Read 2010 Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals - MP370 text version

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Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turfgrass Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weeds as Indicators of Specific Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weed Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weed Life Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Developing a Weed Control Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Herbicide Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSMA Registration Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weed Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Weights and Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control of Specific Weeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual Bluegrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bahiagrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bermudagrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dallisgrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Doveweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goosegrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Ivy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knotweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kyllinga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lespedeza, Common or Annual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poa annua ­ see Annual bluegrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purple Nutsedge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ryegrass Clumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sandbur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spurges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spurweed or Lawn Burweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tall Fescue Clumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tufted Lovegrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Violets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virginia Buttonweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wild Garlic (Wild Onion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yellow Nutsedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turfgrass Renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turfgrass Border Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preemergence Herbicides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weed Control Ratings for Preemergence Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turfgrass Tolerance of Preemergence Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preemergence Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postemergence Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weed Control Ratings for Postemergence Broadleaf Herbicides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weed Control Ratings for Postemergence Grass Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turfgrass Tolerance of Postemergence Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postemergence Herbicides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Putting Greens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Putting Greens, Annual Bluegrass and Bermudagrass Suppression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Putting Greens, Preemergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Putting Greens, Postemergence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sedges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sedge Control and Turf Tolerance Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sedges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plant Growth Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approximate Costs of Herbicides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction

This guide supplies information concerning turf herbicides and growth regulators in order to assist turfgrass professionals with developing effective weed control programs for golf courses, athletic fields, sod farms and lawns.

Turfgrass Culture

Herbicides are not a substitute for a conscientiously applied cultural program. Cultural practices are at least 60 to 70 percent of turfgrass weed control. The best means of preventing weed encroachment is a dense, vigorously growing turf. By choosing the right grass for the site and following proven fertilization, mowing and irrigation practices, weeds will be less competitive with the turf. Before deciding to use any weed control program, first determine why the turf is thin and weeds are invading. Correct the factors causing unhealthy turf before implementing a herbicide program. Weed prevention is avoiding the introduction of weeds into an uninfested area. One of the keys to making integrated pest management effective in controlling turfgrass weeds is not allowing weeds to become established. Helpful publications on turfgrass maintenance (all publications are available at http://turf.uark.edu/): · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Busting the Most Common Lawn Myths and Misconceptions. FSA-6142. Establishing Seeded Zoysiagrass on Golf Courses and Lawns. MP-476. Establishing Seeded Bermudagrass on Golf Courses, Lawns and Athletic Fields. MP-477. Practical Math for the Turfgrass Professional. CDHORT-200. Lawn Care Calendar: Bermudagrass. FSA-6121. Lawn Care Calendar: Centipedegrass. FSA-6120. Lawn Care Calendar: St. Augustinegrass. FSA-6119. Lawn Care Calendar: Zoysiagrass. FSA-6122. Lawn Care Calendar: Tall Fescue. FSA-6118. Growing Turfgrass in Shade. FSA-6140. Thatch Prevention and Control. FSA-6139. Mowing a Lawn. FSA-6023. Establishing a Lawn From Sod. FSA-2042. Fertilizing Your Lawn. FSA-2114. Liming Your Lawn. FSA-6134. Seeding a Lawn in Arkansas. FSA-2113. Choosing a Grass Species for Arkansas Lawns. FSA-2112.

Weeds as Indicators of Specific Conditions

Condition High nematode populations High pH Low mowing Low nitrogen Low pH Poor (sandy) soils Poor drainage Soil compaction Surface moisture Indicator Weed(s) prostrate spurge, knotweed plantains algae legumes: clover, lespedeza, black medic red sorrel sandbur sedges, rushes goosegrass, knotweed, Poa annua, path rush algae, moss

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Weed Types

Weed identification should begin with classifying weeds by type. The four most common weed types are grasses, broadleaves, sedges and rushes.

Grasses are monocotyledonous plants, which means they have only one seed cotyledon (leaf) present when a grass seedling emerges from the soil. Grasses have joints (nodes) and hollow, rounded stems. The true leaves (as opposed to seed or cotyledon leaves) have parallel veins and are several times longer than they are wide. Crabgrass, goosegrass, dallisgrass and annual bluegrass are typical grass weeds found in turf. Broadleaf weeds are dicotyledonous, which means they have two cotyledons at emergence and have net-like veins in their true leaves. Broadleaves often have colorful flowers compared to the inconspicuous flowers found on grasses. Chickweed, henbit, lespedeza, clover and dandelion are typical broadleaf weeds. Sedges have solid, triangular stems (in most species) which bear leaves extending in three directions (three-ranked). Sedges lack ligules and auricles, and the leaf sheath is continuous around the stem. Yellow and purple nutsedge are examples. Rushes have round, solid stems and favor a moist habitat. Path rush is an example of the rush family. Path rush is often found near golf cart paths, sports fields and other compacted areas.

Not all turfgrass weeds fall into these categories. Some turfgrass weeds are monocotyledonous plants but are not sedges or grasses. Some examples are wild garlic, spring beauty and star-of-Bethlehem, which are members of the lily family.

