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Scand. J. For. Res. 19(Suppl. 4): 1Á/9, 2004

Forest Resources and Rural Livelihoods: The Conflict Between Timber and Non-timber Forest Products in the Congo Basin

OUSSEYNOU NDOYE and JULIUS CHUPEZI TIEGUHONG

CIFOR Regional Office for Central and West Africa, BP 2008, Yaounde, Cameroon Ndoye, O. and Tieguhong, J. C. (CIFOR Regional Office for Central and West Africa, BP 2008, Yaounde, Cameroon). Forest resources and rural livelihoods: the conflict between timber and nontimber forest products in the Congo Basin . Scand. J. For. Res. 19(Suppl. 4): 1 Á/9, 2004. The forests of the Congo Basin are exploited by rural communities and timber companies at different scales to meet various conflicting interests. The forest contributes in several ways to rural livelihoods, but the growing importance of timber exploitation poses a threat to this livelihood's fabric and to the conservation of biodiversity. For example, 61% of the top 23 timber species exported from Cameroon have important non-timber values to local communities. The paper argues that in the process of forest exploitation, a balanced approach is needed to take into account the interests of both rural communities and timber companies. This will require, among other things, the development and implementation of sustainable forest management plans by timber companies, exclusion from harvesting of timber species that are important to local communities, compensation of timber companies for compliance with management plans, and the involvement of rural communities in monitoring the activities of timber companies. Key words: Biodiversity, Conflict resolution, Congo Basin, forest management, livelihoods, logging concessions, non-timber forest products, policy measures, timber. Correspondence to: O. Ndoye, e-mail: [email protected]

INTRODUCTION In recent decades the overvaluation of the monetary value of timber has devalued the spiritual, cultural and socioeconomic roles of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to local communities in the Congo Basin. Only very recently has greater attention has paid to the ability of NTFPs to add significantly to the value of forests and the recognition of their true market and livelihood potentials for forest-dependent communities. There is growing recognition of a need to modify forest policies and timber management practices to include pertinent issues that govern the sustainable production and use of NTFPs in the forests of the Congo Basin. The Congo Basin includes the second largest and most intact tropical forest region of the world, with total coverage of over 227.6 million ha (FAO 2001). These forests represents about 60% of the total land area of six countries of the central African region: Cameroon, Central African Republic (CAR), Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, the Republic of Congo (CongoBrazzaville) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). However, the forests of this region are under increasing pressure and, in the region as a whole, are decreasing in area at an average annual rate of 0.35% (FAO 2001). # 2004 Taylor & Francis ISSN 1400-4089

The total population in the Congo Basin region is estimated at over 73 million people, with an annual growth rate of over 2.5%. The average population density is about 15 people km (2. There is however, great variation across countries, ranging between 5 and 32 people km (2 in Gabon and Cameroon, respectively. There is also great variation in per capita income among countries, ranging from US$114 in the DRC to US$3985 in Gabon (FAO 2001). As shown in Table 1, 53% of the people living in the Congo Basin are in rural areas, many of whom are highly dependent on forest resources for their survival and well-being. The Congo Basin's forest contributes in complex ways to the livelihoods of forest-dependent peoples who benefit from the extraction of subsistence and commercial forest products that provide increased incomes, improved food security, reduced economic vulnerability and enhanced well-being (Ndoye & Tieguhong 2002). Timber companies for their part have vested interests in the profits that are derived from timber extraction and sale. Governments benefit from the taxes and fees paid by these companies that increase their revenues and foreign exchange earnings. Despite the benefits to different stakeholders derived from forest resources, the activities of timber companies have been identified as the most significant immediate threat to the integrity of tropical rainforest

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Table 1. Basic data on countries in the Congo Basin

Total population, 1999 ( )/1000) 14 693 3 550 2 864 50 335 442 1 197 73 081 Á/ Population density, 1999 (people km(2) 31.6 5.7 8.4 22.2 15.8 4.6 Á/ 14.72 Annual rate of change, 1995 Á/2000 (%) 2.7 1.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 Á/ 2.52 Rural population (%) 51.9 59.2 38.3 70 52.9 45.9 Á/ 53 Forest area per capita, 2000 (ha) 1.6 6.5 7.7 2.7 4.0 18.2 Á/ 5.45 GDP per capita, 1997 (US$) 587 341 633 114 892 3 985 Á/ 1 092

