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TWI Case Study: Ohno's Vehicle to TPS

May 6, 2008

Jim Huntzinger

Answer these Questions...

· Was Ohno's (Toyota's) learning and development experience any different than yours?

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ What was Taiichi Ohno experience with TWI? What was Ohno trying to accomplish? How did Ohno accomplish his objectives? Was he successful? Has Toyota sustained Ohno's work and TWI?

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

1

Key Points

· · · ·

Learning Flow Problem Solving Your situation is no different than Taiichi Ohno's

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

No Silver Bullet: Only Learning

...let us also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character; and character, hope. And hope does not disappoint us...

Guideposts, The Guideposts Parallel Bible (Carmel, NY: Guideposts), New International, Romans 5:3-5, p. 2860.

meaning.....

Tacit and Intrinsic Learning

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

2

Ohno's Learning

meaning.....

Tacit and Intrinsic Learning

This is the very experience that Ohno had, and did go through to develop TPS

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Embedded Attitude: Lean By Doing

One must learn by doing the thing; for though you think you know it you have no certainty, until you try.

Sophocles, 445 B.C. Listed in the front of Walter Dietz's book, Learn By Doing: The Story of Training Within Industry 1940 ­ 1970

Sakichi was an inventor who believed that invention only achieved its goal through practical application.

Satoshi Hino on Sakichi Toyoda from...

Satoshi Hino, 2006, Inside the Mind of Toyota: Management Principles for Enduring Growth, (Japanese edition originally published in 2002 as, Toyota Keiei Shisutemu no Kenky), (New York, NY: Productivity Press), p. 4.

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

3

The Cast of Characters

Henry

Kiichiro

Eiji

Taiichi

· Attitude at Toyota at the time of Ohno · Where did this attitude come from? · How was this attitude leveraged at Toyota

­ By Sakichi ­ By Kiichiro ­ By Taiichi

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Company Objective: Only Learning

"There's no end to the process of learning about the Toyota Way. I don't think I have a complete understanding even today, and I have worked for the company for 43 years."

Katsuaki Watanabe, President of Toyota Motor Corporation, "Lessons from Toyota's Long Drive," Harvard Business Review, July-August 2007, p. 80.

Means.....

Tacit and Intrinsic Learning

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

4

Ohno's Situation

Komoro Plant (currently Honsha Plant)

The Machine Shop in the Koromo Plant

· Source: http://www.toyota.co.jp/en/history/1867.html# · http://www.yamasa.org/japan/english/destinations/aichi/to yota.html

· Attitude at Toyota at the time of Ohno · Where did this attitude come from? · How was this attitude leveraged at Toyota

­ By Sakichi ­ By Kiichiro ­ By Taiichi

· It took Taiichi Ohno 25 years to push TPS through Toyota and its first-tier suppliers

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Did You Know....?

SOURCE: Courtesy of Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota City, Japan.

· It took Taiichi Ohno 25 years to push TPS through Toyota and its first-tier suppliers · It took him about 8 years to get things finally moving in just the machine shop that he directly managed. · His shop folks were not cooperative with his "goofy" changes. · People under him would say, "Oh no, here comes Mr. Mustache!" (Obviously, not excited about seeing him.) · That Toyota, latter in his career, (politely) pushed him aside · That he created his internal consulting group, not just to promote change, but to also try to protect his guys from the backlash they might receive from his drive of them to relentlessly pursue his methods · ...that Ohno was a relentless SOB who struggled tirelessly (yet was often frustrated) to PUSH his ideas throughout Toyota and it supply base

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

5

Ohno's Teaching

SOURCE: Courtesy of Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota City, Japan.

· I educated people about the system at the top and the bottom simultaneously. · We would have to change things right away if the results were not good...a certain amount of wavering was unavoidable. · I often told technical people ­ who are inevitably rigid ­ "a wise man knows how to adapt." "Learn to adapt."

Taiichi Ohno, 1988 (Japanese edition originally published in 1982, Genba keiei), Workplace Management (Portland, OR: Productivity Press), p. 87.