Weed Life Cycles

The previously listed weed classifications may be further divided into annuals, biennials and perennials. Annuals germinate from seed, grow, mature and die in less than 12 months. Annuals may be further classified as winter and summer annuals. Winter annuals germinate in the fall, grow during cool periods, mature in the spring and then die during the summer. Summer annuals germinate in the spring, grow actively during the summer and die in the fall. Crabgrass and goosegrass are examples of summer annual grasses. Annual blue grass is our most common winter annual grass weed in turf. Prostrate knotweed is an example of a summer annual broadleaf, while henbit and chickweed are representative of winter annual broadleaves.

Biennials reproduce from seed and complete their life cycle in two years. Biennials form rosettes and store food in their fleshy roots the first year and then flower the second year. Many thistle species in Arkansas are biennials. Perennial weeds live more than two years. Perennials may reproduce from seed or from vegetative structures such as roots, rhizomes, stolons, tubers or bulbs. The ability to reproduce vegetatively makes peren nials more difficult to control. Some perennials such as dandelion, dock and wild garlic are actively growing during cool weather, while others like dallisgrass and nutsedge grow rapidly during the summer months. Perennials are further subdivided as simple perennials and creeping perennials. Simple perennials, such as dock and dandelion, overwinter by means of a vegetative structure such as a perennial root with a crown, but they reproduce almost entirely by seed. Creeping perennials can both overwinter and produce new, independ ent plants from vegetative reproductive structures. Vegetative reproductive structures include creeping roots, stolons (bermudagrass), rhizomes (johnsongrass), tubers (nutsedge) and bulbs (wild garlic). Most perennials can also reproduce from seeds.

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Developing a Weed Control Program

There are several important considerations when developing a weed control program. 1. Know what kinds of turfgrass you have and the total area of each different type. 2. Identify the problem weeds and note what time of the year they occur. 3. Determine why the weeds invaded the turf area and correct the conditions or cultural practices that caused the problem. 4. When an herbicide is needed: · Select a chemical that is effective for the weeds and safe for the turfgrass. · Follow all label directions. · Apply the herbicide at the correct time and rate. · Apply the herbicide uniformly over the turf area without skips or overlapping. · Repeat the herbicide application when specified on the label. 5. Follow a good turf management program along with the weed control program. An integrated approach ­ which includes enhancing turfgrass competition, mechanical control and chemical control methods ­ will be the most successful weed control program.

Herbicide Uses

General Use Pesticides can be purchased and applied by anyone. Because of the risks involved in handling, many herbicides and other pesticides bear the words Restricted Use on the label, and restricted use pesticides can only be applied by licensed commercial or professional turf and landscape personnel. However, anyone applying any pesticide for money or to public property (including golf courses and parks) must have a pesticide applicator license from the Arkansas State Plant Board or be supervised by someone with a license. Contact the Plant Board at (501) 225-1598 for more information. They are on the Web at www.plantboard.org.

Use herbicides and other pesticides safely to protect against human injury and harm to the environment. Diagnose your weed problem. Select the proper herbicide if one is needed. Follow the label directions. Obey all federal, state and local pesticide laws and regulations. Read the entire label, not just how much to use. Pesticide labels are federal law, not just a suggestion. Recommendations of specific chemicals are based on information on the manufacturer's label and performance in a limited number of research trials. It is impossible to test every product under every set of conceivable conditions. Because environmental conditions and methods of application by users may vary widely, performance of the chemical will not always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data. Bear in mind that herbicide performance will be different every year. Weather forecasters talk about the 30-year average because that is all we have for long-term predictions. However, there is no average year. The biological system is extremely complex, resulting in a huge number of constantly changing variables that will affect the way weeds and herbicides behave.

MSMA Registration Update

On January 16, 2009, the MAA Research Task Force (Task Force) signed an agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that permits the continued use of MSMA. The details of the agree ment and the conditions set forth for the various uses of the product are summarized below. MSMA use in turf is slated for registration removal by the EPA.

For residential (includes parks and athletic fields) use, the following dates apply: · After December 31, 2010, persons other than registrants (e.g., distributors) are prohibited from selling or distributing products for all uses EXCEPT cotton, sod farms, golf courses and highway rights-of-way.

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After December 31, 2010, existing stocks of products for all uses EXCEPT cotton, sod farms, golf courses and highway rights-of-way that are already in the hands of users can be used until they are exhausted. Example: MSMA registered for any use other than golf courses, sod farms or highway rights-of-way cannot be sold or distributed after December 31, 2010, but existing stocks in the hands of users can be used until exhausted.

