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TEMPO

Volume XXV, Issue 3

Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Member, National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC)

Testing and Measurement

· Placement Information Data: Unraveling the Mystery · Identifying Gifted African American Learners · The Relationship Between NCLB, TAKS, and the Gifted Learner · From a Parent's Perspective · What the Research Says . . .

Testing and Measurement

Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

28th Annual Professional Development Conference for Educators and Parents

"Marvel of the Mind"

Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center San Antonio, Texas November 2-5, 2005

· · · ·

· · ·

Pre-Conference Institutes on important topical issues 300+ breakout sessions, featuring many nationally-known presenters Cutting-edge strategies and research for challenging today's gifted youth Exciting keynote speakers *Dr. Carol Tomlinson, former Virginia Teacher of the Year, National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented at the University of Virginia *Jason Dorsey, gifted young entrepreneur, author, and speaker The Legacy BookTM Awards, honoring the best in gifted education literature 175+ exhibit booths featuring gifted educational products and books Family Day on Saturday with special sessions for parents and children

Online registration, hotel reservations, and information are available at

www.txgifted.org

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

TEMPO

Dr. Jennifer L. Jolly Bobbie Wedgeworth

Testing and Measurement

Summer 2005 · Volume XXV, Issue 3

TEMPO EDITOR

PRESIDENT

5 6 7 1 17 19 1 9

From the President

Bobbie Wedgeworth

Executive Director's Update

Tracy Weinberg

Raymond F. "Rick" Peters

PRESIDENT-ELECT

FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT

Sheri Plybon

Placement Information Data: Unraveling the Mystery

Gail R. Ryser

SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT

Patti Staples

ThIRD VICE-PRESIDENT

Joanna Baleson Dr. Keith Yost Judy Bridges

SECRETARy/TREASURER IMMEDIATE PAST-PRESIDENT EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

Dianne Hughes

TheTexasAssociationfortheGiftedandTalented(TAGT)isanonprofitorganizationof parentsandprofessionalspromotingappropriateeducationforgiftedandtalentedstudents inthestateofTexas. TAGTTempoistheofficialjournaloftheTexasAssociationfortheGiftedandTalented. ItispublishedfourtimesayearinJanuary,April,July,andOctober.Thesubscriptionisa benefitforTAGTmembers.Annualduesare$35­$55. MaterialappearinginTempomaybereprintedunlessotherwisenoted.Whencopying anarticlepleaseciteTempoandTAGTasthesource.Weappreciatecopiesofpublications containingTemporeprints. TAGT does not sell its membership list to advertisers or other parties. However, membershipnamesandaddressesaremadeavailableforapprovedresearchrequests.Ifyou donotwishyournametobemadeavailableforG/T-relatedresearch,pleasewritetoTAGT attheaddressbelow. AddresscorrespondenceconcerningtheTexasAssociationfortheGiftedandTalented (includingsubscriptionquestions)toTAGT,406East11thStreet,Suite310,Austin,Texas, 78701-2617.CallTAGTat512/499-8248,FAX512/499-8264. ADDRESSCORRECTIONREQUESTED:PleasenotifyTAGTifyouaremovingorif yourmailingaddresshaschanged.TAGTpublicationsaresentviathird-classmailandare notforwardedbythePostOffice.Besuretorenewyourmembership.Youwillnotreceive TAGTpublicationsormailingsafteryourmembershipexpirationdate.

Identification of the Gifted African American Learner: An Alternative Framework

Joyce E. Kyle Miller

The Relationship Between NCLB, TAKS, and the Gifted Learner

Phil MacKaron

Book Reviews A Gift From One Parent to Another

Jeanine McGregor

What Does the Research Say About Tests and Measurement?

Susan K. Johnsen Jennifer L. Jolly

From the Editor

OpiniOns expressed by individual authOrs dO nOt necessarily represent Official pOsitiOns Of taGt.

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

3

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verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoning abilities.

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AL ESPARZA Southwest Texas & El Paso County Senior Assessment Consultant 800.323.9540 ext. 7712 [email protected] EDDIE ORUM Southeast Texas & Dallas County Senior Assessment Consultant 800.323.9540 ext. 7737 [email protected] SCOTT DITTNER North & Panhandle Texas Senior Assessment Consultant 800.323.9540 ext. 7709 [email protected]

MICHAEL WARD East Texas & Tarrant County Assessment Consultant 800.323.9540 ext. 6319 [email protected]

CONTRIBUTING AUThORS

Placement Information Data: Unraveling the Mystery Gail R. Ryser, Ph.D., is an educational andstatisticalconsultant.Sheisamemberof theProfessionalAdvisorCommitteeatPROEDPublishingCompanyandteachesatThe UniversityofTexas.Shehaswrittennumerouspeerreviewedarticles,books,andtests, includingTestofMathematicalAbilitiesfor Gifted Students (TOMAGS) and Scales for IdentifyingGiftedStudents(SIGS).Sheresides inAustin,TX. Identification of the Gifted African American Learner: An Alternative Framework Dr. Joyce E. Kyle Miller, Ph.D., is an AssociateProfessorofSecondaryandHigher Education at Texas A & M University­ Commerce.SheisbasedattheTexasA&M MetroplexCenterinMesquite.Dr.Millerhas taughtEnglishandSpanishinvariouspublic schoolsinTexasandhasbeenafacultymember at Texas A & M University­Commerce since receiving her doctorate from the UniversityofNorthTexas.Dr.MillerdevelopedthegiftededucationprogramatA&M­ Commerceandteachesthecoursesleadingto theendorsementingifted.Sheservesasadvisortograduatestudentspursuingmaster's anddoctoraldegreesinsecondaryandhigher education.Inaddition,Dr.Millerdirectsthe ACT-SO(Academic,Cultural,Technological, Scientific Olympics) program and the TAMU­Commerce Saturday workshops for gifted and talented middle school and high schoolstudents.Herresearchinterestsinclude giftededucation,thegiftedAfricanAmerican student, and differentiated curriculum and instruction. The Relationship Between NCLB, TAKS, and the Gifted Learner Phil MacKaron, M.A.,anEnglishdepartmentchairandwritingcurriculumcoordinator forIngramISD,hasover19yearsexperience ineducation.HehasaTexasprincipalcertificationandover100hoursgiftedandtalented trainingandAPinstruction.Hehasastrong concern for the needs of gifted and talented students and the challenge teachers face attemptingtoincorporateanenrichedandchallengingcurriculuminthefaceofstandardized andTAKScenteredcurriculum. A Gift From One Parent to Another Jeanine McGregor is a parent, author, teacher, and educational consultant. She will be presenting at the TAGT Conference onNovember5,2005.Shecanbereachedat [email protected] What Does the Research Say About Tests and Measurement? Susan K. Johnsen, Ph.D.,isaprofessor intheDepartmentofEducationalPsychology at Baylor University. She directs the Ph.D. programandprogramsrelatedtogiftedand talented education. She is past-president of the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented. She has written over 100 articles, monographs, technical reports, and books relatedtogiftededucation.Sheisafrequent presenteratinternational,national,andstate conferences. She is editor of Gifted Child Today, and serves on the editorial boards of Gifted Child Quarterly and Journal of Secondary Gifted Education. Sheistheauthor of Identifying Gifted Students: A Practical GuideandcoauthoroftheIndependent Study Programandthreeteststhatareusedinidentifyinggiftedstudents:TestofMathematical Abilities for Gifted Students (TOMAGS), TestofNonverbalIntelligence(TONI-3),and Screening Assessment for Gifted Students (SAGES-2).

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

frOm the president

can my child be identified gifted in one district and not inanother?"Thisisanexcellentquestion, asked by hundreds of parents in Texas everyschoolyear.Theanswerliesineach school district's autonomy to establish a giftedprogrambasedontherequirements andguidanceinTheTexasStatePlanfor theEducationofGifted/TalentedStudents (TexasEducationAgency,1996).According to Section 29.123 of the Texas Education Code,thisplanformsthebasisofprogram accountabilityforstatemandatedservices forgifted/talentedstudents. Probablytheleastunderstoodaspect ofgiftedprogrammingishowstudentsare identified.Thoughmanystatesmandate programsforgiftedchildren,definitions of giftedness vary from state to state. Onestateoffersaverysimpleone:"Any studentwhoscoresatorabovethe97th percentileonanationallynormedtestis consideredgifted."InTexas,weseeamuch broaderdefinitionintheTexasEducation Code,Chapter29.EducationalPrograms, Subchapter D. Education Programs for GiftedandTalentedStudents: 29.121Definition Inthissubchapter,"giftedandtalented students"meansachildoryouthwho performsorshowsthepotentialfor performingataremarkablehighlevel of accomplishment when compared toothersofthesameage,experience, orenvironmentandwho: · exhibitshighperformancecapabilityinanintellectual,creative, orartisticarea; · possessesanunusualcapacityfor leadership;or · excels in a specific academic field. Now, all a district has to do is find thesestudents.Buthow? Theanswerliesintestingandassessment. In general, districts are looking for thetop3­5%ofthepopulation,thoughmost districtsservemorethan5%.

"how

by Bobbie Wedgeworth

Assessmentistheprocessofstudent evaluationtodeterminehisorherneed forservice.TheTexasStatePlanforthe EducationofGifted/TalentedStudentsrequiresthat,"Instrumentsandprocedures usedtoassessstudentsforprogramservice measurediverseabilitiesandintelligences and provide students an opportunity to demonstratetheirtalentsandstrengths." Obviously,informedandthoughtfuldecisionsregardingtheselectionofappropriateinstrumentsandproceduresplayavital roleinthisprocess.Texasschooldistricts areautonomousindecidingwhichofthe areasofgiftednessthey'llserve,andwhich testsandothermeasuresthey'llemployto assessandidentifystudentsforprogram placement. Asyoucansee,it'snota"one-size-fits- all" proposition across the state. Should thestateofTexasadoptauniformsystem ofservinggiftedchildrenandastandard state-wideassessmentplan?Thissolution couldsolvealotofproblems,butwouldit createevenbiggerones? Districts have varying student populations,resources(bothhumanand material), funding, facilities, learning configurations, learning and teaching philosophies,beliefsystems,etc.Isitbest to require that every district conform to a specific measurement and testing programforassessment?Woulditwork ineverydistrictinTexas,bothlargeand small (and everything in between)? The resoundinganswertothatquestionfrom superintendentsandschoolboardsacross thestate,aswellastheTexasEducation AgencyandtheLegislature,is"NO!" The autonomy of each of the state's 1,037schooldistrictsensureseachonethe freedomto"tailor-make"giftedprograms, including student assessment plans that willworkwellwithallthevariancesthat makeeachdistrictunique. Section 1 of The Texas State Plan for the Education of Gifted/Talented Studentsdealswithtesting,measurement, andstudentassessment.Otherpertinent andfrequentlyaskedquestionsfromparentsaboutidentificationofstudentscan beansweredwithcomplianceindicators fromthissection. Q:Whydoparentshavetocomplete somesortofchecklistorquestionnairein regardtoG/Tscreening? A: Districts must collect measures from multiple sources, like students, parents, and teachers. Q: Why does my child have to take astandardizedtesttobeidentified?Can't youjustlookatgrades? A: Districts must use a minimum of three criteria that include qualitative (nonstandardized measures like checklists, interviews, student products, performances, etc.) and quantitative (standardized test) measures for assessment in the areas of intellectual and specific academic fields, grades 1­12. Q:HowcanInominatemychildfor the gifted program? English is not our primary language, so won't she be at a distinctdisadvantage? A: Students are assessed in languages they understand or with nonverbal based tests. Districts must assure that all populations of the district have access to assessment, and, if identified, offered gifted program service. Q:Giftedprogram?Whatgiftedprogram? A: Districts must have written policies on all aspects of K­12 gifted student identification approved by the district board of trustees and disseminate them to all parents. Q:Oncemychildhasbeenidentified

Continued on page 28.

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Testing and Measurement

executive directOr's update

by Tracy Weinberg

in my previous column, 2005 promises to be a year full of change and growth at TAGT; that change has begun with the naming of TAGT's new Executive Director, Dianne Hughes. She comes with a wealth of experience managing andlobbyingforlargeorganizationssuch astheAmericanPayrollAssociation,the Texas Mortgage Bankers Association, andtheTexasBankersAssociation.IbelieveitisimportantforTAGTtoexplore partnerships and alliances with groups outsidetheeducationalcommunitywho value educational excellence. With Ms. Hughes'experience,perhapsthiswillbegininearnest. This issue of Tempo focuses on a highly important topic, measurement andtesting.Thecontinuingchallengein Texasremainsidentifyingandservingall gifted children; finding suitable ways to locate those students from traditionally underrepresented populations remains daunting, but some promising ideas are emerging. The work of TAGT PastPresidents Dr. Susan Johnsen and Dr. PaulSlocumbprovidessomegoodstartingpoints.Theresearchonduallanguage immersion programs being done with a Javits Grant received by El Paso ISD provides more possibilities, as does the AdvancedPlacement®SpanishLanguage MiddleSchoolProgramdevelopedbythe TexasEducationAgency.Theselasttwo willbefeaturedprominentlyattheTAGT AnnualConferencethisfall. Itiscrucialforeducatorsacrossthe state to ensure that opportunities for growthandchallengeexistforallstudents. However,giftedstudentstoooftenhave languishedwhileaccountabilitymeasures designedforgradelevelperformancehave becometheprimaryfocusofeducation.