Country Cameroon CAR Congo DRC Equatorial Guinea Gabon Total Average Source: FAO (2001).

ecosystems and the livelihoods of forest dwellers in central Africa. The growing importance of timber production and exports, the continued use of forestdamaging (``conventional'') logging practices, the multiple use values of most timber species, the ongoing regional economic crisis and structural adjustment programmes have all contributed to this regional phenomenon. These pressures may result in the near future in the liquidation of timber stocks and the degradation of forests, along with rural livelihood opportunities. Faced with this situation, timber companies may simply move to other regions where commercial species are still available. The local people, however, lack such mobility and will consequently remain in poverty. This has already occurred in Cote d'Ivoire; ^ some of the companies responsible for the devastation of the natural forest of that country in the recent past are now operating in Cameroon and other countries of the Congo Basin. One of the most pressing issues facing forestry in the Congo Basin forest region is that of reconciling the needs of timber companies and those of forestdependent people. The need to re-examine the social, economic and environmental impacts of industrial timber logging on local communities and biodiversity conservation is widely recognized by the international community, and was reiterated during the 32nd Council Meeting of ITTO in Bali, Indonesia (Ahadome 2002). The need for greater consideration of the overlap between NTFPs and timber in the context of sustainable forest management was a key issue raised during a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) NTFP Working Group workshop held in 2000 (FSC 2000). This paper examines the current situation with respect to timber and NTFP exploitation in the Congo

This paper draws on information obtained from recent research by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) on NTFP markets in the humid forest zone of Cameroon and its borders with the Republic of Nigeria, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. This research was based on 25 markets in the humid forest zone of Cameroon, which covers 270 162 km2, representing 58% of the national territory (Ndoye et al. 1997). Markets for these studies were selected based on the role they play in the concentration and distribution of NTFPs, their accessibility, and their links with other markets and neighbouring countries. Traders in each market were selected at random and, after explaining the purpose of the study, a questionnaire was administered to those traders willing to cooperate (Ruiz-Perez et al. 1999). Traders who did not ´ want to co-operate for various reasons (mainly suspicion of government officials or tax collectors) were replaced using a random sample approach. The number of traders interviewed represented 26% of the estimated 1100 traders operating in the markets. Information was gathered at 6 week intervals on the major NTFPs sold, their prices and costs incurred in marketing transactions. These data were used to assess monthly fluctuations in the supply and demand of the NTFPs and their corresponding prices. They also enabled an evaluation of how these fluctuations affect net profits accrued to traders and producers.

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Basin forest region and discusses the need for improved conservation and sustainable forest management to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustain the livelihoods of forest-dependent people.

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Additional data on regional forest resource trends and timber production, and information describing the effects of logging on NTFPs and rural livelihoods were derived from the available scientific literature and Internet sources.

THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF TIMBER PRODUCTION IN THE CONGO BASIN Trends in timber production and concession areas Timber production and the forest area exploited annually are increasing in the Congo Basin. Total timber (roundwood) production in five of the countries of the Congo Basin increased from about 68 million m3 in 1993 to about 100 million m3 in 2001, an increase of over 47% (FAO 2001). The total area harvested in the Congo Basin nearly doubled from approximately 0.68 to 1.35 million ha between the periods 1976Á/1980 and 1996 Á/2000 (FAO 2001). In addition, timber harvesting intensity (volume of wood extracted per hectare) increased by over 25%, from 3.6 Á/5.3 m3 ha (1 in 1976Á/1980 to 6.7 Á/10.2 m3 ha(1 in 1996Á/2000 (FAO 2001). Increased timber production in the region is associated with larger areas being allocated to logging concessions. At present, 45% of the total forest area in the Congo Basin is already within logging concessions and the pressure to expand concessions is increasing (Minnemeyer 2002). Up to 41% of the remaining large tracts of low-access forests (contiguous forest areas at least 1000 km2 unbroken by roads) are already within logging concessions, whereas only 8% are in protected areas; 51% are presently outside concessions or protected areas (Minnemeyer 2002). These concessions are generally poorly managed and utilize conventional logging practices. The forest area exploited for timber that is under forest management plans is negligible in the Congo Basin; in the CAR, for example, a total of 269 000 ha of its forests is under approved forest management plans (FAO 2001). Moreover, where they do exist, harvesting plans are mostly short term (1 Á/5 yrs); long-term (more than 30 yrs) projects aimed at sustainable forest management are exceptional. These trends point to increasing forest fragmentation and degradation.