For sod farms, golf courses and highway rights-of-way, the following existing stocks dates apply: · MSMA sold after December 31, 2010, will have new labeling restrictions for golf and sod use. Those restrictions will likely be: · Golf courses: One broadcast application will be allowed on newly constructed courses. Application on existing courses will be limited to spot treatment (100 square foot per spot), not to exceed 25 percent of the total course in one year. · Sod farms: Two broadcast applications will be allowed per crop. A 25-foot buffer strip will be required for those fields bordering permanent water bodies. · Highway rights-of-way: Two broadcast applications will be allowed per year. A 100-foot buffer strip will be required adjacent to permanent water bodies. · After December 31, 2012, registrants are prohibited from selling or distributing products for use on sod farms, golf courses and highway rights-of-way. · After June 31, 2013, persons other than registrants (e.g., distributors) are prohibited from selling or distributing products for use on sod farms, golf courses and highway rights-of-way. · After December 31, 2013, use of products labeled for use on sod farms, golf courses and highway rights-of-way is prohibited. · After December 31, 2013, the only use allowed is on cotton. Future decisions: The MAA Task Force (http://maatf.com/) strongly believes there is growing scientific evidence that low doses of inorganic arsenic do not pose a concern to human health or to the environment. If an EPA science review, to convene in 2012, concurs with this position, then inorganic arsenic resulting from uses of MSMA will not pose a concern, and the Task Force will petition for restoration of some or all MSMA uses.

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Weed Identification

Broadleaves Broadleaves Summer annuals

Lespedeza Winter annuals

Prostrate knotweed

Prostrate spurge

Carolina geranium

Chickweed, common

Chickweed, mouse-ear

Field madder

Hairy bittercress

Henbit

Parsley piert

Prickly lettuce

Purple deadnettle

Sheperd's purse

Speedwell, corn

Spurweed

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Broadleaves

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Sedges and Other Weeds

Wild onion

MP 169, Weeds of Arkansas Lawns, Turf, Roadsides and Recreation Areas. University of Arkansas

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Turfgrasses

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Common Weights and Measures

Length 1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 meters 1 yard = 3 feet = 0.9144 meters 1 mile = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet = 1.61 kilometers Liquid Measures 1 teaspoon = 0.1667 fluid ounces = 4.93 milliliters 1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons = 0.5 fluid ounces = 14.8 milliliters 1 fluid ounce = 2 tablespoons = 6 teaspoons = 29.58 milliliters 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = 16 tablespoons = 236.3 milliliters 1 pint = 16 fluid ounces = 2 cups = 473.2 milliliters 1 quart = 32 fluid ounces = 2 pints = 4 cups = 0.946 liters 1 liter = 2.113 pints = 1.057 quarts = 1,000 milliliters 1 gallon = 128 fluid ounces = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups = 3,785 milliliters = 3.785 liters Weights 1 gram = 1,000 milligrams 1 ounce = 28.35 grams 1 pound = 16 ounces = 454 grams 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams = 2.205 pounds 1 ton = 2,000 pounds = 0.907 metric tons

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Control of Specific Weeds

Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua)

Bermudagrass Fairways, Not Overseeded: One of the cheapest and easiest ways to control Poa annua is to use glyphosate at 1 pt/acre while bermudagrass is completely dormant. Completely is the key word. Revolver (foramsulfuron) at 17.4 fl oz/acre, TranXit at 2 oz/acre, Katana at 1.5-3.0 oz/acre or Monument at 0.56 oz/acre will provide postemergence Poa annua control without damaging partially green bermudagrass. Do not treat areas that drain onto cool-season grasses with Katana, Kerb, Monument, Revolver or TranXit. Avoid tracking spray onto cool-season grasses with equipment or feet. Princep Liquid (simazine) and Aatrex 4L (atrazine) are very effective as late fall or early winter treatments. In areas with heavy leaf fall, it may be necessary to apply before leaves begin to drop. Do not apply atrazine or simazine upslope from desirable cool-season grasses. Sencor is more effective on large Poa annua than simazine. Kerb applied at 1.0 to 1.5 lb ai/acre is effective but slow. It will give preemergence and postemergence control. Bentgrass Putting Greens: Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is the most troublesome winter weed in golf greens. It tolerates low mowing and compaction and thrives in the moist conditions found on putting greens. There is no magic bullet for annual bluegrass control, and it is practically impossible to completely eradicate. That said, there are several options available to help superintendents manage annual bluegrass. The traditional approach of using preemergence herbicides ­ Dimension (dithiopyr), Goosegrass/Crabgrass Control (bensulide + oxadiazon) and Betasan (bensulide) ­ has the shortcoming of failing to control the peren nial type, Poa annua var. reptans. In fact, a preemergence program may encourage the proliferation of peren nial biotypes by eliminating the annual type. Fall and spring applications over many consecutive years are needed for suppression and control. An option that has shown promise is the use of growth regulators such as Trimmit (paclobutrazol) or Cutless (flurprimidol). These products are used in conversion programs designed to gradually eliminate annual bluegrass. This approach requires patience, consistency and a management program designed to favor the desirable turfgrass. Two applications of Trimmit at 0.25 lb ai/acre in the fall followed by two to three applica tions in the spring seem to be the best program. Success has also been reported with Cutless (flurprimidol).

