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SimpleandEffectiveCooperativeStructurestotryinyourClasses Source:Kagan,Spencer.KaganCooperativeLearning.SanClemente:KaganPublishing.2009. StructureName QuizQuizTrade Overview Studentsquizapartner,get quizzedbyapartner,andthen tradecardstorepeattheprocess withanewpartner. Procedure 1.Eachstudentreceivesaquiz cardthatincludesaquestionand theanswer. 2.Studentsmovearoundthe roomandfindapartner. 3.PartnerAquizzesB. 4.PartnerApraisesorcoaches tohelp. 5.Partnersswitchroles. 6.Partnerstradecardsand thankeachother. 7.Partnerssplitandrepeatsteps 16withseveralotherpeoplein theroom. Partnerstaketurn,onesolvinga Setup:Eachpairneedsoneset problemwhiletheother ofhighconsensusproblems coaches. (openendedonesarenotreally as`coachable')andonepencil. 1.PartnerAsolvesthefirst problem. 2.PartnerBwatchesandlistens, checks,coachesifnecessary,and praises. 3.Partnersswitchrolesand repeatasmanytimesasthere areproblems. RallyCoachmaybeusedwith worksheetproblems,oral problemsprovidedbythe teacher,orwithmanipulatives. Eachgroupmemberrecordshis 1.Teacherposesaproblemto orherownansweronpaper, whichtherearemultiple thenstudentstaketurnsreading possibleresponsesorsolutions, theiranswertothegroup. thenprovidesthinktime. 2.Studentsthink,thenwrite Notethatyoucanomitthe`All theirownanswersonpaper Write'partifyoujustwantthem withoutannouncingtheir toshareanswersorally.TheAll thinkingaloud. Writecomponentaddsan 3.Studentsthentaketurns increasedelementof readingtheanswerthey accountability. recordedontheirpapers.

RallyCoach

AllWriteRoundRobin

RoundTable/RallyTable

Studentstaketurnsgenerating writtenresponses,solving problems,ormakinga contributiontoaproject.In RoundTable,studentstaketurns intheirteams;inRallyTable, partnerstaketurns.

SimultaneousRoundTable

Showdown

Inteams,studentseachwritea responseontheirownpieceof paper.Studentsthenpasstheir papersclockwisesoeach teammatecanaddtotheprior responses. Whenthedesignated`captain' calls,"Showdown!"teammates alldisplaytheirownanswers. Celebratecorrectanswers,or tutorifnecessary.

1.Teacherposesaproblemto whichtherearemultiple possibleresponsesorsolutions, thenprovidesthinktime. 2.Studentstaketurnspassinga paperandpencilorteam project,eachwritingoneanswer ormakingacontribution. 3.Repeatasmanytimesas necessary. Sameasabove,withthe exceptionofeachstudent writingonhisorherownsheet ofpaperfirstbeforepassing. Setup:Eachteamhasasetof questioncards(answers included)stackedfacedownat thecentreofthetable.It'sa goodideatohavefolded questioncardswiththeanswers inside. 1.Theteacherselectsastudent oneachteamtobeShowdown Captain(SC)forthefirstround. 2.TheSCdrawsthetopcard, readsthequestion,then providesthinktime. 3.Workingalone,allstudents, includingtheSC,writetheir answers. 4.Whenfinished,teammates signalreadiness. 5.SCcalls"Showdown!" 6.Teammatesshowanddiscuss answers.

Sage`nScribe

Studentsworkinpairstosolve problems.Onepartnerexplains hisorhersolutiontoaproblem (oranswertoaquestion)asthe otherpartnerrecordswhatis said.

TimedPairShare

Setup:Eachpairwillhavea sheetofproblemsandapencil tobeshared. 1.TheSageexplainshisorher solutiontoaproblemthatison thesheet(orposedorallybythe teacher). 2.TheScriberecordstheSage's ideas,providingcoachingif necessary. 3.Therolesswitchandthe processrepeatsasnecessary. ThisvariationofThinkPairShare 1.Theteacherposesaquestion addsatimecomponent. andprovidesthinktime. Studentsshareideaswitheach 2.Studentspairup. otherfortheprescribedperiod 3.PartnerAsharesideaswith asdesignatedbytheteacher. PartnerBfor30seconds,1 Thisstructureisidealwhen minute,etc. answeringopenended 4.Rolesswitch. questions. Itissometimesagoodideato havestudentswritetheirideas first.

