqmedebis unarCvevebi. Sedegad, sazogadoeba gaxda ufro damokidebuli sxvaTa Sromis nayofierebaze, Sesabamisad, saWiro aRar iyo damoukidebeli SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis pirobebSi, sakuTari qonebis fasad produqtis an momsaxurebis Seqmnis aucilebloba, anu riskze wasvla. sazogadoebaSi damkvidrda cru warmodgena realur cxovrebaze. bevri miiCnevs, rom Cveni qveynis mosaxloebas kvlav mcdari Sexeduelba aqvs biznesze da ar Seucvnia misi WeSmariti xibli, amitom moqalaqeebi mxolod maSin iwyeben mewarmeobas, roca Semosavlis sxva wyaro ar gaaCniaT. am problemis ukeT Sesaswavlad me Cavatare gamokiTxva-mokvleva. Cems mier, gamoikiTxa mcire biznesiT dakavebuli 145 mewarme, romlebic ewevian sxvadasxva saqonlisa da momsaxurebis warmoebas, TioToeulma maTganma Seavso Cems mier specialurad momzadebuli kiTxvari. gamokiTxuli mewarmeebis 27% biznes saqmianobas ramdenime Tvea eweva (0-dan 1 wlamde), naxevari, anu 50% ,samewarmeo saqmanobiT dakavebulia 1-dan 5-wlamde vadiT da mxolod 23% gamokiTxulebisa marTavs sakuTar sawarmos 5-welze meti droiT. (ixileT diagrama #1)

60 40 20 Series1 0

1

2

3

1. 0-dan 1 wlamde 2. 1-dan 5 wlamde 3.5 da meti weli diagrama #1

Seswavlili sawarmoebis 67%-Si dasaqmebulia 1-dan 5 kacamde, 23%-Si msaxurobs 5-dan 10-mde moqalaqe da firmaTa mxolod 10%-Si gvxvdeba 10-ze meti muSa. (ixileT diagrama #2)

133

1 2 3

1. 1-dan 5 kacamde 2. 5-dan 10 kacamde 3.10-ze meti kaci diagrama#2

rogorc aRmoCnda Cems mier gamokiTxuli mewarmeebis 73%-sTvis es saqmianoba Semosavlis erTaderT wyaros warmoadgens da mxolos 27%-s aqvs sxva finansuri saxsrebis moZiebis SesaZlebloba (ixileT diagrama #3).

aris Tu ara es saqmianoba Tqveni Semosavlis erTaderTi wyaro?

80 60 40

Series1 20

0 1 1. diax 2. ara diagrama #3 2

me vTxove mewarmeebs SeefasebinaT maTi sawarmos efeqturoba da Semdegi suraTi miviRe (ixileT diagrama#4).

40

30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Series1

134

1.gamorCeuli; 2.Zalian maRali; 3. maRali; 4.normaluri; 5.misaRebi; 6.damakmayofilebeli; 7.aradamakmayofilebeli; 8.uimedo situacia. diagrama #4

CemTvis Zalian saintereso iyo imis garkveva, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba mwamroeblis ganaTleba mis saqmianobas. Cem mier gamokveluli sawarmoebis mixedviT aseTi suraTi miviRe (ixileT diagrama #5).

3 33%

1 44%

2 23%

1.sruliad Seusabamo; 2.sruliad Sesabamisi; 3.nawilobriv Sesabamisi. diagrama #5

e.i mewarmeebis 23% miiCnevs rom maTi ganaTleba absoluturad Seesabameba maT saqmaonobas(anu isini ekonomistebi arian) 44%-ma mipasuxa,rom isini srulebiT ar Seesabamebian maTsave saqmonobas da gamokiTxulTa 33% fiqrobs, rom maTi ganaTleba nawilobriv Seesabameba sawarmos mmarTvelis funqcias. Zalze saintereso tendenciis maCvenebelia mewarmeebis pozicia maTi saqmianobis gafarToebis perspeqtivasTan dakavSirebiT. gamokiTxulTa 78% saerTod ar gegmavs warmoebis raime formiT gafarToebas, mewarmeTa 16% gegmavs warmoebis moculobis zrdas, Tumca ar icis ra gziT miaRwevs amas da mxolos 6% mewarmeebisa gegmavs saqmoanobis gafarToebas ukve gawerili gegmiT (ixileT diagrama #6).

135

1 2 3

1.dagegmilia (gawerili gegmiT) 2. gegmav 3. ar gegmavs diagrama #6

sabolood, zemoT aRwerili kvleva cxadyofs, rom mwarmoebelTa absoluturi umravlesobis saqmianoba emyareba primitiul logikas_ `mTavaria gavasaRo~.. maTTvis mTavar mizans warmoadgens arsebuli produqciis gasaReba da mogebis miReba, Semdgom aRar fiqroben mogebis nawilis kvlavwarmoebaSi gaSvebaze da winaswar ar gegmaven sawarmos funqcionirebas. amis naTeli dasturi isaa, rom gamokiTxuli mewarmeebis 67% miiCnevs, rom dagegmva maTi sawarmosTvis ar aris saWiro. aRsaniSnavia, rom kvlevaSi monawile mewarmeebi ver erkvevian maT mier gaweuli xarjebis procentul maCveneblebSi, anu isini ar axdenen maTi saqmianobis analizs. aseT monacemebs erT daskvnamde mivyavarT, mwarmoebelTa absoluturi umravlesoba ar aris bolomde garkveuli maTi sawarmos SesaZleblobebSi da maTi gaTvlebi emyareba moklevadian periods. Cveni mxridan logikuri iqneba mcire biznesis ganviTarebis gzebis moZieba im qveynidan, romelic am mxriv yvelaze warmatebulia, es udavod, amerikis Seertebuli Statebia, romelic gvevlineba kidec mcire biznesis warmoebis fuZemdeblad. amerikis SeerTebul Statebi funqcianorebs organizacia ,,mcire biznesis administracia" romelic amerikis kongresma 1953 wels daaarsa. mis xelmZRvanels niSnavs qveynis prezidenti da amtkicebs senati. mTel qveyanaSi funqcionirebs am organizaciis 1000-mde filiali sadac 50-mde saxis programa funqcionirebs.erT-erT mTavar saqmianobad iTvleba sainformacio mxardaWera da gadamzadeba.sxvadasxva filialebSi mimdinareobs treiningebi da konsultaciebi, romlebic aerTianeben 10 000-ze met yofil da axlad daarsebul sawarmos.aseve arsebobs individualuri midgomis konsultaciis da daxmarebis programebi.am organizaciis funqcionirebis mTavari mizani mewarmeebis mewarmeobiTi potencialis amaRlebaa, vinaidan gamocdilebis ar arsebobis da sxvadasxva problemis gauTvaliswineblobis gamo aSS-Si yovelwliurad axladgaxsnili sawarmoebis 85% kotrdeba. 136

miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi arsebobs patar-patara sakonsultacio jgufebi, (`mcire biznesis ganviTarebisa da xelSewyobis centri~, `evropis rekonstuqciisa da ganviTarebis banki~, `saqarTvelos sawarmoTa xelSewyobis proeqti~, `saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis daxmarebis fondi~, `Ria sazogadoeba saqarTvelos fondi~ da sxva) isini ar atareben masStabur xasiaTs da mcire mewarmeebi umravles SemTxvevaSi ar arian informirebulni maTi saqmianobis Sesaxeb, amitom, Cemi azriT, idealuri iqneboda Tu CvenTanac Seiqmneboda amerikuli organizaciis msgavsi saxelmwifo organo, romelic masiurad gauwevda propagandas mcire biznesis warmoebas, mosaxleobas daanaxvebda Tavisufali bazris pirobebSi biznesis warmeobis WeSmarit xibls da xelmisawvdomi iqneboda nebismieri msurvelisTvis, gauwevda maT informaciul mxardaWeras, Cautarebda treiningebs, konsultaciebs, izrunebda maTi kvalifikaciis amaRlebaze. Sedegad moqalaqeebi informirebulebi, momzadebulebi, gaazrebulad wamoiwyebdnen sakuTar mcire bizness da Sesabamisad maTi saqmianoba gacilebiT produqtiuli da efeqturi iqneboda. mniSvnelovania, am organizaciam itvirTos analitikuri koreqtirebis funqcia arsebuli kanonmdeblobis daxvewis rekomendaciebis gawevis mizniT, rac gulisxmobs msoflios saukeTeso praqtikis moZiebas da maT morgebas qarTul realobaze,ara principiT copy and paste aramed adaptirebuli modeliT da sqemebiT.

137

fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis biznesi saqarTveloSi1

lana sulakaZe salome vaSakiZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. g. erqomaiSvili

saqarTveloSi fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis biznesi nela, magram stabilurad viTardeba. amJamad mobiluri kavSirgabmulobis bazarze sami komunikaciuri organizacia funqcionirebs: `jeoseli", `magTi" da `bilaini". maTgan `jeoseli" da `magTi" ori umsxvilesi mobiluri satelefono operatori kompaniaa. `magTis" organizaciis abonentebi Seadgenen 1900000_s, xolo `jeoselis" _ 2000000 momxmarebels, rac ganapirobebs maT mier bazris monopolizebas. mesame moTamaSe _ `bilaini" bazarze 2005 wels gamoCnda da 280000 abonentiT qarTuli fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis bazarze aminds jerjerobiT ver cvlis. warmovadginoT "magTis', "jeoselisa" da "bilainis" xvedriTi wona bazarze (ix. diagrama 1)

2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 Series1

magti

jeocell

beline

Ddiagrama 1. `magTis~, `jeoselisa~ da `bilainis~ xvedriTi wona bazarze. aqedan naTlad Cans `magTisa" da `jeoselis" TiTqmis Tanabari konkurencia. jeoseli (Geocell) 1996 wlis seqtembridan Cndeba saqarTveloSi, rogorc pirveli GSM operatori. jeoselma 1997 wlis 15 marts ganaxorciela pirveli mobiluri zari da mas Semdeg ganagrZobs warmatebul funqcionirebas saqarTvelos komunikaciur bazarze. man

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `biznesis administrirebis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

138

pirvelma danerga saqarTvelos bazarze inovaciuri servisebis umravlesoba. is gaxda aRiarebuli kompania da 11 wlis manZilze mravali prizi da sigeli miiRo sxvadasxva damsaxurebisTvis. kompania daarsebis dRidanve zrunavs Tavisi abonentebisTvis maqsimaluri komfortis Seqmnaze da mudam cdilobs, srulyofilebamde daxvewos sakuTari momsaxureba. jeosels didi wvlili Seaqvs qveynis ekonomikis aRmavlobis saqmeSi, rogorc erT-erTi msxvili gadamxdeli. kompania droulad ixdis gadasaxadebs saqarTvelos biujetSi da xels uwyobs mis Sevsebas. dRemde kompaniam ukve ganaxorciela 315 milionis investiciebi, xolo samomavlod igegmeba am cifris 465 milion laramde gazrda. am moqmedebebiT kompania xels uwyobs moqalaqeebis dasaqmebas da Sesabamisad qveynis ganviTarebas. is qmnis axal samuSao adgilebs da dasaqmebuli yavs 4000-ze meti adamiani. jeoselis strategiis erT-erTi sagulisxmo mimarTulebaa uangaro qvelmoqmedeba da mecenatoba. kulturis, ganaTlebisa da sportis mxardaWera ­ jeoselis savizito baraTia. kompanias Tavisi arsebobis manZilze asobiT gaxmaurebuli socialuri proeqti ganuxorcielebia, rac misTvis erTgvar reklamasac warmoadgens mobiluri kavSirgabmulobis kompania Sps "magTikomi" daarsda 1996 wlis TebervalSi, xolo komerciuli saqmianoba daiwyo 1997 wlis seqtembridan. D dReisTvis magTikomis mflobelebi arian amerikuli kompaniebi International Telcell Celular LLC da Telcell Wireless LLC. 2006 wlis zafxulSi kompania, GSM-momsaxurebis srul speqtrTan erTad, pirvelad saqarTveloSi uzrunvelyofs mesame Taobis servisebis momsaxurebas: maRalsiCqariani interneti, videozari da mobiluri televizia. 2008 wels magTikomi gacda mobiluri kavSiris farglebs, CDMA-450 standertis qseli gamarTa da axali brendis ­ magTi fiqsis saSualebiT, saqarTvelos mosaxleobas fiqsirebuli, usadeno satelefono kavSiri da internet momsaxureba SesTavaza. rac Seexeba magTikomis meore brends: "bals". misi gaSveba moxda 2005 wlis 18 ivliss. baliT sargeblobs Zalian bevri adamiani, radgan am brendma moipova didi popularoba sazogadoebaSi. bali aris gankuTvnili yvelanairi adamianisTvis, rogorc axalgazrdebisTvis aseve saqmiani xalxisTvis. bals gaaCnia Tanamedrove servisi da aris yvelaze xelmisawvdomi. `magTikomis~ sakontrolo paketis mflobelia kompania `selfordi~, romelmac aqciebi amerikuli `metromediisgan~ 2007 wels SeiZina. mas hyavs 1 700 000_ze meti abonenti da is faravs saqarTvelos teritoriis 97%_ze mets. amJamad saqarTvelos

139

masStabiT funqcionirebs `magTis~ 43 ofisi. 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi `magTikomma~ saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi daaxloebiT 46 185 000 lari Seitana. magTis erT-erTi warmatebuli partniori kompaniaa saqarTvelos banki. maT aqvT erToblivi produqti gamoSvebuli ­ Magti Card. am baraTis saSualebiT momxmarebels SeuZlia mudmivad isargeblos uprocento kreditiT. wels magTikomma abonentebs siaxle momsaxurebis ofisebis mxrivac SesTavaza, rac imaSi mdgomareobs, rom momxmareblebs ukve kompaniis moZravi ofisebi emsaxurebaT. oTxi srulfasovani ofisi `borblebze~ mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT, regularulad moZraobs im dasaxlebul punqtebSi, sadac kompanias momsaxurebis stacionaluri ofisi araaqvs. aseTi ofisi am dReebSi Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis maRliv korpussac moevlina. paralelurad, magTikomi mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi abonentebs aqtiurad sTavazobda sxvadasxva aqciebsa da ganaxlebul servisebs. gansakuTrebiT saintereso winadadebebi SesTavaza kompaniam sxvadasxva profesiis adamianebs. kerZod ki, Seiqmna klubebi masmediis warmomadgenlebisTvis, medikosebisTvis, jariskacebisa da Zalovani struqturebis TanamSromlebisTvis, fermerebisa da agraruli sferos warmomadgenlebisTvis. yvela am profesiis abonents saSualeba aqvs klubSi gawevrianebis SemTxvevaSi momsaxurebis gansakuTrebuli pirobebiT isargeblos. 2008 wlis 15 dekembris monacemebiT, magTikoms arsebobis manZilze qveynis ekonomikaSi 700 milioni lari aqvs Setanili. rogorc kompaniaSi acxadeben, am maCveneblebiT 2002 wlidan magTikomi ucvleli lideria. saqarTvelosa da evropaSi magTikomma pirvelma danerga Push-to-Talk teqnologia (2004), xolo 2006 wlis ivnisidan ­ mesame Taobis servisebi. kompaniam 2008 wlis noemberSi daasrula saxelmwifo struqturebisTvis erTiani sakomunikacio qselis Seqmnaze muSaoba da masSi sxvadasxva uwyebisa da saministros 400-ze meti obieqti CarTo. bilaini axlad Seqmnili inovaciuri kompaniaa, romelic miznad isaxavs momxmareblis survilebis maRali xarisxiT dakmayofilebas. igi iyo pirveli, romelmac bazarze danerga yvelaze dabali satarifo gegmebi. bilainma saqarTveloSi SemosvlisTanave gadadga sakmaod gambedavi da erTi SexedviT axladSeqmnili kompaniisTvis wamgebiani nabiji, rac gamoixata imaSi, rom man momxmareblis mosazidad bazars SesTavaza warmoudgenlad dabali 2 TeTriani tarifi Siga qselSi sasaubrod. 2008 wels bilainma abonentebs ramdenime axali momsaxureba SesTavaza, maT Soris, xmovani fosta-`Cemi melodia", romelic standartuli zumeris nacvlad abonentis mier arCeuli melodiis Canacvlebas gulisxmobs. bilaini dafarvis zonebs zrdis da is ukve saqarTvelos yvela regions moicavs. amJamad kompaniis signali raWaSic vrceldeba. ukanaskneli Tveebis 140

ganmavlobaSi bilainma ramdenime aTeuli axali sabazo sadguri gauSva. regionebis aTvisebasTan erTad aqtiurad mimdinareobs signalis xarisxis gaumjobesebac. rogorc bilainSi acxadeben, kompania am periodisTvis saqarTvelos 90%-s faravs da 10 regionSia warmodgenili. aRniSnuli organizaciebidan jeoselma da magTikomma TiTqmis erTdroulad daiwyes bazarze damkvidreba, xolo bilaini jer-jerobiT axlad Seqmnili organizaciaa da is Zlier konkurentad ver gvevlineba. bilainma saqarTvelos bazarze damkvidreba moaxerxa dabali tarifebiT, magram aman Tavdapirvelad uaryofiTad imoqmeda mis finansur mdgomareobaze. `jeoseli" da `magTi" lideri kompaniebi arian. satarifo gegma orives daaxloebiT msgavsi aqvT da amiT erTmaneTs uweven Tanabari SesaZleblobis konkurencias. es faqti dadebiTad moqmedebs momxmareblis interesebze, radgan konkurenciis gamo tarifebi mcirdeba da xelmisawvdomi xdeba yvela adamianisTvis. jeoselsa da magTikoms bilainisagan gansxvavebiT mravali inovaciuri servisi aqvT danergili. magTikoms ufro meti filiali aqvs saqarTvelos teritoriaze, vidre danarCenebs, mxolod mcirediT CamorCeba jeoseli. bilainis erT-erTi upiratesobaa dabali tarifebi saerTaSoriso zarebze sxvadasxva qveynebSi, rogoricaa ukraina da ruseTi. aseve is aZlevs Tavis momxmareblebs imis saSualebas, rom dabal fasebSi gaagzavnon MMS. ganxiluli kompaniebis dafarvis zona saqarTveloSi aseTia (ix. Ddiagrama 2)

dafarvis zona

magti geocell beeline

90%

99%

95%

Ddiagrama 2. `magTis~, `jeoselisa~ da `bilainis~ dafarvis zona saqarTveloSi 2008 wlis agvistoSi saqarTveloSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma mniSvnelovani ziani miayena qarTul bizness. miuxedavad amisa qarTuli fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis bazars funqcionireba ar Seuwyvetia, piriqiT man mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa dazaralebulTa dasaxmareblad. magaliTisaTvis: agvistos tragikul movlenebTan 141

dakavSirebiT "jeoseli" aqtiurad CaerTo iZulebiT gadaadgilebulTa daxmarebis procesSi. kompaniam patronaJi gamoacxada Tbilisis 103_e sajaro skolaSi ganTavsebul devnilebze da isini uzrunvelyo sxvadasxva sayofacxovrebo nivTebiT. garda amisa, SemoRebul iqna specialuri tarifi, romlis farglebSic yvela devnili wuTSi 9 TeTrad saubrobs. aseve "" 200399 . "" "" , 1 , . am ori kompaniisgan gansxvavebiT "bilains" araviTari saqvelmoqmedo aqcia ar ganuxorcielebia. amasTanave, saomari moqmedebebis dros kompania "bilaini" sruliad ver uzrunvelyofda momxmarebelTa komunikacias. saqarTvelos fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis bazris Seswavlis safuZvelze SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT, rom sworad Sedgenilma marketingulma strategiam, qvelmoqmedebam da momxmarebelze gaTvlilma aqciebma uzrunvelyo am samidan ori kompaniis warmateba bazarze. Tavdapirvelad SeTavazebulma dabalma tarifma mniSvnelovnad daazarala `bilaini~. garda amisa, igi bazarze axali Semosulia, amitomac ver uwevs Tanabar konkurencias `magTisa~ da `jeoselis~ brendebs. Aamgvarad, miuxedavad ekonomikuri da finansuri krizisisa, sxva dargebisgan gansxvavebiT, fiWuri kavSirgabmulobis biznesi saqarTveloSi warmatebiT funqcionirebs.

142

globaluri finansuri krizisi da misi gavlena saqarTvelos finansur sistemaze1

irakli xubua

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xeml: asoc. prof. lela baxtaZe

globaluri finansuri krizisi jerjerobiT msoflioSi yvelaze aqtualur Temad rCeba. msoflio finansuri krizisi 2007 wlis zafxulSi aSS-is ipoTekuri dakreditebis bazarze dawyebuli krizisis Sedegia. aRniSnuli ganapiroba aSS-Si 2001 wlis 11 seqtembers momxdarma saSinelma teraqtma. tempdakarguli ekonomikis stimulirebisaTvis FED-is (aSS-s centraluri banki) mier zRvarsgadasulma monetarulma eqspansiam, rasac logikurad ekonomikis yvela seqtorSi saprocento ganakveTebis Semcireba mohyva. kerZod, mTavari saprocento ganakveTi (sadiskonto ganakveTi) 2001 wels arsebuli 3.5%-dan 2003 wlisaTvis 1%-mde daeca da ase metismetad didi xnis ganmavlobaSi SenarCunda. amas daemata bankebisa da sakredito organizaciebis mier momxmarebelTa ricxvis gazrdis mizniT, msesxeblebisTvis standartuli moTxovnebis gamartiveba _ msesxeblebs Tanamonawileoba ar moeTxovebodaT. Sedegad sesxi misces gadaxdisuunaro Ffenas, mxolod im varaudiT, rom qoneba, romelsac isini sesxiT iZendnen stabilurad gaZvirdeboda. bankebi, romlebic amgvar kreditebs gamoyofdnen, male Tavadac dasWirdebodaT fuli, ris gamoc aRniSnuli sesxebis ufro msxvili bankebisaTvis "miyidvas" axdendnen. es ukansknelni ki uSvebdnen obligaciebs, romlebic am ipoTekuri kreditebiT iyo uzrunvelyofili. cxadia, obligaciebs ericxebodaT procenti da mohqondaT sargebeli TavianTi mflobelebisaTvis. amasTan, isini spekulaciis saganic xdebodnen. 2006 wels ipoTekuri kreditiT uzrunvelyofil obligaciebs soliduri mogeba mohqondaT mesakuTreebisaTvis _ wliurad 9-11%-is odenobiT. amitom bankebis umravlesoba siamovnebiT abandebda saxsrebs aRniSnul aqtivebSi. Aamrigad, Seiqmna finansuri piramida, romlis safuZvels warmoadgenda uZravi qoneba. sinamdvileSi ki, aSS-Si fasebi uZrav qonebaze 20%-iT Semcirda, rasac daemata navTobsa da sursaTze fasebis zrda. Sedegad sul ufro met msesxebels gauWirda kreditis momsaxureba, ramac aSS-s bankebis gakotreba gamowvia. es krizisi, ra Tqma unda, gadaedo amerikasTan mWidrod dakavSirebul evropas, saidanac is danarCen msoflioSi gavrcelda. evropaSi pirvelad didi britaneTis sabanko bazari dazaralda. mas Semdeg, rac inglisis centralurma bankma didi britaneTis sididiT mexuTe ipoTekur banks

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `finansebis, sabako saqmisa da dazRvevis ~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