Bahiagrass

Manor or Blade (metsulfuron) is a good choice for bahiagrass control in bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass and zoysiagrass. Bermudagrass and St. Augustinegrass have more metsulfuron tolerance than centipedegrass and zoysiagrass. In bermudagrass, make two applications of metsulfuron three to four weeks apart at 1 oz/acre. Do not use more than 0.25 oz/acre of metsulfuron on centipedegrass for bahiagrass control. In MSMA/DSMA-tolerant grasses, repeat applications at seven- to ten-day intervals will suppress bahiagrass. Begin after full green-up in the spring. At least three applications are needed. In centipedegrass, two applica tions of Segment three weeks apart will suppress bahiagrass growth and seedhead development. In zoysiagrass or tall fescue, repeat applications of Fusilade II or Acclaim Extra may be used. Monument (trifloxysulfuron) will provide bahiagrass suppression in bermudagrass or zoysiagrass.

Bermudagrass

While bermudagrass is our most commonly used turfgrass, it is also a difficult-to-control weed in other turfgrasses. Preplant Control: The most effective way to control bermudagrass is with preplant application of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. If fumigation is not an option, make three applications of glyphosate (3 lb/gal ae) at 3 qt/acre over the growing season (May, July and September). Wait for regrowth before making the follow-up

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applications. Our research shows that a tank mix of 3 qts glyphosate + 24 fl oz of Fusilade II will improve bermudagrass control over glyphosate alone. When using Fusilade, be aware that it will have some residual soil activity. Wait at least 30 days before replanting seeds after applying Fusilade. Bermudagrass Encroachment Into Bentgrass Putting Greens: A big nursery green and a sod cutter or large plugger may be your best friends in the battle against encroachment. Frequent mechanical edg ing of the putting green and resodding of infested areas should be part of an encroachment management program. Other approaches include installing a zoysiagrass collar or a mechanical barrier made of plastic or metal. Zoysiagrass will encroach, but it is slower to do so than bermudagrass. Examine the zoysiagrass care fully before installation to be certain it is free of bermudagrass. Avoid using aggressive zoysiagrass cultivars such as `El Toro' or `Palisades' for collars. Tupersan and Prograss are most commonly used to slow bermuda grass encroachment in the collars of bentgrass greens. However, these herbicides will cause varying degrees of bentgrass injury. Tupersan is generally a little safer than Prograss. Applications should be made in the spring and/or fall (April/September) when bentgrass is actively growing and bermudagrass is less active. Suppression is temporary (up to three months) with these treatments. Tank mixes of Cutless with Tupersan or Prograss have sometimes given better results than Tupersan alone. Tupersan 50W is used in spring or fall at 8 oz per 1,000 sq ft. Repeat as needed and water in. With Prograss 1.5EC and Cutless 50W, make the first application in March/April at 3 oz + 0.6 oz per 1,000 sq ft. Repeat in 6 weeks at 1.7 oz + 0.14 oz per 1,000 sq ft. Repeat again in 30 days. Temporary turf discoloration will result. Bermudagrass ­ Selective Suppression: In zoysiagrass use Fusilade II (fluazifop) at 6 fl oz/acre to suppress bermudagrass. Adding Turflon Ester at 1 qt/acre to Fusilade II will improve turfgrass safety and bermudagrass control. Begin around June 1 and repeat every four weeks unless the zoysiagrass has not recovered from the first application. Zoysiagrass grow ing in the shade is more susceptible to injury. Do not allow drift onto bentgrass putting greens. Do not apply Fusilade II after September 15 to avoid injury to zoysiagrass. In zoysiagrass or tall fescue, repeat applications of Acclaim Extra (fenoxaprop) at 28 oz/acre or 6 oz/acre of Fusilade II at 28- to 35-day intervals during the summer months provide bermudagrass suppres sion. Adding Turflon Ester at 1 qt/acre to Fusilade II or Acclaim Extra will improve turfgrass safety and bermudagrass control. Do not tank mix Acclaim Extra with phenoxy herbicides. Do not use on seedling fescues less than four weeks old. In tall fescue, perennial ryegrass and perennial bluegrass, Turflon Ester at 1 qt/acre will provide bermudagrass suppression. Tank mixing Turflon Ester with Acclaim Extra will result in better bermudagrass control. Repeat applications at three- to four-week intervals will be needed. In centipedegrass, Segment may be used at 1.5 to 2.25 pt/acre to suppress bermudagrass, bahiagrass and other weedy grasses. Do not apply Segment sooner than three weeks after green-up and more than twice per season. Do not tank mix Segment with other pesticides or fertilizers.

Dallisgrass

Dallisgrass is a warm-season perennial with an extensive root system. It may be controlled in bermudagrass with repeated applications of MSMA. Five applications of MSMA at five- to seven-day intervals are necessary with applications starting in May. Staying on schedule is important. Dallisgrass should be actively growing at the time of application. Tank mixing Sencor (0.25 lb/ac) or Dismiss (8 fl oz/ac) with MSMA may improve control. In some studies, applying MSMA, waiting two weeks, then spot treating with Revolver (foramsul furon), followed by a second MSMA application one week later has improved control. Another option is spot treatment with glyphosate. Obviously, this is going to kill some of the desirable grass and leave big, brown spots in the turf. Two applications of glyphosate are needed. Apply the first after active growth begins in May,

11

and spray again when regrowth appears. This will take most of the summer. Use a 1% to 2% (1.33 to 2.33 fl oz of glyphosate/gal of water) spray solution plus 0.5% non-ionic surfactant. Keep the glyphosate spray off non-target plants.