As noted

TAGT supports accountability, but it shouldbeameansforappropriateeducationalplanning,andnottheenditself. When measurement and testing is mentioned, one usually thinks only of students.But,thisphilosophyofneglect for gifted students is amply reflected in theworkoftheStateBoardforEducator Certification (SBEC), which oversees thetestingandcertificationofteachers, includingtheareaofgiftedandtalented. ThemissionoftheSBECisto"ensurethe highestlevelofeducatorpreparationand practice to achieve student excellence." Theyhaveutterlyfailedtodosowithregardstogiftedstudents. Atitsmostrecentmeeting,theSBEC Board affirmed that gifted students do notrequirecertifiedteachersinthearea ofgiftededucation.Giftededucationremainstheonly areainwhichaspecialized supplemental certificate is not required for any teacher who works with gifted students from kindergarten through 12th grade. Imagine a special education or bilingual student never being taught by a certified teacher in all their years of school. Ironically, our most "highly qualified"studentsdonotrequire"highly qualified"teachers. Muchtimeandmoneyhasbeenspent overthelast10yearsdevelopingprofessional standards and the teacher certification test in gifted education. Gifted students have been singled out as the onlypopulationnotworthyofspecialized expertisefromanyofitsteachers.TAGT believesallstudents,includingthegifted, shouldhavetheopportunitytobetaught byhighlyqualified,certifiedteachers. In the months ahead, TAGT must rethink how it can make this idea more palatabletothemanygroupsthathaveopposedteachercertificationbeingrequired

for teachers who serve gifted students. TAGT understands that school districts need some flexibility in order to make staffing decisions; but, we also believe thereisaplacefortrainedspecialistswho areknowledgeableaboutgiftedstudents' specializedneeds. And now on to cheerier news! I invite all of you to come to San Antonio for our upcoming Annual Professional Development Conference for Educators andParents,November2­5,2005.There willbe,asalways,hundredsofbreakout sessions,anexhibithallfullofnewproductsandmaterials,studentpresentations and performances, and more. The four preconference institutes should bring in new attendees, while continuing to provide food for thought for experiencedparticipants.Superintendentsand schoolleaderswillbeattractedbyafull dayon"ImprovingStudentAchievement by Developing School Culture." TAGT stresses the importance of equity issueswith"OurDiversity,OurTreasure: Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos," presented by the Javits Grant recipients fromElPasoISDpreviouslymentioned. Classroomteachersandcoordinatorswill appreciate "Hands-On Science Secrets: How to Be an Amazing G/T Teacher" and "Tiered Instruction: Research and Practice." Aneweventattheconferenceplanned forSaturday,November5,isFamilyDay, featuring activity sessions for the whole family,includingdrama,science,robotics, art,andmore.Therewillbeaspecialregistrationfeeforuptotwoadultsandfour children.Besuretovisitwww.txgifted.org for registration, hotel reservations, and allthelatestinformation.SeeyouinSan Antonio!u

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Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

Placement Information Data: Unraveling the Mystery

by Gail R. Ryser

Identifying students for gifted and talented programs can be challenging. Committees of professionals make decisions based on their interpretations of qualitative and quantitative information gathered from teachers, parents, and other relevant sources. If professionals lack understanding of the

meaningoftheinformationonplacementforms,decisionscan beflawed.Inthisarticle,Idefinecommontermsandexplain conceptsthatprofessionalsshouldunderstandinordertoproperlyinterpretinformationfromplacementforms.Termsdefined inthisarticleincludequalitativeandquantitativemeasuresand criterion-referencedandnorm-referencedtests.

Qualitative and Quantitative Measures

Thetermsquantitativeandqualitativemeasuresareused in the Texas State Plan for the Education of Gifted/Talented Students(TexasEducationAgency,1996).Oneguidelineinthe planisthatbothqualitativeandquantitativemeasuresmustbe

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

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Testing and Measurement

usedtoassessgiftednessintheareasof intellectualandspecificacademicfields. Quantitativeinformationusesnumbers to describe, while qualitative information uses words to describe a student's strengths (Ryser, 2004). Qualitative measures generally are more dynamic and simulate performance in the real worldtoagreaterextentthanquantitativemeasures.Sometimes,examinersuse qualitative results in quantitative ways. Forexample,ifaprofessionalevaluates astudent'sportfolioona1to5scaleand thenonlyprovidesasinglescoreonthe placementform,thecommitteelosesthe richdescriptiononecangleanfromthe portfolio. This qualitative information shouldbeincludedinthedecision-makingprocess. Wheninterpretingtheinformation gathered from quantitative measures, committeememberswillwanttoknow if the score came from a criterion-referenced or norm-referenced measure. Additionally, if the score came from a norm-referenced measure, committee memberswillwanttoknowthetypeof scorereportedalongwithitsmetricand standarderrorofmeasurement.

Norm-referencedmeasurescompare anindividual'sperformancetothenormativesampleofindividualswhoalsotook the test (Gronlund, 1998). Commonly used norm-referenced measures include achievement, aptitude, and intelligence tests.Whenusingnorm-referencedmeasuresforplacementingiftedprograms,the committeewillneedtobeabletointerpret differenttypesofscoresandknowhowto use the standard error of measurement. Commonscoresthatcanbederivedfrom anorm-referencedmeasurearerawscores, gradeequivalentscores,percentileranks, andstandardscores.

havethesameaveragescoreatallgrade levels.Inaddition,onetestmayhavemore items covering a particular skill. These differencesincontentemphasiswillaffect howstudentsscoreandthusaffectgrade equivalents.

Rawscoresrepresentthetotalnumber of points a student earns on a test. Rawscoresarenotusefulforinterpretationbecausetworawscoresarenotcomparable. For example, a raw score of 35 wouldbeexcellentiftherewere36total pointsonthetestandpooriftherewere 75pointsonthetest.

Raw Scores

Criterion-Referenced and NormReferenced Measures

Criterion-referencedmeasurescompare an individual's performance to a contentorexternalcriterion(Gronlund, 1998). Most often criterion-referenced measures compare an individual score toalevelofmasteryinanacademicarea, such as mathematics. An example of a criterion-referencedmeasureistheTexas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS). Mastery levels on criterion-referenced measures are usually set at an average level and are not recommended foridentifyinggiftedstudents.Iftheyare used,thecommitteemustrememberthat thescorereflectsmasteryincomparison toacriterion,notcomparedtootherindividualswhotookthetest.Ifthecriterionis asetofstandardsinanacademicarea,the committeewillneedtoknowatwhatlevel thestandardsaresetinordertointerpret theresults.Ifthestandardsaresetatthe averageorbelowlevel,theinformationobtainedwillnotprovidegoodinformation aboutthestudent'sstrengths.

Gradeequivalentsareusedfrequently toreportperformanceofstudentsonstandardizedachievementtests.Whilegrade equivalentshaveanappealtoeducators and parents, caution must be taken in theirinterpretation.Onecommonerroris thebeliefthatagrade2studentscoringat a5.6gradelevelhasachievedalltheskills andconceptsofanaveragestudentinthe middleofgrade5.Themannerinwhich grade equivalents are calculated illustrateswhythisisanerroneousassumption.Tocalculategradeequivalents,one testslargenumbersofstudentsinseveral gradelevels.Next,averagerawscoresat eachgradelevelarecalculated,graphed, andthepointsofthegraphareconnected. Interpolationisusedtocalculatescoresat intervalswithingradelevelsandextrapolationisusedtocalculatescoresoutside therangeofgradesofstudentswhowere tested.Thisprocessassumeslearningis linearandprogressestothesamedegree acrossaspanoftime. Anothercommonerroristhebelief thatonecancomparegradeequivalents fromtwodifferenttests.But,gradeequivalentsarenotcomparable,evenwhenthe tests are measuring the same domain. Testsusedifferentnormsamplesanditis doubtfulthatbothnormsampleswould

Grade Equivalents

A percentile rank indicates a student'srelativepositioninthenormative sample(Campbell,1994).Astudentwith a score at the 65th percentile rank has a score better than 65% of the students who took the test. Percentile ranks are easytointerpretandexplaintoparents. Wheninterpretingpercentileranks,itis important to remember that percentile unitsarenotequalinsize.Inotherwords, thedifferencebetweenthe40thand50th percentile ranks is much smaller than thedifferencebetweenthe80thand90th percentileranks.Thisisespeciallycritical wheninterpretingscoresforplacementin giftedprograms.Onatestthatdoesnot have enough difficult items a student's percentile rank might change from the 95thpercentileranktothe87thpercentileranksimplybymissingoneadditional item.Inaddition,ifatestisnotdifficult enough,twostudentsscoringatthe99th percentilerankmayhavedifferentlevels ofknowledgeandexpertiseinthecontent areabeingmeasured.

Percentile Ranks

Astandardscoreexpressesthedistancebetweenarawscoreandthemean in terms of standard deviations units (Anastasi&Urbina,1997). Mosttestsnormalizestandardscoreswhendeveloping norms.Thefamiliarbellshapedcurveis actuallyagraphoftherelativenumbers orproportionsofpeoplefoundtohavea givenscore,wheretheabscissa(x-axis)is thescoreandtheordinate(y-axis)isthe relativenumberofpeople.Thefollowing example will help illustrate these concepts. Consider the height of women who are20-years-old.Supposeitisknownthat theaverage,ormean,heightforwomen in this age group is about 5 ft, 4.5 in., with a standard deviation of 2.5 in. The standard deviation can be considered to be a mathematically special type of average of the amount by which people inthepopulationdeviatefromthemean or average score. Another way to think

Standard Scores

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

ofitisasameasureofthespreadofthe scoresinthepopulation.Ifaresearcher sampled100twenty-year-oldwomenand measuredeachoftheirheights,shewould findthatmostofthewomen'sheightsare atoraroundtheaverageof5ft,4.5in.Of course,someofthemwouldbetallerand somewouldbeshorter.Supposeourresearchersubtractedandadded2.5in.from themeanheighttoobtaintheheightsthat are one standard deviation below and abovethemean.Shewouldobtainarange of5ft,2in.to5ft,7in.Becauseheight isconsideredtobenormallydistributed, statisticaltheoryallowsustoassumeshe wouldfindabout68%or68ofthewomen sampledtohaveheightsthatfallinthis range.Ifshesubtractedandadded5in. (twostandarddeviations)fromthemean height,therangewouldbe4ft,11.5in.to 5ft,9.5in.Again,becauseheightisnormally distributed, the theory allows us toassumethatshewouldfindthatabout 95%or95ofthewomensampledwould have heights in this range. The farther away the height is from the mean, the fewerfemalesourresearcherwouldfind who had that particular height. In fact, heightsof6ft,1in.wouldoccurveryseldom.Heightsthreestandarddeviations awayfromthemeanencompass99.7%of allheightsinthepopulation.Figure1illustratesthenormaldistributionandthe areasencompassedbyone,two,andthree standarddeviationsusingwomen'sheight asourexample. Acommonlyusedstandardscoreis IQ(intelligentquotient),whichwasused by Wechsler (1939) for interpretation of scoresonhisintelligencescale.Tointerpret this or any standard score the examinerneedstoknowthemeanandthe standarddeviationofthestandardscore distribution. On the deviation IQ scale, thenormgrouphasameanof100anda standarddeviationof15.Subtractingand addingonestandarddeviationfromthe meanyieldsarangeof85to115.Usingour knowledgeofthenormaldistribution,we knowthat68%ofstudentsscoredinthis range.Forplacementinprogramsforstudentswhoaregifted,thecommitteewants toidentifyaboveaverageperformanceand isonlyinterestedinscoresthatfallabove themean.Becausethemeandividesthe normaldistributionintwosymmetrical areas,50%ofscoreswouldfallaboveand 50%ofscoreswouldfallbelowthemean.

Figure 1. The normal distribution

Therefore 16% of students will score at orbetterthan115onatestthatusesthe deviationIQscale.Ascoretwostandard deviationsabovethemeanis130andonly about2.5%ofindividualsscorethishigh. Allnormalizedstandardscorescan be interpreted in this manner. Figure 2 showstherelationshipofvariousstandard scorestopercentileranks,providestheir distance from the mean, and indicates the percent of individuals who score in certainstandardscoreranges. Thestandarderrorofmeasurement (SEM) is a reflection of the error containedinalltestscoresandcanbeused toconstructaconfidenceintervalaround an individual's observed standard score (Crocker&Algina,1986).Allpeopleare assumedtohavewhatiscalledatrue score on tests. The true score is a theoretical statisticalvaluethatcanbethoughtofas theaveragescorethatwouldbeobtained ifthepersonwastestedaninfinitenumberoftimeswithnomemoryofprevious tests. The confidence interval formed around the observed score using the SEMistherangewithintheindividual's truescorecanbeexpectedtofallwitha givenlevelofstatisticalconfidence.For example, suppose that a student scores a128ontheWechslerIntelligenceScale forChildren­FourthEdition(Wechsler, 2004). If the SEM is 3, the committee would add and subtract one SEM from the observed score of 128 to obtain the 68%confidencelevel,whichinthiscase

Standard Error of Measurement

is125­131.Ifthecommitteeusesasone criterion for placement in programs for gifted students a 130 on an individual intelligence test, using one SEM would allowthisstudenttomeetthecriterion.It isimportanttoconsidertheSEMbecause anysingleobservedscoremaybeapoor estimate of the individual's true score. Sometimesatestmanualdoesnotreport the standard error of measurement. In this case, the following formula may be usedtoestimateit: SEM=SD1­r whereSD=thestandarddeviationof thestandardscoredistributionand r=theinternalconsistencyreliability ofthetest. HavingknowledgeoftheSEMaidsin quickinterpretationoftestscoresbecause itallowsaprofessionaltoquicklyassess theprecisionofatestscorebysimplyestimating the range that spans from one SEMbelowthemeantooneSEMabove themean.Thisisroughlythe68%confidenceintervalforthescore. The following case study will illustrate how committees can make sound decisionsabouttheinformationfoundon placementforms.Shaundraisa9-year-old girlwhoisbeingconsideredforplacement in a program for academically talented students in mathematics. Her teacher, counselor,andschoolpsychologisthave gatheredbothqualitativeandquantitative informationaboutherandprovideditto thecommittee(seeTable1).