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Current forest loss is aggravated by poor forest management planning and the continued use of

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conventional timber harvesting practices, despite the availability of improved tools for sustainable forest management such as reduced impact logging (RIL) techniques. Conventional logging practices for selected species very often result in significant damage to the wide range of tree species comprising the residual stand, many of which are valuable NTFPs. Damage to the soil surface, more severe under conventional than reduced-impact logging practices, can slow down the growth of both timber and NTFP species. Tree species exploited for timber take many years to mature and management efforts aimed at facilitating their regeneration are in most cases minimal. Silvicultural treatments are sometimes applied that eliminate several NTFPs considered as competing with the growth commercial species. Although timber and NTFPs can be harvested in a complementary manner and could be built into management plans (Laird 1999), this is rarely the case in the Congo Basin region at present. The destruction of these forest resources is a threat not only to rural livelihoods, but also to the long-term survival of timber companies and the capacity of forests to provide foreign earnings to countries in the Congo Basin. The continuous increase in timber production using destructive harvesting practices, and without adequate postharvest management to facilitate natural forest regeneration, suggests a grim future for the forest industry in the region. The response of these countries to emerging threats to the sustainability of future timber supplies and to the livelihoods of forest-dependent peoples is a critical concern. NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS Relationship between timber and non-timber forest products NTFPs are the resource niches of forest-dependent people, and include fruits, leaves, nuts, bushmeat, fuelwood and caterpillars, used and/or sold locally, nationally, regionally or internationally. Their gathering and marketing is mostly done by women, children and ethnic minorities. In the humid forest zone of Cameroon, an estimated 94% of the traders of NTFPs are women (Ndoye et al. 1997). Most tree species exploited by timber companies have important non-timber values to local communities in the Congo Basin for subsistence, income and health purposes (Laird 1999, Ndoye & Tieguhong 2002). Out of 23 top timber species exported in

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Table 2. Major timber species exported from Cameroon in 1997

Species (scientific name) Triplochiton scleroxylon Entandrophragma cylindricuma Terminalia superbaa Eythrophloeum ivorense Tetraberlinea bifoliata Lophira alataa Melicia excelsaa Distemonanthus bentahamiamus Canarium schweinfurthiia Baillonella toxispermaa Nauclea diderrichiia Entadrophragma utilea Eribloma oblonga Ptericarpus sauyauxiia Pericopsis elataa Ceiba pentandraa Lovoa trichiliodes Guibourtia tessmanniia Daniella ogea Guarea cedrata Cylicodiscos gabunensis Terminalia ivorensisa Khaya ivorensisa Trade name Volume (m3) Ayous Sapelli Franke Tali Ekop Azobe Iroko Movingui Aiele Moabi Bilinga Sipo Eyong Padouk Afromosia Ceiba Bibolo Bubinga Faro Bosse Okan Framire Mahogany 412 186 136 564 112 145 102 287 66 540 63 503 55 456 39 690 29 788 27 944 26 219 25 773 23 949 19 987 18 433 18 387 12 475 11 454 10 966 10 207 10 091 9 762 9 343