143

Northern-Rock likvidobis SesanarCuneblad Tanxa gamouyo, meanabreebma CaTvales rom banks gakotreba emuqreboda da TiTqmis 2 mlrd girvanqa-sterlingi moxsnes angariSidan. amis gamo banks seriozuli finansuri problemebi Seeqmna, evropis safinanso bazarze ki aJiotaJi daiwyo _ msxvili bankebis aqciaTa fasi daeca. zogierTi eqsperti krizisis mizezad farTod gavrcelebul derivativebs, kerZod e.w. "sakredito defoltur svops" asaxelebs. Tumca, Cveni azriT, aRniSuli svopis "kraxi" msesxebelTa mxridan valdebulebebis masobrivad Seusruleblobam ganapiroba, rasac, erTi mxriv, navTobsa da sursaTze fasebis zrda iwvevda, ris Sedegadac msesxeblebs gaezardaT mimdinare xarjebi da ver SeZles sesxebis momsaxureba. meore mxriv, ki, fasebi uZrav qonebaze romlis garantiiTac bankebi sesxebs gascemdnen, imdenad daeca, rom igi ZiriTad Tanxasac ver aanazRaurebda. am ori faqtoris mizezs ki warmoadgenda iafi fuli. amasTan pirvelad swored im bankebis aqciebze Semcirda fasebi, romlebic ipoTekuri kreditiT uzrunvelyofil obligaciebs gamoscemdnen. realur ekonomikaze krizisis Sedegebi 2008 wlis oqtombeSi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebis gauaresebaSi gamoixata. kerZod, aSS-Si umuSevrobam 6.5%-s miaRwia, rac yvelaze maRali maCvenebelia ukanaskneli 14 wlis ganmavlobaSi. umuSevrobis donem evrozonis qveynebSi 7.7% Seadgina. umuSevrobis yvelaze maRalma donem espaneTSi _ 12,8% miaRwia, rac Tavis mxriv, krizisis Sedegad samSeneblo industriaSi zrdis tempebis mniSvnelovanma vardnam da turistebis raodenobis klebam ganapiroba. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom CineTSi daaxloebiT 4-5%-iT Semcirda mTliani Siga produqtis zrdis tempi. krizisis Sedegad, 2007 wlis seqtembidan dRemde, amerikis FED-ma saprocento ganakveTi 3-jer daswia, garda amisa, gaamartiva dakreditebis programa. amerikul bankebs likvidobis problemis dasaZlevad, finansuri resursebis mozidva rom SesZlebodaT, aSS-s mTavrobam investorebs qveynis bankebis aqciaTa 33%-is Sesyidvis ufleba misca, rac adre akrZaluli iyo. amasTan, ukve imave wlis dekemberidan FEDma amerikul bankebs saSualeba misca misagan aeRoT sesxi vinaobis gaumJRavneblad. am mxriv kidev ufro Sors wavida evropis centraluri banki, romelmac 2008 wlis 18 ianvars 348,6 mlrd dolaris sesxi gasca sabazroze gacilebiT ufro dabali saprocento ganakveTiT. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia 2008 wlis 3 oqtombers, aSS-is kongresSi gamarTuli sxdoma, romelzec senatma, ukve yofili finansTa ministris, henri polsonis mier ekonomikuri stabilurobis mizniT SemuSavebuli antikrizisuli gegma daamtkica, romlis gansaxorcieleblad 700 mlrd dolari gamoiyo, amasTan depozitebze sadazRvevo limiti droebiT 100 aTasidan 250 aTasamde gaizarda (evrokavSirSi ki-20 aTasidan 50 aTas evromde). depozitebis federalur sadazRvevo kompanias ufleba mieca, SeuzRudavad esargebla finansTa saministros fondebiT. amoqmedda 150 mlrd dolaris moculobis sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi, romliTac sargebloben mcire biznesis warmomadgenlebi, erT da met Sviliani ojaxebi da 144

ukanasknel periodSi stiqiuri ubedurebiT dazaralebulni. am gegmis yvelaze mniSvnelovan punqts warmoadgenda is, rom unda momxdariyo bankebis rekapitalizacia wilSi Sesvlis gziT. saxeldobr, bankebis mier gamoSvebul privilegirebul aqciebs saxelmwifo SeiZenda. aseve oqtomberSi safrangeTSi gamarTul samitze, evrozonis liderebma miiRes CarCo xelSekruleba, romlis Sesabamisad evropis calkeuli qveyana sakuTar bankebSi privilegirebuli aqciebis SesyidviT ganaxorcielebda investiciebs. maT aseve SeuerTda didi britaneTic. inglisis centralurma bankma 50 mlrd girvanqa sterlingi gamoyo privilegirebuli aqciebis SesaZenad. germaniis mTavrobam bankebis da sxva finansuri institutebis stabilizaciis mizniT 500 mlrd evro gamoyo. unda aRiniSnos, CineTis saxalxo respublikis xelisuflebis mier miRebuli antikrizisuli RonisZiebebis paketi. kerZod, ukanaskneli ori wlis ganmavlobaSi gamoyofili iqneba 586 mlrd dolari stiqiuri ubedurebis dros dazaralebuli mosaxleobisTvis, mcire Semosavliani moqalaqeebisTvis saxlebis asaSeneblad, satransporto qselis ganviTarebisa da inovaciuri teqnologiis danergvisaTvis. amasTan mTavroba sawarmoebisaTvis sagadasaxado ganakveTebis Semcirebas apirebs, rac daaxloebiT 17.5 mlrd dolars dazogavs. 2009 wlis ianvarSi aSS-is axalma prezidentma warmoadgina antikrizisuli gegma, riTac gadsaxadebi 500 dolariT Seumcirdeba amerikis im moqalaqeebs, romelTa Semosavalic weliwadSi 200 aTas dolars ar aRemateba. sagadasaxado SeRavaTebiT isargebleben agreTve is kompaniebi, romlebic damatebiT personals daasaqmeben. xolo im kompaniebs, romlebmac 2008 wels zarali ganicades, SesaZlebloba eqnebaT, krediti 5 wlis winandeli finansuri monacemebis Sesabamisad aiRon. am gegmis mixedviT im bankebisa da finansuri organizaciebis top-menejerebis xelfasi ar unda aRematebodes 500 aTas dolars, romlebic daxmarebas saxelmwifo xazinidan Rebuloben. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia 2009 wlis 20 aprils londonSi gamarTuli samiti, sadac G20("didi oceulis") qveynebis liderebma SeTanxmebas miaRwies, rom ssf miiRebs 1,1 trln aSS dolars krizisis dasaZlevad. gamoqveyndeba im qveynebis sia, romlebic fulis gaTeTrebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi monawileobaze uars amboben da maT mimarT mkacri sanqciebi gatardeba; gamoiyofa 250 mlrd dolari saerTaSoriso vaWrobis stimulirebisaTvis; mkacrad gakontroldeba da regulirebis gareSe ar darCeba finansuri bazris arc erTi elementi; gaizrdeba Rarib qveynebze daxmareba, romlebic krizisis Sedegad gansakuTrebiT dazaraldnen da jamSi 2010 wlamde, krizisis dasaZlevad 5 trilioni aSS dolari gamoiyofa. sayuradReboa, rom ZiriTadad adgili hqonda gadasaxadebis Semcirebas da saxelmwifo xarjebis zrdas, anu xorcieldeboda erToblivi moTxonis stimulireba, Tumca jerjerobiT man Sedegi ver gamoiRo. rasac adasturebs msoflio indeqsTa dinamika, magaliTad, 2008 wlis 1 oqtombridan 2009 wlis 15 maisamde Dow Jones 145

Industrial indeqsi 24%-iT Semcirda da 8206.7 dolari Seadgina. analogiurad Semcirda S&P 500 indeqsi da 882.9 dolars gautolda; 19%-iT Semcirda Nasdaq Composite da 1680,1 dolari Seadgina. Tanamedrove finansurma krizisma saqarTvelos ekonomikac daazarala. rac ganpirobebuli iyo Semdegi garemoebebiT: jer erTi, Cveni qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebas mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs ucxouri investiciebi, meore, samomxmareblo bazris 80% importirebuli saqonliT aris gajerebuli, mesame, mosaxleobis udidesi nawili arsebobs swored danarCeni msofliodan miRebuli transfertebis xarjze da meoTxe, qveyanaSi arsebuli komerciuli bankebi sakredito resursad ZiriTadad msoflio finansuri bazrebidan mozidul saxsrebs iyeneben. Qqveynis ekonomikaze Zalze negatiurad imoqmeda agvistos omma, ris Sedegadac mniSvnelovnad Semcirda pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi (grafiki 1). kerZod, igi 2008 wlis III kvartalSi wina wlis analogiur maCvenebelTan SedarebiT 69.3%-iT, xolo IV kvartalSi ki, 73%-iT Semcirda. aseve mniSvnelovnad iklo ucxoeTidan miRebulma transfertebis odenobam (grafiki 2), rasac mohyva laris kursis dacema dolarTan mimarTebaSi (grafiki 3).

msoflio krizisis gamo, bankebs sesxebi 1,5%-2%-iT gauZvirdaT, rasac 2008 wlis gazafxulidan sabanko bazarze kreditis gaZvireba mohyva (grafiki 4). miuxedavad sesxebis gaZvirebisa, ekonomikis dakrediteba, agvistos omamde ar Semcirebula(grafiki 5). agvistos 5-dRiani omis Semdeg mosaxleobam masobrivad daiwyo bankebidan depozitebis gatana. saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis monacemebiT, 146

agvistoSi depozitebi 389.6 mln. lariT (grafiki 6), bankebis mTliani aqtivebi ki 700 mln. lariT Semcirda, rasac logikurad gacemuli sesxebis moculobis kleba mohyva.

Seqmnili mdgomareobidan gamomdinare imata urC gadamxdelTa ricxvmac. bankebi didi odenobiT gacemul sesxebs veRar ibrunebdnen. Kkredit-infos "Sav siaSi" Sesul (msesxeblebi 30-dRiani vadagadacilebiT) pirTa raodenoba 2008 wlis 1 ianvridan 2008 wlis 15 agvistomde 130%-iT gaizarda da 80 aTas adamiani Seadgina(grafiki 7). zemoT aRniSnulis miuxedavad mTlianobaSi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sabanko sistemam gauZlo aRniSnul forsmaJorul situaciebs da sxva postsabWoTa qveynebis sabanko sistemebTan SedarebiT SesaSuri mdgradoba gamoavlina. raSic Tavisi wvlili Seitana seb-is mier sarezervo moTxovnebis 13%-dan 5%-mde Semcirebam, aseve seb-ma bankebs finansuri mxardaWeris mizniT 150 mln laris sakredito resursi gamouyo 13%-iani ganakveTiT, eqvsi Tvis vadiT. garda amisa, seb-ma refinansirebisaTvis damatebiT 150 mln lari gamouyo, 10%-iani ganakveTiT (amJamad 6%-ia). agreTve finansuri monitoringis saagentom likvidobis koeficienti 30%-da 20%-mde Seamcira, ramac bankebs damatebiT 700 mln lari gamouTavisufla. gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa, rom globaluri finansuri krizisis Sedegad mTels msoflioSi Seicvala ekonomikis marTvis Taobaze Sexeduleba. kerZod, momavalSi mosalodnelia ekonomikis marTvaSi xelisuflebis rolis gaZliereba, razec metyvelebs is faqti, rom londonis samitze erT-erTi ZiriTadi sakiTxi, razec G20 qveynebi SeTanxmdnen, iyo is, rom finansuri bazris arc erTi elementi ar iqneba datovebuli kontrolisa da regulirebis gareSe. 147

sigaretis brendebis marketinguli kvleva qarTul bazarze1

qeTevan adeiSvili

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm. asoc. prof. m. veSaguri

dRevandel swrafad cvalebad samyaroSi warmateba mxolod im kompaniebs eliT, romlebic brendiT suldgmuloben, radgan brendi aris TviT kompania. 10 wlis win kompaniebs mxolod TavianTi produqtebi ainteresebdaT, dRes ukve aqcenti keTdeba brendze. produqtebi bazrebze Cndeba da qreba, brendi ki rCeba, is maradiulia. brendi ufro metia, vidre ubralo saxeli da simbolo. es aris momxmareblis mier produqtisa da misi daniSnulebis aRqma, misdami damokidebuleba ­ yvelaferi, rasac momxmareblisTvis produqti da momsaxureba warmoadgens. brendi arsebobs momxmareblis gonebaSi, ase rom Zlieri brendis namdvili faseuloba aris misi Zala, moipovos momxmareblis yuradReba da SemdgomSi loialoba. brendis popularobisa da cnobadobis dadgenis saukeTeso saSualebaa momxmarebelTan urTierToba. mniSvlenovania maTi brendisadmi ganwyobis marTva, rasac aRiarebs nebismieri kompania mis mier gacxadebul misiaSi. kvlevis obieqtad avirCieT sigaretis bazari. miuxedavad socialuri tendenciebisa, romlebic mimarTulia mwevelTa raodenobis mniSvenlovani Semcirebisken, qarTveli mosaxleobis mesamedze meti am sasaqonlo kategoriis erTguli momxmarebelia. kvlevis Sedegebi saSualebas gvaZlevs garkveuli paralelebi gavavloT internacionalursa da qarTul brendebs Soris, ganvsazRvroT erT-erTis upiratesobis mizezebi da mis magaliTze SevTavazoT warumatebel, an nakleb popularul brendebs alternatiuli gamosavali bazarze Rirseuli adgilis mopovebisTvis. saqarTvelos statistikis saxelmwifo departamentis monacemebiT Tambaqos warmoebaimportiT 37 firmaa dakavebuli. maTgan 13 adgilobrivi mwarmoebeli kompaniaa, xolo 24 importiori. amasTan qarTul bazarze wamyvani kompaniebia Tavmoyrili. msoflio bazris lideri sami transnacionaluri kompania Phillip Morris-i, British American Tobacco da JT International- i. maTTan erTad, adgilobriv bazarze ori msxvili mwarmoebelia: "saqarTvelos Tambaqos warmoeba" da "ojT". dResdReobiT qarTuli bazari gajerebulia ucxouri warmoebis produqciiT. sigaretis mwarmoebeli ucxouri kompaniebi sakuTari produqciis stimulirebisa da bazarze adgilis damkvidreba-SenarCunebis mizniT udides yuradRebas aqceven brendingis koncefcias. Cvens mizans warmoadgenda sigaretis qarTul bazarze brendebis marketinguli kvleva, maTi cnobadobis donis Sefaseba momxmarebelTa cnobierebaSi da imis Cveneba, Tu ramdenad didi mniSvneloba aqvs kargad Camoyalibebuli brendis pozicias bazarze kompaniis warmatebisTvis. kvlevis meTods warmoadgenda anketireba. kiTxvari gaTvlili iyo aranakleb 18 wlis mwevel an yofil mwevelTa kategoriaze.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `marketingis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

148

gamokiTxvam cxadyo, rom mdedrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebis umetesoba mzadaa meti gadaixados sasurveli brendis sigaretSi. mamakacebi, qalebisgan gansxvavebiT, xelmisawvdom fasze akeTeben aqcents. mamakacebma 3 yvelaze cnobil brendad daasaxeles: KENT; WINSTON; CAMEL; xolo, qalebSi ki yvelaze cnobadi aRmoCnda Semdegi brendebi: PARLIAMENT; KENT; MARLBORO;

SOBRANIE PALL MALL GAULOISES PIRVELI CARELIA SLIMS MM DAVIDOFF L&M CAMEL MARLBORO PARLIAMENT WINSTON KENT

qalebi

mamakacebi

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

brendebis cnobadoba unda aRiniSnos, rom dResdReobiT qarTuli sigaretebidan yvelaze popularulia PIRVELI. davalebaze, daesaxelebinaT sigaretis romelime qarTuli brendi, respondentTa 76%-ma PIRVELI- s mianiWa upiratesoba. 12 ­ 12% ergoT COMET-s da MTKVARI-s. kiTxvaze "romel sigarets eweviT an eweodiT", mamakacTa umetesobam miuTiTa Semdegi brendebi : KENT; CAMEL; WINSTON . mdedrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebma ki upiratesoba mianiWes Semdeg sigaretebs: PARLIAMENT; CARELIA SLIMS; WINSTON. gamokiTxulTa umetesoba zemoT xsenebul brendebs upiratesobas aniWebs Semdegi mizezebis gamo: xelmisawvdomi fasi ­ 15%; maRali xarisxi ­ 44%; ubralod miveCvie ­ 35%; da sxva mizezebi ­ 6%. aRsaniSnavia, rom respondentTa mxolod 18% aqcevs yuradRebas jandacvis saministros gafrTxilebas, amasTan gamokiTxulTa 16%-ma ukve SeZlo mowevisTvis Tavis danebeba. resnpondentebs aseve unda mieTiTebinaT sigaretis is brendebi, romlebic ufro metad moergeba Semdeg gansazRvrebebs: qarTveli momxmareblisTvis inovaciur da farTo asortimentis mqone brendad dasaxelda KENT. ZviradRirebul sigaretebSi liderobs PARLIAMENT, xolo sxvebTan SedarebiT iafebSi ­ PIRVELI. originaluri dizainiT aRiarebul iqna kvlav KENT. WINSTON miCneul iqna sigaretis iseT brendad, romelic saqarTveloSi yvelgan SeiZleba Segvxvdes. sainteresoa isic, rom respondentTa umetesobam qalebis sigaretad aRiara MM. 149

diagrama #1.

# inovaciur i brendi 1 KENT 2 CAMEL

farTo asortiment i KENT CAMEL

sxvebTan SedarebiT Zviri PARLIAMENT DAVIDOFF SOBRANIE MARLBORO KENT

sxvebTan Sedarebi T iafi PIRVELI WINSTO N L&M COMET CAMEL

originalu ri dizaini KENT CARELIA SLIMS DAVIDOFF CAMEL WEST

yvelgan gvxdeba WINSTON MARLBOR O L&M CAMEL PIRVELI

Qqalis sigare ti MM CARELI A SLIMS VOGUE ESSE PARLIA MENT

3 WINSTON WINSTON 4 GAULOISES MARLBORO 5 MARLBOR GAULOISES O

cxrili @#1. sigaretis brendebis diferencireba sxvadasxva parametrebis mixedviT

kvlevis erT-erT miznad davisaxeT gamogverkvia, Tu romeli wyaroebidan iRebs sazogadoeba informacias sigaretis mwarmoebeli kompaniebis, axali brendebis da saerTod sigaretis bazarze arsebuli siaxleebis Sesaxeb. gamokiTxvam gviCvena, rom sigaretis brendebis Sesaxeb informaciis ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgens bilbordebi (32%) da nacnobebi (27%).

11% 27%

nacnobebi televizori

32%

interneti

bilbordebi

16% 14%

sxva wyaro

diagrama #2.

sainformacio wyaroebi bolo droindeli socialuri tendenciebis gamo, SeizRuda sigaretis propaganda rogorc satelevizio, ise sxva sareklamo saSualebebiT, Tumca gamokiTxulTa 16%-s mainc axsovs satelevizio reklamebi. sainteresod miviCnieT imis garkveva, Tu sigaretis romeli brendis reklamebi aRibeWda momxmarebelTa gonebaSi. kiTxvaze - "ra gaxsovT Tqvens mier nanaxi sigaretis bolo reklamidan?" - momxmarebelTa umetesobam daafiqsira Semdegi pasuxebi: MARLBORO ­ energiuli kovboebi da cxenebi; COMET ­ latarea: manqanis gaTamaSeba; GAULOISES ­ lurji ferebi da franguli sityvebi: " Liberte Toujours..." CARELIA SLIMS ­ lamazi gogona momxibvleli tuCebiT; PIRVELI ­ gaTamaSeba: avtomanqana "niva". miuxedavad imisa, rom sigaretis yovel reklamas Tan sdevs jandacvis saministros gafrTxileba, rom is janmrTelobisTvis mavnebelia, man mainc Seasrula Tavisi misia da momxmarebelTa umetesobas Seuqmna dadebiTi ganwyoba brendis mimarT (56%). marTalia PIRVELI qarTul bazarze cnobadi brendia, magram sazogadoebis garkveuli nawili mas mainc ar endoba. qarTuli warmoebidan ASTRA iTvleba yvelaze arasasurvel 150

sigaretad, romlis SeZenaze uars acxadebs gamokiTxulTa 46%. Semdeg modis MTKVARI (24%), COMET (16%) da PIRVELI (14%). ucxour brendebTan mimarTebaSi sandoobis xarisxis gasarkvevad Catarda analogiuri gamokiTxva. gamovlinda, rom qarTuli sazogadoeba negatiuradaa ganwyobili Semdegi brendebisadmi: L&M; VICEROY; CHESTERFIELD; LUCKY STRIKE; MARLBORO; GAULOISES. brendebis mimarT undobloba aixsneba mravali mizeziT: dabali fasi, usiamovno gemo, cudi filtri da a.S. respondentebis 40% Tavis negatiur damokidebulebas xsnis sigaretis usiamovno gemoTi, 20­20%-s uaryofiTi damokidebuleba Camouyalibda dabali fasisa (e.i. dabali xarisxis) da cudi filtris gamo. gamokiTxulTa 12% undoblobas acxadebs sigaretis markis arapopularobis gamo. danarCeni 8% ki asaxelebs sxva mizezebs. sainteresod gveCvena im aspeqtebis gamovlena, rac ganapirobebs qarTveli momxmareblebis negatiur damokidebulebas erovnuli brendebis mimarT. kvlevis Sedegebma gviCvena, rom qarTveli momxmarebeli umeteswilad ukmayofiloa erovnuli warmoebis sigaretis xarisxiT(41%). respondentTa 29% qarTul sigaretze uars acxadebs usiamovno gemos gamo, 14% iwunebs sigaretis dizainsa da SefuTvas, 12% aRniSnavs filtris uxarisxobas, xolo darCenili 4% miuTiTebs qarTuli brendis aracnobadobaze.

xarisxi 41% usiamovno gemo 29% aracnobadoba 4% dizaini 14% filtri 12%

diagrama #3.

mizezebi, ris gamoc uars acxadebT qarTul sigaretze CvenTvis aseve saintereso iyo sazogadoebis azri imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ramdenad SeiZleba gaxdes qarTuli brendi konkurentunariani ucxour brendebTan mimarTebaSi. gamokiTxulTa umravlesobas, kerZod 68 %-s, ar sjera qarTuli brendis aseTi perspeqtivis. danarCeni 32% ki optimisturad uyurebs am sakiTxs. es respondentebi miiCneven, rom amisaTvis saWiroa: mondomeba; teqnologiebis gaumjobeseba; xarisxis gaumjobeseba; dizainis, SefuTvis daxvewa; fasis aweva; gayidvebis stimulireba; ukanasknel 15 weliwadSi Tambaqos nedleulisa da produqciis warmoeba saqarTveloSi katastrofulad Semcirda: kerZod, nedleulis warmoeba 23 000 tonidan 1000 tonamde, xolo produqciisa ­ 16 mlrd Reri sigaretidan 2-3 mlrd Reramde. aseve Semcirda Tambaqos nawarmis asortimenti. mniSvnelovnad gauaresda nedleulisa da, aqedan gamomdinare, produqciis xarisxi, rac, bunebrivia, aisaxa momxmarebelTa ricxvze. Tu adre saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad adgilobrivi warmoebis sigarets eweodnen, axla mwevelTa 75% importul sigarets moixmars. am mizeziT qveynidan yovelwliurad 100 mln aSS dolari gaedineba, rac mniSvnelovani danakargia Cveni isedac mwiri biujetisTvis. 1 miuxedavad amisa, unda gvaxsovdes, rom saqarTvelos aqvs yvela aucilebeli resursi da piroba Zlieri, konkurentunariani brendis Seqmna-ganviTarebisTvis. amaze metyvelebs

1

. gazeTi ,,24 saaTi", 12 marti, 2008

151

qarTuli meTambaqoeobis istoria, misi warsulis gamocdileba da is potenciali, romelic jer kidev ar daukargavs mas. Sesabamisad, SesaZlebelia qarTuli sigaretis Zlieri brendimijis Seqmna. amasTan, saWiroa garkveuli cvlilebebis Setana marketingul strategiaSi, ramdenadac swori arCevani ganapirobebs stabilur warmatebas bazarze. gamokiTxvam cxadyo, rom qarTuli sigaretis mwarmoebel kompaniebSi stimulirebis uamravi saSualebidan ZiriTad aqcents latareaze akeTeben. faqtiurad ar arsebobs sareklamo slogani, romelic gadmoscemda brendis filosofias da unikalurobas. sigaretis mwarmoebeli adgilobrivi firmebi ver sTavazoben siaxles momxmarebels. igrZnoba inovaciebis nakleboba da asortimentis simwire, rac Tavis mxriv ubiZgebs pretenziul momxmarebels arCevani gaakeTos ucxouri sigaretis brendebze. Tambaqos dabal xarisxTan erTad momxmareblebs ar akmayofilebs sigaretis kolofis erTferovani SefuTva da dauxvewavi dizaini. qarTulma sigaretma ndoba dakarga momxmareblis TvalSi, ramac ganapiroba is, rom mwevelebi upiratesobas aniWeben ucxour brendebs, miuxedavad maTi aradamakmayofilebeli xarisxisa. amas emateba ucxouri brendebis cnobadobis maRali done. aSkaraa isic, rom qarTuli sigaretis fasi sakmaod dabalia ucxouri brendebis fasebTan mimarTebaSi, es garkveulwilad qmnis iaffasiani da uxarisxo saqonlis STabeWdilebas. amitom saWiroa fasis dawesebisas sifrTxilis gamoCena. Cveni azriT aucilebelia: a) Seiqmnas maRali faseulobis mqone brendi Semosavliani segmentisaTvis, maRali fasiT da farTo asortimentiT; b) Seiqmnas dabali TviTRirebulebisa da xelmisawvdomi fasis pirobebSi damakmayofilebeli xarisxis mqone brendi, romelic gaTvlili iqneba sazogadoebis saSualo Semosavlebis mqone segmentze. Tumca SedarebiT dabali fasi ar unda gulisxmobdes dabal xarisxs. momxmareblis dajereba qarTuli sigaretis brendis da saerTod nebismieri brendis upiratesobaSi advili ar aris. es moiTxovs Tavdauzogav, mizanmimarTul Sromas da pozitiur rwmenas, romelic moeTxoveba ara marto kompaniis xelmZRvanels an marketologTa jgufs, aramed kompaniaSi dasaqmebul TiToeul individs. Tu kompaniis personali savsea enTuziazmiT, maSin maT ZaluZT es ganwyoba momxmarebelsac gadasdon. Tuki TanamSromlebs ar swamT sakuTari brendis upiratesobis, maSin Znelia viqonioT momxmareblis mxardaWeris imedi am sakiTxSi. da bolos, Cveni azriT, SesaZlebelia qarTuli sigaretis brend-imijis gaZliereba ucxouri brendebis donemde, risTvisac aucilebelia xarisxis marTvis gaumjobeseba da, ra Tqma unda, marketinguli RonisZiebebis gatareba. es ukanaskneli gulisxmobs uwyvet, mizanmimarTul saqmianobas sigaretis momxmarebelTan axlo urTierTobis Camoyalibebis mizniT. rac, saboloo jamSi vlindeba sazogadoebis loialur damokidebulebaSi kompaniis da am kompaniis brendebis mimarT. es aris is, razec orientirebulia nebismieri Tanamedrove kompania, romelsac surs miaRwios strategiuli upiratesoba bazarze.