MakingthedistinctionbetweenCooperativeLearningandGroupWork: Manyteachersshyawayfromgroupactivitiesbecause,whenthereislackofstructure,therearemany inherentproblemsthatwemustgrapplewith.Forexample,ifagroupofstudentsisgiventhis instruction"Youhave10minutestoreviewlastnight'shomework--getstarted,"thechancesthatall studentsparticipateisveryslim.Infactsomemightsittherefortheentire10minutessayingnothing withoutteacherintervention.Conversely,whenweuseaCooperativeStructurelikeRoundRobin,we seteachgroupupformorepositiveoutcomes.Itwouldlook/soundlikethis: 1.Theteachergivesanumberbetween1and4toeachpersonineachgroup. 2.Teacherinstruction:"Iwilldesignateagroupmember'snumbertostartthereview.Youwillbeginat question1.Oncethefirstpersonexplainshisorheranswertoquestionone,thepersonclockwisefrom themwilldothesameuntileveryonehashadachancetotalkaboutquestionone.Youwillrepeatthis processforall5questions.Ifyoucannotreachagreementaboutananswer,wecanaddressthatwhenI stopbytocheckonyou.Person2ineachgroup,pleasestartatquestion1.Go." 3.Theteacherthenbeginsworkingtheroomandinterveningwhennecessary.

Withoutgettingintotoomuchtheory,agoodcooperativetaskshouldaddresseachofthefollowing criteria: P=PositiveInterdependence.Whenstudentsworktogethertoreachacommongoal,everyone benefits.Interdependencecancomeinmanydifferentforms(seeBarrieBennett'sbookabout CooperativeLearningforamoreindepthdescription),butthetaskshouldbestructuredsothatit cannotbeproperlyaccomplishedunlesseveryonechipsin. I=IndividualAccountability.Eachstudentmusthavearoleintheactivity.Weknowthatwhengroup tasksareassigned,strongstudentscomplainthattheydoalltheworkandlazystudentscheerastheysit backandletthosestrongstudentsdoallthework! E=EqualParticipation.Thebottomlineisthatstudentswillnotlikelylearnunlesstheyareactive participants.Onp.5.11ofKaganCooperativeLearning,itisstatedthat"Equalparticipationoperatesin tandemwithindividualaccountabilitytoreduceachievementdisparity."Eachpersonhasaroleanditis expectedthatheorshewillfulfillthatroletohelptheteamaccomplishthetask.IntheRoundRobin exampleabove,eachstudent'sroleistoexplainhisorheranswertoeachofthe5questions. S=SimultaneousInteraction.Whencooperativestructuresareused,notonlyarestudentsparticipating moreequally,theyarealsoparticipatingmorefrequently.Whenateacherdoesa`traditional'QandA withaclass,onlyonepersonanswersandtherestcansitbackanddonothing.Whencooperative structuresareused,everyoneisinapositiontosaysomething,thentheteachercancallonastudentto explainwhatthegrouporpairdiscussed.Safetyisincreasedforstudentswhenwegivethemachance torehearseanddiscussbefore`zinging'them. CooperativeLearningisagreatwaytoboostengagementandachievement.It'sbestwhenyoucanstart thejourneywithacolleaguewithwhomyoucandiscussyourtriumphsandtragedies.Ifyouwouldlike tofindoutmore,see: Bennett,Barrie.BeyondMonet:TheArtfulScienceofInstructionalIntegration. Bennett,Barrie.CooperativeLearning:WhereHeartMeetsMind. Kagan,Spencer.KaganCooperativeLearning. Vermette,Paul.Makingcooperativelearningwork:StudentteamsinK12classrooms. Thereisnoshortageofinformationregardingcooperativelearningoutthere,justaskgoogle! PreparedforyoubyAaronHarrisandMishaalSurti

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