in northern Congo. According to Lewis (2001), the sapelli tree represents a highly valued resource to all the ethnic groups in northern Congo, as a source of food, medicine and construction material. Large sapelli are the unique hosts to the Imbrasia (Nudaurelia ) oyemensis caterpillar, a highly regarded local delicacy. Collecting caterpillars is a communal task providing an important source of income for women and the elderly. Caterpillars make up 75% of the protein eaten by Pygmies during the caterpillar season, a period when caterpillars fall from the trees. The most important medicinal properties of the host tree (sapelli) are the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the bark and outer trunk, commonly used for the treatment of the severe headaches, swollen and painful eye infections, and painful feet. Importance of non-timber forest products for livelihoods Van Djik (1999) reported that in Bipindi-Akom II of southern Cameroon, more than 500 plant species were used for 1100 different purposes. NTFPs supplement food produced in farm plots, and provide safety nets to forest-dependent peoples in times of emergency (Shanley et al. 2002). For instance, the economic crisis that resulted in the decline of international prices of cocoa and coffee led farmers to harvest and use more NTFPs as a way to diversify income sources. The devaluation of the CFA francs led to sharp increases in the prices of pharmaceutical products, which encouraged many rural dwellers and poor urban households to use more medicinal forest products for their healthcare needs. The currency devaluation further increased the price of beer and whisky, which led many consumers to switch to palm wine and local whisky made from the juice tapped from Elaeis guineensis and fermented with other forest products such as Garcinia lucida and Garcinia kola (Ndoye & Tieguhong 2002). NTFPs from timber trees are very important to local communities as medicines. A comparative study on the use of modern and traditional medicines for the treatment of common ailments around the Mbalmayo forest reserve in Cameroon showed that over 70% of rural populations rely on traditional healers and herbal medicines (Ndoye et al. 1998). This same study reported that traditional herbal medicines were 50 to /90% less expensive than their modern pharmaceutical equivalents. Therefore, any form of logging that will trigger the loss of forest resources that are customarily used to cure common illnesses will be detrimental to the health of local communities.

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Source: Laird et al. (1998). a Timber species with important value to local communities as non-timber forest products.

Cameroon, 61% have non-timber values (Table 2; Laird 1999) and are used by local communities and poor urban households. It has become very evident that the uncontrolled activities of timber companies can deplete forest resources and place unbearable costs on forest-dependent communities. A case in point is the welldocumented effect of logging on Baillonella toxisperma (moabi) in the East Province of Cameroon, which has led to serious scarcity of the species. Cardoso (2001) documents that moabi has very important economic, cultural and medicinal values to the Bantu villagers and Baka Pygmies. The fruits are edible and extracts from the bark are used as remedies for dental and back problems. Oil locally called karite is extracted from the seeds and used for ´ both consumption and trade. Revenue from the oil for a 10 yr period is estimated to surpass timber revenues for a tree of 100 cm diameter, the legal minimum felling diameter (Schneemann 1994). Another timber species with well-documented NTFP values is Entandrophragma cylindricum (sapelli)

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Economic value and potentials of non-timber forest products In addition to their medicinal use vales, the economic potential of NTFPs for poverty alleviation is very high compared with traditional cash crops such as cocoa. For example, the average prices of a kilogram of Irvingia spp. and Ricinodendron heudelottii were more than 200% higher than the average price of the same quantity of cocoa between 1996 and 1999 (Table 3). Ndoye et al. (1997) highlighted the importance of forests and the contribution of NTFPs to local livelihoods, especially those of rural women, who constituted 94% of active NTFPs traders in Cameroon. Based on surveys of 26% of the NTFP traders in the humid forest zone of Cameroon between January and July 1995, Ndoye (1995) found that the economic values of some major NTFPs traded during this period were US$460 000 for R. heudelotti , US$302 000 for Irvingia gabonensis, US$244 000 for Dacryodes edulis and US$212 000 for Cola acuminata . In the Takamanda Forest Reserve (TFR) area of Cameroon, the inhabitants depend heavily on the exploitation of NTFPs to stabilize incomes during periods of low demand for farm labour and during peaks of NTFP production. It is estimated that 70% of the total population of this area collects forest products for consumption and sale. This represents an estimated income of US$714 286 per annum to the estimated 15 707 people living in 43 villages within and around TFR, including 12 villages on the Nigerian side of the border (Schmidt-Soltau et al. 2001, Sunderland et al. 2002). According to Ndoye (1995), cross-border trade in NTFPs is of regional importance to the economy of the Congo Basin. For example, the value of I. gabonensis marketed from Cameroon to Gabon and Equatorial Guinea was about US$87 000, or 27% of trade in that product in the humid forest zone. CIFOR research has also shown that the half-year sales value