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Kaizen in Context

· TWI was Ohno's vehicle to spread his work and knowledge thru the machine shop, assembly, the entire Toyota company, and Toyota's supply base Ohno puts JM into Toyota's Context

­ Direct ties to customer demand/needs ­ Meeting Takt Time ­ Continually implementing FLOW ­ Value Stream (Flow & Pull) ­ Continually improving FLOW ­ Kaizen (Pursuit of Perfection)

SOURCE: Courtesy of Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota City, Japan.

·

·

Scientific Method

­ ­

PDCA cycle Scientific method (Develop a thesis (idea for improvement), Conduct

experiment, Review results, Implement if successful)

·

Standard Work (training) is deployed through JI, not papers posted at the work site

­ JI is the method used by Ohno (and Toyota) to achieve sustainment

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

6

Ohno's Situation

Komoro Plant (currently Honsha Plant)

· Source: http://www.toyota.co.jp/en/history/1867.html# · http://www.yamasa.org/japan/english/destinations/aichi/to yota.html

The Machine Shop in the Koromo Plant in the 1940s

· Ohno was the machine shop manager · As an experiment, (Ohno) arranged the various machines in the sequence of machining processes...this was a radical change · Tried having one worker operate three or four machines along the processing route · Our craftsmen did not like the new arrangement requiring them to function as multi-skilled operators · Their resistance was understandable · Our efforts revealed various problems · There were so many adjustments that an unskilled operator found the job difficult to handle

Taiichi Ohno, 1988, (Japanese edition originally published in 1978, Toyota seisan hoshiki), Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production, (Portland, OR: Productivity Press), p. 11.

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Ohno's Attitude

The Machine Shop in the Koromo Plant in the 1940s

Komoro Plant (currently Honsha Plant)

· As these problems became clearer, they showed me (Ohno) the direction to continue moving in · Although young and eager to push, I (Ohno) decided not to press for quick, drastic changes, but to be patient

­ Taiichi Ohno, 1988, (Japanese edition originally published in 1978, Toyota seisan hoshiki), Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production, (Portland, OR: Productivity Press), p. 14.

· One of the older, experienced people replied, "You know, we tried that (already), but it didn't work. That's why we do things this way now." · I (Ohno) told him that since I had not witnessed the failure of the method...I wanted to do it again so I could see the method fail with my own eyes. (Genchi Genbutsu ­ go see/do for yourself)

­ Taiichi Ohno, 1988 (Japanese edition originally published in 1982, Genba keiei), Workplace Management (Portland, OR: Productivity Press), p. 11.

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

7

Ohno's Failures

The Machine Shop in the Koromo Plant in the 1940s

Komoro Plant (currently Honsha Plant)

· Like any plant at the time, the machine shop was supervised by foremen-craftsmen · As further leverage, Ohno replace many of these traditional-style foreman with his engineers · Even after the engine machining line was transformed into flow production, it took Ohno and his staff over 2 years to convert the transmission and suspension machine shop into flow · Struggle and frustration continued into the 1950s

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Ohno's Success: Finally!

The Machine Shop in the Koromo Plant in the 1950s

Komoro Plant (currently Honsha Plant)

· TWI arrived in the machine shop in the early-mid 1950s · Ohno eagerly took hold of TWI to drive his changes · Ohno had been working on standardization and improvement for the last 8 years · With TWI he finally had a rational, proven, and pragmatic method to drive his ideas and also finally fulfill Kiichiro Toyoda's vision of just-in-time · Ohno become a certified TWI Trainer

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

8

Toyota Today

Georgetown, KY Plant

· Same Attitude, 50 years later · Example: Choosing a Supplier

­ By Going to See ­ (Genchi Genbutsu)

· How do you think Toyota would have responded if TWI would have been in place?