Case Study

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Testing and Measurement

Qualitative Portfolio Indicators 1. Advanced level work. 2. Knowledge of mathematical vocabulary and notation. 3. Generalizes mathematical knowledge. Parent Observation Checklist 1. Able to organize data easily. 2. Curious about numeric information. 3. Enjoys solving difficult math problems. 4. Challenges self in math. 5. Likes to play number games. 6. Checks answers to math problems. 7. Wants to complete math homework before other homework. Additional Qualitative Information: Teacher: Shaundra tries to figure out the answer to math problems before anybody else. However, she is not as motivated in language arts and classes that require reading and can become oppositional when required to complete work in those areas. This shows up in other areas and the teacher has some reservation because of Shaundra's lack of maturity. Counselor: Shaundra did not always choose products to include in her portfolio that would highlight her mathematical talent. Quantitative StanfordBinetIntelligenceTest­FifthEdition Full Scale IQ 128 (125­131 with SEM) Verbal IQ 123 (120­126 with SEM) Nonverbal IQ 134 (131­137 with SEM) TestofMathematicalAbilitiesforGiftedStudents Ability Score 136 (132­140 with SEM) AdditionalQuantitativeInformation: TorranceTestsofCreativeThinking overall score 117 Inourexample,qualitativeinformationincludesaportfolioscoreandaparentobservationchecklist.Thecommittee hassetasthecriterionforqualitativeindicatorsthemajorityofitemspresent.The committee reviews the portfolio using eight indicators and lists the indicators thatarepresent,inthiscasethreeofthe eight. The parent observation checklist consistedof10itemsthatparentsrateon a1to3scale,with1=rarelyorneverand3 =almostalways.Thecommitteeliststhe items that are scored almost always, in thiscase7ofthe10.Basedonthisinformation,thecommitteecircled"No"under "CriterionMet"fortheportfolioand"Yes" underforthechecklist.Thereisroomfor additional qualitative information and Shaundra's teacher and counselor have includedanecdotalsupport. Quantitative information consists of an individual intelligence test, the StanfordBinetIntelligenceScales­Fifth Edition(SB5;Roid,2004);atestdesigned to identify mathematical talent, the Test of Mathematical Ability for Gifted Students (TOMAGS; Ryser & Johnsen, 1998);andasupplementarytesttoassess creativethinkingabilities,theTorrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT; Torrance,1998).Allthreeofthesemeasureshaveameanof100andastandard deviation of 15. The committee has set thecriterionforquantitativemeasuresat twostandarddeviationsabovethemean, which for these three tests is a score of 130 or above. The committee examines scoresontheFullScaleIQ,VerbalIQ,and NonverbalIQfromtheSB5andconsiders thecriterionmetifanyoneofthethree is 130 or above. They also subtract and addoneSEMtoprovideabetterestimate Criterion Met Yes No

Table 1. Partial Placement Form for Shaundra

Criterion Met Yes No

Yes

No

Yes

No

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Testing and Measurement

Figure 2. Height with SEM

of the student's true score. In this case, ShaundrahastwoofthethreeIQscores higherthan130,whentheSEMistaken intoconsideration:theFullScaleIQand NonverbalIQ.Therefore,thecommittee hascircled"Yes"under"CriterionMet." TheTOMAGSyieldsoneoverallscoreand Shaundra's standard score of 136 meets thecriterionoftwostandarddeviations abovethemean.Shaundrarecentlytook theTTCTandobtainedastandardscore of117.Thisscoreisincludedasadditional information. Based on the information found on the placement form, the committee decides to place Shaundra in the gifted mathematicsprogram.Hermathematical talent is evident in her TOMAGS score andherparentobservationchecklist.Her SB5FullScaleIQplacesherinthesuperior range.Notsurprisingly,herNonverbalIQ washigherthanherVerbalIQscore,especiallywhenthecommitteeconsideredthe teacher's anecdotal support. The counselor helped the students put together theirportfoliosandexplainedthatshefelt Shaundradidnotalwaysincludeproducts

thatillustratedhermathematicaltalent. Ryser,G.R.(2004).QualitativeandquanThisisimportantsincethisistheonecrititativeapproachestoassessment.In terion that Shaundra did not meet. The S.K.Johnsen(Ed.),Identifying gifted additionoftheTTCTprovidedevidence students: A practical guide (pp.23­ thatShaundraisaboveaverageinfigural 40).Waco,TX:PrufrockPress. creativity.Thisispositivesincethegifted Ryser,G.R.,&Johnsen,S.K.(1998).Test mathematicsprogramhasasonegoalto of Mathematical Ability for Gifted developstudents'creativitybypresenting Students.Austin,TX:PRO-ED. novelmathematicalproblems. Texas Education Agency, Division of AdvancedAcademicServices(1996). References Texas state plan for the education of Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). gifted/talented students. Austin,TX: Psychological testing(7thed.).Upper Author. SaddleRiver,NJ:PrenticeHall. Campbell, J. (1994). Interpreting scores Torrance,E.P.(1998). The Torrance Tests from standardized tests. Clearing of Creative Thinking norms-technical House, 67(6),314­316. manual figural (streamlined) forms Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). A & B. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Introduction to classical & modern TestingService. test theory. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Wechsler,D.(1939).The measurement of BraceJovanovich. adult intelligence. Baltimore, MD: Gronlund,N.E.(1998).Assessment of stuWilliamsandWilkins. dent achievement (6thed.).Needham Wechsler,D.(2004).Wechsler Intelligence Heights,MA:AllynandBacon. Scale for Children­Fourth Edition. Roid,G.(2004).Stanford Binet Intelligence San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Scales­Fifth Edition. Itasca, IL: RiversidePublishing. Assessment,Inc.u

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An

Alternative Framework

Identification of the Gifted African American Learner:

by Joyce E. Kyle Miller

I

dentification of the gifted African American learner remains a concern among educators in gifted education. While progress has been made in the identification of minority gifted students, much remains to be accomplished. Today, schools are faced with the reality of a large percentage of Anglo teachers and administrators making decisions regarding the referral, placement, and instruction of minority learners (Cushner, McClellan, & Safford, 2003). The representation of African American

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Testing and Measurement

learners in programs for the gifted remains disproportionate and inadequate. Expertsinthefieldagreethatequalrepresentation of potential academic giftedness is present in all groups within our society (Borland, 1994; Kitano & Kirby, 1986). Students whose families' socioeconomic status places them in the top quartile of the population are easier to identify than those students from families in the bottom quartile. Educatorsask,"WhattestsareeffectiveinidentifyinggiftedAfricanAmerican students?" The answer often leads to a short-term solution uncovering a handfulofAfricanAmericanstudentswhocan be added to gifted programs. The most productivesolutionissystemic,complex, longrange,ongoing,andmustinvolvethe totalschoolenvironment(Ford,2005).A learningenvironmentthatacknowledges thecultureandlearningdifferencesofthe AfricanAmericanlearnerprovidesfertile groundforthegrowthanddevelopment ofgiftsandtalents.AcomprehensiveapproachtotheidentificationoftheAfrican Americangiftedlearnerinvolveslooking at giftedness and how it may be manifestedwhenimpactedbyrace,ethnicity, andsocioeconomicstatus.Inthisarticle, I offer a school-wide framework for the identificationofgiftedAfricanAmerican students,whohavenotbeenidentifiedby application of traditional identification procedures.

1

Amulticulturalresponsetocurriculumandinstructionthatisbasedongifted principles can serve as a magnet for the culturallydifferentgiftedstudent.Amulticultural responsive approach (BensonHale,1990)towhatistaughtandhowcontentistaughtconveystothestudentthe messagethat"Youarewelcomehere,and allofyourdifferencesarewelcomehere. ComeoninandIwilltakewhatyoubring andbuildonitandhelpyoulearnwhatis neededtosucceedinlife."Learnerscome toknowthattheydon'thavetoassimilate orleavetheirculturebehind,buttheydo needtopreparetolearnotherwaysofacting,thinking,andbehaving.Studentscan learnessentialknowledgeandskills,and Component Two: Professional theycanbecomeproducersofknowledge Development without being alienated from their own The second phase of this comprelanguage and culture. This school-wide hensive identification model is profesculturallyresponsiveapproachtothecur- sionaldevelopment.Educators(counsel-

Component One: Multicultural Responsive Curriculum and Instruction

riculummaynecessitateleadershipbythe district curriculum director and gifted coordinator.Theeffortischallenging,but the end result is that African American parentsandstudentswillgravitatetoward giftedprogramsthatofferatasteofhome, areflectionofwhotheyarethroughoutthe school'scurriculum. Allpeopleareinsearchofatasteof home. When I taught English/Language Arts many years ago, my students presentedbookreportseach6weeks.Iwould takemystudentstothelibraryandthey wouldcheckoutthebookoftheirchoice. African American students often could notfindbooksthatwererelevanttotheir culture.Schoollibrarycollectionsshould alsobemulticulturallyresponsive. An example of this concept is seen wheneveronewalksintoaroomofstrangers.Theroomissurveyedquicklytofind someonewithwhomaconnectioncanbe made.Ayoungpersonwhowalksintoa roomofobviouslysenioradultschecksto seeifheorsheisintherightplace.Upon findingthatheorsheisintherightroom, thisyoungpersonlookstofindsomeone whooffersthatrequired"tasteofhome." Meetingthiscriterionoftendetermines how the experience will be evaluated. Students in our schools are the same way. Revealing the cultural background ofamathematician,scientist,author,or composer of piece of music being studiedhelpsthestudentsmakeconnections andidentifywiththeinformationtobe learned. This concept is true for people in general and specifically for African American students who often have to looklongandhardbeforeencountering themselves in the school's curriculum. Culturallycompetenteducatorsaresensitivetothisneedandworktoprovidea "tasteofhome"foralloftheirstudents. Inaculturallysensitivelearningenvironment,AfricanAmericangiftedlearnerswillfeelsafetoemergeandbecome whotheyreallyare.Theendresultisthat giftedAfricanAmericanstudentswillnot feelthattheyarebeingaskedtochange andact"white"(Delpit,1995;Fordham& Ogbu,1986)inordertobeapartofthe giftedprogram.

ors, teachers, administrators) must be trainedto"see"giftedcharacteristicsas theyemergeinthecontextoftheAfrican Americanculture.Noonegroupoflearnerssubscribetothesamesetoflearning preferences.WithintheAfricanAmerican culture,thereareindividuallearningpreferences as in any other group; teachers must,therefore,usedifferentapproaches inteachingindividuallearners.AscharacteristicsofthegiftedAfricanAmerican studentareusedasexamplesinhelping teachersdevelopsomeunderstandingof howgiftednessmayappearintheculture oftheAfricanAmericanstudent,teachersmustberemindedthatnotallAfrican Americanstudentswillexhibitthesame characteristics. The early work of Paul Torrance (1977) revealed that African American gifted learners have strengths and "creative positives." Torrance outlined the following creative positives of African Americanchildren: · abilitytoexpressfeelings,toimprovise; · articulateinroleplaying; · possess artistic, musical, dramatic ability; · expressivespeech; · fluencyandflexibilityinnon-verbal media; · skillsingrouplearningandproblem solving; · responsivetotheconcreteandkinesthetic; · expressiveinbodylanguage; · originalityinbrainstorming; · problemcentered; · emotionallyresponsive; · quickwarmup(quickflowofideas); and · senseofhumor. Areviewofgiftedcharacteristicsfrom the literature reveals that gifted students havekeenobservations,verbalproficiency, large vocabularies, facility of expression, questioningabilities,curiosity,skepticism, powerofconcentration,longattentionspan, anddiversityofinterestsandabilities. The minority gifted learner may manifest keen observation skills by quickly detecting racist attitudes and practices and feelings of school alienationatanearlyage.Minoritygiftedstudents may have large non-school-related vocabularies.TheeaseofspeakinginstandardEnglishmaybehinderedbythinking inthelanguageoftheirculture.African

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Testing and Measurement

Americangiftedlearnersareoftenquestioning,curious, and skeptical; however, this behavior may be described asasking"thewrong"questionsbytheteacherwholacks culturalawareness.AfricanAmericangiftedlearnersmay havestrongconcentrationskillsandmayexpressdispleasureathavingtostopanactivity.Theyhaveglobalintellectualabilitiesandmayneglectschoolworkbecauseofother intereststhatmayormaynotberelatedtoschool(Ford, 2005;Ford,Harris,&Schuerger,1993).Thesecharacteristicsareofferednotasstereotypes,butasexamplesofhow giftedcharacteristicsmaybemanifestedbygiftedAfrican Americanstudents.Adiscussionofthesecharacteristics shouldbecomeapartofprofessionaldevelopment,andthey shouldbelistedasexamplesonnominationchecklists. The professional development component must also includetrainingteachersinhowtoteachacademiccontent inaculturallyresponsiveway.Trainingisneededinhowto buildonthestrengthsoftheAfricanAmericanstudentto helpfacilitatenewunderstandings.Teachersshouldprovide studentsoptionsthatincludeprojectsandassignmentsthat addressthemes,issues,problems,andtrendsintheAfrican Americancommunity.Permittheuseofwritingsauthored byoraboutAfricanAmericansascomparisonpieceswith traditionalliteraryselections.Historical,experimental,and descriptiveresearchprojectsandassignmentscanaddress realproblemsinAfricanAmericanlifeandculture.Students canbeinvitedtodrawondifferentperspectivesfromthe AfricanAmericancommunityandencouragedtouseperiodicalsandpublicationswhosereadershipispredominately AfricanAmerican.Acomparativeapproachtotheteachingofacademiccontentcanreapbenefitsforallstudents. Eveninthosecaseswhereteachersmaylackknowledgeof theinformationorissues,teachersshouldraisequestions thatwouldmotivateAfricanAmericanstudentstoseekout thefactsorissuesandbringthemintotheclassroomfor examinationandinvestigation.Inadditiontoexploringthe teachingofacademiccontentinaculturalcontext,professionaldevelopmentshouldalsoaddressthoseaffectivelife skillsthatarevitaltobothacademicsuccessandtoliving successfullives.Perry,Steele,andHilliard(2003)referto theseteachingsas"counterhegemonic,"whileSternbergand Grigorenko(2000)describethesetechniquesas"successful intelligence." Professional development for gifted coordinators, counselors, and administrators should include informationaddressingthenatureandneedsofthegiftedAfrican Americanstudent.Strategiesforevaluatingtheculturalresponsivenessofthetotalschoolenvironment,workingwith AfricanAmericanparents,involvingparentsasleadersin theschool,andstrategiesforreachingandinformingthe communityandparentsshouldbespecificallyemphasized. Trainingforcounselorsshouldalsoaddressmulticultural counselingstrategies.