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Table 3. Market prices for cocoa and selected non-timber forest products, 1996 Á/1999 (CFA francs kg (1)

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1997 450 810 915 1998 600 1420 1545

of nine NTFPs in 28 markets of the humid forest zone of Cameroon reached US$1.94 million in 1996 (Eyebe et al. 1999). The global trade and subsistence value of rattan and its products is now estimated at US$6.5 billion (Catriona 1997). In the Congo Basin, the value of African rattan trade in three urban markets (Douala and Yaounde, Cameroon; and Kinshasa, DRC) was estimated at US$287 505 in 2001 (Sunderland 2001). At an international level, France and Belgium import annually over 100 t of Gnetum spp. (a leafy vegetable), worth 2 billion CFA francs (US$2.9 million) in the French and Belgian markets (Tabuna 1999). In 1999 the value of Prunus africana , used in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in Europe and North America, was estimated at over US$700 000 to Cameroon and US$200 million to the pharmaceutical companies. Similarly, the export value of the bark of Pausinystalia johimbe, used as an aphrodisiac in Europe and America, was US$600 000 in 1998 (CARPE 2001). As the preceding discussion and examples have illustrated, NTFPs are the resource niches of poor rural households, which implies that efforts aimed at developing and sustaining the sector have the potential to contribute significantly to the alleviation of poverty and improved well-being, at least at the local level. The negative impact of uncontrolled and destructive timber harvesting on the availability of these forest resources underlines the importance of developing and promoting RIL techniques that minimize damage to locally important plants in order to sustain rural livelihoods, including food security and public health.

STRATEGIES AND MECHANISMS FOR RECONCILING THE INTERESTS OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND TIMBER COMPANIES Considering the multiple products from forests and their many beneficiaries, a balanced approach that takes into account the interest of rural communities

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Cocoa Irvingia spp. Ricinodendron heudelotii

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and timber companies is needed to resolve emerging conflicts from the use and exploitation of forest resources. This will require legislative interventions and concrete actions based on objective and reliable information from scientific research to ensure the survival of locally useful plant species. These issues, and recommendations for action related to forest policies and legislation, law enforcement, forest planning and timber harvest management, are summarized below. The curtailment of illegal logging is of paramount importance because this activity undermines the incentives for adopting sustainable forest management by those who operate legally. Illegally obtained timber can be sold at prices much lower than that procured legally. Consequently, one way to curtail illegal logging is to make illegal operations more costly and less profitable than legal ones. This can be achieved by building stronger institutional frameworks and capacities to enforce forest legislation and increase transparency in the functioning of both public and private forest sectors (Rytkonen 2003). ¨ The certification of forest products (both timber and NTFPs) and a verifiable chain of custody tracking system for sawlogs from the Congo Basin's forests are important tools for achieving sustainable forest management and should be encouraged. Certification is a market-based tool that may promote sustainable forest management (Mimbimi 2003) because its implementation enables consumers to discriminate against timber products from forests that are not managed in a sustainable way. This requires sufficient details on verification, assessment of standards and procedures necessary to make sure that logging operations meet acceptable standards for sustainability. Multiple-use forest management plans that ensure that timber and NTFPs are managde in a complementary manner need to be developed, and timber companies must be accountable for adhering to such plans. These should provide adequate, clear and enforceable social safeguards to protect the customary and legal rights of forest-dependent communities. In so doing, the logging impacts that have potentially disastrous consequences for forests and forest-dwelling peoples may be minimized. The use of RIL techniques is an important element of such plans, and their application is viewed as a matter of priority in the Congo Basin. There is a need to exclude from timber harvesting particular species and sacred groves that are important