152

momsaxurebis marketingis axali mimarTulebebi saqarTveloSi1

giorgi abulaZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. C. jaSi XXI saukuneSi momsaxureobis marketingi Zalian popularuli gaxda. produqtis warmoebasTan SedarebiT, momsaxurebis winswrebma ganviTarebam momsaxurebis marketingis bevri axali mimarTulebebi warmoaCina. sadazRveo biznesi erT_erTi warmatebuli biznesia momsaxurebis sferoSi. saqarTveloSi sadaRvevo biznesi SedarebiT naklebad aris ganviTarebuli. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi sadazRvevo biznesis momxmarebelTa ricxvma bolo periodSi sagrZnoblad imata, momsaxurebis marketinguli TvalsazrisiT is mainc samomxmareblo klasis pasiuri moTxovnis produqtTa siaSia. amis mizezi albaT is gaxlavT rom misi ganviTareba xdeba metad dinamiuri tempiT, magram ara farTo masStabiT. Mmosaxleobas jer kidev ar aqvs gacnobierebuli da aTvisebuli sadazRvevo momsaxurebis sikeTe da misi mniSvneloba. dReisTvis sqarTveloSi sadazRvevo kompaniebi momxmarebels sTavazoben momsaxurebas dazRvevis TiTqmis yvela saxeobaSi. mniSvnelovnad gaizarda daintereseba dazRvevis iseTi produqtebiT, rogoricaa qonebis dazRveva, samedicino dazRveva da samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis dazRveva. saqarTveloSi sadazRvevo saqmoanoba Sesabamisi sadazRvevo kanonmdeblobiT regulirdeba. iseve rogorc yvela sferoSi, sadazRvevo biznesSic umaRlesi maregulirebeli kanoni saqarTvelos konstituciaa, amas mosdevs saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi da SeTanxmebebi. magram garda amisa sadazRvevo biznesi oTxi ZiriTadi kanoniT regulirdeba. esenia: 1. saqarTvelos kanoni dazRvevis Sesaxeb; 2. saqarTvelos kanoni arasaxelmwifo sapensio dazRvevisa da uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb; 3. saqarTvelos kanoni samedicino dazRvevis Sesaxeb; 4. saqarTvelos kanoni parlamentis wevris sicocxlisa da janmrTelobis savaldebulo dazRvevis Sesaxeb. sadazRvevo saqmnianobis subieqtebi arian damzRvevi, mzRveveli da dazRveuli. damzRvevi aris piri, romelmac mzRvevelTan dado dazRvevis xelSekruleba. damzRvevi SeiZleba iyos rogorc iuridiuli, ise fizikuri piri. mzRveveli aris iuridiuli piri, romelsac kanoniT dadgenili wesiT miRebuli aqvs dazRvevis Sesabamisi saxeobis ganxorcielebis licenzia. dazRveuli aris piri, romlis mimarTac xorcieldeba dazRveva. damzRvevi SeiZleba imavdroulad iyo dazRveuli, Tu dazRvevis xelSekrulebiT sxva ram ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli. mzRvevels SeuZlia ganaxorcielos sadazRvevo saqmianoba dazRvevis agentisa da sadazRvevo brokeris meSveobiT. dazRvevis agenti aris iuridiuli an fizikuri piri, romelic moqmedebs mzRvevelis davalebiT da saxeliT, misTvis mzRvevelis mier miniWebuli uflebamosilebis farglebSi.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `marketingis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili

153

sadazRvevo brokeri aris iuridiuli an fizikuri piri, romelic licenziis Sesabamisad axorcielebs dazRvevis sferoSi saSuamavlo saqmianobas, rogorc Tavisi samewarmeo saqmianobis saxeobas. sadazRvevo brokeris urTierToba mzRvevelTan da damzRvevTan ganisazRvreba maT Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebiT. marketinguli kvleva Catarda rogorc sadazRvevo kompaniebSi, ise sazogadoebaSic, kvlevis mizani iyo dagvedgina ramdenad popularuliaAaRniSnuli produqti qarTul sazogadoebaSi da ramdenad momgebiania igi rogorc biznesi. sadazRvevo kompaniebis umravlesoba rogorc iuridiul, ise fizikur pirebs emsaxureba. mxolod erTi kompania _ AIG saqarTvelo aris 100%-iT orientirebuli iuridiul pirebze. qarTu jgufis monacemebis mixedviT ki iuridiul pirebze momxmarebelTa saerTo raodenobis 95% modis. TiTqmis Tanabaria kompaniebis mixedviT iuridiuli da fizikuri pirebis raodenobis procentuli gadanawileba. sadazRvevo kompaniebis mier SeTavazebuli produqtebi mravalferovania. isini momxmarebels ZiriTadad Semdeg produqtebs sTavazoben: sicocxlis dazRvevas, janmrTelobis dazRvevas, qonebis dazRvevas, avtomanqanebis dazRvevas, pasuximgeblobis dazRvevas, tvirtebis dazRvevas, finansuri riskebis dazRvevas, sapensio dazRvevas. kompaniebis mier gayiduli produqtebis raodenobis mxriv yvelaze didi moTxovna janmrTelobis dazRvevaze modis. aseve popularobiT sargeblobs avtomanqanebis da pasuxismgeblobis dazRveva. diagrama # 1

sicocxlis dazRveva janmrTelobis dazRveva avtomaanqanis dazRveva qonebis azRveva pasuxismgeblo ba sapensio

diagrama # 2

sicocxlis dazRveva janmrTelobis dazRveva avtomaanqanis dazRveva qonebis azRveva 28% 21% pasuxismgebloba sapensio

9% 19%

6%

17%

3% 21%

8%

19%

28% 21%

kompaniebisTvis momgebianobis TvalsazrisiT suraTi odnav icvleba produqtze arsebul moTxovnasTan SedarebiT. maRali moTxovnis Sesabamisad yvelaze Semosavliani janmrTelobis dazRvevaa. yvelaze naklebad Semosavliani produqti ki kompaniebisTvis pasuxismgeblobis dazRvevaa. (diagrama#2). sadazRvevo bazarze wilebis gadanawilebis Sesaxeb yvelaze naTel suraTs kompaniebis bunva da miRebuli Semosavlebi gvaZlevs. kompaniebis umravlesoba Tavis finansur mdgomareobas ar malavs. gamokiTxvis Sedegad miRebuli monacemebiT saSualo wliuri Semosavlis sididis mixedviT `bi si ai _ aldagi~ liderobs. sadazRvevo bazris sruli analizisaTvis da sadazRvevo produqtebze moTxovnis Sesafaseblad Catarda mosaxleobis gamokiTxva, romelTa dayofa moxda or kategoriad studebtebi (18_25 weli) da ara studentebi (25_78weli), saerTo jamSi gamoikiTxa 200 respodenti. aRniSnulma gamokiTxvam miaxloebiTi suraTi mogvca sadazRvevo bazarze arsebuli moTxovnis Sesaxeb. miRebuli Sedegebi saqarTveloSi dabal sadazRvevo aqtivobaze metyvelebs.

154

studentTa mxolod 12% aRmoCnda dazRveuli xolo danarCeni respondentebSic mxolod 20% iyo aqtivoba.

diagrama # 3. sadazRvevo kompanoebis wili bazarze

3%

8%

2%

aldagi-bi si ai ji pi ai holdingi 49% qarTu saxalxo dazRveva ai si jgufi

34%

sxvadasxva iyo is mizezebic ramac ganapiroba mosaxleobis sadazrvevo momsaxurebiT daintereseba: a) janmrTelobis momsaxureba Zviria-76%; b)sadazRvevo paketi iafi jdeba-16%; g)nawils saxelmwifo ixdis-6%; d)sxv.-2%. gamokiTxulTa mier dasaxelebuli iqna 4 popularuli sadazRvevo kompania:

diagrama # 4. 4 popularuli sadazRvevo kampania

55% 25% 11%

aldagi irao bi si ai ji pi ai

8%

miedi Lel

1%

sxva

diagrama #5.

79%

21% 0% piradi qonebis pasuxismgeblobis

yvelaze meti popularobiT sargeblobs janmrTelobis dazRveva. danarCen adgilebs inawileben sicocxlis, avtomanqanis da qonebis dazRveva. erT-erTma gamokiTxulma aseve aRniSna, rom

155

is sargeblobs umuSevrobis dazRveviT. aRmoCnda, rom pasuxismgeblobis dazRveviT arc erTi gamokiTxuli ar sargeblobs diagrama #6. dazRvevis sxvadasxva saxeobis xvedriTi wona

sicocxlis dazRveva

4%0% 4% 17% 8%

janmrTelobis dazRveva avtomaanqanis dazRveva qonebis dazRveva pasuxismgebloba umuSevrobis dazRveva

67%

kvlevis dros yuradReba gamaxvilda aseve gamokiTxulTa im nawilze, romlebis ar sargebloben sadazRvevo momsaxurebiT. diagrama #7

ratom ara xarT dazRveuli?

54% 23% 4%

ar davinteresebulvar fulis uazrod xarjvaa Zviria

8%

vflob nakleb informacias

3%

sxva

diagrama #8

dazRvevis ar mqone pirebis moTxovna sadazRvevo produqtebze

156

14% 8% 9%

7%

sicocxlis dazRveva janmrTelobis dazRveva avtomaanqanis dazRveva 59% qonebis dazRveva pasuxismgeblo ba

dazRvevis armqone pirebsac ki dazRvevis moTxovnileba da survili gaaCniaT, ramdenime maTgani apirebs mimarTos sadazRvevo kompaniebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom dazRvevis armqone moqalaqeebs Sorisac yvelaze didi moTxovniT janmrTelobis dazRveva sargeblobs. procentuli maCveneblebis mixedviT mniSvnelovnad CamorCebian danarCeni produqtebi. pasuxismgeblobis dazRvevis survili arc erT gamokiTxuls ar gamouTqvams (diagrama #8). aRsaniSnavia, rom dazRvevis ar mqone gamokiTxulTa 17% saerTod ar apirebs dazRvevas. sadazveo bizness aqvs imis potenciali, rom man saqarTveloSi daikavos pirveli adgili legalur biznesebs Soris misi maqsimalurad ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia bazris yvela segmentze SeRweva, damkvidreba da SenarCuneba, iseve rogorc dResdReobiT es sabanko sistemam moaxdina. mniSvnelovania yvela sazogadoebriv fenas, yvela asakis moqalaqes misTvis Sesaferisi momsaxureba SevTavazoT. amisaTvis ki aucilebelia saqarTvelos bazarze arsebuli produqciis ganaxleba, inovaciuri momsaxurebis SeTavazeba moqnili fasiT. magaliTad samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis dazRvevaTa Soris, zogierTi maTganis arseboba mosaxleobam ar icis, zogierTi ki, magaliTad, produqciis xarisxze pasuxismgebloba, saerTod ar aris damkvidrebuli. bevria iseTi produqtebi romlebic sakmaod warmatebulia, sxva ganviTarebad Tu ganviTarebul qveynebSi, da maTi morgeba SeiZleba qarTul realobaSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom kompaniebis umravlesoba Tvlis, rom uamravi faqtori arsebobs, rac sadazRvevo biznesis ganviTarebas aferxebs saqarTveloSi: sakanonmdeblo baza; savaldebulo dazRvevis ararseboba; sadazRvevo kulturis arqona; arajansaRi konkurencia; mosaxleobis dabali Semosavlebi; qveynis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba; dabegvris meqanizmi.

gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. http://www. bcng.ge/ ___ - 2. http://www.economists.ge/ ___ saqarTvelos axalgazrda ekonomistta asociacia 3. http://www.statistics.ge/ ___ saqarTvelos statistika 4. http://www.moh.gov.ge ___ saqarTvelos Sromis,janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro 1. gari armstrongi; filip kotleri 2. informacia mowodebuli iqna saqarTveloSi moqmedi sadazRvevo kompaniebisgan

157

sainvesticio proeqtebis dafinansebis strategia1

nino gemazaSvili

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asist. prof. Gg. qeSelaSvili

globalizaciis procesi Seuqcevadad mimdinareobs. qarTulma saxelmwifom mniSvnelovani roli unda Seasrulos erovnuli interesebis dacvaSi, win aRudges globalizaciis uaryofiT gamovlinebebs, raTa msoflio sameurneo kavSirebSi erovnuli ekonomikis CarTvisas miiRos sargebeli, rac saqarTvelos TiToeuli moqalaqis keTildReobaSi aisaxeba. Mmsoflio sameurneo sistemaSi momgebiani integrirebisaTvis saxelmwifom unda Seqmnas ganviTarebis institutebi, romlebic mxars dauWeren investiciebs axal inovaciur proeqtebSi, stimuls miscemen inovaciur aqtivobas, xels Suwyoben progresul ­ teqnologiur Zvrebs, romlebic gaaerTianeben finansur, SromiT da informaciul resursebs ekonomikuri zrdis perspeqtiul mimarTulebebze. E ekonomikuri sistemis efeqtianoba ukavSirdeba mis ganviTarebas. investiciebis mozidvis amocanis gadaWra ara marto aqtualuri, aramed sasicocxlod aucilebelia. `investiciebi~ xSir SemTxvevaSi aRiqmeba rogorc kapitalis dabandeba. Uucxour ekonomikur literaturaSi investiciebi­es aris fulis dabandeba Semosavlis, anda socialuri efeqtianobis misaRebad, es aris fuladi saxsrebi, fasiani qaRaldebi, qoneba, romelTac aqvT fuladi Rirebuleba, maTi samewarmeo, anda sxva saxis saqmianobis obieqtebSi Cadebis qonebrivi ufleba mogebis, anda sxva sasargeblo Sedegis miRebis mizniT. dRevandeli saqarTvelos geopolitikurma mdebareobam ganapiroba misi satranzito qveyanad Camoyalibeba. Aamis magaliTia ` didi abreSumis gzisa~ da `transekas~ proeqtebi. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba qveynis sawarmoo potencialis zrdas da am mimarTulebiT jansaRi sainvesticio klimatis Seqmnas. 40-ze met saxelmwifosTan, maT Soris aSS, CineTi, germania, italia, safrangeTi, didi britaneTi da a.S. ZalaSi Sevida SeTanxmeba investiciebis ganxorcielebisa da urTierTdacvis Sesaxeb. investiciebis moculoba izrdeba arasaxelmwifo dafinansebis wyaros xarjze, Sesabamisad mcirdeba saxelmwifo investiciebis wili, SeiniSneba ucxouri investiciebis zrdis tendencia. 2004-2008 wlebSi saqarTveloSi ganxorcielebulma pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis moculobam Sesabamisad 499,1; 449,5; 1190,4; 2014,8 da 1293,7 mln aSS. dolari Seadgina. aRniSnulidan Cans, rom 2008 wels saqarTveloSi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis moculoba mniSvnelovnad Semcirda. Aamis mizezi iyo saqarTveloSi mimdinare politikuri movlenebi (agvistos omi), rasac adasturebs Ppirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis 2008 wlis kvartaluri monacemebi: I kvartali ­ 493.77 mln aSS dolari, II ­ 560.03 mln aSS dolari, III ­ 62.37 mln aSS dolari, IV ­ 87.53 mln aSS dolari. 2008 wlis Semodgomaze yazaxurma kompaniam `yazmunaigazma" baTumSi 1 miliardi aSS dolaris Rirebulebis proeqtis dawyeba SeaCera. 2006 wels gaformebuli xelSekrulebis

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `menejmentis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

158

Tanaxmad, `yazmunaigazs" baTumSi evropuli standartebis Sesabamisi navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxana unda aeSenebina. proeqtis SeCerebis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi ruseTis samxedro agresiis ganxorcielebis Semdeg gaxda cnobili. dReisTvis saqarTvelos xelisufleba qveynis teritoriaze didi energetikuli proeqtis _ `nabukos" ganxorcielebis imeds kvlav inarCunebs. am imedis safuZvels isic iZleva, rom azerbaijanuli mxaris gancxadebiT maT ar daukargavT interesi `nabukos" proeqtis mimarT. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondma sainvesticio mimzidvelobis gasazrdelad 750 mln aSS dolaris odenobis krediti gamoyo. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis am gadawyvetilebis Semdeg saqarTvelos mimarT interesi ramdenime msxvilma investorma ganacxada. maT Soris `rak investment autoritim", romelic foTis portis aqciebis 51 % - is mflobelia da romelic saqarTveloSi 2 miliardi aSS dolaris sainvesticio proeqtebs axorcielebs. saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri reformebis gatarebaSi mniSvnelovan rols asruleben saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebi da donori qveynebi. ruseTis samxedro agresiis Semdeg saqarTveloSi axali investiciebi gamoCnda amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis kompania `doheni grupis" saxiT. es kompania infrastruqturis ganviTarebisa da mSeneblobis investirebas ganaxorcielebs. saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier ganxorcielebulma pirdapirma investiciebma 2006-2008 wlebSi Sesabamisad 8,7; 14,3; da 22, 2 mln aSS Ddolari Seadgina. investiciebis didi nawilia Cadebuli sawarmoTa rekonstruqciasa da teqnikur gadaiaraRebaSi iseT dargebSi, rogoricaa eleqtroenergetika, gadammuSavebeli mrewveloba, transporti da kavSirgabmuloba. energetikis sferoSi investorebis daxmarebiT xorcieldeba proeqtebi, romlebic iTvaliswinebs eleqtrosadgurebis sareabilitacio samuSaoebis Catarebas. kavSirgabmulobis sferoSi ganxorcielebulma samuSaoebma uzrunvelyo mudmivi da Seuferxebeli kavSiri rogorc sazRvargareT, ise saqarTvelos raionul centrebTan. donor organizaciebs Soris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania jandacvis msoflio organizacia, msoflio banki, evrokavSiri, evropis sabWo, aSS saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagento, amerikis saerTaSoriso janmrTelobis kavSiri, didi britaneTis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis departamenti, SvedeTis saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis saagento, kanadis saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis saagento, eqimebi sazRvrebs gareSe, Ria sazogadoebis instituti, germaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis organizacia, germaniis rekonstruqciis sakredito banki, wiTeli jvris saerTaSoriso komiteti, migraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia. dReisaTvis msoflio bankis sakredito portfeli saqarTveloSi 15 sainvesticio da 1 sabiujeto proeqts iTvlis, romelTa dafinansebisaTvis mTlianad 286,8 mln dolaris odenobis 21 krediti da grantia gamoyofili. msoflio bankis saerTaSoriso korporaciis angariSi saqarTvelos #1 reformatorad afasebs, Tumca saerTo monacemebiT biznesis warmoebis simartivis mixedviT, saqarTvelo 37 - e adgilzea. 159

2007 wlis seqtemberSi, IFC­ma saqarTveloSi 23 proeqtis ganviTarebisaTvis daaxloebiT 258 mln aSS dolari gamoyo. IFC ­ is garda, energetikul sferoSi erT-erTi umsxvilesi investoria BP, romelic saqarTveloSi 1996 wlidan saqmianobs da mis mier ara erTi mniSvnelovani proeqti iqna dafinansebuli (baqo_sufsis milsadeni, baqo_Tbilisi_jeihanis navTobsadeni, samxreT kavkasiuri milsadeni da sxva). ucxouri da adgilobrivi investiciebis daxmarebiT xorcieldeba jandacvis, ganaTlebis, bunebis dacvis proeqtebi, sastumroebis, turizmisa da vaWrobis obieqtebis mSenebloba, romelTa dasruleba xels Seuwyobs qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebas. Tumca pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis ganxorcielebisas arsebobs imis realuri saSiSroeba, rom saqarTvelos erovnuli aqtivebis mflobeli gaxdes romelime ucxo saxelmwifo, rac erTi mxriv, ewinaaRmdegeba am procesis arss da, meore mxriv, qmnis saqarTveloze dainteresebuli qveynis mxridan garkveuli zegavlenis moxdenis SesaZleblobas. saqarTveloSi ruseTis sainvesticio aqtiuroba jer kidev 2003 wlis zafxulSi gamoikveTa, rodesac gakotrebuli aSS kompaniis `ei i es silq roud~-is aqciebi `rao ees~ma Seisyida. s/s `madneulis~, Sps `kvarcitis~ da `trans jorjian resoursiz~-is privatizebis dros msurvelebs Soris iyo qarTuli `industria da energia kompleqsi~, avstraliuri, britanuli, kanaduri, Sveicaruli, avstriuli kompaniebi, Tumca tenderSi rusuli holdingis `promiSlennie investoris~ mier dafuZnebulma kompania `stenton equitiz~-ma gaimarjva, romelmac 35,1 mln. dolari gadaixada. igi `promiSlennie investoris~ Svilobili kompaniaa, Ee.i., cxadia, rom `madneulis~-s aqciebis realuri mflobeli `promiSlennie investori~ gaxda. Mmisi aqciebis mflobeli ki ruseTis saTbobenergetikis yofili ministri sergei generalovia. U zemo aRniSnulidan cxadi xdeba, rom ucxouri investiciebis Semodinebis dros iqmneba SesaZlebloba ucxo saxelmwifoebis kontrolirebadi kompaniebis, an fondebis mier moxdes saqarTvelos gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis obieqtebis aqciaTa sakontrolo paketis SeZena, rac ewinaaRmdegeba Cveni Qqveynis erovnul usafrTxoebas. sainteresoa am sferoSi evrokavSiris gamocdileba. evrokavSirma 2007 wlis energosistemis reformis gegmaSi moiTxova energokompaniebisagan sawarmoo da sadistribucio arxebis gancalkeveba da ucxour kompaniebs garkveuli limiti dauwesa evrokavSiris energo bazarze. amiT man Tavi daicva ucxo saxelmwifoTa zegavlenisagan. aseve kanadis mTavrobam 2007 wlis ivlisSi daafuZna specialuri sabWo, romelsac daevala sainvesticio aqtis gadasinjva im TvalsazrisiT, rom SemuSavebuliyo arakomerciuli miznebis mqone ucxouri sawarmoebis aRkveTis RonisZiebani erovnuli usafrTxoebis dacvisaTvis. aRniSnuli gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTveloSic sainvesticio gadawyvetilebani miRebul unda iqnes saqarTvelos mTavrobasTan koordinaciiT. aseTi obieqtebis nusxa unda ganisazRvros kanonSi `sainvesticio saqmianobis xelSewyobisa da garantiebis Sesaxeb~ Sesabamisi Sesworebebis Semdeg Ada dawesdes SezRudvebi. Cveni azriT, zemoaRniSnuli SezRudvebis daweseba aranair safrTxes ar Seuqmnis Tavisufali biznes-garemos ganviTarebas da ar gaauaresebs saqarTvelos sainvesticio klimats. cvlilebebi mniSvnelovania qveynis ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis amocanebis 160