Doveweed and Spreading Dayflower

Products containing atrazine or simazine, foramsulfuron (Revolver) or metsulfuron (Manor or Blade) applied twice 30 days apart will control doveweed and spreading dayflower. Prompt (a pre-mix of atrazine and bentazon) also works well for controlling doveweed and spreading dayflower. Tank mixes of MSMA or DSMA with Sencor or multiple applications of two- or three-way broadleaf herbicide mixtures also provide good control but also can cause phytotoxicity to certain turfgrass species. Tank mixing pyraflufen-ethyl (Octane), carfentrazone (Quicksilver) or sulfentrazone (Dismiss) with these products increases and hastens their activity. Repeat applications of all herbicides or combinations will be needed for complete control. Dimethenamid (Tower) can be used for preemergence control.

Goosegrass

Ronstar (oxadiazon) is one of the most consistent products for preemergence control of goosegrass. Our research has shown that the first Ronstar application should be made between March 15 and April 1 at 3 lb ai/acre. It is necessary to apply by March 1 if crabgrass is part of the weed population on the site. Combi nations such as Ronstar + pendimethalin and Regalstar II (oxadiazon + prodiamine) are also good choices. Sequential applications of preemergence herbicides are important when trying to control goosegrass. Make the second application 60 days after the first. Postemergence controls include Illoxan 3EC at 1 to 1.4 qt/acre, Sencor (0.19 lb/acre) + MSMA (2.0 lb/acre) and Revolver at 17 to 26 oz/acre. Fusilade 2EC (4 to 6 oz/acre), Acclaim Extra (13 to 39 oz/acre) or Dismiss 4L at 8 oz/acre applied twice, 10 days apart. Illoxan and Revolver may be used on bermudagrass greens. Avoid treating drought- and heat-stressed turf.

Ground Ivy

This is a tough weed in the mint family usually found growing in the shade in thin stands of turfgrass. In warm-season and cool-season turfgrass, herbicide options include three-way products containing 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba and products containing triclopyr or 2,4-DP. Confront (triclopyr + clopyralid) is a good choice on approved sites. Confront is not labeled for use in home lawns. Escalade II, Momentum FX2 or T-Zone should be good options for ground ivy. Metsulfuron (Manor or Blade) at 0.5-1.0 oz/acre is another good option for use in warm-season grasses only.

Knotweed

Manor or Blade (metsulfuron) provides good control. When using three-ways (2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba), repeat applications are usually needed. Other options include triclopyr alone or in combination with clopyralid or 2,4-D. Atrazine, simazine and metribuzin also provide control.

Kyllinga

Monument at 0.56 oz/acre or Certainty at 1.25 oz/acre provides excellent kyllinga control. Two applications of MSMA five to seven days apart at 2.5 lb ai/acre are very effective for kyllinga control in tolerant grasses. SedgeHammer (halosulfuron), while less effective on kyllinga, is safe to use on all turfgrasses. Two applica tions of Dismiss about three weeks apart (8 fl oz/acre followed by 4 fl oz/acre) provide excellent kyllinga control. Among these products labeled for kyllinga control, only Monument and MSMA are labeled for use in bermudagrass putting greens.

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Lespedeza, Common or Annual

2,4-D alone will not control lespedeza or white clover. Products containing metsulfuron, fluroxypyr or triclopyr are very effective on most legumes. Escalade II, Confront and metsulfuron (Manor or Blade) are good lespedeza control products. When using three-ways (2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba), repeat applications are usually needed. Lespedeza is often an indicator of insufficient nitrogen fertilization.

Moss

Silver thread moss (Bryum argentum) is the species most commonly found on putting greens. Silver thread moss has been found to be viable after two years of desiccation. Mosses are primitive plants with no vascular system (xylem and phloem). They reproduce by spores spread by wind and water movement. Mosses are able to photosynthesize, fix nitrogen and are, therefore, not parasitic. Moss mats tend to develop during the summer in wet, heavily shaded areas following a period of warm, overcast rainy days. Cultural Control: Control requires a persistent, long-term approach combining cultural and chemical control methods. It is important to realize that only a thick, healthy turf will cure and prevent recurrence of moss. Key objectives are reducing surface moisture and improving air circulation and light exposure. This may require removing adjacent underbrush and selective trees. Improve surface and subsurface drainage and decrease irrigation frequency and amount as well as reduce nitrogen application frequency or rate. If the moss covers a large area, spiking, verticutting and topdressing will help break up and dry the moss mat. Moss turn ing orange or golden brown indicates that desiccation is occurring. Raising mowing height encourages turf growth and helps reduce the problem. Quicksilver T&O (carfentrazone) at 2.0 to 6.7 oz per acre in 100 GPA when temperatures are less than 85° F provides excellent moss control. Poa annua may be injured at rates greater than 2.0 oz per acre. Bentgrass has excellent tolerance for Quicksilver. Do not apply to desirable hybrid bermudagrass. Quicksilver does not control algae. Another less effective treatment is Daconil Weather Stik at 4 oz/1,000 sq ft applied every seven days for three weeks or Daconil Zn at 6 oz/1,000 sq ft applied twice at two-week intervals. Daconil should be applied at 5 to 10 gallons per 1,000 sq ft and allowed to dry on the leaf surface. Air temperature should be at least 85° F at the time of application. Daconil will not work during cool weather.