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

TWI and Toyota Today

· Job Instruction has not changed at Toyota in 60 years! · An example of TWI's robustness

TWI, 1944 Toyota, 2003

How to get ready to instruct 1. Have a Planning Time Table â How much skill you expect him/ her to have by what date 2. Break down the job â List major steps â Pick out the key points (Safety is always a key point) 3. Have Everything ready â The right equipment, materials and supplies 4. Have the workplace properly arranged â Just as the team member will be expected to keep it

TWI, 1944

â â â â â â â â â â

Toyota, 2003

STEP 1: PREPARE TEAM MEMBER

Put team member at ease State the job Find out what team member already knows about it Get team member interested in learning the job Place team member in correct position Tell, show and illustrate each Major Step one at a time State each Key Point Explain reasons Instruct clearly, completely, and patiently Present no more that team member can master ( Do you have any questions?)

Job Instruction

How To Instruct

STEP 2: PRESENT OPERATION

STEP 3: TRY OUT PERFORMANCE

â Have team member do the job; correct errors â Have team member explain Major Steps as the job is done again â Have team member explain each Key Point as job is done again â Have team member explain reasons for key points as job is done again

STEP 4: FOLLOW UP

â Put team member on own â Designate to whom to go for help and where â Check frequently â Encourage questions â Give any necessary extra coaching and taper off the follow up

TOYOTA

If the MEMBER hasn't learned, the INSTRUCTOR hasn't taught.

Front Side of the Cards

Front Side of the Cards

SOURCE: The Original Job Instruction card is from 1944 Job Instruction training manual. The Toyota Job Instruction card is courtesy of the Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota Motors Manufacturing, Kentucky, TMM-K. Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

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TWI and Toyota Today

· John Shook's encounter with TWI when working for Toyota to transfer their Manufacturing Operations to North America

Toyota was going to great expense to "transfer" to NUMMI was exactly that which the Americans had taught the Japanese decades before."

"To my amazement, the program

John Shook, "Bringing the Toyota Production System to the United States: A Personal Perspective," in Jeffrey Liker (ed.), 1997, Becoming Lean (Portland, OR: Productivity Press), p. 69.

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

TWI and Toyota Today

Hajime Ohba ­ Head of the Toyota Supplier Support Center, TSSC

· Toyota modified TWI and learned important things from it · Overall TWI was very helpful to establish the foundation in Gemba · Toyota studied it very thoroughly to build up a foundation of basic ability of Gemba · It became "one" of Toyota's strengths in the Gemba

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

10

TWI and Toyota Today

Isao "Ike" Kato ­ Retired from Toyota after

35 years and known as the father of standardized work and kaizen courses.

I don't think you can do a good job of implementing standardized work or several other elements of TPS without the JI skill set in place. I have observed quite a few companies struggle with implementing standardized work, kaizen, and other items. Often the short term gains companies obtain fall away over time. [emphasis added] One direct reason why is that no proper plan was ever put in place to train people to the new method and the JI technique provides the exact skill set required to do this work. I can't see how standardized work can function without JI in place underneath to support it in the long run.

Source: http://artoflean.com/documents/pdfs/Mr_Kato_Interview_on_TWI_and_TPS.pdf

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

TWI: The Standard Work Countermeasure

You will not become lean by doing TWI, but you will not become lean without doing TWI.

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

11

Reflection:

Why Standard Work is not Standard

· Continuous improvement of what?

­ Kaizen and Kaizen Workshops have been around for nearly 20 years

· Many improvements made

­ But overall (System) improvement has been minimal ­ No one has achieved a level close to Toyota

· Teams and Team work

­ Do we really understand how to apply this?

· Leadership and Culture

­ Does leadership understand: Can they do it themselves? ­ Getting your hands dirty

· TWI

­ Philosophy (mind-set) ­ Tools (skills)

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

TWI Creates the Lean Work Environment

· Creating Teams that Improve and Sustain without ever discussing it!