gadasawyvetad. maTi kanonmdeblobaSi asaxva ki xels Seuwyobs arakeTilmosurne saxelmwifoTa zegavlenisagan dacvas. rogor moaxerxebs qarTuli saxelmwifo, rom Seqmnas ganviTarebis institutebi, romlebic mxars dauWeren investiciebs axal inovaciur proeqtebSi, stimuls miscems inovaciur aqtivobas ekonomikuri zrdis perspeqtiul mimarTulebebze? albaT am sferoebis waxalisebisaTvis man unda gamoiyenos investiciebis mozidvis sabazro meqanizmebi. investirebis meqanizmebi moqmedebs mxolod maSin, Tu gaTvaliswinebulia am procesSi sabanko struqturebis monawileoba, rac axdens fuladi resursebis mobilizacias da aregulirebs maT moZraobas samecniero _ teqnikuri da inovaciuri programebis gamoyenebis mixedviT. sabanko struqturebi axdenen uzarmazari saxsrebis akumulirebas finansuri da sainvesticio institutebis Seqmnis gziT. bankebis monawileoba am sferoSi qmnis damatebiT stimulebs sainvesticio proeqtebisaTvis. arcerTi finansuri instituti ise kargad ar uzrunvelyofs sainvesticio resursebis moZraobis marTvasa da kontrols, rogorc amas bankebi axorcieleben. 2007 wlis seqtemberSi bank `respublikasa" da saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciis mier xeli moewera xelSekrulebas, romlis Tanaxmadac `respublikas~ gamoeyo 20 milioni aSS dolaris odenobis 5 wliani krediti mcire da saSualo biznesis dasafinanseblad. E evropis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis banki erT-erTi umsxvilesi investoria saqarTvelos kerZo seqtorSi. mis mier dRemde ganxorcielebulia 81 sainvesticio proeqti energetikaSi, transportSi, agrobiznessa da sabanko seqtorebSi. 2008 wlis bolos Eevropis reskonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis banksa da bank `respublikas" Soris xeli moewera energokreditis proeqts, romlis biujetic 5 mln dolars Seadgens da gaTvaliswinebulia fizikur da iuridiul pirebze sesxebis gacema. cxadia, saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebi exmarebian Cvens qveyanas, magram aqcenti unda keTdebodes samamulo warmoebis, inteleqtualuri warmoebis ganviTarebasa da misi konkurentunarianobis amaRlebazec. radgan sainvesticio proeqtis finansuri resursebi SezRudulia, aucilebelia sainvesticio gadawyvetilebis optimizacia. ramdenime alteranatiuli proeqtis SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania swori arCevanis gakeTeba, rac efuZneba saerTaSoriso praqtikaSi miRebul kriteriumebs. sainvesticio strategia ki proeqtis samomavlo saqmianobis grZelvadiani miznebis sistemaa, romelsac gansazRvravs misi ganviTarebis zogadi amocanebi da sainvesticio ideologia, agreTve, maTi miRwevebis yvelaze ufro efeqtiani gzebis SerCeva. sainvesticio strategiis SemuSaveba moicavs sainvesticio saqmianobis miznebis dasaxvas, misi prioritetuli mimarTulebebisa da formebis gansazRvras, axdens sainvesticio resursebis struqturis formirebas, ganawilebis optimizaciasa da sainvesticio politikis SemuSavebas. sainvesticio strategiis SemuSavebis procesi sawarmos strategiis umniSvnelovanesi Semadgeneli nawilia. misi elementebia: misia, ganviTarebis zogadi strategiuli miznebi, funqciuri strategiebi da resursebis formirebisa da ganawilebis meTodebi. amasTan, sainvesticio strategia garkveul TanadaqvemdebarebaSia proeqtis 161

strategiuli arCevanis sxva elementebTan. sainvesticio proeqtis Camoyalibebisas pirvel rigSi unda SevimuSaoT da davgegmoT marketinguli stimulirebis sakiTxebi: investoris darwmuneba mocemuli proeqtis efeqtianobaSi, saqonlis gasaRebis stimulirebaSi, realizaciis saSualebebSi, distribuciaSi, `warmatebis formulasa~ da SemosavlebSi. SemuSavebuli strategiisa da marketinguli stimulirebis gansazRvris Semdgom aucilebelia proeqtis riskebis gansazRvra, maTi marTva ki proeqtis sicocxlisunarianobis ganmsazRvrelia. siaxles ar warmoadgens, rom `likani" Cveni drois erT-erTi warmatebuli brendia. igi mineraluri wylebis qarTul bazarze 2007 wels gamoCnda, dReisaTvis sabazro wilis mixedviT, mas erT-erTi wamyvani pozicia ukavia. udavoa, rom `likanis" warmateba kompania `borjomis" marTebuli gadawyvetilebis Sedegia. produqtis koncefciis Seqmnis pirvel etapze, `likanis" menejerma saTanado dro dauTmo mineraluri wylis qarTveli momxmareblis Rirebulebebis kvlevasa da `eisiTis" daxmarebiT naTeli warmodgena Seeqmna momxmarebelTa faseulobebsa da cxovrebis postulatebze. kvlevebma daadastura, rom saxeli `likani" momxmarebelSi dadebiT reaqcias iwvevda, rac mineraluri wylis bunebriobasa da mis sasargeblo Tvisebebze miuTiTebda. gayidvebis tempma ki yovelgvar molodins gadaaWarba: realizaciis faqtiuri maCvenebeli dagegmilze orjer meti aRmoCnda. `likanis", rogorc brendis, warmateba kompaniis warmomadgenelTa, dizainerTa da mkvlevarTa gunduri muSaobis Sedegi da axali produqtis ganviTarebisadmi profesionaluri midgomis naTeli magaliTia. amrigad, Cven SevacadeT Camogveyalibebina sainvesticio proeqtebis TviTmenejmenti, gagvesazRvra strategiuli mizani, Segvefasebina strategia, gagveTvaliswinebina marketinguli miqsi, riskis faqtorebi, risTvisac warmovadgineT erTi warmatebuli proeqti _ qarTuli brendi `likani". `likanma~ swori dagegmviTa da marketinguli stimulirebis saSualebebiT gansacvifrebel warmatebas miaRwia. aqac...yvelaferi ideiT daiwyo...

Ggamoyenebuli literatura: 1. v. papava, `qarTuli oqro~, gaz. `24 saaTi~, 12 oqtomberi, 2007. 2. Canada:Foreign State-Owned Investors Spark ,,National Securty'' Concerns 23 Oktober 2007./www.mondaq.com/. 3.www.statistics.ge 4.www.economy.gov.ge 5.www.republic.ge 6.www.bpgeorgia.ge

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testuri gamocdebis Casatarebeli programuli produqti `TEGAPRO~ 1

zviad siWinava

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. d. siWinava

testuri gamocdebis Casatarebeli programuli produqtebis Seqmnaze muSaoben msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis profesionali specialistebi. erTi SexedviT, es Tema TiTqos araa gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis obieqti. magram, Tu Tvals gadavavlebT aseTi proeqtebis Seqmnisa da danergvis, rogorc moralur, ise ekonomikur mxares davrwmundebiT, rom es erT-erTi mniSvnelovani amocanaa. dRes am mxriv erT-erTi novatoruli proeqtia Cvens mier warmodgenili testuri gamocdebis Casatarebeli programa TEGAPRO, romelic srulyofils xdis saswavlo process da studentebs swavlisa da meti sibejiTisken ganawyobs. proeqtis programuli uzrunvelyofisTvis arCeulia obieqt-orientirebuli programirebis ena Delphi. aRniSnuli ena sakmaod mZlavria. mas iyenebs kompania Microsoft-i Tavisi programuli produqtebis SesamuSaveblad. testuri gamocdebis programa TEGAPRO Seiqmna 2005 wels. igi waredgina saqarTvelos `inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis erovnul centrs saqpatents~, romelmac aRniSnul proeqtze gasca saavtoro ufleba #2126. programuli produqti TEGAPRO saqpatentSi registrirebulia saxeliT `ziko~. testuri gamocdebis programa TEGAPRO danergilia da warmatebiT muSaobs rogorc iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi, ise sxva universitetebSic. programas gaaCnia dacviTi meqanizmebi, romlebic gamoricxavs dainteresebuli piris eSmakur mcdelobas, raTa ar Seitanos garkveuli koreqtivebi programis muSaobaSi. qvemoT ganvixilavT programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-s SesaZleblobebsa da upiratesobas sxva msgavs programul produqtebTan SedarebiT da misi danergvis ekonomikur efeqtianobas. programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-s (TE-testuri, GA-gamocdebis, PRO-programa) gamoyenebiT SesaZlebelia, nebismier saganSi, rogorc Sualeduri, ise sasesio testuri gamocdebis Catareba. programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-s SesaZleblobebidan SegviZlia gamovyoT Semdegi: programul produqt TEGAPRO-Si SeuzRudavia SekiTxvebisa da TiToeul testze savaraudo pasuxebis raodenoba; programuli produqti TEGAPRO Ria sistemaa, anu saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia programuli cvlilebebis Setana, e. i. adaptirebadia nebismier disciplinasTan mimarTebaSi;

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `sainformacio teqnologiebi ekonomikasa da biznesSi~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili, xolo studentTa 69-e samecniero konferenciaze III adgili.

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gaaCnia dReisTvis miRebuli da aprobirebuli testuri gamocdebis standartebze gadasvlis SesaZlebloba; moxsnilia subieqturi faqtorebi, anu programuli produqti TEGAPRO gamoricxavs, e. w. fsiqologiur zewolas gamomcdelis (leqtoris) mxridan. es ki students aZlevs saSualebas, maqsimalurad gamoavlinos sakuTari codna; am sistemiT Sualeduri Semowmebis Catarebis SemTxvevaSi moxdeba studentTa Sefasebebis avtomaturi damaxsovreba specialur monacemTa bazaSi da gamocdis Sedegebis mixedviT saboloo uwyisis formireba; gamoricxavs ucxo piris gasvlas gamocdaze romelime studentis magivrad. amisaTvis sasurvelia winaswar Seiqmnas studentTa piradi nomrebisa da maTi fotosuraTebis monacemTa baza; programa saSualebas iZleva moxdes niSnebis avtomaturi gadatana studentTa erTian sauniversiteto bazaSi; programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-s saSualebiT SesaZlebelia, gamocdebis damTavrebisTanave, uwyisebis Sedgena calkeuli jgufebis mixedviT; programul produqt TEGAPRO-dan SesaZlebelia Sedgenili uwyisebis gatana EXCEL-Si Semdgomi damuSavebisaTvis (sxvadasxva saxis statistikuri maCveneblebis misaRebad). gamocdebis Catarebis sxva tradiciul meTodebTan SedarebiT programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-s upiratesobebs Soris SegviZlia gamovyoT: obieqturoba; gamoricxavs korufcias; gamoricxavs `Spargalkebis~ gamoyenebas (TEGAPRO-Si gamoyenebulia SemTxveviTi ricxvis generatori, romelic testebis bazidan garkveuli albaTobiT irCevs testebs. aseve adgilebs ucvlis arCeuli testis savaraudo pasuxebs); xels uwyobs (ganapirobebs) codnis miRebis aucileblobas da Sesabamisad uzrunvelyofs studentebis swavlebis donis amaRlebas; studentebisaTvis gamocdis Sedegebis operatiulad gacnoba (studentebi niSnebs igeben gamocdis damTavrebisTanave da ara 4-5 dRis Semdeg); pretenziebis ar arseboba (iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda. magaliTad, 700 studentidan Semovida mxolod 1 pretenzia). weriTi saxiT testuri gamocdebis Catarebisas ki pretenziebis raodenoba, saSualod, 10-15%-ia. zogierT SemTxvevSi ki 50%-sac aRwevs. sakancelario saqonlis ekonomia; adamianuri resursebis gamoTavisufleba: naSromebis gasworebisagan, niSnebis bazaSi Setanisgan, gamocdaze meTvalyureebis raodenobis Semcireba da sxva. programuli produqti TEGAPRO srulyofili sistemaa. misi interfeisi Sedgeba Semdegi Rilakebisgan: `daxmareba~, `dawyeba~, `testis Setana~, `niSnebi~ da `gamosvla~. ganvixiloT TiToeuli cal-calke: `daxmarebis~ dialogur fanjaraSi ganTavsebulia momxmareblisTvis saWiro yvela informacia programis Sesaxeb; 164

`testis Setanis~ dialogur fanjaraSi ZiriTadad ganTavsebulia sxvadasxva sagnebis testebis Setanis, testirebis drois dayenebis da sxva mravali funqcia; `niSnebis~ dialogur fanjaraSi ganTavsebulia studentis mier miRebuli niSnis moZebnisTvis saWiro velebi, Zebnis Rilaki, jgufis uwyisis Sedgenis Rilaki, romelsac Tavis mxriv gavyavarT Sesabamis dialogur fanjaraSi, studentis Sesaxeb bazaSi arsebuli monacemebis amobeWdvis Rilaki da gamosvlis Rilaki; `gamosvlis~ Rilaki uzrunvelyofs programidan gamosvlas. `dawyebis~ Rilakze daWeriT SevdivarT dialogur fanjaraSi `anketa~, sadac studentma unda Seitanos Sesabamisi anketuri monacemebi. anketis dialogur fanjaras gaaCnia Rilakebi: `gamosvla~ da .`Semdeg~. studenti anketis Sevsebis Semdeg aWers Rilaks .`Semdeg~, ris Sedegadac gamodis misalmebis dialoguri fanjara. misalmebis dialogur fanjaras gaaCnia Rilaki .`gamocdis dawyeba~. am Rilakze daWeriT programa gadadis sagamocdo testebis dialogur fanjaraze. sagamocdo testebis dialogur fanjaraze ganTavsebulia: testis kiTxvisa da savaraudo pasuxebis velebi; marcxena zeda kuTxeSi ganTavsebulia studentis suraTi, saxeli gvari da 11-niSna piradi nomeri; Rilakebi `damTavreba~, `wina~ (wina testze gadasasvlelad) da `Semdeg~ (Semdeg testze gadasasvlelad); sagamocdo testebis raodenobis Sesabamisi TeTri kvadratebi, romelTa daWeriT students SeuZlia swrafad gadavides nebismier testze; taimeri, romelic aRricxavs testirebis dros. rodesac studenti daamTavrebs testirebas igi aWers Rilaks `damTavreba~. ris Sedegadac gamova dialoguri fanjara, sadac kompiuteri ekiTxeba `ginda gamosvla?~. studenti aWers Rilakze OK da gamova studentis mier dagrovili qulebis Setyobinebis dialoguri fanjara. am fanjris gamoCenis momentidan monitoris ekrani `SeSdeba~ ramdenime wuTiT, rac gamoricxavs, arasasurveli qulebis miRebis SemTxvevaSi, studentis mier testirebis xelmeored Catarebas. Tu studenti ver Caetia testirebisTvis gankuTvnil droSi, maSin programa iblokeba da students ar SeuZlia testirebis gagrZeleba. mas SeuZlia mxolod testirebis Sewyveta RilakiT `damTavreba~. garda aRwerilisa warmodgenil programul produqt TEGAPRO-s gaaCnia uamravi SesaZleblobebi, romelTa CamoTvla Sors wagviyvans. axla ganvixiloT, Tu ra ekonomikuri efeqti gaaCnia Cvens mier SemoTavazebul programul produqts. moviyvanoT programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-s ekonomikuri efeqtianobis dasabuTeba Tsu ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis magaliTze. programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-Tvis aucilebeli da sakmarisia Tanamedrove kompiuteruli klasebis arseboba. ekonomikuri efeqtianobis gaangariSeba gavakeToT or nawilad: pirveli _ SevadginoT tradiciuli meTodiT testuri gamocdebis Catarebis xarjTaRricxva da meore _ kompiuteruli wesiT testuri gamocdebis Catarebis xarjTaRricxva. xarjTaRricxvaSi fuladi saxsrebis ekonomia, zogadad, SeiZleba gamovsaxoT Semdegi formuliT 165

Cek= C0- C1, (1) sadac Cek _ fuladi saxsrebis ekonomiaa, romelic miiReba erT sagamocdo disciplinaSi weriTi testuri gamocdebisa da kompiuterebis gamoyenebiT testuri gamocdebis Catarebaze gaweuli danaxarjebis sxvaobiT. (1) formulaSi C0 _ weriTi saxiT testuri gamocdebis CatarebasTan dakavSirebuli fuladi danaxarjebia; C1 _ kompiuteruli wesiT testuri gamocdebis Catarebisas saWiro fuladi danaxarjebia. Cvens SemTxvevaSi C0 Seicavs Semdegs: qseroqsis xarjebs (175 l), weriTi saxiT warmodgenili namuSevrebis gasworebisTvis saWiro xelfasis sidides (700 l), testuri gamocdebis mimdinareobis organizaciaze gaweul danaxarjebs (525 l) da uwyisebidan studentTa monacemebis SetanisTvis mdivan-menejeris xelfasis sidides (11,0 l). sul _ C0=1411 lars. C1 Seicavs Semdegs: damkvirveblebis xelfass (120 l) da kompiuteris eqspluataciis xarjs (21,6 l). sul _ C1=141,6 lars. Tu (1) formulaSi CavsvamT miRebul monacemebs, maSin Cek=1411-141,6=1269,4 l Tu aviRebT, rom studenti orive semestrSi saSualod abarebs 8 sagans, maSin wliuri ekonomia 700 studentze gaTvliT toli iqneba8 X 1269,4=10155,2 l Tu 10155,2 l gavamravlebT 4 kursze miviRebT _ 40620,8 l. Tu studenti orive semestrSi saSualod abarebs 10 sagans, maSin wliuri ekonomia 700 studentze gaTvliT toli iqneba10 X 1269,4=12694 l Tu 12694 l gavamravlebT 4 kursze miviRebT _ 50776 l. Tu studenti orive semestrSi saSualod abarebs 12 sagans, maSin wliuri ekonomia 700 studentze gaTvliT toli iqneba12 X 1269,4=15232,8 l Tu 15232,8 l gavamravlebT 4 kursze miviRebT _ 60931,2 l. samive SemTxvevaSi miRebul Tanxas unda gamoakldes programuli produqtis TEGAPRO-s Rirebuleba. amrigad, warmodgenili proeqtis Seqmnisa da danergvis Sedegad miRebuli, rogorc moraluri, ise ekonomikuri efeqti mniSvnelovania. garda amisa, naTlad Cans, testuri gamocdebis Casatarebeli programa TEGAPRO-s inovaciuroba. misi danergva saswavlo procesis xarisxis amaRlebis erT-erT saSualebadac gvevlineba.

166

informaciuli sazogadoebis ekonomikis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi1

nikoloz cxadaia

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asoc. prof. enver lagvilava axali ekonomikis (New Economy), rogorc axali tipis ekonomikuri sistemis warmoSoba xorcieldeba qseluri teqnologiebis saSualebiT erTiani informaciul-sakomunikacio sivrcis formirebis intensiur procesSi. ukanasknel periodSi termini ,,axali ekonomika~ samecniero literaturaSi gansakuTrebiT xSirad ixmareba da ZiriTadad ori mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba. pirvel rigSi axali ekonomikis qveS igulisxmeba ekonomikis is nawili, romelic Sedgeba iseTi maRalteqnologiuri dargebisagan, rogoricaa-kompiuterebis warmoeba, sakomunikacio sistemebis Seqmna, programuli uzrunvelyofa, bioteqnologia da sxva. am gagebiT, axali ekonomika ganisazRvreba, rogorc maRalteqnologiuri elementebiT gamorCeuli dargebis erToblioba. meore mniSvnelobiT `axali ekonomika~ gulisxmobs maRali teqnologiebis makroekonomikur parametrebze zegavlenas. igi ZiriTadad swored am mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba, radgan ukeT gamoxatavs Tanamedrove ekonomikis ganviTarebis Taviseburebebs. axal ekonomikas zogjer uwodeben virtualur ekonomikas (Virtual Economy), raTa xazi gausvan Zveli, tradiciuli ekonomikisagan mis gansxvavebas. virtualuri ekonomika warmoadgens gansakuTrebul ekonomikur garemos, romelSic SesaZlebelia eleqtronuli biznesis (Sesabamisad, eleqtronuli komerciisa da vaWrobis) warmarTva interaqtiuri SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebis safuZvelze. aseve gamoiyeneba termini codnis ekonomika (Economy of Knowledge). codnis ekonomika fokusirdeba codnis, rogorc ekonomikis procesebze zemoqmedi fenomenis menejmentsa da warmoebaze. xSirad gamoiyeneba da gulisxmobs codnis teqnologiebis (codnis inJineria da codnis menejmenti) gamoyenebas ekonomikuri sargeblis sawarmoeblad. ekonomistTa nawili axali ekonomikuri movlenebis ganxilvisas gvTavazobs gamoTqmas `qseluri ekonomika~ (Network Economy). aseTi midgoma gamarTlebulia, radgan maRalteqnologiuri dargebi swored qseluri sikeTis warmoebiT arian dakavebuli. qseli Seicavs unikalur Tvisebebs da gansazRvravs axali ekonomikis Taviseburebebs. `axali ekonomikis~ bevri mkvlevari miuTiTebs Tavis naSromSi inovaciis umniSvnelovanes fenomenze ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis da acxadebs, rom "axali ekonomika" arsebiTad inovaciuri ekonomikaa. m. kastelsi gamoyofs axali ekonomikis xuT ZiriTad maxasiaTebels: mwarmoebluroba, roca sul ufro metadaa damokidebuli Tanamedrove mecnierebisa da teqnikis miRwevebis gamoyenebaze, aseve informaciisa da menejmentis xarisxze;

1.