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to local communities. Cameroon has taken the lead in this regard. The country's 1994 Forestry Law clarifies logging companies' obligations towards local people (in Article 61 Section 2), in which the general provision in each ``cahier des charge'' is that timber exploitation must not pose a hindrance to villagers in exercising their user rights. To meet this objective, local communities and timber companies are required to reach agreements on tree species of local importance. Timber companies need to be compensated for leaving behind useful trees in their concessions for NTFP values. This can be done by reducing the taxes that timber companies pay for specific concessions with specifications in the cahier des charges. Rural communities need to be involved in monitoring the harvesting activities of timber companies (respecting minimum diameter limits, allowable cuts, etc.). This would strengthen the mechanisms for involving affected communities and other stakeholders in forest policy and programmes at the national level. Community forests that are allocated to local communities need to consider both timber and NTFPs for revenue generation. The further development and implementation of these measures would represent a major step towards reducing the current conflict between timber exploitation and NTFP use, and reconciling the interests of timber companies, national governments and local forest-dwelling (and other forest-dependent) people. However, in the long term, other strategies may be needed to provide new forest-based economic development opportunities for the peoples of the Congo Basin to ensure the long-term survival of healthy natural forest ecosystems in the region, and to provide a stable, productive and profitable resource base for local, regional and international timber and wood product industries. A thorough discussion of these options is beyond the scope of this paper, although mention can be made of a few of these opportunities that have been successful in other parts of Africa, and elsewhere in the major humid tropical forests of the world. These include ecotourism, plantation forestry and domestication of NTFPs. Ecotourism The largest growing segment of the enormous global tourism market, presently valued at over US$3 trillion per year, ecotourism includes activities and visits to relatively undisturbed areas that should result in minimal environmental impact, while at the same

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Plantation forestry Forest plantations account for less than 5% of global forest cover area, but supply an estimated 35% of global industrial wood supplies; this is projected to increase to 44% by 2020 (FAO 2001). An increasing global reliance on plantations as a source of raw material for a wide range of wood products can greatly help to reduce logging pressure on natural forests. The total forest plantation area in the Congo Basin region is only 300 000 ha, and despite its potential, and the availability for planting of vast areas of degraded lands (including more than 4.5 million ha in Cameroon alone), the rate of planting new areas remains very low throughout the region. For example, the CAR has a total plantation area of only 4000 ha (FAO 2001), and the current annual rate of forest planting in Cameroon is less than 200 ha (Njib 1999).

There is a growing appreciation of the need and potential for small-scale plantations using tree species that can furnish timber and NTFPs, particularly in light of changing tree and land tenure systems towards the freehold system and the growing emphasis on the management of natural forests for the provision of NTFPs and environmental services. Moreover, although NTFPs thrive in their natural habitats, the current rate of deforestation and habitat destruction calls for the domestication of selected NTFPs to enhance their sustainable production. The integration

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time contributing to the local economy (WWF 2000). Many African countries have embraced tourism as a viable economic development option. The financial and economic benefits of ecotourism (and tourism generally) provide opportunities for countries to develop more comprehensive natural resource (including forests) policies related to the full range of forest goods and services, including timber and NTFPs, biodiversity, watershed management, soil fertility conservation and carbon sequestration. Within the Congo Basin region, there are several well-managed protected areas with great potential for ecotourism development by virtue of their diversity of primates, elephants and other mammalian species, plant and bird species, and pristine forest settings with exceptional habitats and landscapes. The Korup National Park in Cameroon, for example, received over 245 tourists in 1995, despite the poor available infrastructure (Fomete & Nchanou 1998).