Poa annua ­ see annual bluegrass

Purple Nutsedge

Monument at 0.56 oz/acre, Katana at 3.0 oz/acre or Certainty at 1.25 oz/acre may be used for purple nutsedge control in bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Make a repeat application six to eight weeks after the first. Two applications of SedgeHammer 75 DF at the 1.33 oz/acre rate four to six weeks apart provide suppression for most of the growing season. The spot treatment rate for SedgeHammer is 0.9 gram per gallon. SedgeHammer is not labeled for golf greens. SedgeHammer is safe on all turfgrasses. Image 70 DG (imazaquin) is an effective herbicide for suppressing sedges in turfgrass. It is approved for use on bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass and centipedegrass. The recommended rate is 0.26 oz of product per 1,000 sq ft (11.4 oz/acre). A repeat application will be needed for full-season suppression. Repeat the application in four to six weeks or when regrowth appears. A tank mix of 0.5 lb/acre of Image + 2.0 lb/acre MSMA has given better suppression than either product alone. Do not use the MSMA tank mix on St. Augustine grass or centipedegrass. Image + MSMA will cause significantly more injury to zoysiagrass than to bermuda grass. Dismiss South (sulfentrazone + imazethapyr) at 14.4 oz/acre can also be used to control purple nutsedge. When using Dismiss South, be aware that the coarse-leaved Zoysia japonica cultivars tend to be more herbicide tolerant than the fine-leaved Z. matrella types.

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Ryegrass Clumps

When applied to dormant bermudagrass, glyphosate 4L at 16 oz/acre, Revolver at 17.4 oz/acre, TranXit at 2 oz/acre, Manor or Blade at 1 oz/acre, Certainty at 1.25 oz/acre, Katana at 1.5 to 3.0 oz/acre and Monument at 0.56 oz/acre all give good clumpy ryegrass control. All clumpy ryegrass is not the same. Mowing height and perennial age of the clumps are two factors that influence control. Clumps that are mowed at 1/2 inch or less and have not been established for years are easier to manage. Roundup (glyphosate) can be used to spot treat ryegrass clumps in dormant bermudagrass but should not be used in dormant zoysiagrass.

Sandbur

Sandbur (Cenchrus spp.) is a prolific seed producer that germinates all summer. Seed are comparatively large and will emerge from greater depths than crabgrass or goosegrass. Sandbur may also behave as a peren nial, making the use of a postemergence herbicide such as MSMA essential in sandbur control. Treat when the sandbur is small. In centipedegrass use Segment 1L at 2 pt/acre. Repeat in 21 days. In fescue or zoysiagrass, make repeat applications of Acclaim Extra at 24 fl oz/acre or Fusilade T&O at 5 to 6 oz/acre on 30-day intervals. Use only on fescue greater than four weeks old, start in spring during active growth, and discontinue during summer stress. Apply a preemergence herbicide such as Surflan (oryzalin), Pendulum (pendimethalin) or Barricade (prodiamine) between March 15 and April 1. A second preemergence application 60 days after the first will be beneficial. Preemergence herbicides should be watered-in immediately after application.

Spurges

Manor or Blade (metsulfuron) at 0.25 oz/acre is the best spurge control treatment. Corsair (chlorsulfuron) is also effective. When using three-ways (MCPP + dicamba + 2,4-D), repeat applications are usually needed. Sencor and dicamba do a better job on spurges than the three-ways, but they are not as effective as metsulfuron. Preemergence control with dinitroaniline herbicides (Barricade, Pendulum, etc.) is inconsistent. Simazine and atrazine are effective but have a short residual effect in the southern USA. Simazine and atrazine are not recommended during the summer months when spurges thrive.