ThethirdphaseoftheAfricanAmericanidentification model is parent-community involvement. School personnel must inform parents and the community by using nontraditional outreach strategies such as (a) dis-

Component Three: Parent-Community Involvement

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

seminating information through the churches, clubs, organizations, sororities,fraternities,andrecreationcentersfrequentedbytheAfrican Americancommunity;(b)identifyingkeyindividualswhocanserveas school-communityliaisons;(c)communicatingwiththeleadershipof keycommunityadultandyouthgroupsbyvolunteeringtomakepresentationsregardingtheprograms,options,andservicesavailablefor giftedAfricanAmericanstudents;(d)increasingtheeffectivenessofthe schooldistrict-widemailingoflettersbyplacingemphasisonthedesign andlayoutoftheinformation;(e)avoidinglong,narrativeletterswith smallfont;(f)organizingparentmeetingswithprimaryconsideration giventotheschedulesoftheparents;and(g)seekingtodevelopwaysto meaningfullyinvolveparentsindecisionmakingregardingthegifted program. Educatorschargedwiththeidentificationofgiftedstudentsare aware of the shortcomings and limitations of placement decisions basedonlyontestscores.However,circumstancesaresuchthattoday "thepredictorofperformancehasbecomemoreimportantthanthe performanceitself"(Sternberg&Grigorenko,2000,p.31).Refuseto permittheresultsofastandardizedtestalonetoruleyourprofessional judgment.Oneofthemostpowerfulsourcesofidentificationishuman observationbythetrainedgifted/talentedprofessional.Ifyourheart andheadtellyouthatthestudentispotentiallygifted,lookfurther, deeper,andlongertosupportyourobservationsandintuition. Classroom teachers should listen to classroom responses that mayappeartobeoff-target.Trytoseethepointthestudentismakingbyhelpingthestudentelaborateontheirideas.Lookforindicators of above-average performance reflecting untapped potential. Direct observation of student behavior is potentially the richest source of

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Testing and Measurement

information.Lookfortraitslikecreativity, perseverance,andproblemsolving.John Goodlad(1984)urgededucatorstothink about what a child can do rather than onlyaboutwhatthechildcannotdo.Ask, "Whatisthischildreadytodoorcando, now, with little instruction?" Identify a potentiallygiftedAfricanAmericanchild byobservinganddocumentingthoseobservations.Teachersshouldmaintainover time a list of observed gifted behaviors andnotablemoments.Studentportfolios canbeanadditionalsourceofinformation aboutthestudent.Usethepreponderance ofevidencetosupportyouradvocacyfora closerlookatthestudentbytheidentificationcommittee.Anapproachsuchasthis requirestimeandeffort.However,educatorsinterestedindiversifyingtheirschool's giftedpopulationwillfindthetimespent invaluabletothestudentandtheschool's program.Asateamofteacherswhohas hadgiftedandtalentedtrainingobserve thesamestudentovertime,powerfulobservationsandconclusionscanbemade. The process of identifying African American gifted learners may involve interviews with the child and his or her parent.Aninterviewthatallowsparents totellateacherabouttheirchildcanbe particularlyhelpfulwhencoupledwitha teacher'sorteamofteachers'observations. Forexample,interviewthechildforinsight into the child's creativity, perseverance, self-determination, and problem-solving abilities. AsgiftedAfricanAmericanstudents areidentifiedandplacementdecisionsare made,considerwaystomaintainaculturallyresponsivelearningenvironmentand buildinsafetynetsandsupportsystems. Avoidcreatinga"sinkorswim"situation forthestudent.Awelcomingenvironment canbecreatedbymeansofaculturallyinclusivecurriculum.Schoolsusingamulticulturalapproachtothecurriculumwill findthiseasytoaccomplishandtheeffort willnotbeviewedbythestudentsasadditive(Banks&Banks,2001).School-wide mentoringbecomesaviableapproachto creatingasupportsystemforgiftedAfrican Americanstudents.Theuseofdifferentiated instruction is particularly effective byprovidingstudentswithopportunities toseetheirstrengths.Schoolswantingto makeprogresstowardidentifyingandre-

taininggiftedAfricanAmericanstudents Ford, D. (2005). Cultural blindness: A ingifted/talentededucationprogramswill model of culture with implications maketheeffort,andfindthetime.Thereal forgiftededucation.Roeper Review, workofidentificationofthehardtoiden27(2),97­103. tifyisnoteasyandwillnothappenoverFord,D.,Harris,J.,&Schuerger,J.M.(1993). night,butprogresstowardthegoaliswell Racial identity development among worth the effort. School leadership that gifted Black students: Counseling respondstooursociety'sculturaldiversity issues and concerns. Journal of willsurpassthesuperficialapproachesthat Counseling and Development, 71, haveresultedinthestatusquooftheracial, 409­417. ethnic,andsocioeconomicdemographics thathavecharacterizedgiftedandtalented Fordham,S.,&Ogbu,J.(1986).Blackstuprograms. dents' school success: Coping with the"burdenofactingwhite."Urban References Review18(3).176­206. Banks,J.A.,andBanks,C.A.M.(2001). Goodlad,J.I.(1984).A place called school. Multicultural education: Issues and NewYork:McGraw-Hill. perspectives (4thed.).NewYork:John Kitano,M.,&Kirby,D.(1986).Gifted eduWiley&Sons. cation: A comprehensive view.Boston: Benson-Hale, J. (1990). Visions for chilLittle&Brown. dren: Educating Black children in the context of their culture. Going to Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hilliard, A. G. (2003). Young, gifted, and Black: school: The African American experience.Albany:StateUniversityofNew Promoting high achievement among YorkPress. African-American students. Boston: Borland, J. (1994). Identifying young, BeaconPress. potentiallygifted,economicallydis- Sternberg,R.J.,&Grigorenko,E.L.(2000). advantaged students. Gifted Child Teaching for successful intelligence. Quarterly,38,164­171. Arlington Heights, IL: SkyLight Cushner,K.,McClellan,A.,&Safford,P. ProfessionalDevelopment. (2003).Human diversity in education: An integrative approach.NewYork: Torrance,E.P.(1977).Discovery and nurturance of giftedness in the culturally McGrawHill. different. Reston, VA: Council on Delpit,L.(1995).Other people's children. NewYork:NewYorkPress. ExceptionalChildren.u

Summary

"Integrating New Concepts for the Gifted and Talented K-12"

30-Hour GT Training § Differentiated Curriculum § Questioning Strategies Parent Seminars § Instructional Strategies § Six-Hour Updates Identication Assessment § Social-Emotional Issues § Lesson Planning Administrator Training § Program Development § Learning Styles § TEKS Underachievers § Stress Management for the Gifted

Deborah G. Mallett, Ed.M., CEO Educational Consultant, TAGT-Approved Training

1365 Candlestick Circle Beaumont, TX 77706 Phone: 409.861.3998 Fax: 409.861.1820 E-mail: [email protected]

www.mallett-and-company.com

§ §

16

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

TheRelationship BewteenNCLB, TAKS,andthe GiftedLearner

byPhilMacKaron

exas administrators have been using the phrase "raising the bar" to characterize the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), which has replaced the "minimum" standard TAAS test in response tothestandardsincludedinthefederally mandatedNoChildLeftBehind(NCLB). Withseveral"TAKSing"yearsundertheir belts,itseemsapparentthatourchildren finally have an educational goal to run toward,andeducatorsnowhaveahigher standardorfocus.So,whyareadvocates for gifted and talented students voicing reservations? CarolAnnTomlinson,formerpresidentoftheNationalAssociationforGifted Children,voicesconcernovertheNCLB's focusonproficiencystandardsthatdonot challengethegiftedandtalentedlearner.

T

Tomlinson states, "The `No Child Left Behind' Act fails to balance equity and excellence. How much more promising theNoChildLeftBehindActwouldbeif itgenuinelyensuredthatnochildwould beleftbehindintermsofdevelopinghis or her possibilities--if it unreservedly supported both equity and excellence" (Tomlinson,2002,p.38). Tests similar to the TAKS have a centralgoalofskillproficiency--insome grades, such as third grade and fifth grades, students in Texas must pass the testtobepromoted,whileexitleveltests arerequiredforgraduation.TheTAKSis correlatedtostatecurriculumobjectives orTexasEssentialKnowledgeandSkills (TEKS).Threewordsaresharedinboth acronyms: Texas, knowledge, and skills. But,thecontroversycentersontwoother

words in the TAKS/TEKS acronyms: "essential" and "assessment"--these are thekeyissuesthatimpactthegiftedand talentedstudent. Oneconcernfortheeducatorofthe giftedandtalentedisessentialsvs.excellence--whatTomlinsondescribesas"balancing twin commitments," equity and excellence(Tomlinson,2002).Debateover proficiencyvs.excellenceisnotlimitedto educators.InarecentWallStreetJournal article entitled "Brain Drain," journalist Daniel Golden observed that laws like NCLB "may be leaving behind some of thestrongest[studentsinorderto]raise theproportionofproficientstudents[and] narrow the achievement gap" (Golden, 2003,p.1A).Goldenaddsthatpriorities inprogramsandcurriculumarechanging toreflecttheprioritiesofNCLB,"Toabide

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Testing and Measurement

bythelaw,schoolsareshiftingresources awayfromprogramsthathelptheirmost giftedstudents"(Golden,p.1A). Lack of funding also impacts this debate. According to Tomlinson, NCLB mandates in-service training on "differentlearningstyles,speciallearningneeds &instructionalstrategiestoteachgifted and high performing students" (NCLB, ¶4). This equates to $11.2 million a year forresearchandstategrantsforapproximately three million gifted and talented students--hardlyenoughtocoverthecost ofthestatemandatedgiftedandtalented programs(Golden,2003). A second issue haunting educators ofthegiftedandtalentedwithrelationto NCLBisassessment.Centraltoassessment isidentification.NCLBdefinesgiftedand talented students as "Children or youth who give evidence of high achievement capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who needservicesoractivitiesnotordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop those capabilities" (NCLB, ¶2). Intermsofidentificationandassessment, giftedandtalentedstudentsarebothan enigmaanda challenge--gifted andtalented students are often best identified when applying conventional measures like IQ tests with additional qualitative data such as portfolios and parent and teacherchecklists.Typicalcharacteristics shared by gifted and talented students include creativity, intrinsic motivation, disinterest in conventional approaches, and antisocial behavior, characteristics thatarenottypicallytestedthroughstandardizedtesting.However,assessmentis only a part of the complexity of serving thegiftedandtalented.Otherissuessuch ascurriculumandmotivationcreatethe realchallengesineducatingthegiftedand talentedstudent. With the thrust of NCLB to create a measurable level of proficiency, states like Texas have designed assessments similartotheTAKStoreflectthefederal mandate--theproficiency"line"towhich studentswillrun.Likewise,educators,in responsetothestateassessment,prepare students by teaching essentials, that is, basicknowledgeandskillsobjectiveslike theTEKS.EmphasisonTAKSpreparation such as test-taking strategies, periodic benchmarktests,andpracticeTAKStestingwilltaketimefromstandardinstruc-

tion,possiblycausingteacherstosacrifice tostandardizedgoalsorobjectives.Gifted other curriculum that enriches all stu- andtalentedstudentsarenottypical,and dents beyond the "proficient" standard. itisnotunusualforagiftedandtalented studenttoshowreluctancetoparticipate when confronted with a task that does not spark his or her interest. Therefore, statetestinglikeTAKSmayreceivetepid responsesfromthem.Classactivitieslike TAKS preparation and fact drills, while necessaryforthenonproficientstudent, may result in boredom and disinterest fromthegiftedandtalentedstudent. Thefederalandstateresponsetothe need for proficiency is definitely a goal worth pursuing. Most educators agree thatTAKSisbetteralignedtotheTEKS andhasahigherstandardthanTAAS,but thestandardneedstobestretchedtopromotehighergoalsforallstudents,notjust the"nonproficient."TocomplywithNCLB mandatesthatallstudentsshowprogress inproficiency,Texaseducationaladministratorshavebeenphasinginstateand locallydevelopedalternativeassessments (SDAAandLDAA),testingstandardsfor specialeducationstudents.Inlightofthe Granted, essential skills are important, state'seffortstoaccommodateallstudents butsomethingismissingifeducatorsonly whoarebelowproficiencylevels,wouldit worktowardtheessentials. seemunreasonabletoexpectequalattenIf,infact,thefederalandstateman- tion for those students who are neither dates intend that "all children" will be challengednormotivatedbyaminimum advancingthroughthenewinitiatives,then standard?Likewise,federalfundingcould thequestionstillremainswhetherornot support not only proficiency, but also themotivationandcurriculumofgifted further development of programs that andtalentedstudentsisbeingaddressed, orasTomlinsonstates,"[shouldNCLB] encourage excellence. For now, overraiseceilingsofperformanceasfervently emphasisonthenonproficientstudents, asweraisefloors?"(Tomlinson,2002,p. preparationforstateproficiencytests,and 38).Is"proficiency"alinetoracetoward limitedfundingde-emphasizethe"excelor a "ceiling" that curtails educational lence" goal of education, compromising momentum, especially in the gifted and giftedandtalentedprograms,curriculum, talentedstudent?Whiletestscoresseem andmostimportantlythestudents. tobegoingup,seeminglyprovingthatwe aremovinginthedirectionofproficiency, References theactualcurriculummaybeexperiencingashiftthatcouldimpactthegiftedand Bondi,J.,&Wiles,J.(1989).Curriculum talentedlearners. development: A guide to practice. StudentmotivationisequallyimporColumbus, OH: Merrill Publishing tant when considering federal and state Company. standards and the gifted and talented Golden, D. (2003, December 29). Brain student.Thegiftedandtalentedstudent drain: Initiative to leave no child may view the TAKS test with indifferbehindleavesoutgifted.Wall Street ence.ConcerningthemotivationalramiJournal,p.1A,6A. ficationsofcurriculumchoices,thegifted NCLB.RetrievedJune9,2003,fromhttp:// andtalentedchildischaracterizedas"a www.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml divergentthinker,"whoisoftenlabeledas a"troublemaker"(Bondi&Wiles,1989). Tomlinson,C.(2002).Proficiencyisnot Suchastudentisoftenreluctantto"buyin" enough.Education Week, 22,36­38.

If, in fact, the federal and state mandates intend that "all children" will be advancing through the new initiatives, then the question still remains whether or not the motivation and curriculum of gifted and talented students is being addressed . . .