of improved propagules of trees of economic value into multistrata agroforestry systems may be laudably welcome by farmers. CONCLUSIONS The forest of the Congo Basin provides a wide range of valuable timber and NTFPs, and ecosystem services including biodiversity protection, as well as possessing great cultural, religious and aesthetic values for the people of the region. These forests are important to local economies, providing jobs, income, health and environmental services. Therefore, the well-being of rural people is linked to all forms of development that impact the forests. However, the growing importance of industrial timber production poses a threat to this livelihood's fabric and to biodiversity conservation. As timber companies enter forested communities for wood supplies they usually require local labour and good social relationships to achieve their objective. However, the local communities usually have mixed feelings based on what they perceive as benefits or losses from their relationship with timber industries. In terms of benefits, they think of employment, income, roads, schools, hospitals, etc., while at the same time they reflect on the negative impacts of logging, the destruction of their cultural heritage, and the vast array of subsistence and commercial NTFPs. With such a divergence of stakeholders' interests and benefits, the need for a well-defined mutually beneficial partnership between local communities and logging companies cannot be overemphasized. For this to happen, policy interventions are needed to achieve a balanced approach that takes into account the interests of all parties concerned. The integration of social, cultural, economic, ecological and legal aspects of timber and NTFP harvesting is a crucial step for better policy formulation and improved management, perhaps based on existing forest certification criteria. This may involve the exclusion of some timber species of local importance from exploitation and providing compensation to timber companies for such exclusions. It may be necessary for timber companies to sign social responsibility agreements with local communities, and to monitor and legally enforce their adherence to these agreements. Governments for their part may ensure that companies tendering for timber cutting permits are assessed in terms of how they respect social and

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environmental obligations. Illegal logging must be checked and RIL practices promoted to reduce the vulnerability of NTFPs to logging practices. These may lead to a fairly simple, cost-effective, accountable system that supports sustainable and socially responsible logging. In the longer term, trade-offs may be necessary to achieve sustainable forest management, which may involve meeting timber supplies from plantations while managing natural forests for the provision of NTFPs and forest services such as ecotourism.

REFERENCES

Ahadome, C. 2002. ITTO takes action in Africa: ITTO Secretariat. Brief on 32nd Session of ITTO, Depensar, Indonesia, 18 May 2002. http://www.itto.or.jp/inside/ current_news/may18_2002_africa.html Cardoso, C. 2001. The Moabi issue. In Sold Down the River. The Need to Control Transnational Forestry Corporations: A European Case Study, p. 6. Forests Monitor. http://www.forestsmonitor.org Central African Regional Programme for the Environment (CARPE). 2001. Rich forests, poor countries: adapting forest conservation to economic realities, CARPE Information Series, No. 10. USAID, Washington, DC. Catriona, P. 1997. Bamboo and rattan: resources of the 21st century? Trop. For. Update 7(4): 13 Á/14. Eyebe, A., Ndoye, N. & Ruiz-Perez, M. 1999. L'importance ´ des produits forestiers non-ligneux pour les communautes ´ rurales et urbaines du Cameroun. Quelques freins a ` l'eclosion du secteur. Papaer presented at Troisieme ´ ` Reunion du Reseau de la Foresterie Communautaire, ´ ´ Yaounde, 4 Á/5 May 1999. ´ FAO. 2001. State of the World's Forests. FAO. Rome. ISBN 92-5-104590-9 Fomete, T. N. & Nchanou, Z. 1998. La gestion des ecosystemes forestiers du Cameroun a l'aube de l'an 2000. CEFDHAC-Processus de Brazzaville. Vol. 1. IUCN, Yaounde, Cameroon. ´ Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) NTFP Working Group. 2000. FSC guidance and recommendations for certifiers. Workshop on NTFP Guidance to Certifiers. Falls Brook Centre, Oaxaca, Mexico. www.techinform.de/ taller_regional/bibliografia/NTFP%20Guidance% 20workshop%20report.pdf Laird, S. 1999. The management of forests for timber and non-timber forest products in central Africa. In Sunderland, T. C. H., Clark, L. E. & Vantomme, P. (eds), pp. 51 Á/60. FAO, Rome. Lewis, J. 2001. Indigenous uses for the sapelli tree in northern Congo. In Sold Down the River. The Need to Control Transnational Forestry Corporations: A European Case Study, p. 7. Forests Monitor. http://www. forestsmonitor.org Mimbimi, P. E. 2003. Certifying Africa: forest certification is developing slowly in Africa and faces major hurdles.