2. 3.

momxmareblebisa da mwarmoeblebis yuradRebis gadatana informaciul saqmianobaze; sawarmoo procesis organizaciis Zireuli transformacia;

materialuri

warmoebidan

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `sainformacio teqnologiebi ekonomikasa da biznesSi~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

167

4. 5.

ekonomikis globaluri xasiaTi, rodesac kapitali, warmoeba, menejmenti, bazari, Sroma, informacia da teqnologiebi organizebulia nacionaluri sazRvrebisagan damoukideblad; teqnologiuri cvlilebebis revoluciuri xasiaTi, rac TandaTanobiT gardaqmnis Tanamedrove msoflios materialur safuZvlebs; aseve mniSvnelovania zogadad Tanamedrove ekonomistebis mier aRiarebuli debulebebi: _ mimdinare cvlilebebis globaluri xasiaTi; _ operireba abstraqtuli, araxelSesaxebi sikeTeebiT: ideebiT, informaciiT da urTierTdamokidebulebebiT; _ axali ekonomikis calkeuli segmentebis mWidro urTierTkavSiri da urTierTqmedeba;

teqnologiuri cvlilebebis TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa, cnobili ekonomistis d. tapskotis mier mocemuli Zveli da axali teqnologiebis niSan-TvisebaTa Sedareba-sistematizacia. igi axali ekonomikis mTavar ganmasxvavebel Tvisebad aRiqvams axali informaciuli teqnologiebis inteleqtualizaciisa da qselur orientaciasTan dakavSirebul parametrebs da gamoyofs 10 ZiriTad ganmsazRvrel cvlilebas teqnologiebSi (ix. cxrili 1) cxrili 1. niSani Zveli teqnologiebi axali teqnologiebi analogiuri cifruli 1. signali

2. procesorebi 3 gamoTvliTi kompleqsi 4. gamtarunarianoba 5. mowyobiloba 6. informaciis warmodgenis formati 7. sistemebi 8. qselebi 9. programis SemuSaveba 10. interfeisi

tradiciuli, naxevargamtarebze didi egm-is bazaze baRis biliki SeRwevis mowyobiloba inteleqtis gareSe monacemebi, teqsti, bgera, gamosaxuleba specializirebuli arainteleqtualuri xelobis doneze momxmareblis grafikuli interfeisi (GUI)

mikroprocesorebi klient-serveris arqiteqtura informaciuli magistrali informaciuli sayofacxovrebo aparatura multimedia Ria inteleqtualuri obieqt-orientirebuli programireba mravalmomxmarebliani sistema(MUD) multimediuri interfeisi(MUI)

axal ekonomikaze gardamavali etapi, informaciuli sazogadoebis ganviTarebis xarjze Tavis TavSi moicavs axali wesebis dakanonebas, sadac iseT terminebi rogoricaa nou-hau da eqspertis codna iseTive mniSvnelovani resursi iqneba rogoric industriul ekonomikaSia sxvadasxva nedleuli. axali wesebi unda daiweros firmebisa da sawarmoebis doneze, rac gulisxmobs codnis menejmentis daxvewas. axali ekonomika, SeiZleba iTqvas warmoadgens, rogorc postindustriuli ekonomikis ganviTarebis etapebs: _ warmoebis faqtorTa struqturebis cvlileba maTSi informatizaciis gamoyofiT; _ obieqtis struqturasa da sakuTrebis formebs Soris Tanafardobis (damokidebulebis) cvlileba;

168

_ axali socialuri fenebisa da socialuri struqturebis formireba da a.S.

informaciuli teqnologiebis gamoyenebis Sedegad izrdeba mwarmoebluroba, rasac mivyavarT mogebis matebamde, magram mxolod moklevadian periodSi. grZelvadian periodSi ki mogeba mcirdeba monopoliur bazarze mZafri konkurenciis gamo. mcirdeba informaciis fasi, radgan TviTon inovaciis procesi iZleva SesaZleblobas, rom informacia damuSavdes gacilebiT swrafad da iafad. es procesi SesaZlebelia grafikulad warmovadginoT "erToblivi moTxovna ­ erToblivi miwodebis" modelis gamoyenebiT: P ­informaciis fasia; LAS ­ erToblivi miwodebis xangrZlivvadiani mrudia; AD ­ erToblivi moTxovnaa; Y ­ gamoSvebis moculobaa; informaciis fasis Semcireba am grafikze aisaxeba erToblivi miwodebis mrudis (LAS) gadaadgilebiT marjvniv. e.i. teqnologiuri cvlilebebis gamo informaciis fasi daeca P1 dan P2-mde, xolo gamoSvebis moculoba gaizarda Y1-dan Y2-mde. qseluri sikeTe gamoirCeva imiT, rom maTi kvlavwarmoeba (warmoqmna) SeiZleba praqtikulad nulovani, zRvruli danaxarjebiT da isini qmnian qselur gare efeqtebs 1 momxmareblisaTvis. amis Sedegad ki bazris ZiriTadi parametrebi _ moTxovna da miwodeba aratradiciulad icvleba. tradiciuli ekonomikuri Teoria efuZneba Semdeg mtkicebas: miwodeba mcirdeba, roca zRvruli danaxarjebi izrdeba da miwodebis mruds gaaCnia dadebiTi daxriloba. xolo moTxovna izrdeba, roca zRvruli danaxarjebi mcirdeba da moTxovnis mruds gaaCnia uaryofiTi daxriloba. qseluri sikeTis SemTxvevaSi ki yvelaferi piriqiTaa: miwodebis mrudi uaryofiTi daxrilobisaa, radgan zRvruli danaxarjebi miiswrafvis 0-sken drois mniSvnelovan periodSi. moTxovnis mrudi ki dadebiTi daxrilobisaa, radgan zRvruli sargeblianoba izrdeba qseluri sikeTis momxmarebelTa raodenobis zrdis Sesabamisad. Tu ki es procesi miiRebs dinamikur xasiaTs, moTxovnisa da miwodebis mrudebi gadakveTen erTmaneTs sul ufro da ufro naklebi fasis gaswvriv. arsebobs uamravi sirTule informaciuli teqnologiebis danergviT miRebuli Sedegebis swor SefasebasTan dakavSirebiT. Zlier izrdeba Sualeduri moxmarebis wili finansur, sakonsultacio, sareklamo da sxva momsaxurebis sferoebSi. Tanamedrove aRricxvianobis praqtika ki amas ar iTvaliswinebs, radgan Sedegis Sefaseba xdeboda sabolo produqtis mixedviT. informaciuli teqnologiebis sferoSi adgili aqvs ZiriTadi fondebis gaufasurebas. amis Sedegad erovnuli Semosavlis namati xdeba erTobliv Siga produqtis namatze naklebi. miuxedavad amisa, mwarmoebluroba mainc izrdeba, Tanac sakmaod swrafad. es exeba ara mxolod kompiuteris warmoebasTan dakavSirebul seqtorebs, aramed ekonomikas mTlianad.

1

gare efeqtis gansakuTrebuli saxe, romelsac mivyavarT saqonlis sargeblianobis zrdisaken individisaTvis, igive saqonlis momxmarebeli sxva individebis raodenobis zrdasTan erTad.

erTi

169

informaciul sazogadoebaSi warmoebuli saqonlis Rirebulebis struqturaSi didia inteleqtualur Sromaze gaweuli danaxarjebis wili, anu igi aris mecnierebatevadi saqoneli. informaciul sazogadoebaSi, gansxvavebiT industriuli sazogadoebisa, Warbobs inteleqtualuri saqonlis warmoeba da moxmareba. eqspertTa gaTvlebiT uaxloes momavalSi inteleqtulauri saqonlis warmoeba gacilebiT gadaaWarbebs materialurs. informaciul ekonomikaSi maRal donezea ganviTarebuli qseluri ekonomika, qseluri biznesi da eleqtronuli komercia. informaciuli sazogadoebis momavali ganviTarebis Sesaxeb gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis egidiT Catarda msoflio samiti or fazad - 2003 wels JenevaSi da 2005 wels tunisSi, sadac ganxiluli iyo informaciuli sazogadoebis momavali ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. masSi monawileobda mravali qveyana maT Soris aSS, aseve evropis gaerTianebebis warmomadgenlebi, sxvadasxva arasamTavrobo organizaciebi. 2003 wels JenevaSi Catarebuli samitis mier miRebuli rezoluciiT Seiqmna specialuri fondi msoflio informaciuli sazogadoebis infrastruqturis Sesaqmnelad. TiToeuli qveynis mier gadaricxuli Tanxis raodenobam saboloo jamSi daaxloebiT eqvsi milioni dolari Seadgina. meore faza ki Catarda 2005 wlis noemberSi tunisSi, sadac gamoyofili Tanxa 4.5 milion dolars aRemateboda. yvelaze mTavari iyo is, rom am samitis Sedagad Camoyalibda Sesabamisi infrastruqturis SemqnisaTvis saWiro moqmedebebis gegma, romlis ZiriTadi punqtebi Semdegnairad Camoyalibda: mTavrobisa da kerZo seqtoris roli informaciul-telesakomunikacio teqnologiebis (itt) ganviTarebis xelSewyobaSi; informaciuli da satelekomunikacio infrastruqtura; informaciisa da codnis xelmisawvdomoba; itt-s gamoyenebis daculoba da usafrTxoeba; Sesabamisi garemos Seqmna; itt-s gamoyenebis da ganviTarebis sferoebi: eleqtronuli mTavroba, biznesi, swavleba, jandacva, dasaqmeba, garemo, soflis meurneoba. eleqtronuli mecniereba, media, informaciuli sazogadoebis eTikuri normebi, saerTaSoriso da regionaluri kooperacia. dResdReobiT erovnuli ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi informaciuli teqnologiebis gamoyenebis mxriv erT-erT mowinave adgilzea singapuri. amisaTvis Seqmnilia sainformaciosakomunikacio ganviTarebis departamenti (ssgd). mniSvnelovania avstraliaSi mimdinare procesebi am sferosTan mimarTebaSi. samxreTi avstraliis mTavrobam miiRo specialuri dokumneti, romelic warmoadgens erTgvar samoqmedo gegmas, romlis mTavari funqciaa upasuxos da marTos is sainformacio da sakomunkacio cvlilebebi romleTa winaSec dadga msoflio, gansakuTrebiT ki samxreTi avstraliis mosaxleoba.

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dReisTvis ama Tu im qveynis konkurentunarianoba ZiriTadad ganisazRvreba imiT, Tu rogor iyenebs es qveyana internet-teqnologiebs, rogori tempiT mimdinareobs tradiciuli ekonomikidan axal ekonomikaze gadasvla, Zvel da axal ekonomikas Soris ramdenad warmatebulia urTierTkavSiri da a.S. erTi ram cxadia, rom saqarTvelo ver ganviTardeba msoflio ekonomikisgan izlirebulad. amitom aucilebelia, rom saqarTvelom aqtiurad miiRos monawileoba mimdinare progresul procesebSi. saqarTveloSi axali ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia, arsebuli ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT, SemuSavdes teqnologiurad prioritetuli, miznobrivi programebi, romlebic mimarTuli iqneba informaciuli teqnologiebisa da Sesabamisi sistemebis danergvis, gamoyenebisa da ganviTarebisaken. amisTvis saWiroa mTavrobaSi Seiqmnas specialuri organo, romelic dakavebuli iqneba informaciuli teqnologiebis industriasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebiT, raTa moaxdinos aRniSnul programaSi CarTul organizaciaTa da uwyebaTa muSaobis koordinireba, maTi saqmianobis efeqtianad warmarTvis mizniT. saqarTveloSi axali ekonomikis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebTan dakavSirebiT gavaanalizoT misi ganviTarebis sami SesaZlo modeli. pirveli modeli ­ es aris e. w. induri modeli, romelic iTvaliswinebs ofSoruli programirebis ganviTarebas. dReisTvis ofSoruli programirebis centrebi funqcionireben ara mxolod indoeTSi, aramed singapurSi, braziliaSi, irlandiaSi da sxva qveynebSi. Tumca swored indoeTSi moxda ekonomikis calkeuli segmentis formireba specialuri infrastruqturiTa da samTavrobo regulirebis sistemasTan erTad. ofSoruli programirebis biznesi efuZneba programuli samuSaoebis calkeuli saxeebis moTxovnebs da ganviTarebul qveynebSi inJiner-muSakebis ukmarisobas. saqarTvelosaTvis induri meTodi misaRebia Semdegi mizezebis gamo: gafarTovdeba bazari, amoqmeddeba sainJinro kadrebi, saqarTvelo gamoiyenebs sxva qveynebis gamocdilebas da a.S. problema mxolod isaa, rom es biznesi Zlieradaa damokidebuli msoflio bazris ciklurobaze da ar arsebobs mmarTvelobiTi gamocdileba. meore modeli ­ es aris modeli, romelsac iyeneben skandinaviuri qveynebi da israeli. is dafuZnebulia mza gadawyvetilebebis eqsportze da sagareo bazris produqtebze. aseTi modeli liderobis SesaZleblobas iZleva. garda amisa, SesaZlebeli xdeba qveynis inteleqtualuri potencialis ufro efeqtianad gamoyeneba. am modelis problemebi msgavsia wina modelisa, magram emateba kidev erTi mniSvnelovani problema. es problema exeba firmebSi marketingis organizaciis aucileblobas. mesame modeli ­ bazris ganviTarebis erovnuli modelia da iTvaliswinebs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Seqmnas Siga bazris Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. am modelis ZiriTadi upiratesoba isaa, rom misi damnergavebi kargad iqnebian gaTviTcnobierebulni adgilobriv specifikasa da niuansebSi. problema isaa, rom mocemuli modelis SesaZlo realizacia SezRuduli iqneba Siga bazriT. romeli modelia saqarTvelosaTvis ufro perspeqtiuli, jerjerobiT gaurkvevelia. saboloo angariSiT, axali ekonomika gvaZlevs axal ekonomikur SesaZleblobebs da gvTavazobs ekonomikuri zrdis ukeTes xarisxs. 171

saqarTveloSi axali ekonomikis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia, arsebuli ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT SemuSavdes teqnologiurad prioritetuli miznobrivi programebi, romlebic mimarTuli iqneba informaciuli teqnologiebisa da Sesabamisi sistemebis danergvis, gamoyenebisa da ganviTarebisaken.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

maRraZe m. informaciuli sazogadoebis teqnikur-ekonomikuri maxasiaTeblebi. JurnalSi ,,ekonomika da biznesi" #3, 2008. gv.89-100. . : , . . .. . ., « » , 2000. . - . ., «INT-press». ., «-», 1999. gv.121. Dolfsma W. and Soete L. - Understanding the Dynamics of A Knowledge Economy. Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc. 136 West Street, Suite 202, Northampton, Massachusetts 01060, USA - 2006. Webster F. - Theories of The Information Society. Routledge, 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN - third edition 2006. http://www.informationeconomy.sa.gov.au/policy/ieagenda http://www.ida.gov.sg/home/index.aspx http://www.itu.int/wsis/index.html

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internet-tqnologiebi da sagadasxado sistema1

nino CarTolani

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: sruli. prof. m. maRraZe saxelmwifos siZlieres ZiriTadad gansazRvravs saxelmwifoSi arsbuli sagadasaxado sistema, misi sistemuroba da moqniloba. radgan gadasaxadebi-es aris saxelmwifo biujetis Sevsebis ZiriTadi wyaro, saxelmwifo biujeti ki aris qveynis ekonomikis umTavresi elementi, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens gadsaxadebis sworad gaangariSebisa da saxelmwifo biujetSi maTi drouli gadaricxvis efeqtiani organizacia. bolo dros SeimCneva tendencia, eleqtronuli komerciis moculobis zrdis, rac gamowveulia teqnologiuri progresiT, globaluri qseliT internetis gavcelebis masStabebiT. magaliTad, 2009 wlis daswyisisaTvis internet-momxmarebelTa raodenobam msoflioSi erT miliards miaRwia. mxolod B2B segmentze on-line reJimSi 2003 wels gayidvebis moculobam Seadgina 1 trln dolari 2 . eleqtronuli komerciis moculobis zrda dRis wesrigSi ayenebs sakiTxs, Tu rogor moxdes internet-teqnologiebis pirobebSi gayidul saqonelze da momsaxurebaze gadasaxadebis daweseba da amoReba. am problemis gadaWra Zalze mniSvnelovani xdeba eleqtronuli vaWrobis moculoobis zrdidan gamomdinare, radagan saxelmwifom SeiZleba dakargos soliduri sabiujeto Semosavali. kompaniis computer Inteligence monacemebiT 2007 wlisaTvis on-line Sesyidva ganaxorciela 2,7 mln adamianma. rodesac materialuri saxiT warmodgenili saqonlis SeZena warmoebs eleqtronuli maRaziis meSveobiT da myidvelis rolSi gamodis sxva saxelmwifos iuridiululi an fizikuri piri, maSin SeZenil saqonelze sabaJo gadasaxadis amoReba xdeba Cveulebrivi wesiT, vinaidan saqonelma fizikurad unda gadmokveTos saxelmwifos administraciuli sazRvari (saxmeleTo, sazRvao, sahaero)H, romelic dRes arsebuli sagadasxado kanonmdeblobiT regulirdeba. proplemebi warmoiqmneba maSin, roca eleqtronuli vaWrobis ganxorcieleba warmoebs cifruli saxiT warmodgenili saqonliT (programuli uzrunvelyofa, wignebis eleqtronuli versiebi da sxva ). am SemTxvevaSi Znelia daadgino rogorc myidvelis, aseve gamyidvelis fizikuri adgilsamyofeli. Ees gamowveulia imis gamo, rom gamydvelis serveri, romelzedac moTavsebulia mis Sesaxeb informacia SeiZleba mdebareobdes sxva saxelmwifoSi, sadac SesaZlebelia saerTod ar moqmedebdes kanoni eleqtronuli komerciis Sesaxeb an Tu arsebobs igi SeZleba gansxvavebuli iyos im qveynis sagadasaxado kanonisagan, sadac realurad imyofeba saqonlis gamyidveli. saWiro xdeba im principebis modifikacia, romlebic moqmedeben off-line ekonomikaSi. DdReisaTvis msoflioSi naklebad aris Seswavlili eleqtronuli komerciis pirobebSi gadasaxadebis sididis gansazRvrisa da amoRebis sakiTxebi. sagadasaxdo elastikuroba

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `sainformacio teqnologiebi ekonomikasa da biznesSi~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

2

: . . , . , .429.

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eleqtronul vaWrobaSi sakmaod maRalia. amisTvis gamoiyeneba, maCveneblebi off-line da on-line ekonomikis seqtorebisaTvis1.

fasebis SefardebiTi

= Ps(1+t)/PI

sadac -aris SefardebiTi fasis maCvenebeli, t ­aris gayidul saqonlze gadasaxadi, Ps- aris sacalo maRaziaSi saqonlis fasi, PPI-aris saqonlis fasi on-line seqtorSi. rac ufro maRalia, -is maCvenebeli, miT meti momxmarebeli cdilobs SeiZinos saqoneli on-line teqnoloogiiT e.i. Tu izrdeba , izrdeba saqonlis warmoeba da gayidva on-line seqtorSi da piriqiT. rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom saWiroa on-line da offline seqtorebSi sagadasaxado wesebis daaxloveba. magram off-line seqtorSi gamoyenebuli sagadasaxado ganakveTebis gamoyeneba on-line seqtorrisaTvis Seamcirebs internetiT saqonlis myidvelTa raodenobas, rac xels SeuSlis eleqtronuli komerciis ganviTarebas. meore garemoeba, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba Cveulebrivi sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis gamoyenebas eleqtronul garigebebSi is aris, rom garTulebulia gadasaxadebis amoReba. es ukanaskneli gamowveulia qseluri garigebis kontrolis siZneliT da momxmareblis dacilebiT realuri saqonlidan. am SemTxvevaSi dabali gadasaxadi an misi ar arseboba gamoiwvevs saqonlis qselis meSveobiT SeZenis survilis amaRlebas ara mato saqrTveloSi, aramed MmTel msoflioSic. dReisaTvis msoflios zogierT qveyanaSi da maT Soris saqarTveloSic rogorc Teoriuli, ise praqtikuli gamoyenebis asapeqtSi ar arsebobs eleqtronuli komerciis pirobebSi sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba. amitom eleqtronuli komerciisaTvis dReisaTvis gamoiyeneba off-line seqtorSi gamoyenebuli sagadasaxado regulirebis principebi. jerjerobiT amave principebis gamoyenebas uWers mxars saerTaSoriso sagadasaxado asociacia (International Fiscal Association-IFA). paraleluradDaRniSnuli saerTaSoriso savaWro organizacia awarmoebs kvlevas eleqtronuli komerciis pirobebSi sagadasaxado problemebis gadaWris mimarTulebiT. virtualuri seqtoris sagadasaxado dabegvris sakiTxi mravali problemis gadawyvetasTan aris dakavSirebuli: a) gamyidvelma SeiZleba ar icodes myidvelis statusi. Saxeldobr, myidveli aris rezidenti Tu ararezidenti, iuridiuli, Tu fizikuri piri; b) Zalian rTulia daadgino saqonlis realizaciis adgili da aqedan gamomdinare ganisazRvros gadsaxadis sidide. zogjer imis garkvevac rTulia momxmarebels miewoda saqoneli Tu, magaliTad, cifruli formiT programuli uzrunvelyofa, wignis eleqtronuli versia da sxv.) am dros SeiZleba moqmedebdes sxvadasxva gadasaxadi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mimarT; d) Tu myidveli uars ambobs saqonlis miRebaze Znelia aRiareba imisa, Sedga Tu ara internetiT gamyidvelsa da myidvels Soris garigeba. aqedan gamomdinare SeiZleba aRmocendes sagadasaxado problemebi; e) zogjer kompania, Tu mis saxelmwifoSo moqmedebs maRali gadasaxadebi gadasaxadis nawilis Tavis aridebis mizniT sakuTar serveris ganTavsebas axdens sxva saxellmwifoSi. perspeqtivaSi eleqtronuli komerciis pirobebSi transaqciis, virtualobisa da saqonlis cifruli formiT gayidviT saxelmwifom SeiZleba dakargos sagadasaxado Semosavlebis, didi nawili. am SemTxvevaSi gaZnelebulia gadasaxadis gadamxdeli subieqtis gansazRvra, DdReisTvis fuladi eleqtronuli nakadebis zusti aRricxva da auditoruli Semowmeba. Sesabamisad gadauWrel problemas warmoadgens. saSemosavlo gadasaxadis gaangariSeba da amoReba. v. tanci aRniSnuli prob1

. . . ., , 2006. .152.

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lemis gadawyvetis mizniT SromaSi _ `esaWiroeba Tu ara msoflio Tanasazogadoebas saerTaSoriso sagadasaxado organizacia~ gvTavazobs saerTaSoriso sagadasaxado organizaciis Seqmnas. eleqtronuli komerciis pirobebSi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis dabegvris dros saWiroa cal-calkee iqnes ganxiluli qveynis SigniT materialuri saqonliT ganxorcielebuli vaWroba da calke iqnas cifruli saxiT warmodgenili saqonlis realizaciis sakiTxi da aqedan gamomdinare gadasaxadebis gaanagariSebisa da amoRebis sakiTxebi. kidev ufro rTuldeba problema roca eleqtronuli komerciis ganxorcieleba warmoebs saxelmwifoebs Soris. Cvens qveyanaSi eleqtronuli vaWroba sawyis etapzea. cotaa saqarTveloSi internet savaWro firmebi. arsebobs mxolod saCuqrebiTa da RviniT movaWre firmebi. arsebuli inernet ­ vitrinebi ver asruleben maT daniSnulebas (cudia dizaini, ar arseboba uwyveti kavSiri momxmarebelTan, isini mxoloT portalis rolSi gamodian, ver anxorcieleben marketingul kvlevas. internetiT saqonlis gayidvis Taviseburebas warmoadgens is ,rom internetiT SeiZleba gayido nebismieri saqoneli, an miiRo SesaZlo nebismieri momsaxureba. angariSsworeba internetis meSveobii garkveul risks Secavs. bevr SemTxvevaSi myidvels fulis gadaxdamde surs fizikurad Seexos saqonels, daaTvalieros igi. samrewvelo produqciis SeZenisas myidvels urCevnia unaRdo angariSsworeba. unaRdo distanciur vaWrobas Cvelebriv sacalo qselSi saqonliT vaWrobasTan SedarebiT gaCnia bevri upiratesobebi. eleqtronuli gadxdisaTvis rekomendrebulia mTeli rigi alternatiuli variantebi. vinaidan dReisTvis plastikuri baraTebis gamoyenebiT internetiT saqonlis SeZena kargad aris Seswalili, amitom aSS-Si da sxva civilizebul qveynebSi magnituri sabanko sakredito baraTi warmoadgens eleqtronuli gadxdis erTaderT saSualebas, rogorc kerZo ise iuridiuli pierebisaTvis. es ganpirobebulia imiTac, rom maRal donezea uzrunvelyofoli plastikuri baraTebiT ganxorcielebuli angariSsworebis usafrTxoeba. Cvens qveyanaSic daiwyo ganviTareba plastikuri baraTebiT unaRdo anagariSsworebam. ras aZlevs sawarmos eleqtronuli komerciis danergva? 1. informacia saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesaxeb vrceldeba swrafad. F Tqven RebulobT damatebiT sakomunikacio arxs yoveldRiurad, 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi. ufro xelmisawvdomi xdebiT klientisaTvis ; 2. Cqardeba sawrmos SigniT informaciis moZraoba, farTovdeba dokumentebis gaformebis kontrolis SesaZleblobebi; 3. klientisaTvis interneti iZleva axali servisis SesaZleblobebs. magaliTad, Talyuri adevnos dakeTis Sesrulebas; 4. vinaidan iterneti wamoadgens teqnologiur garss amdenad igi saSualebas iZleva Sevkribod informacia klientebis Sesaxeb. Ggarda arniSnulisa igi sawarmos saSualebs aZlevs damatebiTi danaxarjebis gawevis gareSe gamoiyenos markentinguli instrumentarebi- gamokiTxvebi, Setyobinebebi, gaakoTos personalis ekonomia 5. SeiZleba ekonomia gakeTdes savaWro darbazebis daqiravebaze. sanam firma daiwyebs eleqtronuli vaWrobis danergvas da gaiRebs am miznisTvis saTanado xarjebs, aucilebelia pasuxi gaeces Semdeg kiTxvebs: pirvel rigSi unda dasabuTdes aris Tu ara aucilebeli Tqvens firmaSi eleqtronuli komerciis danergva, anu unda moaxdinoT moTxovnilebis identificireba: ra