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Book Reviews

Cradles of Eminence(2nded.)(ISBN0-910707-57-X)isarevisionof the1962classicbyVictorandMildredGoertzel,whichstudiedthechildhoodsof400eminentmenandwomen.The2ndedition,updatedbyTed GoertzelandArielHansen,includes300additionalbiographicalsketches ofeminentpersonswhoemergedduringthelaterhalfofthe20thcentury. Bookchapterssuchas"HomesThatRespectLearningandAchievement," "OpinionatedParents,""TroubledHomes,"and"EarlyAgonies"recognize similarlifeexperiencesoftheeminent.Thechaptersalsoprovideinsight intotheearlylivesanddevelopmentofthesegiftedindividuals.Thispublicationisnotonlyfascinating,butcanalsobeusedasabibliotherapy toolwhenworkingwiththegifted.Formoreinformationcontact:Great PotentialPress,POBox5057,Scottsdale,AZ85261;(877)954-4200;http:// www.giftedbooks.com. Inhisbook,Barefoot Irreverence: A Collection of Writings on Gifted Children(ISBN1-882664-79-5),authorJamesDeLisleoffershimselfasa willingsoldieronthesideofchildren.Thereaderwillfindnocrunched numbers,achievementstatistics,orquantitativesurveysinthiscollection ofessays.However,astheauthorputsit,"whatIlackinstatisticalprecision Imakeupforinobservationalabilities"(p.2).FansofDeLisle'scolumns, articles,andessaysinsuchpublicationsasEducation Week andTeacher Magazinewillfindthisbookanabsolutegoldmine.Theauthorcoversa widerangeoftopics,subdividedinto11thought-provokingsectionssuch as"So,youwanttobetheparentofagiftedchild?"and"Testing!One... Two...Three!Testing!"Delislemixesin-your-face,hard-hittingcommentarywithRobertFulghum-esquewitandcompassion.Thisisthe"All IEverWantedtoKnow..."bookforthefieldofgiftededucation. Barefoot Irreverence isamustforanyeducatororparentwhoispassionateabouthelpingchildrenreachtheirpotential.Itisthought-provokingbothintrospectivelyandinspirationally.Formoreinformation,contactPrufrockPressInc.,POBox8813,Waco,TX76714;(800)998-2208; http://www.prufrock.com.Reviewed by William Schatte Deciding which instructional strategies to use challenges teachers daily.Studentsineachclassroomareuniqueandoneofakind.Itisunheardoftoseetwochildrencomprehend,learn,andapproachlearning thesameway.GayleG.GregoryandCarolynChapman'sDifferentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn't Fit All (ISBN0-761945-51-2), givesthereaderavarietyofactivitiestouseintheclassroomthatpromote successforall.Thebookdoesanexcellentjobofprovidingvariousinstructionalstrategiesandplanningactivitiesusedtoensuretheclassroomisa learningenvironmentequippedtoteachanarrayoflearners.Strategies provided include grouping activities, types of assessments, classroom organization, and planning sheets to guide the differentiation process. Formoreinformationcontact,CorwinPress,2455TellerRoad,Thousand Oaks,CA91320;(800)818-7243;http://www.corwinpress.com.Reviewed by Shalane Simms

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Books for Children

The Man Who Went to the Far Side of the Moon: The Story of Apollo 11 Astronaut Michael Collins (ISBN 0-81184007-7) by Bea Uusma Schyffert combines actual notes, pictures, and diagrams from Michael Collins' trip to the moon.ThebookdetailsMichaelCollins,BuzzAldrin,and NeilArmstrong'spreparationfortheirhistoricalflight.The combinationoffactualinformationandpersonalnarratives fromtheastronautsmakesthismorethanjustanotherbook aboutspace.Thecolorfulpicturesandinformationcapture theimaginationofanyyoungreader.Formoreinformation contact:ChronicleBooks,85SecondStreet,SanFrancisco, CA 94105; (800) 722-6657; http://www.chroniclekids. com. NathanielWhitely,a16-year-oldgiftedteenwhowas identifiedin7thgradeforColumbiaUniversity'sStudent OutreachandRecruitment(SOAR)initiativeisthemain

character in Janet McDonald's Brother Hood (ISBN0-374309-95-7).Nathaniel'sparentsknow thatheiswell-adjusted,butareconcernedabout hisleavingfamiliarsurroundingsforFletcher, "aschoolforrichwhitekids,"whomayberacist. Nathaniellivesintwodifferentworlds;hehas learnedtoliveinthecultureofhisfriendsat Fletcher,andthecultureofHarlem. ThroughoutthemanyexperiencesNathaniel has,heisabletomaintainrespectforothers, whilemaintainingtieswithhisHarlemfriends, family,andfriendsatFletcher.Natefindsthat hedoesn'thavetobecomesomeoneotherthan himself in order to succeed and achieve his dreamofgoingtocollege.Itreallyisallabout Brother Hood. For more information contact: Farrar,Staus,&Giroux,19UnionSquareWest, NewYork,NY10003;(212)741-6900;http://www. fsgbooks.com. Reviewed by Joyce E. Kyle Miller u

0

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Testing and Measurement

tdoesn'ttakeahighIQtoknowthat 3. wecanlearnfromeachother.One's experiences and mistakes can guide otherparents. My journey, as a parent of a gifted child, began with trying to shepherd my son through the educational maze. The obstacles for him began very early. Looking back, I wish that someone had toldmeaboutthehillsandvalleys.Iwish that I had been better informed. And I wish....Well,what'sdoneisgone.Wehave madeitthisfar.Wesurvivedandlearned fromourtribulationsandsuccesses.Ithas beenamemorablejourney. Stuart,age21,isnowattheUniversity ofTexasmajoringinaerospaceengineering.Heishappyandproductiveandenjoys mostofhisclasses.Competitivebynature, 4. helovestolearn,andmakingtopgradesis importanttohim.Hisfuturelooksbright! Stuarthasbeen my teacher,andhis pathhasbeenmyparentalworkout.What IhavelearnedfromhimIwishtoshare withyousothatyourjourneyasaparent ofagiftedchildmightbesmoother. 1. Fight for your child. Whenthesystemsaysno,findanotherway.When Stuartdecidedthathewantedtoapply for the Texas Academy of Math and Science at the University of NorthTexasatDenton,hislocalhigh school would not allow him to take theneededadvancedsciencecourses outoforder,eventhoughwehadreceivedrecommendationstodosoby 5. universityadvisors.Workingthrough thechainofcommand,weweregiven four"no's"beforeonepositivethinkingschoolboardmembertookupour cause.Theadministrationreluctantly metourrequest.BecauseofStuart's couragetopursueandourperseverance,Stuartchangedthesystem,allowingotherstudentsfromthenon tohavethesameopportunityhehad beensogrudginglygiven. 2. Find a mentor for your child.Iwas lucky.ApastpresidentofTAGTmet Stuartwhenhewasyoung.Thesupportshegavehimbyjustbeingavailablewastremendouslyreassuringto him.Whenhewasawayfromhome, he wrote her more often than me! Knowingyourchildhassomeoneof qualitytoturntowhenyouareunavailableiscomforting.

I

A Gift From One Parent to Another by Jeanine McGregor

Reinforce good social responsibility. Giftedstudents,throughnofault oftheirown,areoftenpushedintoa categoryofaminorityofone.Their interests and passions often make themfeeloutofstepwithotherstudents.Theysometimeswithdrawinto theirintellectualcomfortzone.But,a giftedchildalsoneedsheart.When Stuart(anavidbookcollector)came homefromschoolandtoldmethathe hadgivenoneofhisprizedbooksto anunderprivilegedstudentwhohad admiredit,myheartwarmedimmediately.HeknewIwasproudofwhat hehaddone.Intellectwithoutcompassionislikeasilverteasetwithout anyteainside. Provide the option for faith development. Teenagers, whether gifted or not, sometimes withdraw from parental values and often close the doorstocommunication.Havingaresourceofunconditionallovethrough an active religious faith allows anyonetorecognizeandaccepthuman limitations and establish a sense of purpose. When Stuart lost a gifted friendtosuicide,thewholecommunitywasconfused.Explanationsare nevergoodenough.Hisbeliefsystem gavehimsomekindofinnerstrength. Spiritualgrowth,alongwithphysical andmental,isvitalforawell-adjusted individual. Recognize the importance of errors/ mistakes/interruptions. Through ourproblems,wefindopportunities. Stuarthadtoputhiscollegestudies onholdwhensurgerywasnecessary. Ithoughtthatdepressionwouldset in, but Stuart sought employment while waiting for the next semester tobegin.HesecuredajobatafastfoodrestaurantinalimitedEnglish speakingsectionofthecity.Realizing how discrimination and prejudice canswingbothways,Iwasreadyto addressquestionsandproblemsthat mightarise.But,Stuarttookthesituationandbuiltonit.Hebecamethe honored"gringo"attherestaurantand seriously studied Spanish to better understand and communicate with hiscoworkers.Workingforminimum wageandobservingotherstryingto existonthatamountwerelifelessons Icouldhaveneverarrangedforhim. Hearrangedthatoneforhimself. 6. Become informed about all options. Youneverknowwhatpathyourchild's interestsandabilitiesmightleadto. TheDukeTalentSearchat7thgrade led to a correspondence course in advanced mathematics from Texas Tech University, which prepared Stuart for The Texas Academy of Math and Science at UNT­Denton. This opened the door to summer workatNASAatage16. 7. Take your child with you to the Parent/Student Day at the Texas Association of Gifted and Talented Conference. This year it is scheduled for Saturday, November 5th at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center,SanAntonio,Texas.Finding occasions to grow together are the jewels of parenthood. For more information, contact TAGT at 512499-8264. You might also consider going to the special parent conference,whichTAGTholdsduringthe spring. 8. Laugh with your child. Thesearethe best memories. Theseideasarewrittentotrytohelp otherparents.Ifyouandyourchildhave had an experience, problem, or success thatcouldhelpanother,considerwriting anarticle,orspeakingtootherparents.It willbeagiftfromoneparenttoanother.

Further Information:

Walker,S.Y.(1991).The survival guide for gifted kids. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Omartian,S.(1995).The power of a praying parent.Eugene,OR:HarvestHouse. Texas Academy of Math and Science. P.O.Box305309,UniversityofNorth Texas, Denton, TX 76203; Dean of Students:Dr.RichardSinclair;(940) 565-3971;http://www.tams.unt.edu Texas Tech University Guided Study. P.O.Box42191,Lubbock,TX794092191;(800)MY-COURSE;http://www. dce.ttu.edu Duke University Talent Identification Program,Box90780,DukeUniversity, Durham,NC27708-0780;(919)6689100;http://www.tip.duke.eduu

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

1

Testing and Measurement

What D oes the Resear ch

Say About

surem Mea

by Susan K. Johnsen

ts and ? Tes ent

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

ests are objective and standardizedmeasuresofasampleofbehavior(Anastasi&Urbina,1997). In gifted education, professionals use teststoidentifyandplacegiftedstudents inspecificprograms,toassessstudents' strengthsandweaknessesinplanninginstruction,andtoevaluatethecurriculum, instruction, and overall program. Tests aremosteffectivewhentheyareusedaccordingtotheauthors'recommendations and have adequate technical qualities. Technical qualities relate to the sample (Whowastestedwhenitwasnormed?), the test's reliability (How consistently does it measure what it's supposed to measure? How stable is it over time?), andthetest'svalidity(Howwelldoesit measurewhatit'ssupposedto?).However, notalltestsaretechnicallyadequate.For thatreason,testusersneedtoknowhow to evaluate tests so that they are useful anddonotharmstudents. This review examines articles that were published during the last 10 years inGifted Child Quarterly, The Journal for the Education of the Gifted, and Roeper Review.Tobeincluded,thepurposeofthe articlefocusedprimarilyonthetechnical qualitiesofspecifictestsortheirdevelopment.Articleswereexcludediftheauthors usedinternationalsamples,developedassessmentsthatwerenotintendedforstudentsingradesK­12,orsimplydescribed identificationprocedures.Theseselection criteriaidentified37articles.Overall,the articles used empirical methods, with only eight based on interpretations or reviewsoftheliterature. Specificteststhatwerereviewedmeasuredareasthatareinthestate'sdefinition ofgiftedandtalentedstudents:creativity (Cropley, 2000), leadership (Edmunds, 1998; Oakland, Falkenberg, & Oakland, 1996),math(Shermis,Fulkerson,&Banta, 1996),science(Adams&Callahan,1995), the performing arts (Oreck, Owen, & Baum, 2003), or intelligence (Fishkin, Kampsnider, & Pack, 1996; Lohman, 2005; Masten, Morse, & Wenglar, 1995; Mills & Tissot, 1995; Naglieri & Ford, 2003;Plucker,2000;Plucker,Callahan,& Tomchin,1996;Pyryt,2000;Spangler& Sabatino,1995;Sternberg&Clinkenbeard, 1995; Van Tassel-Baska, Johnson, & Avery, 2002). Others examined related

T

topsychologicalareassuchasemotional intelligence (Mayer, Perkins, Caruso, & Salovey, 2001; Pfeiffer, 2001), overexcitabilities(Bouchard,2004;Piechowski& Miller,1995),andthinkingstyles(Dai& Feldhusen,1999),whileothersexamined classroom-related areas such as student problem solving (Reid, Romanoff, Algozzine, & Udall, 2000; Sarouphim, 1999a, 1999b, 2000), learning behaviors (Worrell&Schafer,2004),fantasy(Dunn, Corn, & Morelock, 2004), classroom activities (Gentry & Gable, 2001), portfolios (Johnsen & Ryser, 1997; Shaklee &Viechnicki,1995),orstudentinterests (Kettle,Renzulli,&Rizza,1998). Forthemostpart,authorsreported thattheinstrumentswereconsistentor reliable in measuring the characteristics or traits with a few exceptions. For example, the DISCOVER instrument's problem solving tasks, which measure multiple intelligences, do not relate to one another as expected (Sarouphim, 2000). The ElemenOE, which measures overexcitabilities, has two scales (sensual and imaginational) whose internal consistencyreliabilitywereunacceptable (Bouchard, 2004). On the other hand, Piechowski and Miller (1995) reported adequate interobserver agreements and test-retestresultsontheoverexcitabilities questionnaireandinterview,analternativetesttoassessoverexcitabilities. In examining validity, the authors conducted factor analyses, examined differences between groups, and analyzed the test's relationships to other tests.Factoranalysisisusedtoidentify how many traits or areas are measured by the test. For example, if the test authors hypothesize that a test measures morethanoneintelligencesuchaswith multiple intelligences, then a factor analysis would confirm if some items relate to one another, but do not relate toothers--independentfactors.Authors reported one (Edmunds, 1998; Shermis, Fulkerson, & Banta, 1996) to 11 factors (Kettle,Renzulli,&Rizza,1998)intheir tests.Thefactorsappearedtorelatetothe theoryunderlyingthetest,withafewexceptions.Someauthorsfoundfewerfactorsthantheauthorsproposed:Daiand Feldhusen (1999) discovered only three factorsintheThinkingStylesInventory;