Spurweed or Lawn Burweed

The preferred timing for an application of simazine to control winter annuals such as lawn burweed is some time between Thanksgiving and Christmas. This winter annual is relatively easy to eradicate. Timing is important in controlling this weed. Spraying after the spiny fruits have formed is often emotionally satisfying but is too late to be practical in a biological framework. Preemergence or postemergence applications of Princep Liquid (simazine) or AAtrex 4L (atrazine) provide excellent spurweed control. Rainfall or irrigation is needed to activate these herbicides. Other winter annuals controlled by this treatment are chickweed, henbit, annual bluegrass, Carolina geranium, parsley piert and corn speedwell. Because atrazine and simazine have some potential for tree and shrub damage, a very safe way to use them is to apply 1 lb ai/acre of either product in November followed by another 1 lb ai/acre application in March, if needed. Simazine tends to be less likely to leach through the soil profile than atrazine. If spurweed has already emerged at the time of application, these products will eventually kill it through root uptake. Sencor (metribuzin) provides excellent postemergence control of spurweed and many other winter annuals. Metribuzin may be applied to dormant or actively growing bermudagrass that is being maintained at mowing heights greater than 1/2 inch. Sencor may cause discoloration on actively growing turf. Do not apply more than twice per season. Rates are from 0.33 to 0.67 lb/acre. Add 0.5% non-ionic surfactant. Use only on bermudagrass. Sencor will seriously injure actively growing zoysiagrass. Sencor is not for use on home lawns.

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Metsulfuron (Manor or Blade) provides excellent postemergence control of spurweed. Repeat applications of three-ways (MCPP + dicamba + 2,4-D) are also an option.

Tall Fescue Clumps

Revolver at 26.2 oz/acre, Certainty at 1.25 oz/acre, TranXit at 2 to 4 oz/acre, Katana at 1.5 to 3.0 oz/acre or Monument at 0.56 oz/acre will control tall fescue. Monument and Revolver are for use on bermudagrass and zoysiagrass only. TranXit and Certainty may be used on all warm-season turfgrass. Old clumps that are mowed high are difficult to control. Katana is possibly the most effective for removing tall fescue clumps but can only be used on bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Roundup (glyphosate) can be used to spot treat tall fescue clumps in dormant bermudagrass but should not be used in dormant zoysiagrass.

Tufted Lovegrass

Tufted lovegrass can be a problematic weed on sod farms. The bare soil created by harvesting creates an ideal environment for weeds. Weeds by nature are the first colonizers of bare or disturbed soil. Tufted love grass is a problem weed in sod production due to the bare soil left by harvesting. However, tufted lovegrass is never a problem in established grasses. Tufted lovegrass can be controlled preemergently with AAtrex, Bensumec, Dimension, Ronstar, Pendulum and Barricade. For postemergence control of tufted lovegrass in centipedegrass, apply 2 to 4 fl oz of Tenacity (mesotrione) tank mixed with 0.25 to 0.5 lb per acre atrazine. Make two applications about 10 days apart. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Do not use Tenacity in bermuda grass or zoysiagrass unless injury can be tolerated. Do not tank mix Tenacity with atrazine when spraying bermudagrass or zoysiagrass. In our trials, bermudagrass recovered quickly from visual symptoms of Tenacity. However, it has taken up to six weeks for Meyer zoysiagrass to be free of visual symptoms. Remember that visual symptoms are not always an accurate measure of the effect of an herbicide on the overall growth of a turfgrass. Test Tenacity on a limited area before using on larger areas since injury varies by cultivar. Two fl oz of Tenacity per acre followed by 2 fl oz per acre 10 days later is a reasonable starting point for evaluating Tenacity for lovegrass control in sensitive grasses. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant.

Violets

Manor or Blade (metsulfuron) is an effective violet control herbicide in bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass. Products containing triclopyr and clopyralid (Confront, Turflon), 2,4-D + fluroxypyr + dicamba (Escalade 2) or triclopyr + phenoxy herbicides (Cool Power, HorsePower or Chaser) are fairly effective for violet control, and these products can be used on cool-season grasses such as tall fascue. Repeat applications are often required. Mid- to late fall applications are best followed by mid-spring to early summer applications. 2,4-D + 2,4-DP will provide partial control.

Virginia Buttonweed

Virginia buttonweed is a tap-rooted perennial that reproduces from fleshy roots, cut plant pieces and seed. None of the turf herbicides eradicates Virginia buttonweed. If there are only a few plants, dig them up. Remove all plant parts. Fill holes with clean soil and re-sod. The best you can hope for with herbicides is sup pression through repeat applications of broadleaf herbicides. Multiple applications of two-way or three-way (2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba) herbicides at intervals of three to six weeks do a decent job of suppressing buttonweed. Reapply when you see regrowth. Confront at 1 to 2 pt/acre or metsulfuron (Manor or Blade) at 0.5 to 1.0 oz/acre has been fairly effective on Virginia buttonweed. Products containing fluroxypyr such as Escalade II or Momentum FX2 are equally effective. As with other herbicides, repeat applications are neces sary. Repeat applications (eight weeks apart) of Monument at 0.56 oz/acre have given season-long suppression of Virginia buttonweed four years out of five in Arkansas research trials.