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biznes eweviT, saWiroa Tu ara interneti potenciuri momxmareblebis mosazidad, ra situaciaa bazarze? am kiTxvebze dadebiTi pasuxis SemTxvevaSi ismis kiTxva rogor gakeTdes es yvelaferi da ra TanmimdevrobiT: daproeqtebisaTvis unda daiweros davaleba, Sedges sistemuri proeqti, danergvis gegma, Seiqmnas sawamos specialistebis samuSao jgufi, garedan ayvanil iqnes konsultanti, erToblivad SemuSavdes dokumenti. Bbazarze unda SeirCes damproeqtebeli oeganizacia, xosting-provaideri. unda gairkves vin moemsaxureba saits, vin moaxdens internetis saSualebiT Tqveni biznesis warmoebas. agreTve saWiro gaxdeba moiwvioT specialistebi internet-saitTan samuSaod an moaxdinoT arsebuli kadrebis gadamzadeba. agreTve saWiro gaxdeba cvlilebebis Setana saStato ganrigSi. samarTav obieqtebTan, anu gadasaxadbis gadamxdelebTan (iuridiul da fizikur pirebTan) raionul sagadasaxado inspeqciebis doneze urTierTmoqmedeben sagadasaxado samsaxuris TanamSromlebi. isini axorcieleben Semdeg funqciebs: sagadasaxado kanonis dacvis kontroli; gadasaxadebis sworad daricxvisa da biujetSi droulad Setanis kontroli; gadamxdelebis mier buRaltruli angariSgebebis sworad Sedgenisa da droulad wardgenis kontroli; sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis sworad Sesrulebisa da realizaciisaTvis saaRmsruleblo, safinanso da sakredito organoebTan urTierTmoqmedeba. sagadasaxado kanondarRvevisaTvis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli finansuri sanqciebis dadgena da maTi sworad gamoyeneba; saqalaqo da raionul safinanso organoebSi faqtiurad Semosuli gdasaxadebis Tanxis Sesaxeb cnobebis Sedgena da analizi; sagadasaxado organoebis mier zemdgom organoebSi, angariSgebebis formebis wardgena da analizi. zemoT CamoTvlili yvela funqciebis gasaxorcieleblad saxelmwifo sagadasaxado organoebSi danergilia an danergvis procesSia avtomatizebuli sainformacio sistema ~gadasaxadi~. avtomatizebuli sainformacio sistema `gadasaxadi~ warmoadgens sagadasaxado organoebis marTvis organizaciul formas, dafuZnebuls Tanamedrove informaciuli teqnologiebisa da meTodebis gamoyenebaze. igi saSualebas iZleva gafarTovdes gadasawyveti amocanebis wre, amaRldes miRebuli gadawyvetilebis dasabuTebuloba, analizuroba da drouloba, Semcirdes sagadasaxado organoebis TanamSromlebis mier Sesasrulebeli araSemoqmedebiTi samuSaoebis moculoba. sagadasaxado sistemis TiToeul doneze, gamomdinare Sesrulebuli funqciebidan, iqmnebian sxvadasxva funqciuri qvesistemebi: tipiuri angariSgebiTi formebis momzadebis; sakontrolo saqmianobis; meTodologiuri; sarevizio, samarTleblivi da saxelmwifo sagadasaxado inspeqciis analizuri saqmianobis. sagadasaxado samsaxuris dabali donisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi qvesistemebi: sawarmos registraciis; kameraluri Semowmebis; normatiul-samarTleblivi dokumentebis warmoebis; Sigasauwyebo amocanebis. sawarmos registraciis qvesistemis funqciaa gdasaxadebis gadmxTelTa sruli da drouli aRricxava. am QqvesistemaSi dafiqsirebulia yvela iuridiuli da fizikuri piris Sesaxeb informacia. nebismieri sawarmos registraciis an xelmeored registraciis Sesaxeb yvela dokumenti dafiqsirebuli da Setanili unda iqnes saxelmwifo reestrSi. es monacemebi saWiroa sxvadasxva momxmareblisaTvis, saxelmwifo sagadasaxado inspeqciis TanamSromlebisaTvis. sagadasaxado organoebi am informacias iyeneben, rogorc bazas TiToeuli gadamxdelis Sesaxeb. amitom es informacia SemdgomSi sxvadasxva qvesistemebis mier gamoyenebis mizniT Setanil unda iqnes monacemTa bazaSi. magaliTad, kameraluri Semowmebis an sawarmos piradi baraTebis waroebisaTvis.

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informaciis damuSaveba iwyeba iuridiuli samasaxuris mier gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa aRricxviTa da registraciiT. Ees samsaxuri Tavis saqmianobaSi sargeblobs normatiul-samarTleblivi infomaciiT da Rebulobs gadasaxadebis gadamxdelebidan aucilebel dokumentebs, romelTa safuZvelzec iqmneba monacemTa baza. gadasaxadis gadamxdels eniWeba unikaluri saregistaracio nomeri. aseTi saxiT iqmneba gadamxdelis ~eleqtronuli saqaRalde.~ aRniSnuli informacia gamoiyeneba avtomatizebuli sainformacio sistemis _ `gadasaxadi~-is yvela ZiriTadi qvesistemis mier. pirvel rigSi aseTi informacia esaWiroeba kameraluri Semowmebis qvesistemas. gadasaxadebis gadamxdeli agrovebs Semdeg dokumentebs: sawarmos balanss, mogeba-zralis angariSgebas, qonebis gdasaxadisa da sxva angariSgebebs. aRniSnuli dokumentebi dagenilvadebSi gadaecema raionul sagadasaxado organoebs. Kkameraluri Semowmeba mdgomareobs sabuRaltro angariSgebebis, gadasaxadebis sworad gaangariSebisa da angariSgebiTi formebis sworad gaformebis dadgenaSi. Aam mizniT gadamxTelebis mier warmodgenili dokumentebidan monacemebi sagadasaxado TanamSromlis mier Seitaneba kompiuterSi, warmoebs `eleqtronuli saqaRaldis~ Sevseba axali informciiT, romlis safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli xdeba sxvadasxva periodisaTvis Tvalyuri vadevnoT sawarmos finansur-sameurneo saqmianobas. Kkompiuteruli teqnologiis gamoyeneba saSualebas iZleva davakvirdeT sawarmos ganviTarebas, mis mier sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis dacvas, gamovavlinoT kanonmdeblobis darRvevis SemTxvevebi, dadgindes biujetSi gadasaricxi Tanxa, Sedges im sawarmoTa CamonaTvali romlebSiac unda Catardes dokumenturi Semowmeba. saboloo jamSi am qvesistemaSi formirebuli informacia aris safuZveli sxva qvesistemebSi informaciis dasamuSaveblad. pirvel rigSi es exeba dokumentur Semowmebas. dokumentur Semowmebas dadgenili grafikis mixedviT axdens sagadasaxado inspeqciis samsaxuri. Ddokumenturi Semowmebis mizania gamovlenili iqnas sabuRaltro aRricxvis warmoebis wesebis, gadasxadebis arasworad gaangariSebisa da biujetSi sagadasaxado Tanxebis Setanis vadebis darRvevebi. Semowmeba xdeba sawarmoSi, adgilze misvliT. igi iTvaliswinebs yvela saWiro dokumentis daTvalierebas. Semowmebis Sedegad dgeba aqti romelSiac dafiqsirdeba sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis darRvevis yvela SemTxveva. darRvevebis aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi, darRvevis saxidan gamomdinare warmoebs jarimisa da sauravis daricxva. Ddokumenturi Semowmebis qvesistemaSi formirebuli Sedegebi gamoiyneba sawarmos piradi baraTebis warmoebisaTvis, romlis mizania gadasaxadebis saxeebis mixedviT gaangariSebuli iqnes saxelmwifo biujetSi Setanili Tanxis raodenoba. TiToeuli sawamo gadamxdelis mixedviT daricxuli gadasaxadis Tanxis Sesaxeb Semodis dokumentebi da kameruli Semowmebis qvesistemidan Semodis informacia gadmxdelis mier bankSi biujetis angariSze Caricxuli Tanxis Sesaxeb. gadasaxadebis saxeebis mixedvioT daricxuli da gadaxdili Tanxebis Sedareba saSualebas iZleva dadgindes gadaxra (narCeni gadasxdeli Tanxa ,an Tanxa romelic zedmatad iqna gadxdili). Tu zedmeti Tanxa iqna gadxdili, maSin sawarmos es Tanxa CaeTvleba momaval TveSi. Aam operaciis ganxorcieleba xdeba sawarmo gadamxdelis mier sagadasaxado organosaTvis werilobiTi mimarTvis safuZvelze. sagadasaxado sistemis informatizaciam unda uzrunvelyos sagadasaxado samsaxuris operatiuli muSaoba, sagadasaxado kanonebis sruli dacva, gadasaxadebis Semosavali Tanxebis zusti da drouli aRricxva, gadasaxadebis Semosavalebis prognozi, sagadasaxado sistemisaTvis kadrebis momzadeba.

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DdReisaTvis, sazRvagareTis qveynebSi saxelmwifos bevri funqciis ganxorcieleba warmoebs onlain reJimSi, maTSoris gadasxdebis gaanagiSebTan da amoRebasTan dakavSirebuli. amas xels uwyobs saxelmwifo organoebi. mag., aSS-isa da kanadis saxelmwifo sanmasxurebi garantias aZleven gadamxdelebs ori kviris ganmavlobaSi daubrunon zedmetad gadaxdili Tanxa imaT, vinc saTanado dokumentebs waradgenen eleqtronuli formiT. didi britaneTis samTavrobo organooebi garkveul SeRavaTebs aZleven im iuridiul da fizikur pirebs, romlebic saSemosalo gadasaxadebTan dakavSirebiT sabuTebs waradgenen eleqtronuli formiT. globalur ekonomikur sazogadoebaSi, romelic yalibdeba informaciuli teqnologiebis safuZvelze, problemuri xdeba efeqturi dabegvris ganxorcieleba. am mizniT saWiroa ganxorcieldes eleqtronuli komerciisa da eleqtronuli fulis mudmivi monitoringi, dawesdes specialuri gadasxadi sazRvargareT ganxorcielebul tranzaqciebze. im firmebsa da organizaciebs, romlebic sabuRaltro aRricvas awarmoeben kompiuteruli programebis saSualebiT SesaZlebloba aqvT ditsanciurad, qselis saSualebiT, eleqtronuli fostiT moaxdinon gadasaxdebis gaangariSebasTan da biujetSi Tanxis gadaricxvasTan dakavSirebuli informaciisa gadacema Sesabamis sagadasxado organoebSi, rac mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobesebs sagadasxado organoebis muSaobas. raionul sagadasxdo organoebs aRar mouwevT gadasaxadis gadmxdelebidan Semosuli informaciis Sesabamis monacemTa bazaSi xeliT Setana. sagadasxado organoebs SeeZlebaT sagadasaxado kanonSi momxdari cvlilebebis Sesaxeb informacia qselis saSualebiT operatiulad miawodon warmoeba-dawesebulebebs.

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buRaltruli balansis analizuri mniSvneloba1

nano samyuraSvili

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: prof. i. WilaZe buRaltruli balansi asaxavs sawarmos qonebas da romeli wyaroebidanaa formirebuli. ekonomikur literaturaSi buRaltrul balanss aseve ganmartaven rogorc sawarmos ekonomikuri resursebisa da mTliani kapitalis mdgomareobis ganzogadebas mocemuli TariRisaTvis fulad sazom erTeulSi. buRaltruli balansis momzadeba xdeba mogeba-zaralis angariSgebis Sedgenis Semdeg, roca ukve ganxorcielebulia Semosavlebisa da xarjebis gadaxurvis operaciebi da cnobili gaxdeba gaunawilebeli mogebis saboloo naSTi. Pperiodis bolos, buRaltruli balansis Sedgenamde, mewarmem SeiZleba moaxdinos aqtivebis gadafaseba. magaliTad, sasaqonlo-materialuri maragebi balansSi aisaxeba umciresi Rirebulebis principiT, grZelvadiani aqtivebi ki gadafasebuli RirebulebiT. moTxovnebis moculoba mcirdeba saeWvo moTxovnebis koreqtirebis angariSis kreditis naSTiT, dagrovili cveTa gamoiqviTeba ZiriTadi saSualebebisa da aramaterialuri aqtivebis Rirebulebidan da a.S. sazRvargareTis praqtikaSi CamoTvili koreqtirebebis Semdeg dgeba koreqtirebuli sacdeli balansi, ris safuZvelzec Sedgeba angariSgeba balansSi aqtivebi da maTi formirebis wyaroebi ormxrivobis principis safuZvelze aisaxeba. aqedan gamomdinare, buRaltruli balansi Semdeg tolobas eyrdnoba: aqtivebi = valdebulebebi + sakuTari kapitali aqtivebi aris sawarmos gankargulebaSi arsebuli materialuri da aramaterialuri resursebi, romlebic warsulSi ganxorcielebuli sameurneo movlenebis Sedegs warmoadgens da maTgan sawarmo momavalSi ekonomikuri sargeblis miRebas moelis. valdebuleba sawarmos mimdinare periodis movaleobaa, romelic warsulSi momxdari sameurneo movlenis Sedegia da misi Sesruleba gulisxmobs ekonomikur sargebelSi ganivTebuli resurebis gasvlas. valdebulebebi aqtivebis msgavsad iyofa grZelvadian da moklevadian valdebulebebad. sakuTari kapitali aris valdebulebebis dafarvis Semdeg sawarmos gankargulebaSi darCenili aqciebis nawili. sakuTari kapitali warmoadgens damfuZnebelTa mier investirebul fulad da materialur saxsrebs da Sedgeba: saaqcio kapitalis, saemisio kapitalis, gaunawilebeli mogebisa da gadafasebis rezervisagan. sxvadasxva samarTlebrivi tipis sawarmoTa buRaltruli balansi erTmaneTisgan sakuTari kapitalis struqturiT gansxvavdeba. saaqcio sazogadoebaSi aqtivebis dafinansebis ZiriTadi wyaroebia: saaqcio kapitali, romelic Cveulebrivi da privilegirebuli aqciebis saxiT SeiZleba arsebobdes, gadavadebuli dividendebis mqone aqciebi, mogeba, saemisio kapitali, rezervi da valdebulebebi. amxanagobis tipis sawarmoebSi sakuTari kapitali partniorTa kapitalis saxiT arsebobs, romelic moicavs: 1) partniorTa ZiriTadi angariSis, romelic gamoiyeneba iseTvi cvlilebebis

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `buRaltruli aRricxvisa da auditis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

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dros rogoricaa axali partnioris miReba an romelimes gasvla da aqtivebis gadafaseba. 2) partniorTa mimdinare angariS, romelic partniorebsa da sawarmos Soris mudmivi operaciebis arsaricxavad gamoiyeneba. amxanagobis balansSi mogebis maCvenebeli saerTod naCvenebi araa, vinaidan igi srulad nawildeba partniorebs Soris. individualuri sawarmos balansSi sakuTari kapitalis gasaangariSeblad individualuri kapitalis sawyis naSTs emateba wliuri wminda mogeba da wlis ganmavlobaSi biznesSi Cadebuli kapitali, akldeba biznesidan amoRebuli kapitali. aseve gansxvavebulia mogebaze araorientirebuli firmebis buRaltruli balansis struqtura, sadac sakuTari kapitalis muxls saerTo fondi anu dagrovili fondi ewodeba. buRaltruli balansis analizi iwyeba misi vertikaluri da horizontaluri analiziT, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania is, rom balansSi informacia wlis dasawyissa da bolosTvisaa mocemulia, rac Sedarebis saSualebas iZleva. buRaltruli balansi analizuri TvalsazrisiT warmoadgens firmis gadaxdisunarianobis sarkes. masSi mocemuli informaciiT SeiZleba davaskvnaT, ramdenad gadaxdisunariania sawarmo. masSi mocemuli infomaciis safuZvelze SeiZleba sxvadasxva saintereseo koeficientebis gamoTvla, romlebic firmis (kompaniis) finansuri mdgomareobis ama Tu im mxares axasiaTeben. Cven SeviswavleT erT-erTi cnobili brendis kompania "Coca-Cola enterproses"-is bualtruli balansi. mocemuli kompania mdebareobs aSSSi jorjias StatSi Windy Ridge Parkway-ze. es gaxlavT "Coca-Cola"- s saTao ofisi, romelic Coca-Cola-s warmoebis garda gascems licenziebs sxvadasxva qveynebSi mocemuli gamagrilebeli sasmelis Camosxmasa da gayidvaze anu aris franCaizori kompania. TvalsaCinoebis mizniT, "Coca-Cola enterproses"- aqtivebisa da pasivebis struqturuli suraTi SeiZleba diagramebis meSveobiT warmovadginoT. 2008w. diagrama 1 diagrama 2

aqtivebis struqtura valdebulebebis struqtura

5,8

moTxovnebi16,4 2.maragebi-5,8

1.kreditoruli davalianeba-20,8 2.grZelvadiani sesxi-46,5 3.sxva valdebulebebi-32,9

16,4

20,8 32,7 46,5

70,6

3.fuli da fulis qevivalenteb i-4,6

2,6 4,6

buRaltruli balansis monacemebiT ganisazRvreba sakuTari sabrunavi saxsrebis sidide, romelic mimdinare aqtivebisa da mimdinare valdebulebebs Soris sxvaobis tolia. igi gviCvenebs maragebis im wils romelic sakuTari saxsrebiTaa SeZenili.

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wlebi k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 z

Coca-Cola enterprises"-s sakuTari sabrunavi saxsrebi tolia: sakuTari sabrunavi saxsrebi 2006 = 3691 ­ 3818 = - 127 sakuTari sabrunavi saxsrebi 2007 = 4092 ­ 5343 = - 1251 sakuTari sabrunavi saxsrebi 2008 = 4583 - 5074 = - 491 SegviZlia davaskvnaT rom mocemul sawarmoSi samive wels maragebis SeZena xdeboda ara sakuTari saxsrebis xarjze, aramed valdebulebebis, rac uaryofiTi faqtia. firmis gadaxdisunarianobis daxasiaTebisaTvis balansis safuZvelze SeiZleba gamoiTvalos likvidurobis koeficientebi, romelic gviCvenebs mocemuli momentisaTvis arsebuli fuladi TanxebiT mimdinare valdebulebebis ra nawilis dafarvaa SesaZlebeli. arsebobs swrafi, absoluturi da saerTo likvidurobis koeficientebi. swrafi likvidurobis koeficienti = fuladi Tanxebi + moklevadiani moTxovnebi mimdinare valdebuleba absoluturi likvidurobis koeficienti = fuladi Tanxebi mimdinare valdebulebebi saerTo likvidurobis koeficienti = mimdinare aqtivebi mimdinare valdebulebebi warmovadginoT likvidurobis koeficientebis dinamika wlebis mixedviT: koeficientebi swrafi likvidurobis absoluturi likvidurobis 0,655 0,048 0,512 0,032 2007 2006 koefic. 78,2 66,7 0,645 0,142 2008 2006% 98,5 295,8 2006% koefic.

saerTo likvidurobis 0,967 0,766 79,2 0,903 93,3 Catarebuli analizis safuZvelze SegviZlia davaskvnaT rom mocemuli firmis gadaxdisunarianoba Zalze dabalia, rac gamowveulia mimdinare aqtivebis simciriT da mimdinare valdebulebebis sakmaod didi maCvenebliT. kompaniis kreditunarioanobis Sesamowmeblad gamovTvaloT alTmanis mier SemuSavebuli indeqsi (z), romelsac Semdegi saxe aqvs: z = 3,3k + 1,0k + 0,6k + 1,4k + 1,2k k1 = mogeba %-is da gadasaxadis gadaxdamde / mTeli aqtivebi; k2 = amonagebi realizaciidan / mTeli aqtivebi; k3 = sakuTari kapitali (sabazro fasiT) / moziduli kapitali; k4 = dagrovili gaunawilebeli mogeba / mTeli aqtivebi;

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2006 2007 2008

(1485/23225) 1470/24046 (6314/15589)

19804/23225 20936/24046 21807/15589

3586/18699 4162/18357 2998/15620

940/23225 1527/24046 (3029/15589)

(127/23225) (1251/24046) (491/15589)

-0,5 1,236 -0,131

k5 =sakuTari sabrunavi saxsrebi / mTeli aqtivebi; statistikuri SerCeviTi meTodis safuZvelze e.alTmanma daadgina, rom kreditunarianobis kritikuli sazRvaria 2,675. igi saSualebas gvaZlevs gavakeToT prognozi momavali 2-3 wlis ganmavlobaSi sawarmos elodeba Tu ara gakotreba. Tu ki z<2,675, maSin sawarmos finansuri safrTxe elodeba. xolo, roca z>2,675 sawarmos uaxloes momavalSi safrTxe ar elodeba. Catarebuli analizis ASedegebidan irkveva, rom kompanias 2006 wlidan gaaCnia krizisuli mdgomareoba da momdevno wlebSi ar ganuxorcielebia antikrizisuli RonisZiebebi. z dasaSveb normaze naklebi aRmoCnda, anu firma dgas finansuri problemebis winaSe. Cveni balansis Catarebuli analizis safuZvelze SegviZlia davaskvnaT rom "Coca-Cola enterprises"-Si msgavsi mdgomareoba Semdegma mizezebma gamoiwva: vadagadacilebuli kreditoruli davalianebebis didi raodenoba; moklevadiani sesxebis gadaWarbebuli gamoyeneba grZelvadiani aqtivebis dafinansebisaTvis; likvidurobis saerTo koeficientis mudmivi dabali done; sakuTari sabrunavi saxsrebis permanentuli ukmarisoba; nasesxebi saxsrebis zrda dafinansebis wyaroebSi; saintereso iqneboda analogiuri analizis Catareba qarTul kompaniebzec, magram iqidan gamomdinare rom saqarTveloSi araa daculi finansuri angariSgebis sajarooba da kopmaniebi TavianT saitebze ar aTavseben finansur Sedegebs, rTulia dainteresebuli pirebisaTvis qveyanaSi arsebuli kompaniebis finansuri mdgomareobis gansazRvra da msgavsi analizebis Catareba.