Edmunds(1998),onlyonefactorwiththe Leadership Skills Inventory; and only one(Pyryt,2000)ortwofactors(Plucker, 2000; Plucker, Callahan, & Tomchin, 1996)withamultipleintelligences-based performanceassessment.Instudyingan olderversionoftheWechslerIntelligence Scale for Children, Masten, Morse and Wenglar(1995)alsoreporteddifferentsets offactorsthatappearfordifferentethnic groups, in this case, MexicanAmerican children. In terms of discriminating among gifted students, academically able students, and nonidentified students, the researchers reported promising results. A number of studies showed that the test discriminated between gifted and nonidentifiedgiftedstudentsandmight be used in the identification process (Glascoe, 1996; Johnsen & Ryser, 1997; Mantzicopoulos,2000;Oreck,Owen,& Baum,2003;VanTassel-Baska,Johnson, & Avery, 2002). Some of these tests appearedtoidentifymorestudents(Glascoe, 1996;Oreck,Owen,&Baum,2003;Reid, Romanoff,Algozzine,&Udall,2000;Van Tassel-Baska, Johnson, & Avery, 2002). The tests also discriminated between groupsthathaddifferentcharacteristics or traits. Gifted and talented students hadmorelegislative,liberal,andjudicial thinkingstyles(Dai&Feldhusen,1999), werebetteratscience(Adams&Callahan, 1995),betteratmath(Shermis,Fulkerson, &Banta,1996),performedbetterinthe arts (Oreck, Owen, & Baum, 2003) and weremorelikelytohaveoverexcitability intheintellectualarea,butnototherareas(Bouchard,2004).Inaddition,writers were more likely to have better childhood memories or imaginings than the computer science, chemistry, and math groups(Dunn,Corn,&Morelock,2004). Giftedstudentsalsoperformeddifferently on the same test. For example, Fishkin, Kampsnider, and Pack (1996) foundthatgiftedstudentshadagreater subtestscatterontheWISC-IIIthanthe normal sample. Researchers also found that minority groups performed differently on different tests (Mills & Tissot, 1995),withHispanicstudentsbeingunderidentified.Ontheotherhand,Naglieri andFord(2003)suggestedthattherewere no significant difference in intelligence

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Testing and Measurement

scoresamongthreedifferentethnicgroups on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test. Lohman(2005)challengedthisclaimand questionedtherepresentativenessofthe Naglierisampleandtheneedformultiple assessmentswhenidentifyinggiftedstudents.Ethnicitydoesappeartobeafactor inteachers'nominations,withAnglosreceivinghigherratingsthanHispanicson the Renzulli Scales for Rating Behavior Characteristics of Superior Students (Plata&Masten,1998). Tosupportthevalidityoftheinstruments, researchers also examined the tests' relationships to a variety of other tests and performances. Intelligence tests related to other intelligence tests andachievement(Mantzicopoulos,2000). The Leadership Skills Inventory related to past leadership behavior and actual leadership behavior (Edmunds, 1998). A globalthinkingstylewasrelatedtoverbalscoresontheSAT(Dai&Feldhusen, 1999).Creativityteststhatmeasureddivergentthinkingasopposedtoothercreativebehaviorsweremorelikelytorelate tooneanotherandothertasks(Cropley, 2000).Ontheotherhand,theRavenwas notashighlyrelatedtoschoolgradesas othermeasuresofachievement(Mills& Tissot, 1995) and was not related to the DISCOVERstorytellingandstorywriting tasksthatmeasuremultipleintelligences (Sarouphim,1999a,1999b). Some of the tests predicted future performance. Portfolios predicted math andreadingperformanceandfutureperformanceinagiftedprogram4yearslater (Johnsen&Ryser,1997).Aplacementtest in math predicted middle school talent developmentsuccess(Shermis,Fulkerson, &Banta,1996)andTheLearningBehavior Scale predicted teacher-assigned grades (Worrell&Schaefer,2004).Ontheother hand,therelationshipbetweencreativity testsandfutureperformanceinreallifeis lower(Cropley,2000). Forthoseinterestedindesigningalternativeassessments,VanTassel-Baska, Johnson,andAvery(2002)offeraprocess for developing performance tasks. They provideastep-by-stepguideforidentifying tasks, designing rubrics, and establishingcriterionlevelsofperformance. Inconclusion,itisimportantthatprofessionalsbeawareoftestdesignandthe technicalqualitiesimportantinselecting testinstruments.AsAnastasiandUrbina

(1997)suggest:"Psychologicaltestsaretools. Toreapthebenefitsthattestscanprovide, onemustkeepthisessentialfactinmind. Anytoolcanbeaninstrumentofgoodor harm,dependingonhowitisused"(p.2). Adams,C.M.,&Callahan,C.M.(1995). Thereliabilityandvalidityofaperformancetaskforevaluatingscience processskills.Gifted Child Quarterly, 39,14­20.

Theauthorsevaluatedthereliability ofTheDietColaTestanditsvalidityfor identifying gifted students. They tested 180studentsingrades4through8insix states. The authors concluded that the datadidnotsupportitsuseinidentifying students,butwassuitedforassessingsci- Dai, D. Y., & Feldhusen, J. F. (1999). A validation study of the thinking enceprocessskillsaspartofaninstrucstyles inventory: Implications for tionalprogramorevaluation. giftededucation.Roeper Review, 21, Bouchard,L.L.(2004).Aninstrumentfor 302­307. themeasureofDabrowskianoverexcitabilitiestoidentifygiftedelemenThisstudyexaminedtheinternaland tarystudents.Gifted Child Quarterly, external validity of the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) based on Sternberg's 48,339­350. theoryofself-government.TheresearchTheElemenOEinstrumentdiscussed ers tested 96 adolescent students who in this article was designed to assess were in a summer residential program overexcitability, which refers to innate using the TSI and the Junior Eysenck "supersensitivitytostimuliinanyoffive PersonalityInventory.Theauthorsfound different areas: psychomotor, sensual, theTSIscalesintercorrelatedwithonly imaginational, intellectual, and emo- three factors. No consistent pattern of tional"(p.340).Usingteacherratingsof relationshipswasfoundbetweenintellec324giftedandnonidentifiedstudents,the tualstyleandpersonalitytraitmeasures. author examined the data to determine Verbal scores on the SAT were related factorstructureanddifferencesbetween totheglobalstyleontheTSI.Theyalso thetwogroups.Whilefactorsweresup- foundthatgiftedstudentsmaybemore ported,theintellectualandpsychomotor legislative,liberal,andjudicialthanaveroverexcitability scores discriminated agestudents.Theauthorsconcludethat betweenthetwogroups,withidentified thenatureandrelationshipsofthinking gifted rated higher on the intellectual stylesamonggiftedstudentsisinconcluoverexcitability and nonidentified stu- sive,butmightbeusedasaheuristictool dents rated higher on the psychomotor by educators and parents to raise selfoverexcitability. The reliability of the awarenessamonggiftedstudents. sensual and imaginational scales were Dunn,L.W.,Corn,A.L.,&Morelock,M. unsatisfactory. J. (2004). The relationship between scores on the ICMIC and selected Cropley,A.J.(2000).Definingandmeatalent domains: An investigation suringcreativity:Arecreativitytests withgiftedadolescents. Gifted Child worth using? Roeper Review, 23, 72­79. Quarterly, 48,133­142. Inthisarticle,CropleyreviewsavaUsing the Inventory of Childhood rietyofmethodsforassessingcreativity: Memories and Imaginings: Children's tests,biographicalinventories,checklists Form (ICMIC), researchers examined ofbehavioralorpersonalcharacteristics, performance differences among gifted

andmotivationandattitudeinventories. The author suggests that these assessmentsconceptualizecreativityinavariety ofways(products,processes,andpersonal factors).Forthemostpart,reliabilitiesare adequate.Inthecaseofvalidity,thehighest correlations among assessments are those that measure divergent thinking, whichisamorecognitivetask.Thetests' abilitytopredictfutureperformancein real life is lower (around .50) since the tasksdonotresemblereal-lifecreativebehavior.Amongtestsofcreativethinking, CropleyrecommendstheTestofCreative Thinking(DivergentProduction)because itencompassesboththinkingandpersonality.

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Testing and Measurement

studentswhochosestorywriting,computer science, chemistry, or math in a summer program. They found that the writers'groupshadahighermeannumber of positive responses to the ICMIC thantheotherthreegroups.Theauthors conclude that students with writing as theirmaintalentarea"haveagreaterlevel offantasy-pronecharacteristicsandmay becapableofusingthemintheirwriting" (p.141). Glascoe,F.P.(1996).CantheBRIGANCE In this article, Lohman refutes Screens detect children who are NaglieriandFord'sresultsintheir2003 gifted and academically talented? article.Lohmansuggeststhattheselected populationmaynotberepresentativeof Roeper Review, 19,20­24. theNNATnormgroup,particularlyurA total of 408 children from four banschooldistrictswhosestudentstend geographic regions were administered toscorepoorlyonabilityandachievement theBRIGANCE,theSlossonIntelligence tests. Test-Revised, the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery, the Child Lohman, D. F. (2005). The role of nonverbal ability tests in identifying Development Inventory, and Teacher academically gifted students: An Ratings. The author found that the Edmunds,A.L.(1998).Content,concur- BRIGANCEandteacherratingsidentified aptitude perspective. Gifted Child rent, and construct validity of the 82%ofthegiftedchildren. Quarterly, 49,111­138. Leadership Skills Inventory. Roeper Lohman argues that many students Review, 20,281­284. Johnsen,S.K.,&Ryser,G.R.(1997).The whohavehighlevelsofabilitywouldbe validity of portfolios in predicting Using a sample of 90 academically performance in a gifted program. excluded from gifted programs if only giftedGrade12studentsfromanurban Journal for the Education of the nonverbalabilitytestswereusedduring theidentificationprocess.Hefurtherarmagnethighschool,theauthorfoundthat Gifted, 20,253­267. theLeadershipSkillsInventoryrelatedto guesthatverbalandquantitativereasonpast leadership behavior and related to This study examined the degree to ingability,whicharesimilaracrossethnic actualleadershipbehavior,butcontained whichsamplescollectedinproductport- groups,aremorelikelytopredictfuture onlyonefactorofleadership. foliosfrom216kindergartenthroughsec- academic performance than nonverbal reasoning scores. He concludes that (a) ondgradestudentswereabletopredict Fishkin,A.S.,Kampsnider,J.J.,&Pack, academicgiftednessshouldbedefinedby theirsuccessfulperformanceinagifted L.(1996).ExploringtheWISC-IIIasa evidence of academic accomplishment, program 4 years later. Students whose measureofgiftedness.Roeper Review, (b) all abilities should be measured, (c) portfolioscoreswereinthetopquarter withyoungchildrenreasoningmeasures 18,226­231. performed significantly better on math should be used, (d) nonverbal measures andreadingachievementsubtests.These shouldbeusedwithothermeasures,(e) Thisstudyfoundthatsubtestscatter resultsprovidesomevalidityfortheuse identificationtestsmaybehelpfulforproofWISC-IIIscoresoccurredwithgreater ofportfolioswhenidentifyinggiftedstufrequencyinagiftedsampleof21girlsand vidingusefulinformationforallstudents, dents. 21boysinWestVirginiathanforsubjects (f)professionalsneedtolearnhowtouse in a normal sample. The gifted sample correlation tables, (g) discriminations performedbetterontheSimilaritiesand Kettle,K.E.,Renzulli,J.S.,&Rizza,M.G. needtobemadebetweenstudentswith (1998). Products of mind: Exploring currentaccomplishmentandthosewho Comprehensionsubtests. student preferences for product showpromise,(h)differentcutoffscores development using My Way . . . An needtobeused,and(i)professionalsneed Gentry,M.,&Gable,R.K.(2001).From ExpressionStyleInstrument.Gifted to understand the differences between thestudent'sperspective--MyClass Child Quarterly, 42,48­57. Activities: An instrument for use meansandcorrelations. in research and evaluation. Journal Theauthorspresentasurveythatis Mantzicopoulos, P. Y. (2000). Can the for the Education of the Gifted, 24, designed to assess students' interests in Brigance K&1 Screen detect cogni322­343. creatingavarietyofproducts.Thepilot tive/academicgiftednesswhenused Inthisstudy,theauthorsexamined studyincluded45districts,representing withpreschoolersfromeconomically thevalidityoftheinstrument,MyClass 24 states. Internal consistency for the disadvantagedbackgrounds?Roeper Activities,whichcontains31itemsandas- scalesrangedfrom.72to.95.UsingfacReview, 22,185­191. sessesfourdimensionsidentifiedthrough tor analysis, the authors also identified theliterature:Interest,Challenge,Choice, 11 factors. The remainder of the article The purpose of this study was to and Enjoyment. They administered the focusesonwaysofusingtheinstrument examinetheabilityoftheBriganceK&1 schoolsurveysto61classrooms,receiv- inaSchoolwideEnrichmentModel. to identify Head Start children for posinga100%returnrate.Theyfoundthat siblecognitive/academicgiftedness.The internalconsistencyreliabilitiesweread- Lohman,D.F.(2005).ReviewofNaglieri authors tested 134 children using the and Ford (2003): Does the Naglieri Brigance,thePeabodyPictureVocabulary equate(.71­.91)foreachofthefourscales NonverbalAbilityTestidentifyequal Test,theTeachers'RatingsofAcademic andthattherewerefouridentifiedfactors proportions of high-scoring White, Competence Scale, and the Kaufman althoughChallengeandChoiceappeared Black,andHispanicstudents?Gifted AssessmentBatteryforChildren.Usinga tobemorediscriminatingthanInterest cutoffscoreof93ontheBrigance,theauandEnjoyment. Child Quarterly, 49,19­28.