JR (No Blame, Mentoring, Understanding)

JI (Standardize) JM JI (Kaizen) (Standardize)

Holding Standard Work

JM JI (Kaizen) (Standardize) JM JI (Kaizen) (Standardize) JM (Kaizen)

Indicators of Improvement

Without Holding Standard Work

Time

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

12

Charles Allen: The Father of TWI

· This book does not undertake to tell foremen how to discharge their duty; it does take up a number of points affecting the foreman's job that a large number of foremen have thought worth careful consideration and discussion in conferences. It therefore deals with three of the most important factors in production, supervision [Job Relations], cost control [Job Methods], and instruction [Job Instruction].

Charles R. Allen, 1922, The Foreman and His Job, (Philadelphia and London: J.B. Lippincott Company), p. 3.

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

The 4-Step Method

· TWI is simply applied Scientific Method!

Steps Johann Herbart Charles Allen TWI

Job Instruction Prepare the Worker Present the Operation Try Out Performance Job Methods Breakdow n the Job Question Every Detail Develop New Method Apply New Method Job Relations Get the Facts Weigh and Decide

PDCA (Shewart/Deming Cycle)

Plan ­ observe data and reality; decide on a problem; define it Do ­ Analyze the problem; propose a countermeasure Check ­ Try the countermeasure; check the results Act ­ if successful, standardize change; if not, start the cycle over

Scientific Method

Observation and Description Formulation of an Hypothesis Use the Hypothesis to make Predictions Test the Predictions by Experiments

1

Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson

Preparation

2

Present the new lesson

Presentation

3

Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier Use examples to illustrate the lesson's major points Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson

Application

Take Action

4

Testing (or Inspection)

Follow Up

Check Results

5

· Scientific Method

­ Conclusions must be based on evidence, not opinion ­ Fact-based/Data driven ­ Facts/data can be experience/experiments; that is, Practice ­ or Learn By Doing Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

13

Countermeasures: Applied Problem-Solving

· Flow

­ One-Piece Flow ­ 1 x 1 manufacturing ­ Flow manufacturing ­ Continuous Flow ­ Batch Size of 1 LEARN BY DOING ­ Implementing flow where it currently does not exist ­ Re-establishing flow when and where it breaks down ­ Implementing countermeasures where flow breaks down via Scientific Method (PDCA/Problem Solving) ­ It MUST be learned via action; making changes in the Gemba; with 1 x1 "Thinking/Mindset" ever present

·

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Countermeasures: Applied Problem-Solving · The other side of the coin

­ Side 1: It's All About Flow ­ Side 2: Problem-Solving

· The 4-Step Method is applied Problem Solving · The Link between the two sides of the coin...

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

14

Rosie the Riveter

· "Confidence and resourcefulness in how to proceed, not standardized solutions and rules, are developed. These enable supervisors to get good teamwork, to give better service, and to get out more production." Job Methods: Sessions Outline and Reference Material, 1943, p. 2

Managing Toward Perfection

A Toyota View:

"We get brilliant results from average people managing brilliant processes." "We observe that our competitors often get average (or worse) results from brilliant people managing broken processes."

(John Shook & Jim Womack) Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Rose Will Monroe. She was a riveter building B-29 and B-24 planes at the Willow Run Aircraft Factory in Ypsilanti, Michigan when she was asked to star in a promotional film about the war effort

Do we have the answers to these questions?

· Was Ohno's (Toyota's) learning and development experience any different than yours?

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ What was Taiichi Ohno experience with TWI? What was Ohno trying to accomplish? How did Ohno accomplish his objectives? Was he successful? Has Toyota sustained Ohno's work and TWI?

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

15

Can You Achieve What Ohno Achieved?

Many organizations say we can do what we do because we are Disney. We believe we are Disney because of what we do.

The Disney Keys to Excellence, Disney Institute, April 20, 2006, Middlebury, IN. Comment from program leader during the program.

Substitute Toyota (Ohno) for Disney Substitute you & your firm for Toyota My answer: ABSOLUTELY!

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

Learn By Doing...

Try? There is no try. There is only do or not do.

-Yoda

(Legendary Sensei)

Complements of Mark Warren

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

16

Questions/Comments/Discussion?

Jim Huntzinger, TWI Summit, LLC, ©

17

Information

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