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sasaqonlo maragebis TviTRirebulebis Sefasebis meTodebis gavlena mogebis maCvenebelze1

Tamriko facia giorgi fanjikiZe

Tsu bakalavrebi

mecn-xelm: prof. i. WilaZe savaWro kompaniebSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs SeZenili sasaqonlo sasaqonlo maragebis TviTRirebulebis gansazRvras. misi gamoTvla SedarebiT martivia, vidre sawyobidan gacemuli anu realizebuli saqonlis. sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi xSiria fasebis ryeva, Sesabamisad icvleba sasaqonlo maragebis TviTRirebuleba. saqonlis TviTRirebulebaSi CairTveba mxolod iseTi xarjebi, romlebic uSualodaa dakavSirebuli aqtivebis SeZenasTan da romelTa gareSec isini ver iqnen moyvanili muSa mdgomareobaSi. aucilebelia daxarjuli maragebis xSiri Sefaseba. dadgenilia TviTRirebulebis Sefasebis Semdegi meTodebi: saSualo Sewonili TviTRirebulebis, individualuri TviTRirebulebis meTodi, FIFO, LIFO, NIFO, normatiuli saSualo Sewonili meTodi: masalebis yoveli SeZenis dros gamoiangariSeba saSualo Sewonili Rirebuleba. es procesi emyareba maragebis wina periodis ganmavlobaSi darCenil erTeulTa raodenobas da mTlian Rirebulebas. igi gamoiTvleba Rirebulebis SefardebiT raodenobasTan: naSTis Rirebulebas + SeZenilis saqonli Rirebuleba naSTis raodenobas + SeZenilis saqonlis raodenoba es meTodi gaiangariSeba materialuri faseulobebis TiToeuli elementisaTvis cal-calke. saSualo fasis gaangariSeba unda mimdinareobdes periodulad an ganuwyvetliv. individualuri TviTRirebulebis meTodi es meTodi gamoiyeneba specialuri daniSnulebis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis gasaangariSeblad, romlebic ar arian urTierTSemcvelni. es meTodi misaRebia ZviradRirebuli da individualurad gansxvavebuli produqciis erTeulis Sesafaseblad. am meTodis gamoyenebis dros mizanSewonilia individualuri baraTebis warmoeba, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs nebismier momentSi dadgindes maragis Rirebuleba. mxolod am meTodis gamoyenebis dros Tanxvdeba maragis Rirebulebis moZraoba mis fizikur moZraobas. FIFO TviTRirebulebis Sefasebis miznebisaTvis fifo meTodi efuZneba daSvebas, rom pirvel rigSi gaiyideba maragSi pirvelad Semosuli sagnebi amitom maragis xarjva fasdeba maTi SeZenis TanmimdevrobiT vidre ar iqneba daxarjuli pirvelad miRebuli maragebi. naSTad darCeba is, rac yvelaze bolos iyo SeZenili an warmoebuli. Sesabamisad Sesafasebeli maragis TviTRirebuleba dadgindeba Tavdapirvelad miRebuli maragebis erTeulTa fasebiT. LIFO. es meTodi eyrdnoba koncefcias, rom pirvelad ixarjeba is sasaqonlo maragebi, romlebic bolos iqna SeZenili an warmoebuli, amitom am faseulobebis gacema xdeba bolos

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `buRaltruli aRricxvisa da auditis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

183

SeZenili masalebis fasiT, xolo naSTad darCenili maragi Sefasdeba yvelaze adre SeZenili masalebis fasiT. inflaciis periodSi maragSi axlad Semosul saqonels ufro meti TviTRirebuleba eqneba, vidre adre Semosul saqonels. amitom, Tu SevusabamebT adre Semosuli saqonlis TviTRirebulebis gayidvidan amonagebs, fifo meTodis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi gayiduli saqonlis TviTRirebuleba ufro naklebi iqneba, xolo maragis saboloo naSTis TviTRirebuleba da mogeba ufro meti, vidre LIFO meTodis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi. LIFO meTodis gamoyeneba rekomendirebuli ar aris buRaltruli aRricxvis saerTaSoriso standartebis mixedviT, Tumca nebadarTulia bass-2-iT. amis mizezia is, rom LIFO ar iZleva maragis faqtobriv TviTRirebulebasTan sakmaod miaxloebul Sefasebas. Teoriulad, TviTRirebulebisa da amonagebis Sesabamisoba unda moxdes yoveli gayidvisas. praqtikaSi mosalodnelia garkveuli modificireba ganicados am Teoriam. NIFO. es meTodi moiTxovs, rom sawyobidan gacemuli masalebi Sefasdes momavalSi SesaZeni masalebis mosalodneli fasiT. gansxvavebis dabalanseba xdeba maragis koreqtirebis angariSidan. roca maragebis saboloo naSTi dadgindeba Cven SegviZlia davadginoT gadaxra masalebis RirebulebebSi rac gamoiTvleba Semdegnairad: (sawyisi naSTis Rirebulebas + SeZenis Rirebulebebi) ­ (saboloo naSTis Rirebulebas + gacemis Rirebulebebi). normatiuli. am meTodis dros sawarmoSi dadgenilia masalebis normatiuli fasi. sawyobidan gacemuli masalebis da naSTad darCenili masalebis Sefaseba xdeba normatiuli RirebulebiT. faqtiur da normatiul Rirebulebas Soris gansxvaveba gadaxrebis angariSze grovdeba. aRricxvis saerTaSoriso standartebiT rekomendirebulia saSualo Sewonili, FIFO da normatiuli meTodebis gamoyeneba. Sesabamisad meti TvalsaCinoebisaTvis moviyvanoT magaliTebi am sam meTodze: ganvixiloT Sokoladis realizatori firma, romelsac sawyobSi Semoaqvs sxadasxva dasaxelebis nawarmi: saSualo Sewonili meTodi:

TariRi operacia erTeulTa raodenoba erTeulis fasi (lari) maragis Rirebuleba (lari)

01.02 05.02 10.02 15.02 d a r C a 16.02 22.02 28.02

sawyisi naSTi miReba miReba gacema SeZena miReba saboloo naSTi normatiuli

0 1500 500 (2000) 300 500 (450) 350

0 2.75 3.05 (4125+2440)/(1500+800)=2.9 3.35 (765+1675)/(300+500)=3.05 3.05

0 4125 2440 (5800) 765 1675 (1372) 1068

TariRi 01.02 05.02

operacia sawyisi naSTi miReba

erTeulTa raodenoba 0 1500

erTeulis fasi (lari) 0 2.75

maragis Rirebuleba (lari) 0 4125

184

10.02 15.02 d a r C a 16.02 22.02 28.02

miReba gacema SeZena miReba saboloo naSTi

500 (2000) 300 500 (450) 350

3.05 3.25 3.35 3.25 3.05

2440 (6500) 65 1675 (1463) 277

meTodi FIFO TariRi raodenoba erTeulis fasi naSTi: 01.02 SeZena: 05.02 10.02 16.02 ____________ sul SeZena 1500 800 500 2.75 3.05 3.35 Rirebuleba 4125 2440 1675 ______________ 8240

_____________ 2800

______________ _

5650 gacema: 15.02 0 22.02 450 300*3.05+150*3.35 1417.5 2000 0 1500*2.75+500*3.05 0

185

_____________________________________________________________________ sul gacema: 2450 _ 7067.5 naSTi: 350 350*3.35=1172.5 daxarjuli da naSTad darCenili masalebis Sefasebis ganxiluli meTodebi gavlenas axdenen mogebis maCvenebelze. Tu masalebis saboloo naSTi izrdeba, maSin daxarjuli masalebis raodenoba mcirdeba da maSasadame mogeba gaizrdeba. piriqiT: Tu masalebis saboloo naSTi Semcirdeba, maSin danaxarjebi gaizrdeba da Sesabamisad, mogeba Semcirdeba. amrigad, masalebis saboloo naSTebis zrda mogebas zrdis da naSTebis Semcireba mogebas amcirebs. FIFO normatiuli saSualo meTodi: 10 000 0 8240 1068 7172 2828 8240 277 7963 2037 Sewonili

Semosavali realizaciidan saqonlis sawyisi naSTi Sesyidvebi saboloo naSTi relizebuli saqonlis T/R mogeba realizaciidan

10 000 0 8240 1172.5 7067.5 2932.5

10 000 0

maragebis Sefasebis meTodebi cvlis mogebas. sawarmos xelmZRvanelobis mier SerCeuli meTodi gamoyenebul unda iqnas periodis ganmavlobaSi. amasTan, aRricxvis saerTaSoriso standartebiT.

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. mmarTvelobiTi aRricxva ­ izolda WilaZe, Tbilisi 2008 2. buRaltruli aRricxva ­ a.xorava, n. kvataSiZe, n. sreseli, z. gogriWiani, Tbilisi 2008

www.economy.ge www.statistics.ge

186

turistuli gamofenebi da bazrobebi1

Tamaz deviZe

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asist-prof. mzia baramiZe

saerTaSoriso gamofenebi da bazrobebi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben saerTaSoriso vaWrobis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. aseT RonisZiebebze Tavs iyris sxvadasxva qveynebSi warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebebis farTo asortimenti da momxmarebels saSualeba aqvs adgilzeve gaecnos sxvadasxva SemoTavazebebs, awarmoos molaparakebebi, miiRos kvalificiuri konsultacia. gamofenebsa da bazrobebs gansakuTrebiT didi mniSvneloba eniWeba turistul biznesSi. specializebuli turistuli gamofenebi da bazrobebi 30 welze metia rac imarTeba da maTi ricxvi yovelwliurad izrdeba. marto evropaSi yovelwliurad 2000-ze meti saerTaSoriso turistuli gamofena-bazroba ewyoba. turistuli gamofena-bazrobebis ekonomikuri Sinaarsi savaWro-sareklamo komunikaciis ganviTarebaSi mdgomareobs. sagamofeno RonisZiebebSi monawileoba saSualebas aZlevs sxvadasxva turistul sawarmoebs droulad moaxdnon ekonomikuri, organizaciuli, teqnikuri informaciis gavrceleba miznobrivi auditoriis farTo speqtrze. es procesi warmoadgens erTian kompleqss iseTi mniSvnelovani elementebisa rogorebicaa: reklama, propaganda piari, piradi gayidva. turistuli firmis monawileobis procesi sagamofeno RonisZiebebSi pirobiTad SeiZleba davyoT 6 etapad. es etapebia: 1) principuli gadawyvetilebis miReba sagamofeno saqmianobaSi monawilebis miRebis Sesaxeb; 2) gamofenaSi firmis miznebis gansazRvra; 3) konkretuli gamofenis SerCevas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba miznebis miRwevisaTvis; 4) mosamzadebeli periodi; 5) muSaoba gamofenis mimdinareobis procesSi; 6) sagamofeno RonisZiebaSi monawileobis Sedegis analizi. Oorganizaciuli aspeqtiT mniSvnelovania prospeqti, romelSic monawileTa sruli sia da maT Sesaxeb mokle informaciaa ganTavsebuli. is mraval kiTxvaze iZleva pasuxs. gamofenis dasrulebis Semdeg saWiroa Sejamebul iqnas firmis gamofenaSi monawileobis Sedegebi. Ggamofenis Sedegebi SeiZleba davyoT or nawilad 1) organizaciuli da 2) komerciuli, maTi gaanalizeba mizanSewonilia moxdes gamofenis damTavrebidan ramdenime Tvis Semdeg. rogorc wesi, gamofena "cocxlobs" daxurvidan ramdenime Tvis Semdegac. amitom saWiroa gaTvaliswinebul iqnas momavali organizaciuli da komerciuli Sedegebis analizi saSualebas gvaZlevs gavakeToT dakvnebi investiciebis efeqtianobis Sesaxeb.

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna Tsu `turizmis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze, daikava saprizo adgili.

187

sagamofeno RonisZiebeSi monawileobis miReba firmebs sxvadasxva formiTa da meTodiT SeuZliaT. firma SeiZleba gamofena-bazrobebze warmodgenil iqnas, rogorc damoukidebeli eqsponenti an rogorc jgufis wevri. gamocdilebam cxadyo rom firmisTvis ufro xelsayreli da momgebiania gamofena-bazrobebSi monawileoba koleqtiuri formiT. amis magaliTia erovnuli stendi. aseTi stendebi maqsimalurad izidaven damTvaliereblebs. gamofena-bazrobebisTvis mniSvnelovania sagamofeno stendis mowyoba. sagamofeno stendi _ es aris firmis saxe. stendma didi vizualuri efeqti unda moaxdinos damTvalierebelze. sagamofeno RonisZiebaSi monawileobis pirvelad miRebis SemTxvevaSi an Tu firma SezRudulia drosa da finansebSi, mas SeuZlia airCias mza moduli, e.w. stendis ConCxi romelic gamofenis organizatoris mier aris agebuli. mTeli sagamofeno eqspozicia pirobiTad iyofa ramdenime zonad: ZiriTadi, samuSao da damxmare. stendi formdeba calkeuli sareklamo elementebis daxmarebiT, rogoricaa warwerebi, sasaqonlo niSnebi, telefonis nomrebi, monitorebze morbenali striqonebi da a.S. stendis momsaxure personalis raodenoba damokidebulia stendis sidideze. stendistebi unda iyvnen megobruli, taqtiani, diplomatiuri; damTvaliereblebs unda egebebodnen RimiliT, mTeli RonisZiebis ganmavlobaSi imyofebodnen saubrisaTvis mzadyofnaSi, unda SeZlon firmis yvela momsaxurebaze ganmartebebis micema. msoflios yvelaze umsxviles turistul gamofena-bazrobebs warmoadgens berlinis gamofena-bazroba_ITB-berlin; londonis_WTM (world tourism Market); madridis_ITUR; milanis BIT-borsa internazionale del turismo (daaxl. 0.5 milioni stumari), venis (daaxl. 0.5 milioni stumari), Sarl le rues (daaxl. 400 000 stumari) da a.S. gamofena-bazrobebi xSirad Tematuri principiT mimdinareobs-ekologiuri turizmis, mdgradi ganviTarebis problemebis, siRaribis daZlevis sakiTxebis. bazrobis mimdinareobis paralelurad imarTeba prezentaciebi, seminarebi, forumebi, mrgvali magidebi. kavkasiis erT-erT mTavar turistul movlenas warmoadgens Tbilisis saerTaSoriso gamofena-bazroba - CTF-Coucasus Tourism fair, romelic yoveli wlis aprilSi sagamofeno centr `eqspo-jorjiaSi imarTeba. 2009 wels RonisZieba gaimarTa turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis, Tbilisis meriis, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros da daculi teritoriebis saagentos mxardaWeriT. gamofenaze erovnul administraciebTan erTad warmodgenili iyo azerbaijanis, somxeTis, TurqeTis turoperatorebi, saerTaSoriso aviaxazebi - Austrian Airlines, Luftansa. gamofenis mimdinareobis farglebSi gaimarTa seminarebi, sadac monawileebma wamoadgines moxsenebebi Temebze - `axali turistuli atraqciebi saqarTveloSi"; `turizmis brendingi saxelmwifo da regionul doneze~; `qalaqis mimzidvelobaTa marketingi~. gamofenas dadebiT mxareebTan erTad gaaCnda mTeli rigi naklovanebebi: ar iyo srulad warmodgenili saqarTvelos regionebi, dabali iyo stendistTa moimzadebis done da a.S. 188

2009 wels saqarTvelo monawileoba miiRo msoflios mniSvnelovan sagamofeno RonisZiebebSi. ITB-berlin-ze warmodgenili iyo 187 qveynis 11 098 kompania. gamofenas estumra 178 971 vizitori. saqarTvelos saxeliT 60 kv. metris stendze. turizmisa da kurortebis departamentTan da Tbilisis meriasTan erTad warmodgenili iyo 8 qarTuli kompania. qarTuli stendis stumrebs saSualeba hqondaT gaesinjaT qarTuli Rvino. gamofenis farglebSi 13 marts gaimarTa preskonferencia, sadac saqarTvelos turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis ufrosis moadgilem beqa jayelma germaniaSi saqarTvelos sagangebo da sruluflebian elCTan baton levan duCaZesTan erTad moaxdina saqarTvelos rogorc turistuli qveynis prezentacia adgilobriv bazarze. preskonferencias eswreboda 50-mde akreditebuli Jurnalisti, madridis saerTaSoriso gamofena-bazroba FFITUR-s yovelwliurad daaxloibiT 250 000 stumari hyavs. 2000 wels gamofenam 20 wlis iubile aRniSna. Catarda forumi, prezentaciebi. 2009 wels FITUR-warmodgenili iyo 170 qveynis 12 312 turizmis sferos profesionali. gamofenas stumrobda 85 283 vizitori. FFITUR-ze warmodgenili iyo saqarTveloc 24 kv. metr stendze. qarTuli stendi gaformebuli iyo folkloruli elementebiT: ansabl `Svidkacas" sakoncerto programiT. yovelwliurad noembris Sua ricxvebSi turistuli industriis da msoflio sazogadoebis yuradRebis centrSi eqceva londoni. aq am dros msoflios erT-erTi umsxvilesi turistuli gamofena_bazroba WTM (world tourism Market) tardeba. londonis turistul gamofena bazrobas eqsponatTa da monawileTa raodenobis zrdis tendencia axasiaTebs. 2009 wels gamofenaze warmodgenili iyo 203 qveynis 46 945 turizmis specialisti. gamofenaze warmodgenili iyo saqarTveloc. gamofenaze saqarTvelos mizans warmoadgenda saqarTvelos popularizacia didi britaneTis bazarze. WTM msoflios erT-erTi umnioSvnelovanesi turistuli gamofena-bazrobaa da saqarTvelos monawileoba am RonisZiebaSi mniSvnelovania qveynis turistuli imijis ganmtkicebisa da evropul bazarze poziciebis ganmtkicebis mizniT. milanis saerTaSoriso gamofena-bazroba BIT-borsa internazionale del turismo msoflios umsxviles sagamofeno RonisZiebaTa xuTeulSi Sedis. gansxvavebiT 2008 wlisa saqarvelom kvlav miiRo am gamofenaSi monawileoba. qarTuli stendi warmodgenili iyo 32 kv. metr farTobze. bevrma italielma aRniSna, rom agvistos omma xeli SeuSala saqarTveloSi CamosvlaSi. iseve rogorc bevr sxva gamofena-bazrobaze qarTuli sagamofeno stendi didi interesiT sargeblobda parizis saerTaSoriso gamofena bazroba MAP-le monde a parisze. qarTuli stendis stumrebi gansakuTrebul interess amJRavnebdnen agro da saTavgadasavlo turebze. 2009 wels saqarTvelo warmodgenili iyo azerbaijanis saerTaSoriso turistrul gamofena-bazroba - AITF-ze, romelzec kompaniebi 28 qveynidan iyo warmodgenili. qarTuli stendi sakmaod didi popularobiT sargeblobda. gansakuTrebuli interesi gamoiwvia saqarTvelos sazRvao, samTo-saTxilamuro da saqalaqo turebma. 189

mimdinare wlis 12 Tebervlidan 15 Tebervlis CaTvliT stambulSi gaimarTa rigiT me-13 `EMITT~-xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebis saerTaSoriso turistuli gamofena-bazroba. gamofenaze saqarTvelos turizmisa da kurortebis departamenti warmodgenili iyo vizitoris saxiT. RonisZiebis mimdinareobis procesSi Catarda gamokiTxva, romlis mizanic iyo daedgina Tu ra miaCniaT ucxoelebs xelisSemSlel faqtorebad saqarTveloSi vizitis dros. 2009 wels saqarTvelom monawileoba miiRo helsinkis saerTaSoriso gamofenabazrobaSi `MATKA". turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis ufrosis miovaleobis Semsrulebelma beqa jayelma gamarTa preskonferencia saqarTvelos turistuli potencialis Sesaxeb. gamofenis mimdinareobis periopdSi didi interesiT sargeblobda qarTuli sagamofeno stendi. wels saqarTvelo warmodgenili iyo Telavivis saerTaSoriso gamofena-bazroba IMTM-ze. turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis mier Catarebuli kvlevebis mixedviT israeli bazari erT-erTi mzardia da aq dagegmil RonisZiebebSi monawileobis miReba saqarTvelosTvis strategiulad momgebiania. rogorc FITUR-ze, aqac qarTuli stendi folkloruli elementebiT iyo gaformebuli, mReroda ansabli `Svidkaca~. qarTul stends ewvia israelis turizmis ministri. qarTuli stendis mimarT didi iyo interesi rigis saerTaSoriso turistul gamofena-bazroba "BALTTOUR-2009"-zec. es erT-erTi mniSvnelovani gamofenaa baltiispireTis qveynebSi. "BALTTOUR 2009"-ze saqarTvelo oTxi stendiT iyo warmodgenili. gamoiTqva didi survilebi qarTul tur-operatorebTan TanamSromlobaze. bolos unda aRvniSno rom mimdinare msoflio ekonomikurma krizisma mniSvnelovnad Seamcira msoflios turistul gamofena-bazrobebis masStabebi. es tendencia pirvelad 2008 wlis noemberSi londonis saerTaSoriso turistul gamofenabazrobaze SeiniSna. es RonisZieba wlebis manZilze masStabis zrdis tempiT xasiaTdeboda. gasul wels ki monawileTa da vizitorTa raodenobam mniSvnelovnad daiklo. ase moxda msoflios yvela mniSvnelovan gamofenaze. bunebrivia, krizisma gavlena moaxdina qarTul turizmze Tumca krizisze meti ziani ruseT-saqarTvelos 2008 wlis omma mogvitana. am faqtma saqarTvelos rogorc usafrTxo qveynis imiji Zalian Searyia.

gamoyenebuli literatura: 1) . . 2006 2) .. . 2003 3) . .. . . . 2008 4) `marketingis aqtualuri sakiTxebi" (samecniero Sromebis krebuli) Tsu. gamoSveba VI 2005 5) www.dotr.gov.ge 6) www.internet.ge 7) www.nplg.gov.ge

190

internet-teqnologiebi turizmSi1

giorgi burduli

Tsu bakalavri

mecn-xelm: asist. prof. m. melaZe interneti, romelic arc Tu didi xnis win Semovida Cvens cxovrebaSi, ukve Cveni yoveldRiurobis ganuyofeli nawili gaxda. dRevandel dRes interneti msoflioSi yvelaze Zlier informaciul-teqnologiur sistemad gvevlineba. igi gamoiyeneba adamianTa saqmianobis mraval sferoSi. saerTaSoriso kompiuteruli qseli interneti imdenad mizanswafulad viTardeba, rom misi momxmareblebis da informaciuli resursebis ricxvi praqtikulad ormagdeba. am bumma gavlena iqonia turistul bizneszec. mxolod 1996 wlidan internetSi gamoCndnen aTasobiT damoukidebeli ganyofilebebi ­ turistuli saagentoebi, sastumroebi da turistuli momxaxurebis dajavSnis aTobiT sistema. eqspertebis azriT 2010 wlisaTvis internetiT gaiyideba $ 300 miliardi turistuli momsaxureba. amitom turistuli saagentoebis interesSi namdvilad ar Sedis internetis ugulebelyofa. internetis gamoyenebis plusebi turizmis sferoSi sul ufro da ufro gamokveTili xdeba. eleqtronuli fostis, da sxva sistemebis saSualebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda ufro swrafi da efeqtiani kavSiri adamianebsa da firmebs Soris. amasTan erTad komunikaciebis droc SeuzRudavia ­ 24 saaTi dReSi, 7 dRe kviraSi. evropis mravalma turistulma saagentom Seamcira Tavisi reklamebis raodenoba presasa da televiziaSi da ZiriTadi aqcenti internetze gadaitana. bevri turistuli centri da kompania aTavsebs internetSi did informaciul masivebs teqstebiT, fotoebiT da aseve filmebiT, romelic momxmarebels saSualebas aZleven gaecnon turistul resursebs, ganrigebs, marSrutebs, informacias sastumroebis Sesaxeb, gaagzavnon moTxovna an dajavSnon turistuli momsaxureba da gadaixadon maTi safasuri internetis saSualebiT. popularuli saZiebo sistemebi Yahoo da Google warmoadgenen msoflioSi saukeTeso saZiebo sistemebs. yvela metnaklebad cnobilma gamofenebma ukve gaxsnen TavianTi internet-gverdebi, sadac mocemulia statistika, monawileobis miRebis pirobebi, akreditaciebi da sxv. internet resursebi onlainSi warmodgenilia Semdegi saxiT: _ saerTo daniSnulebis saitebi, sadac aris turistuli ganxrebi, _ specializirebuli turistuli saitebi da portalebi, _ saerTaSoriso dajavSnis sistemebi, _ turoperatorebis saitebi, _ turistuli saagentoebis saitebi, _ sastumroebis saitebi, _ mogzaurebis piradi saitebi, globaluri kompiuteruli qselis momxmarebelTa SesaZleblobebia: _ giganturi informaciuli sivrcis xelmisawvdomoba, romelic Seicavs adamianTa saqmianobis yvela struqturas;

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `turizmis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

191

_ swrafi da efeqtuianikavSiri sxvadasxva masalebTan, cnobarebTan, enciklopediebTan da sxv; _ iafi da mosaxerxebeli komunikaciis sistemebis xelmisawvdomoba; _ saqonlisa da momsaxurebis formirebis da realizaciis axali SesaZleblobebi; _ marketingisa da reklamis axali mosaxerxebeli strategia; _ eleqtronuli prezentaciebis SesaZlebloba; _ monawileobis SesaZlebloba eleqtronul gamofenebze, vaWrobebze da sxva; _ momsaxurebisa da dajavSnis mosaxerxebeli saZiebo sistema; _ gasarTobi funqcia; _ kapitalis transferi; _ virtualuri ofisis sistema; _ muSaoba operatiul reJimSi; zemoT CamoTvlili SesaZleblobebis umetesoba gamoiyeneba turistul sferoSi. turistuli saagentoebis gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs globaluri qselis Semdegi SesaZleblobebi: _ komunikaciebi da efeqtiani kavSiri; _ reklama da turistuli produqtis ganviTareba; _ marketinguli kvlevebi; _ firmebisa da maTi produqtis eleqtronuli prezentacia; _ eleqtronuli, saeTaSoriso da regionuli turistuli gamofenebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba; _ dajavSnis sistemis gamoyeneba; _ turis damoukidebeli formireba da turistuli mosawvevis SeZenis SesaZlebloba; _ turistuli produqtis eleqtronuli cxrilebis gamoyeneba qveynebis da mimarTulebebis mixedviT; _ amindis prognozis, qveynis Sesaxeb informaciis da misi mimarTulebiT marSrutebis mimosvlis Sesaxeb informaciis mopovebis SesaZlebloba; _ sastumroebis fasebis da sxva turistuli momsaxurebebis tarifebis Sesaxeb informaciis mopovebis SesaZlebloba; _ virtualuri ofisis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba da sxv. internet-momxmareblebis raodenoba msoflioSi regionebis mixedviT mocemulia cxrilSi 1. mosaxleobis internetizaciiT liderobs CrdiloeTi amerika, avstralia da evropa. aziis mosaxleobis didi raodenobis gamo ki msoflios internet-momxmareblebis yvelaze didi raodenoba _ 37,6% cxovrobs aziaSi. internet-momxmareblebis raodenoba msoflioSi regionebis mixedviT 2008 wlisTvis

msofl ios internetinterneti interneti mosaxl momxmareble T mocva T mocva eoba bi (%) msof. (%) (%) momx. zrda (20002008)

msoflio regionebi

mosaxleoba

afrika azia evropa

955206348 14.3 % 3776181949 56.6 % 800401065 12.0 %

51022400 529701704 382005271

5.3 % 14.0 % 47.7 %

3.6 % 1030.2 % 37.6 % 363.4 % 27.1 % 263.5 % 192

axlo aRmosavleTi Crd. amerika samxreT amerika avstralia/okeane Ti mTliani msoflio