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Testing and Measurement

thorsfoundthattheBriganceaccurately fied.Inaddition,theSCATwasmoreaspredictedperformanceontheK-ABC. sociatedwithschoolgradesandmeasures ofachievementthantheAPM. Masten,W.G.,Morse,D.T.,&Wenglar, K. E. (1995). Factor structure of the Naglieri, J. A., & Ford, D. Y. (2003). WISC-R for Mexican-American Addressing underrepresentation students referred for intellectually of gifted minority children using giftedassessment.Roeper Review, 18, the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test 130­131. (NNAT).Gifted Child Quarterly, 47, 155­160. School psychologists administered This study examined the effectivethe WISC-R to 68 Mexican American studentswhowerereferredforevaluation ness of the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability foranintellectuallygiftedprogram.They Test(NNAT)inidentifyinggiftedBlack foundthatthefactorstructurewasdiffer- and Hispanic students in comparison entforthissampleofstudents. toWhitestudents.Thesampleincluded 20,270 children from the NNAT stanMayer, J. D., Perkins, D. M., Caruso, D. dardizationsampletestedduringthefall R., & Salovey, P. (2001). Emotional of 1995 (p. 157). The authors report that intelligence and giftedness. Roeper there were no significant differences in Review, 23,131­137. intelligencescoresamongthethreedifferent ethnic groups and that minority This study focused on the relation- childrenperformsimilarlyonthisnonship between emotional intelligence as verbalmeasureofability. measuredbytheMultifactorEmotional Intelligence Scale and general intelli- Naglieri, J. A., & Ford, D. Y. (2005). genceasmeasuredbythePeabodyPicture Increasing minority children's participationingiftedclassesusingthe VocabularyScale.Elevenstudentsranging NNAT:AresponsetoLohman.Gifted inagefrom13to17yearsweretestedwith Child Quarterly, 49,29­36. these two instruments. The sample had ameanscoreof117onthePPVT.After NaglieriandFordrefuteLohmanby analyzing the participants' response as toquestionabouthowtheyhadhandled suggesting that their samples were not a difficult social encounter, the authors representative,butweresimilarincompoconcluded that students with higher sition.Theyconclude,"ageneralmeasure emotionalintelligencewerebetterableto ofabilitythatisnotladenwithverbaland identifytheirownandothers'emotionsin quantitativeknowledgeisanappropriate situations,usethatinformationtoguide way...tomeasuregeneralability...for childrenwhocometoschoolwithlimited theiractions,andresistpeerpressure. languageoreducationalskills"(p.35). Mills,C.J.,&Tissot,S.L.(1995).Identifying academicpotentialinstudentsfrom Oakland,T.,Falkenberg,B.A.,&Oakland, C. (1996). Assessment of leadership under-representedpopulations:IsusingtheRavensProgressiveMatrices inchildren,youth,andadults.Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, 138­146. agoodidea?Gifted Child Quarterly, 39,209­217. The authors presented four conAsampleof347lowincomeminority cepts or theories that are presented in studentsfromNewYorkstatewereadmin- the literature: leadership as power and isteredtheRaven'sAdvancedProgressive influence;leadershipasskillfulmanageMatrices(APM)alongwithamoretradi- mentofbehavior;leadershipaspersonal tionalmeasureofacademicaptitude(The qualitiesandtraits;leadershipasaninSchoolandCollegeAbilityTest;SCAT). teractionbetweenpersonalqualitiesand They found that a higher proportion of environmentalresourcesandneeds.They minoritychildrenscoredatahighlevelon reviewedthepsychometricpropertiesof theAPMthanontheSCAT,however,dif- seven leadership measures. They conferencesamongethnicgroupswerefound cludedthatsignificantdeficienciesexisted withHispanicstudentsbeingunderidenti- in the assessment of leadership among

childrenandyouth.OnlytheLeadership Skills Index (Karnes & Chauvin, 1985) was designed to measure leadership in childrenandyouth.Theauthorsrecommendthatthoseinterestedinidentifying giftedchildrenforprogramstakethebest existingmeasuresandsupplementthem bydevelopingadditionalassessmentprocedures. Oreck,B.A.,Owen,S.V.,&Baum,S.M. (2003).Validity,reliability,andequity issuesinanobservationaltalentassessmentprocessintheperforming arts.Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 27,62­94. This article examines the developmentoftheTalentAssessmentProcessin Dance,Music,andTheater(D/M/TTAP) toidentifypotentialperformingartstalent indiversepopulations.Afterareviewof validityissueswithcurrentinstruments, theauthorsdescribetheelementsofvalid performanceassessments:authenticarts experiences, flexible grouping, skillful facilitation,andeasyscoring.Assessinga sampleof767elementarystudentswith theD/M/TTAPprocedure,theauthors reported technically adequate validity andreliabilitystudies.Theyconcludethat theassessmentalsoaccuratelyrepresent thedemographicsoftheschool,including studentsinbilingualandspecialeducationclassrooms. Piechowski,M.M.,&Miller,N.B.(1995). Assessing developmental potential ingiftedchildren:Acomparisonof methods.Roeper Review, 17,176­180. Thisstudyexaminedalternativemeans ofassessingoverexcitabilities(OE):questionnaireandinterview.Theresearchers tested46youngsters,ages9­14,recruited from a summer program for gifted and talentedchildren.Boththeinterviewand questionnairewerescoredindependently. Disagreementswereresolvedbyarrivingat aconsensus.Themeancorrelationforpairs ofratersbeforeconsensuswas.72.Test-retestresultswere.65.Mostofthesubjects voiced preference for the interview and requiredhelpinwritingtheirresponsesto thequestionnaire.Therewerenogender differences and no differences between theinterviewandthequestionnaire.Older childrendidhavehigherOEscores.

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Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

Pfeiffer, S. I. (2001). Emotional intelliThe authors evaluated an assessThisarticlepresentstheDISCOVER gence:Popularbutelusiveconstruct. mentinstrumentbasedontheMItheory, process, which is based on the general Roeper Review, 23,138­142. the Multiple Intelligences Assessment framework of Gardner's theory of mulTechnique.Theyfoundthattheinternal tipleintelligencesandMaker'sdefinition The author discusses measurement consistency reliability fell within an ac- ofgiftedness.TheDISCOVERprocedure andconceptualissuesrelatedtotheemo- ceptablerangeforeachofthesubscales consistsoffiveactivitiesthatincorporates tional intelligence (EI) construct. The (.72 to .87). The results from the factor linguistic,logical-mathematical,andspaauthor reports that EI lacks any sound, analysis, however, revealed only two tial intelligences. The author reports an objectivemeasuresofEIandareprimarily subscales that were consistent with the interobserver reliability of .81 with perbasedonself-reportinstrumentsthatlack hypothesizedfactorsofverbalandmath- centageofagreementsrangingfrom75to normsorastandardizationgroup.Inad- ematical.Othervalidityissueswereraised 100%andarangeofintercorrelationswith dition,Pfeiffersuggeststhattheconcept bytheinconsistentresultsacrossschools, theRavenfrom.09to.58.Theauthorconlacks precision and is defined by broad cludesthatfurtherresearchisneededon acrossethnicgroups,andinthesubscales' abilitiessuchasempathy,optimism,astheeffectiveuseofDISCOVERandother relationshipswithachievementtests.The performance-basedassessments. sertiveness,anddelayofgratification.The authorsconcludethatmuchworkremains authorconcludesthatthesebroadabilities beforetheinstrumentcanbeusedinhighmightbeviewedascomponentsofone's Sarouphim, K. M. (1999b). DISCOVER: stakestestingsuchasidentification. personalityandnotanothertypeofintelConcurrent validity, gender differences,andidentificationofminority ligence. Pyryt, M. C. (2000). Finding "g": Easy students.Gifted Child Quarterly, 44, viewingthroughhigherorderfactor 130­138. Plata, M., & Masten, W. (1998). Teacher analysis.Gifted Child Quarterly, 44, ratings of Hispanic and Anglo stu190­192. dents on a behavior rating scale. Theauthorexaminedtheconcurrent Roeper Review, 21, 139­144. This study examined 12 teachers' nominationratesofHispanicandAnglo studentstogiftedandtalentedprograms using the Scales for Rating Behavior Characteristics of Superior Students. Results indicated that ethnicity was a factorinteachers'nominationratewith Anglosreceivinghigherratingsacrossall scales.Hispanicfemaleswerenominated fewertimesthananyothergroup. This study reanalyzed data using higherorderfactoranalysistoshowthat "g," general intelligence, was the underlying factor on 13 indicators of four of Gardner'smultipleintelligences. Reid, C., Romanoff, B., Algozzine, B., & Udall, A. (2000). An evaluation of alternative screening procedures. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 23,378­396. validityoftheDISCOVERinstrumentby examiningitsrelationshiptotheRaven. After testing 257 kindergarten, second, fourth, and fifth grade Navajo Indians andMexicanAmericansinArizona,they reportedmixedresults.Therelationships betweenRavenscoresandtheDISCOVER assessmentwerehighforPablo,tangrams, andmathactivities,butlowforstorytelling and storywriting. No gender differenceswerefoundacrossgradelevels.The performance-basedinstrumentidentified 24%oftheparticipants. Sarouphim,K.M.(2000).InternalstructureofDISCOVER:Aperformancebased assessment. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 18,156­170. The author reviews the internal structureofDISCOVER, aninstrument groundedinmultipleintelligencestheory. After testing 257 kindergarten, second, fourth, and fifth grade Navajo Indians andMexicanAmericansinArizona,the author reported low and nonsignificant correlationsamongtheproblem-solving tasks with the exception of Storytelling andStorywritingacrossallgradelevels. WhileTangramsandMathwererelated at some grade levels as expected, they were not related at others. The author concludes that many issues need to be addressedbeforetheDISCOVERassessmentisusedonawiderscale.

Plucker,J.A.(2000).Flipsidesofthesame Theauthorsexaminedthevalidityof coinormarchingtothebeatofdiffer- a problem-solving assessment (PSA) in entdrummers?AresponsetoPyryt. identifyingstudentsforgiftededucation Gifted Child Quarterly, 44,193­195. programs.Asampleof1,100second-grade studentswasassessedwitheightdifferent Plucker responds to Pyryt by sugproblem-solvingtasks.Theauthorscomgesting that different extraction methparedthenumberofstudentswhowere ods,rotationmethods,andformsofdata identifiedusingthesetasksandtheMatrix analyzed may result in similar factors, AnalogiesTest(MAT).Theyreportedthat but not identical. Plucker argues that morethantwiceasmanystudentswere the MI-based performance assessments stillsupportthepresenceofatleasttwo identified using PSA compared to the constructs: mathematical-linguistic and MATwithasimilardistributionforboys and girls. They concluded that the PSA spatial. providesmoreopportunitiesforawider Plucker,J.A.,Callahan,C.M.,&Tomchin, rangeofstudentstoparticipateingifted E. M. (1996). Wherefore art thou, programs. multiple intelligences? Alternative assessmentsforidentifyingtalentin Sarouphim,K.M.(1999a).DISCOVER:A promisingalternativeassessmentfor ethnically diverse and low-income theidentificationofgiftedminorities. students.Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, 81­92. Gifted Child Quarterly, 43,244­251.

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Testing and Measurement

Shaklee,B.D.,&Viechnicki,K.J.(1995). Sternberg,R.J.,&Clinkenbeard,P.R.(1995). ing: competence motivation, attitude Thetriarchicmodelappliedtoidenti- toward learning, attention/persistence, Aqualitativeapproachtoportfolios: fying, teaching, and assessing gifted and strategy/flexibility. Using the LBS, Theearlyassessmentforexceptional children.Roeper Review, 17,255­260. the teachers rated each student during potential model. Journal for the thelastweekofthe6-weekprogram.The Education of the Gifted, 18,156­170. The authors discuss the triarchic authorsfoundthattheLBSfoundnodifmodel, an assessment to measure the ferences between academically talented Thisarticledescribesthedevelopment oftheEarlyAssessmentforExceptional model, and how the assessment results and gifted students in the normative Potentialportfoliomodelusingthecrite- relatetoinstruction.Theyprovidesome sample.TheLBSdidpredictteacher-asriafortheassessmentoftrustworthiness concurrent validity data for the assess- signedgradesmorethanpreviousGPA, of qualitative research. To triangulate mentandconcludebydiscussingactivi- standardizedtestscores,andSES.When data and ensure internal validity, anec- tiesthatrelatetothethreetypesofintel- comparingtheLBStootherteacherratligence:analytic,creative,andpractical. ingscales,theauthorsreportedthatthe dotalrecords,observations,videos,home LBShad(a)lessinternalconsistency,(b) survey,products,andnominationswere VanTassel-Baska,J.,Johnson,D.,&Avery, strongerevidenceintermsofstability,(c) used.Teacherswerealsotrainedinusing L.D.(2002).Usingperformancetasks strongersupportformultiplefactors,and theportfoliosystem.Theauthorsfound intheidentificationofeconomically (d)strongercriterion-relatedvalidityfor that teachers' attitudes changed toward disadvantaged and minority gifted theexplainedconstructssuchasintelliexceptionalpotential. learners: Findings from Project genceandachievement.TheauthorsconSTAR. Gifted Child Quarterly, 46, cludethattheLBSneedstobeexamined Shermis, M. D., Fulkerson, J., & Banta, 110­123. inregularandGTclassroomsinpublic T.W.(1996).Computerizedadaptive mathtestsforelementarytalentdeThisarticledescribestheprocessfor schoolsettingsandthatotherteacherratvelopmentselection.Roeper Review, developing performance tasks. Initially, ingscalesneedtoestablishtheconstruct 19,91­95. the literature was reviewed to identify validityoftheinstruments'scores. The purpose of this study was to examinetheuseofacomputerizedmath test in placing fifth grade elementary schoolchildreninamiddleschoolmathematics talent development program. Thedesignedinstrumenthadaninternal consistencyreliabilityof.76andalsodemonstrated good construct validity (e.g., sixth graders who were already placed inthemiddleschooltalentdevelopment classes scored significantly higher). The testperformedslightlybetterthanpreviousmathgrades,teacherratings,andthe CTBS(Math)inpredictingmiddleschool talentdevelopmentsuccess.Theauthors conclude that this adaptive test may be aneffectivealternativetomoreexpensive standardizedprocedures. Spangler,R.S.,&Sabatino,D.A.(1995). Temporalstabilityofgiftedchildren's intelligence.Roeper Review, 17,207­ 210. TheWISC-Rwasadministeredto66 children who were initially 8 years old andthenat36-and72-monthintervals. Theyfoundthatthesubtestandfull-scale scores were relatively stable. The only subtestscorethatvariedsignificantlywas information. prototypes.Usingtheseprototypes,tasks weredesignedthatmetacoresetofcriteria that were judged by a professional steeringcommittee.Inimplementingthe tasks,studentsperformedcorollarytasks beforecompletingtheassessment.Rubrics andexemplarswerethencreatedforeach of the tasks. The tasks were field-tested withmorethan4,000studentsatprimary and intermediate grades. Using these data, rubrics were revised and criterion levels of performance were established. Ultimately the researchers reported .80 inreliabilityatthedomainleveland.90 interrater reliability. The authors found thattheinstrumentwasabletoidentify more students who were missed using statewide cutoffs on traditional ability andachievementmeasures.