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Trop. For. Update 13(3). http://www.itto.or.jp/newsletter/ v13n3/7.html Minnemeyer, S. 2002. Analysis of Access to the Central Africa's Rainforest. Global Forest Watch, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. ISBN 1-56973-518-2. Ndoye, O. 1995. Markets for non-timber forest products in humid forest zone of Cameroon and its borders: structure, conduct, performance and policy implications. Unpublished CIFOR Report. Ndoye, O. & Tieguhong, J. C. 2002. Timber harvesting, nontimber forest products and local livelihood in central Africa. Paper presented at the 4th Conference on the Central African Moist Forest Ecosystems (CEFDHAC), Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 10 Á/13 June 2002. Ndoye, O., Manuel R. P. & Eyebe, A. 1997. The markets of non-timber forest products in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. ODI Network Paper 22c. Rural Development Forestry Network, Overseas Development Institute, London. ISSN 0968-2627. Ndoye, O., Manuel, R. P. & Eyebe, A. 1998. Non-wood forest products markets and potential forest resource degradation in central Africa: the role of research in providing a balance between welfare improvement and forest conservation. In Sunderland, T. C. H., Clark, L. E. & Vantomme, P. (eds), pp. 183 Á/206. FAO, Rome. Njib, N. 1999. Rapport National sur le Secteur Forestier. ONADEF, Republique du Cameroun. Ruiz-Perez, M., Ndoye, O. & Eyebe, A. 1999. Marketing of ´ non-wood forest products in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Unasylva, 50 (3) (Issue No. 198). http:// www.fao.org/docrep/x2450e/x2450e00.htm Rytkonen, A. 2003. Market access of tropical timber. Report ¨ submitted to the International Tropical Timber Council, ITTC(XXXIV)/10, 34th Session of the ITTC, Panama City, Panama, 12 Á/17 May 2003. Schmidt-Soltau, K., Mdaihli, M. & Ayeni, J. S. O. 2001. Socioeceonomic baseline survey of the Takamanda Forest Reserve. Unpublished report to PROFA (GTZ-MINEF) Office, Mamfe. ´ Schneemann, J. 1994. Etude sur l'utilisation de l'arbre moabi dans l'est Cameroun. Rapport Final, SNV. Shanley, P., Pierce, A., Laird, A. & Guillen, A. 2002. The interface of timber and non-timber resources: declining resources for subsistence livelihoods. In Tapping the Green Market: The Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products. Earthscan, London. ISBN 1853838101. Sunderland, T. C. H. 2001. Rattan resources and use in west and central Africa. Unasylva 205 (52): 18 Á/26. Sunderland, T. C. H., Besong, S. & Ayeni, J. O. S. 2002. Distribution, utilization and sustainability of the nontimber forest products of the Takamanda Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Consultancy report for the Project: ``Protection of the Forests Around Akwaya'' (PROFA), The Takamanda Project. Tabuna, H. 1999. Le Marche des Produits Forestiers Non ´ Ligneux de l'Afrique Centrale en France et en Belgique. Produits, Acteurs, Circuits de Distribution et Debouches ´ ´ Actuels. CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 19 (February).

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Van Djik, J. F. W. 1999. Non-timber Forest Products in the Bipindi-Akom II Region, Cameroon: A Socio-Economic and Ecological Assessment. Tropenbos, Cameroon. ISBN 90-5113-038-4.

WWF Position Paper. 2000. Making tourism work as a means of sustainable use. Agenda Item 22, 5th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Nairobi, Kenya, 15 Á/26 May 2000.

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Query to author AQ1 AQ2 AQ3 AQ4 AQ5 Table 2: Laird et al. (1998) not in ref. list-please supply a full reference. Table 3: CIFOR (2002)-is there a reference for this? Reference list: Laird, 1999: add book title (after editors' names) Ndoye et al., 1998: add book title (after editors' names). Shanley et al., 2002: page range?

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