19709443 337167248 576091673 33981562

3.0 % 5.1 % 8.6 % 0.5 %

41939200 246402574 137300309 19353462 1407724920

21.3 % 73.1 % 23.8 % 57.0 % 21.1 %

3.0 % 1176.8 % 17.5 % 127.9 % 9.8 % 659.9 % 1.4 % 154.0 % 100.0 % 290.0 %

6676120288 100 %

cxrilSi 2 mocemulia 2008 wlis monacemebiT msoflios 10 mTavari qveyana internet-momxmarebelTa raodenobis mixedviT, romlis mixedviTac liderobs aSS, CineTi da iaponia. cxrili 2. msoflios 10 mTavari qveyana internet-momxmarebelTa raodenobis mixedviT 2008 wlisTvis

# qveyana internetmomxmarebeli internetiT mocva (%) internetiT mocva msoflio(%)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

a.S.S CineTi iaponia germania indoeTi brazilia samxreT korea safrangeTi italia

210575287 162000000 86300000 50426117 42000000 39140000 34120000 32925953 31481928

69.7 % 12.3 % 67.1 % 61.1 % 3.7 % 21.0 % 62.3 % 66.5 % 53.7 % 52.9 %

18.0 % 13.8 % 7.4 % 4.3 % 3.6 % 3.3 % 3.2 % 2.9 % 2.8 % 2.7 %

didi britaneTi 37600000

cnobili faqtia, rom turistuli momsaxurebis pirdapiri reklamireba saerTaSoriso informaciis saSualebebis meSveobiT TandaTanobiT klebulobs. erTis mxriv internet-samyaroSi warmatebuli CarTva yovelTvis miRwevadi araa da zog SemTxvevaSi danaxarji SeiZleba meti iyos mogebaze. aris firmebi, romlebmac uamravi dro da Tanxebi daxarjes saitis SesaniSnavi dizainis Sesaqmnelad, magram amiT mogeba ver naxes. turistuli saitis ZiriTad moTxovnilebad, ra Tqma unda, gvevlineba operatiuloba. rodesac momxmarebeli internetiT gadawyvets sagzuris moZiebas, is arafers elodeba, garda abzacebs turizmze da dasvenebaze, gamoqveynebuls eleqtronuli saxiT. aseTi abzacebi kargia turistul portalebSi, romlebic iTvlebian mTavar wertilebad turis moZiebaSi. turistuli portalidan turistuli saagentos saitze gadasvlisas, momxmarebeli uflebamosilia moipovos ufro meti aqtualuri informacia. turistuli momsaxurebis reklamis Seqmna sasurvelia turistuli saagentos SeqmnisTanave. internetiT reklamis erT-erTi ZiriTadi saxe iyo da

193

aris sareklamo baneri. banerebis standartuli gafarToeba aris 468X60 da 100X100 wertilebi. sareklamo baneri SesaZlebelia ganTavsdes aramarto konkretul turistul saitebze, aramed sareklamo banerebis qselSic, romlebic Tavis TavSi aerTianebs uamrav sxvadasxva saxis saitebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi sareklamo baneris fasic gacilebiT naklebia. rogorc cnobilia, turistul saitebze aramarto sareklamo banerebis ganTavsebaa SesaZlebeli, aramed saswrafo informaciis turebis Sesaxeb. amasTan erTad momxmarebels SeuZlia miuTiTos kriteriumebi da maqsimalurad airCios konkretuli turebis gafiltvris SesaZlebloba. survilis mixedviT ki momxmarebels SeuZlia turistul saagentos gaugzavnos informacia turiT misi dainteresebis Sesaxeb. arsebobs ramdenime xerxi, imisaTvis rom gamorCeuli viyoT konkurentebisagan. aucilebelia turis saTauri rac SeiZleba mimzidveli iyos, radgan turis saTauri da fasi es is pirveli cnebebia rasac momxmarebeli pirvel rigSi uyurebs. araa aucilebeli saTaurebSi daiweros konkretuli informacia, meore rigSi yuradReba unda mieqces, Tu rogor xarisxdeba SemoTavazeba. bevr portalze yvelaze maRla naCvenebia SemoTavazebebi, romlebic arc Tu didi xnis win Seicvala. aseT SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia saitze xSiri Sesvla da informaciis ganaxleba. turistuli portalebi, gansxvavebiT Jurnalebisagan, SezRudulebi ar arian da nebismier dros SeuZliaT miawodon momxmarebels originaluri rklama internetSi reklamis SesaZleblobebi ar Semoifargleba mxolod turistuli saitebiT. turistuli saagentoebisaTvis internetiT reklamis kidev erT saSualebad iTvleba saZiebo sistemebi. bolos sagulisxmoa aRvniSnoT, rom dRevandel dRes turizmis reklama internetis saSualebiT Zalze efeqtiania.. saWiroa mxolod avirCioT kargi strategia da gaviTvaliswinoT is faqtori, rom turistuli da Tundac nebismieri reklama internetiT aris kompleqsuri procedura da ara erTjeradi aqcia. dResdReobiT turoperatorebi aqtiurad aviTareben online ­ dajavSnis sistemas. amgvari sistemebi saSualebas gvaZleven avirCioT saWiro turi da daijavSnos is realur reJimSi. amisaTvis saWiroa mxolod turistis monacemebis Seyvana da Semdeg ok Rilakis daWera. online ­ dajavSnis sistemebi saSualebas gvaZleven, rom: _ ganvaxorcieloT momentaluri dajavSna; _ vakontroloT SekveTebi; _ realuri drois reJimSi vakontroloT adgilebis raodenoba, gayidvebis SeCereba da a.S. ; _ ramdenime wuTis ganmavlobaSi gavigoT TviTmfrinavis gafrenis dro, aeroporti da sxv. ; _ gamoviTvaloT damatebiTi momsaxurebis gadasaxadi; _ davzogoT turistuli saagentos menejeris dro. rodesac turoperatorisgan miviRebT dasturs, saagento valdebulia umokles vadebSi gadauxados turoperators turis safasuri da miawodos turisaTvis aucilebeli yvela dokumenti. aseTi sistemebi TiTqmis msoflios yvela wamyvani turoperatoris saitzea ganTavsebuli.

194

erT-erTi yvelaze popularuli qarTuli turistuli saitia www.davisvenot.ge. misi ganaxleba yoveldRiurad xdeba da moicavs operatiul da katalogizirebul informacias turizmis Sesaxeb. ganTavsebulia informacia qarTuli turebis Sesaxeb. aseve SesaZlebelia qarTuli kurortebis Sesaxeb informaciis mopoveba. ganxraSi mocemulia damsvenebelTa istoriebi, turistebis STabeWdilebebi, rCevebi da sxva sadac SeiZleba CvenTvis saWiro informaciis mopoveba. saitebi www.geres.ge, www.qartuli.com, www.interes.ge ZiriTadad saZiebo xasiaTisaa. ganxrebSi `turizmi~ Cven SegviZlia movipovoT saWiro informacia turizmis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi. turizmi dRes aris globaluri kompiuterizirebuli biznesi, sadac monawileobas iReben umsxvilesi aviakompaniebi, sastumroTa qselebi da mTeli msoflios turistuli korporaciebi. Tanamedrove turproduqti xdeba ufro elastikuri da individualuri, ufro mimzidveli da moxmarebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi. kompiuteri da interneti dResdReobiT gvevlineba uaxles informaciul teqnologiad, xolo turizmi da informacia xom ganuyofeli cnebebia: gadawyvetilebis miReba gamgzavrebis Sesaxeb swored informaciis safuZvelze xdeba. TviT turi gayidvis momentSi ­ esec informaciaa. amitom internetis ganviTareba turizmis sferoSi erT-erTi prioritetuli amocanaa. saerTaSoriso qselis daxmarebiT, Tanamedrove turistuli kompaniebi, Tavdajerebulad da warmatebiT muSaoben. axal teqnologiebs (internets) SeuZliaT Zirfesvianad Secvalon turistuli saagentoebis muSaoba. interneti ar cvlis agents, piriqiT, mis muSaobas ufro efeqtians xdis. internetiT aseve Zalze mosaxerxebelia turistul sferoSi partniorebis moZieba, rac nebismieri biznesisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobisaa. turizmis sferoc, iseve rogorc globaluri qseli, mzardi industriebia, amitom maTi kavSiri mxolod da mxolod mogebas moitans. interneti xom uswrafesi gzaa nebismieri informaciis mosapoveblad, rasac turizmis sferoSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba.

gamoyenebuli literatura: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Marketing Tourism Destinations Online: Strategies for Information Age, WTO, Madrid, 1999 . - . - . . , . - . . . . . , , www.travel.net www.cnnhotels.com www.tourism.com

195

umuSevroba saqarTveloSi da misi daZlevis gzebi 1

nino gogoberiZe

Tsu bakalavri

mec-xelm: asoc. prof. n. paiWaZe dRevandeli ekonomikuri viTarebis pirobebSi saqarTveloSi samuSao Zalis bazari uaRresad rTuli da araorganizebulia, rac ganpirobebulia mimdinare struqturuli cvlilebebiT, gardamavali periodisaTvis damaxa siaTebeli sirTuleebiTa da misi saxelmwifo regulirebis meqanizmis aras rulfasovnebiT. marTa-

lia, registrirebulTa ricxvi realurad ver asaxavs umuSevrTa rao denobas da, aqedan gamomdinare, umuSevrobis dones, magram garkveul warmodgenas mainc iZ leva umuSevrobis mizezebis Sesaxeb. umuSevroba qveyanaSi erT-erTi yvelaze didi problemaa. oficialuri statistikuri monacemebiT, qveyanaSi daaxloebiT qveyanaSi daaxloebiT 280 aTa si adamiani samsaxuris gareSea darCenili . es pirobiTi cifrebia, realurad ki umuSevarTa ricxvi gacilebiT didia, radgan soflad kerZo me urneobaSi TviTdasaqmebulebi da bazrobebze movaWreebi statistikis uwye bas dasaqmebulebad hyavs

aRricxuli.

cxrili 1. umuSevroba saqarTveloSi 2001 -2005 wlebSi

2001 sul aqtiuri mosaxleoba aTasi kaci dasaqmebuli /aTasi kaci umuSevai /aTasi kaci umuSevrobis done procenti 2113.3 1877.7 235.6 11.1 2104.2 1839.2 265.0 12.6 2050.8 1814.9 235.9 11.5 2041.0 1783.3 257.6 12.6 2023.9 1744.6 279.3 13.8 2002 2003 2004 2005

rogorc cxrilidan 1. Cans 2005 wels aRricxuli umuSevarTa 2001 wlidan SedarebiT gaizarda 2,7 procentuli punqtiT. 2006 wels bevri ram gakeTda samuSao adgilebis gaCenisa da

ricxvi

dasaq -

mebisaTvis, aRniSnul wels qveyanaSi dafuZnda ramdenime axali kom pania. 2006 wels daarsebul kompaniebidan aRsaniSnavia `tkbili qveyana~ sawarmom umokles droSi SeZlo saqarTvelos bazarze gamorCeuli adgilis damkvid re-

1

moxseneba wakiTxuli iqna `menejmentis~ sakaTedro studentur konferenciaze da daimsaxura saprizo adgili.

196

ba, misi warmateba ganapiroba aramarto maRalkvalificiurma personalma, aramed uaxlesma teqnologiebmac. `dReisaTvis sawarmoSi `tkbili qveyana" 400-mde adamiania dasaqmebuli. momavalSi warmoebis gafarToebas vapirebT da Sesabamisad ki dev meti samuSao adgili gaCndeba~, - dasZina sawarmos warmomadgenelma daviT Cxenkelma. 2005 wels, axali ekonomikuri pilitikis farglebSi, amuSavda da saqmebis umniSvnelovanesi programa. Sedegad, _ samuSao adgilebze pro fesiuli momzadebis saxelmwifo programis farglebSi profesiuli momzadeba gaiara 42000

adamianze metma, rac 2006 wels dasaqmebulTa 2,4% Seadgina programam gamoiRo dadebiTi Sedegi, erTi mxriv, xel i Seuwyo aTasze meti adamianis kvalifikaciis amaRlebas da maT droebiT dasaqmebas. xolo meore mxriv, rac ufro mniSvne lovania winaswari programis SefasebiT Sedegad Seiqm na axali grZelvadiani monawilem samuSao miiRo adgilebi.

10 aTasamde

programis

grZelv adiani

samsaxuri. yovelive aman ki ganapiroba 2006 wlis umuSevrTa ricxvis Semcireba. 2006 wels umuSevrobis donem saqarTveloSi 13,6% Seadg ina, rac 0,2%-iT naklebia, vidre 2005 wels. informacias imis Sesaxeb sainformacio saagento `axali ambebi _ saqarTvelo~ statistikis departamentis monacemebze dayrdnobiT avrcelebs. gavrcelebuli monacemebis Tanaxmad, 2006 wels qveyanaSi umuSevarTa ricxvma 274,5 adamiani Seadgina, rac 4,8 aTasiT naklebia, vidre 2005 wels. 2006 wels daqiravebulTa ricxvi 603,9 aTas kacs Seadgenda, xolo

TviTdasaqmebulTa _ 1 milion 141,6 aTas kacs. Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis `mkacri~ meTodologiiT gaangariSe-

buli umuSevroba 2008 wlis pirvel naxevarSi wina wlis an alogiur periodTan SedarebiT 1,5 %-iT Semcirda da 6 TveSi saSualod 13,6 % Seadgina. 2008 wlis meore naxevarSi es maCvenebeli 1,1 %-iT naklebi iyo pirveli kvartlis Sesabamis maCvenebelze, rac SeiZleba sezonuri dasaqmebis SasaZleblobebis amsaxveli iyos.

cxrili 2. umuSevroba saqarTveloSi 2007-2008 wlebSi

sul 15 wlis da ufrosi asakis mosaxleoba 2007 Q1 Q2 Q3 3350.8 3397.4 3389.4 3345.6 sul 261.0 305.6 308.3 294.7 umuS.done(%) 13.3 15.3 14.9 14.4 Sromisunariani asakis mosaxleoba 15.8 19.2 18.8 17.9 Sromisunariani asakis zemoT mosaxleoba 1.5 2.9 0.8 1.4 sul 924.8 948.7 968.8 947.6 umuSevroba umuSevrobis done araaqtiuri mosaxleoba15 -20 wlis asakSi dasaqmebuli SinameurneobaSi 252.9 265.5 244.0 233.9

197

Q4 2008 Q1 Q2

3270.9

297.4

14.6

18.9

0.9

875.7

249.2

3062.6 3094.5

268.5 268.9

14.1 13.0

18.6 17.6

0.9 2.1

955.9 846.2

280.3 232.1

msoflio

bankis

egidiT

Catarebul

saWiroebaTa

Sefasebis

angariSis

Tanaxmad, romelic briuselSi oqtomberSi gamarTul donor Ta konferenciisTvis momzadda, gaizrdeba umuSevrobis da done saqarTveloSi rac moklevadian amave periodSi 100,000-iT mTeli

350,000-s

miaRwevs,

dokumentis

Tanax mad,

Sromisunariani mosaxleobis erT-mexuTeds warmoedgens. amave angariSis Tanaxmad, winaswari Sefasebebi cxadyofs, rom umuSevrobis done gaizrdeba 2007 wels arsebuli 13.3%-dan 15.1%-mde 2010 wlisTvis, xolo siRaribis done gaizrdeba arsebuli 23,6% -dan 25,9%-me momdevno ori wlis manZilze. angariSis Tanaxmad, agvistos omma da globalurma finansebma kri zisma

gansakuTrebuli dartyma miayena mSeneblobis, uZravi qonebis, sacalo vaWrobisa da turistul seqtorebs. omis Sedegebi da 15 seqtembers dawyebuli msoflio ekonomikuri krizisi saqarTvelos ekonomi kazec seriozul zegavlenas axdens.

marto bankebSi ramdenime aTas adamians karisken miuTiTes. rTuli vi Tarebaa sxva kompaniebSic. umuSevroba saqarTvelo Si bolo wlebis rekords aumjobesebs. `saqarTvelos bankma~ rogorc `saqarTvelos erTbaSad 830 adamiani datova samsaxuris gareSe. xelmZRvaneloba acxadebs Statebi Semcirda

bankis~

arsebuli ekonomikuri krizisis gamo . vidre `saqarTvelos banki~ informacias sajaros gaxdida, TanamSromelTa Semcirebebi sabanko seqtorSi didi xnis

dawyebuli iyo. magaliTad, `saxalxo bankma~ umuSevrad datova 300 adamiani. `Ti bi si~-m 500 kacs karisken igive `perspeqtiva~ dausaxa 1000 TanamSromels. daax loebiT miuTiTa erTad, 40-50 `taoprivatmankma~. samuSao aTasi mokled sabanko seqtorebidan, Seiqmna. aris

samSeneblo saSualod

sferosTan TbilisSi

adgilebis xeli,

Semcirebis romlebic,

li deri

muSa

pir dapir

dakavSirebuli samSeneblo procesebTan, arqiteqtori, mZRo li, kalatozi, muSa, amwe aris gaCerebuli. saerTo jamSi am Tanam SromelTa ojaxis wevrebis CaTvliT Semosavlis gareSe darCa daaxloebiT 180 aTasi adamiani. saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis arsebuli do nidan gamomdinare SeiZleba

davaskvnaT, rom qveyanaSi qronikuli umuSevrobaa. amJamad, ekonomikuri saqarTveloSi dacemis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli gamowveuli ekonomikuri umuSevrobis mdgomareobis winaaRmdeg ga mo,

brZo lis

198

efeqtianoba

damokidebulia

imaze,

Tu

ra mdenad

SevZlebT

misi

gamomwvevi

mizezebis daZlevas. msoflio finansuri krizisisa da agvistoSi gadatanili omis Semdeg, mTav robas opozicia da qarTveli eqspertebi saqarTveloSi arsebul rTul eko -

nomikur mdgomareobas erTxmad adastureben. saqarTvelos xelisuf lebaSi movlenebis ufro pozitiur ganviTarebas elian da miuxedavad imisa, rom qveyanaSi kerZo seqtorSi momuSaveTa Semcirebebis procesi ukve daiw yo, 2009 wlis

biujetSi mTavrobis mxridan Cadebuli infrastruqturuli proeqtebi damatebiTi samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis alternativad ganixileba. rogorc prezidenti acxa debs 2009 wels mTavrobis prioriteti `samuSao adgilebis gadarCena da SenarCunebaa~. rogorc cnobilia, 2009 wlis biujeti T dafinansebuli infrastruqturuli proeqtebi Zalian bevr adamians daasaqmebs. biujetSi gzebis mS eneblobaze 500 mln. larze metia gaTvaliswinebuli. es aris uamravi ada mianisTvis dasaqmebis erT-erTi wyaro. ase rom, 2009 wlis biujetSi gzebis mSeneblobaze gaTvaliswineuli 5 mln. lari umuSevari adamianebis ricxvs Seamcirebs. msoflio banki apirebs saqarTvelos g amouyos damatebiTi dafinanseba `si-

Raribis daZlevis daxmarebis programis~ (PRSO) proeqtis farglebSi, romelSic umniSvnelovanesi adgili ukavia umuSevrobis Semcirebas. finansuri mxardaWera, romelic wamova donori qeynebidan saqarTvelosTvis, gaivlis sabanko seqtors. daaxloebiT 900 mln. dolaramde ganawildeba sabanko seqtorebze. am daxmarebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia: sof lis meurneobis, gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobis, mcire biznesisa da ipoTe kuri bazris mxardaWera da satransporto maT infrastruqturis ganviTarebas, rac ganviTareba. Tavis mxriv am mimarTu lebebis Seqmnis damatebiT daxmareba samuSao

ganapirobebs adgilebs.

aqedan gamomdinare, donori qveynebid an finansuri mxardaWera saqarTvelosaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania. igi erT -erTi gzaa umuSevarTa ricxvis Sesamci reblad. rogorc ukve avRniSne, igi daexmar eba soflis meurneobis ganviTarebas. dReisaTvis, soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebulTa S romis mwarmoebloba uaRresad dabalia. soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebuli adami anebis didi nawili faqtobrivad umuSevrebi arian. amitom am daxmarebas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs, m isi meSveobiT Seiqmneba realuri samuSao adgilebi. 2009 wlidan daiwyo axali saprezidento progra ma `saqarTvelo siRaribis gareSe~, romelSic Semdgom ganxorcielda cvlilebebi da aseTi saxe miiRo: `samuSao adgilebis gadarCena da SenarCuneba~. dagegmilia 200 000 samuSao adgi-

199

lis Seqmna ucxouri investiciebis daxmarebiT. 2012 wlisTvis varaudoben umuSevrobis mkveTr Semcirebas. ukve damtkicebul programaSi naTqvamia, rom saqarTvelo daubrundeba di namikuri ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gzas da 50% -ini gegma warmatebulad ganxorcieldeba, axal programaSi ukve xazgasmulia, rom `msoflio finansuri krizisisagan dacvis strategiam~ saqarTvelos ekonomika 50%_iani gegmis Sesrulebis gzaze unda daabrunos. saqarTveloSi amJamad umuSevrobis done sakmaod maRalia. saxelmw ifo statistikis mier umuSevarTa aRricxvis xarisxi aradamakmayofilebelia, xSirad

umuSevroba ar aRiricxeba an faqtobrivad umuSevrebi CaTvlili arian momuSaveebad, gansakuTrebiT soflis meurneobaSi. aRricxul umu SevarTa done 2005 wels 2001 welTan SedarebiT gaizarda 2,7%-uli punqtiT, xolo 2008 wels wina wlis analogiur periodTan SedarebiT 1,5 % -uli punqtiT Semcirda da 6 TveSi saSualod 13,6 %-uli punqti Seadgina. 2008 wlis meore kvartalSi es maCve nebeli 1,1 %-uli punqtiT naklebi iyo pirveli kvartlis S esabamis maCvenebelze. umuSevrobis Sesamcireblad saWiroa ganxorcieldes Semdegi Ronis Ziebebi: 1) adgilebs, movizidoT aseTi iseTi tipis motana investiciebi, ki mxolod romlebic eqsportze gazrdis samu Sao

Sedegebis

orientire buli

warmoebis waxalisebas SeuZlia; 2) SevimuSavoT investiciebis waxalisebis specialuri sistema, romelic sagadasaxado SeRavaTebTan erTad, saxelmwifos mier specialuri funqciis

ganxorcielebas gulisxmobs; 3) dagegmilia 200 000 saSualo adgilis Seqmna ucxouri investorebis daxmarebiT; 4) biujetSi gzebis mSeneblobisTvis gamoyofilia 500 mln. larze meti, rac uamravi adamianisaTvis dasaqmebis erTerTi wyaro gaxdeba; 5) dagegmilia msoflio bankis daxmarebiT, soflebsa da parata qalaqebSi, specialuri jgufebis Camoyalibeba da treningebia Catareba, r aTa adamianebma

winaswar Seiswavlon xeloba da Semdeg SeZlon miiRon mona wileoba ama Tu im saqmianobaSi; 6) gansazRvrulia soflis meurneobis, gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobis,

mcire biznesis da ipoTekuri bazris mxardaWera da satransporto infras truqturis ganviTareba; 7) gadasaxedia umuSevrobis statusi da umuSevrobis aRricxvis problema; 8) saWiroa dawesdes individualur mewarmeTa SeRavaTebi; 9) saxelmwifom unda izrunos bazris dacvaze.

200

gamoyenebuli literatura:

1. ekonomikuri politikisa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis qarTul-evropuli sakonsultacio centri, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri tenderebi, 2008 2. Toria m., carciZe m., umuSevrobis problemebi da misi daZlevis gzebi, Tb., 1998. 3. paiWaZe n., personalis marTva Tb., 2003 4. paiWaZe n., Sromis ekonomika, saxelmZRvanelo, Tb., 2000 5. www.statistics.ge 6. www.worldbank.ge

201

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