Reference: Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing. Upper Saddle River,NJ:PrenticeHall.u

forgiftedservicesinmydistrict,heisrequiredtobeservedthroughgraduation. Oncegifted,alwaysgifted,right? A: Districts have written policies including provisions for furloughs, reassessment, and exiting of students from program services. Q:Ifmychildisnotidentifiedafter completingthescreeningprocess,thereis nothingIcando,right?

Continued from page 5.

A: Districts must have written policies for appeals of program placement and Worrell, F. C., & Schaefer, B. A. (2004). for exit from the program. Reliability and validity of Learning Thoughtestingandmeasurementare Behaviors Scale (LBS) scores with partofacomplexassessmentprocess,they academically talented students: A arenecessarytoassistdistrictsinfinding comparative perspective. Gifted studentswhoneedtheinterventionthat Child Quarterly, 48,287-308. agiftedprogramisdesignedtoprovide. Districts are looking for a "match" beThis study examined the technical tweenthestudentandtheprogram.The qualitiesoftheLearningBehaviorsScale assessmentandtestingcomponentisthe (LBS)withasampleofstudentswhoat- criticalpieceofthis"match-making"protendedasummerprogramforacademi- cess.Onlyafterthe"match"ismadecan cally talented youth. The LBS has four theseprogramsbeexpectedtomeetthe subscales that relate to effective learn- needsofidentifiedgiftedstudents.u

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

frOm the editOr

Jennifer L. Jolly

student's entrance to various programs,classes,andeventually collegeoruniversitiesrestsinpart withtheoutcomeofatestscore.TAKS, SAT,ACT,PSAT,ITBS,CoGAT,TONI-3, NNAT,AP,Pre-AP,andTPRIrepresenta sampleoftheveritablealphabetsoupof teststhatTexasschoolchildrenaresubjectedtoeachyear.America'sloveaffairof classifyingandsortingstudentswhether itbebyageand/orabilitydevelopedduringtheveryestablishmentofsystematic schoolingintheUnitedStates.Anatural consequenceofthesortingandsiftingof studentseventuallyledtotheinextricable tie between intelligence tests and gifted education. This relationship might best be explainedbyLewisM.Terman'spioneering roleinbothintelligencetestingandgifted education.Hehelpedtousherinthescience of testing with the development of theStandford-BinetScaleforMeasuring Intelligence. The ferrying of the original Binet-Simon across the Atlantic from France changed the face of American schooling forever (Jolly, 2004). Terman recognizedthepracticalitythatsuchatest couldbringeducation:"Intelligencetests havedemonstratedthegreatestextentand frequencyofindividualdifferencesinthe mentalabilityofunselectedchildren... commonsense tellsushownecessary it istotakesuchdifferencesintoaccountin theframingofcurriculaandmethods,in theclassificationofchildren,andintheir educationandvocationalchoice"(Citedin Chapman,1988,p.89). Terman's Standford-Binet Scale for Measuring Intelligence (1916) eventually became the gold standard in terms of

A

mentaltestsforidentifyinggiftedstudents who were qualitatively superior to their schoolpeers,thusrequiringdifferentiated educationalpractices(Terman,1922).The intelligence quotient (IQ) was considered the final litmus test in identifying giftedstudents.Overthepastcenturythe definitionofgiftednessevolvedtoinclude elementssuchasleadershipandcreativity. Terman and his contemporary Leta S. Hollingworth also recognized these additional factors of giftedness but felt thattheseabilitiescouldnotbemeasured adequately (Jolly, 2004). Hollingworth (1939), stated, "Educational psychology worksconstantlytofindwaystoidentify these additional elements. It will be a long time before we advance to a point wherewecanmeasuretheseaswellaswe can now measure intelligence" (p. 580). Consequently, instruments to measure theseadditionalabilitiesexisttoday,but expertsstillstrugglewithilldefinedconstructsandpoorpsychometricproperties (Jolly&Hall,2004). Earlyeffortswithinthefieldofgifted educationconcentratedontheuseintelligenceteststo"identifyexceptionalchildren,andmeasuretheamountoftheexceptionality"(Hollingworth,1990,p.110). Their legacy is still prevalent in today's identificationprocedures.Onlywithinthe lasttwodecadeshavemultiplemeasures toidentifygiftedstudentscomeintothe mainstream.However,intelligencemeasuresaresoembeddedinthelexiconof identification that many school districts andresearcherswhoidentifyexperimental samples prefer intelligence measures to determine giftedness (Tannenbaum, 2000).

References

Chapman,P.D.(1988).Schools as sorters: Lewis M. Terman, applied psychology, and the intelligence testing movement,1890­1930.NewYork:NewYork UniversityPress. Hollingworth, H. L. (1990). Leta Stetter Hollingworth: A biography. Bolton, MA:AnkerPublishingCompany. Hollingworth, L. S. (1939). What we knowabouttheearlyselectionofand trainingofleaders.Teachers College Record, 40, 575­592. Jolly, J. L. (2004). A conceptual history of gifted education: 1910­1940. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, BaylorUniversity,Waco,Texas. Jolly,J.L.,&Hall,J.R.(2004).Technical information regarding assessment. In S. K. Johnsen (Ed.), Identifying gifted students: A practical guide (pp. 51­105).Waco,TX:PrufrockPress. Tannenbaum, A. J. (2000). A history of giftednessinschoolandsociety.InK. A.Heller,F.J.Monks,R.J.Sternberg, &R.F.Subotnik(Eds.),International handbook of giftedness and talent. Oxford,UK:ElseiverScienceLtd. Terman, L. M. (1922). A new approach tothestudyofgenius.Psychological Review, 29, 310­318.u

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Testing and Measurement

Guidelines for Article Submissions

4. Inadditiontoatitlepage,acoverpage must be attached that includes the author'sname,title,schoolandprogram affiliation,homeandworkaddress,emailaddress,phonenumbers,andfax number. Place tables, figures, illustrations, and photographs on separate pages. Illustrations must be in black ink on white paper. Photographs must be glossyprints,eitherblackandwhiteor color, or transparencies. Each should haveatitle. Authorsofacceptedmanuscriptsmust transfer copyright to Tempo, which holds copyright to all articles and reviews. Upcoming Issues: Fall 2005 ConferenceIssue "MarveloftheMind" Deadline:September1,2005 Winter 2005-2006 AdvocacyfortheGifted:Education andLegalIssues Deadline:November1,2005 Spring 2006 Service/DeliveryModelsforGiftedServices Deadline:February1,2006

JenniferL.Jolly,Ph.D., TempoEditor TAGT 406E.11thSt,Suite310 Austin,TX78701-2617 [email protected]

Tempo welcomes manuscripts from educators, parents, and other advocates of gifted education. Tempo is a juried publication,andmanuscriptsareevaluated by members of the editorial board and/or otherreviewers. Pleasekeepthefollowinginmindwhen submittingmanuscripts: 1. Manuscripts should be 5­12 pages on anupcomingtopic. 2. ReferencesshouldfollowtheAPAstyle as outlined in the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 3. Submittwocopiesofyourtyped,12pt. font, double-spaced manuscript. Use a 1 ½" margin on all sides. One copy of the manuscript must be submitted electronicallytotheeditor.

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See www.txgifted.org for additional information

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Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

Testing and Measurement

at TAGT's Annual Professional Development Conference for Educators and Parents

Wednesday, November 2, 2005 Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, Texas

Special Pre-Conference Institutes for Educators and School Leaders

Improving Student Achievement by Developing School Culture

Led by Jason Dorsey, with special appearances by former UT football coach Fred Akers, Dan Akers, Brad Duggan, and Denise Villa, this institute will demonstrate how to create change in your school. This session is for superintendents, principals, administrators, and other school leaders.

Brad Duggan

Jason Dorsey

Fred Akers

Dan Akers

Denise Villa

Our Diversity, Our Treasure: Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos

Learn how a Dual Language Immersion Magnet Program helps identify gifted students from underrepresented groups and promotes academic excellence for all students. Recipients of a Javits Grant for research with this model program, these presenters from El Paso ISD include gifted specialists and a school principal.

Hands-On Science Secrets: How to Be An Amazing G/T Teacher

Master science teacher and showman Steve Spangler leads an exciting hands-on session for science teachers, classroom teachers, and anyone who loves science, grades K-8. Participants receive a kit of science materials and an extensive handout full of activities and resources.

Tiered Instruction: Research and Practice

Dr. Bertie Kingore, one of TAGT's most popular presenters and an expert on curriculum differentiation, designed a practical system for providing challenging learning experiences at the many levels that students are individually capable of working. Find out how to implement this system at this practical and lively institute.

Visit www.txgifted.org for online registration, hotel reservations, and general information.

Summer 2005 · Temp o · Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented

31

texas assOciatiOn fOr the Gifted and talented 2005 executive bOard

President

BobbieWedgeworth

I

Patricia Rendon

(956)984-6237 RegionIESC 1900WestSchunior Edinburg,TX78541 [email protected]

XI

(281)578-2710 4003SandTerrace Katy,TX77450 [email protected]

(817)428-2269 TXUElectric 1020TimberViewDr. Bedford,TX76021-3330 [email protected]

Robert Thompson

EditorialBoard

TempoEditor JenniferL.Jolly

(512)300-2220ext.202 TAGT 406East11thSt.,Suite310 Austin,TX78701-2617 [email protected]

President-Elect

II

Kathyron Humes

RaymondF."Rick"Peters

(817)283-3739 LockheedMartin 2104ShadyBrookDr. Bedford,TX76201 [email protected]

(361)362-6000,ext.223 A.C.JonesHighSchool 1902N.Adams Beeville,TX78102 [email protected]

XII

Dr. Janis Fall

(254)501-2625 KilleenISD 902Rev.RAAbercrombieDr. Killeen,TX76543 [email protected]

First Vice-President

III

Alexandra Schoenemann

(361)293-3001 YoakumISD P.O.Box797 Yoakum,TX77995 [email protected]

XIII

Michelle Swain

SheriPlybon

(972)758-1384 2205ParkhavenDr. Plano,TX75075 [email protected]

(512)464-5023 RoundRockISD 1311RoundRockAve. RoundRock,TX78681 [email protected]

Editorial BoardMembers

IV

Dr. Laura Mackay

(281)332-2259 ClearCreekISD 2136LakewindLane LeagueCity,TX77573 [email protected] (409)923-5418 ESCRegionV 2295Delaware Beaumont,TX77703 [email protected]

XIV

Dr. Cecelia Boswell

(254)893-2628 P.O.Box316 DeLeon,TX76444 [email protected]

KarenFitzgerald

Second Vice-President

PattiStaples

(903)737-7543 ParisISD 1920ClarksvilleStreet Paris,TX75460 [email protected]

V

Maribeth Morris

XV

Mary Jane McKinney

(325)896-2479 Grammardog.com P.O.Box299 Christoval,TX76935 [email protected]

(713)365-4820 SpringBranchISD 10670Hammerly Houston,TX77043 [email protected] (936)931-2182 WindsweptRanch,TWHBEA 13227FM362 Waller,TX77484 [email protected]

TinaForester

Third Vice-President

JoannaBaleson

(281)474-7904 C.P.I.Inc. P.O.Box792 Seabrook,TX77586 [email protected]

VI

Linda Ward

XVI

Secretary/Treasurer

Dr.KeithYost

(713)365-5720 10670Hammerly Houston,TX77043 [email protected]

(936)588-0509 MontgomeryISD 1404WoodhavenDr. Montgomery,TX77316 [email protected]

(806)274-2014 BorgerISD 14AdobeCreekTrail Borger,TX79007 [email protected]

Paula Coleman

(972)613-7591

Dr.JoyceE.KyleMiller

2600MotleyDrive Mesquite,Texas75150 [email protected]

VII

Joe Stokes

XVII

Claire King

Immediate Past President

(903)984-7347 SabineISD 2801ChandlerSt. Kilgore,TX75662 [email protected]

(806)766-2088 LubbockISD 7508Albany Lubbock,TX79424 [email protected] (432)561-4349 ESC18 2811LaForceBlvd Midland,TX79711 [email protected]

Dr.GailRyser

4906StrassDr.

Austin,TX78731 [email protected] (830)792-7266 SchreinerUniversity 2100MemorialBlvd. Kerrville,TX78028 [email protected]

JudyBridges

(432)689-1420 MidlandISD/CarverCenter 1300E.Wall Midland,TX79701 [email protected]

VIII

Sandra Strom

(903)737-7400 ParisISD 2400JeffersonRd. Paris,TX75460 [email protected]

XVIII Lynn Lynch

Dr.MarySeay

Executive Director

DianneHughes

(512)499-8248 TAGT 406East11thSt.,Suite310 Austin,TX78701-2617 [email protected]

IX

Chesta Owens

XIX

Sheryl Maxsom

(915)434-0548 YsletaISD 9600SimsDr. ElPaso,TX79925 [email protected]

(940)696-1411 WichitaFallsISD 4102Ruskin WichitaFalls,TX76309 [email protected]

TerrieW.Turner

X

Ann Studdard

(469)633-6839 FriscoISD 7159Hickory Frisco,TX75034 [email protected]

XX

Jose Laguna

(210)637-5684 7703Rohrdanz LiveOak,TX78233 [email protected]

(806)935-4031 DumasISD POBox715 Dumas,TX79029 [email protected]

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