15

Wild Garlic (Wild Onion)

Manor or Blade (metsulfuron) and Certainty (sulfosulfuron) are very effective for wild garlic control. Apply in late February or early March on a warm (at least 50° F), sunny day when there is good soil moisture. Metsulfuron also controls most of the common winter broadleaf weeds such as henbit, chickweed and parsley piert. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Unlike Image and the 2,4-D related products, Metsulfuron does not delay spring transition of partially green bermudagrass. Corsair also has good activity on wild garlic. Image is very effective for wild garlic control. Two applications are required. Make the first application of 8.6 oz/acre (0.2 oz/1,000 sq ft) during November or December and follow it with an 8.6 oz/acre (0.2 oz/1,000 sq ft) application in March. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Apply on a warm (at least 50° F), sunny day when there is good soil moisture. Image also controls some of the common winter annual weeds such as henbit, chickweed and parsley piert. Another option is use of either 2,4-D LV ester or one of the various combinations of 2,4-D, MCPP and dicamba (Trimec, Triplet, etc.) available. These products are the least effective and require three applications to eliminate garlic. Make the first treatment in November, repeat in March and then again the following November. Do not treat 2,4-D-sensitive grasses such as centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass unless they are dormant. The ester formulations of 2,4-D are more effective against garlic.

Yellow Nutsedge

Monument at 0.56 oz/acre, Katana at 3.0 oz/acre or Certainty at 1.25 oz/acre may be used for yellow nutsedge control in bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Repeat application if regrowth appears. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Basagran T/O (bentazon) may be used for yellow nutsedge control on all turfgrasses grown in Arkansas. Apply at the four- to six-leaf stage of nutsedge growth. Apply when the temperature is at least 75° F. Add crop oil or surfactant to Basagran. Complete coverage is essential. Repeat the application in 7 to 10 days. Product rates for Basagran are 0.75 to 1.5 fl oz/1,000 sq ft or 2 to 5 pt/acre. Do not apply more than 6 pt/acre of Basagran in one season. SedgeHammer 75 DF (halosulfuron) is an excellent nutsedge herbicide with very good turfgrass safety. It is approved for use on all turfgrasses in Arkansas. It is effective on purple nutsedge, yellow nutsedge and kyllinga. SedgeHammer is a foliar herbicide that should be applied to nutsedge in the three- to eight-leaf stage. The rate is 1.33 oz/acre. Make a second application in four to six weeks or when regrowth appears. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Do not mow for two days before and two days after application. For spot treatment, mix 0.9 gram of SedgeHammer in one gallon of water with 1/3 fl oz non-ionic surfactant. Image 70 DG (imazaquin) is an effective herbicide for suppressing purple or yellow nutsedge in turfgrass. It is approved for use on bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass and centipedegrass. The recommended rate is 0.26 oz of product per 1,000 sq ft (11.4 oz/acre). A repeat application will probably be needed for fullseason suppression. Make the repeat application in four to six weeks or when regrowth appears. A tank mix of Image + 2.0 lb/acre MSMA has given better suppression than either product alone. Do not use the MSMA tank mix on St. Augustinegrass or centipedegrass. Image + MSMA will cause injury for a longer term to zoysiagrass than bermudagrass. `Meyer' and `El Toro' are more tolerant of MSMA than `Emerald' or `Matrella' zoysiagrasses. Products containing sulfentrazone (Dismiss) can also provide preemergence and postemergence suppression of annual sedge and yellow nutsedge. Dimethenamid (Tower) provides fair preemergence control of sedges.

16

Turfgrass Renovation

Trade Name (product/acre) Roundup ProMax and others (1 to 5 qt) Touchdown Pro (1 to 5 qt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) glyphosate Weeds Controlled most weeds Turfgrass Use existing vegetation Comments Apply to areas that are being renovated before establishment of the desired turfgrass. Apply to actively growing bermudagrass when seedheads appear. Avoid cultivation for seven days after application. Do not get spray on ornamentals. For bermudagrass control, apply three applications of glyphosate (3 lb/gal ae) at 3 qt/acre over the growing season (May, July and September). Wait for regrowth before making the follow-up applications. Our research shows that a tank mix of 3 qt of glyphosate + 24 fl oz of Fusilade II will improve bermudagrass control over glyphosate alone. When using Fusilade, be aware that it will have some residual soil activity. Wait at least 30 days before replanting seeds.

17

Turfgrass Border Maintenance

Trade Name (product/acre) Roundup ProMax and others (1 to 5 qt) Touchdown Pro (1 to 5 qt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) glyphosate Weeds Controlled existing vegetation Turfgrass Use existing vegetation Comments Use as a spot treatment to prevent turfgrass encroachment in fences, paved areas, walkways and around ornamental plantings. For best results, apply on a sunny day when the temperature is above 60° F and the air is calm. Do not apply to drought-stressed vegetation. Amount to add per gallon ranges from 1.2 oz for easy-to-kill annuals to 8.0 oz for low-volume brush control. Use 1.5 oz for high-volume perennial control. Provides quicker burn than glyphosate alone. For spot spray, add 0.3 to 0.75 fl oz per gallon. A non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v should be added to the spray mix. Use at least 15 gallons per acre spray volume. Because Reward is not translocated, it will leave a straight line when edging creeping turfgrasses. However, weed control is not as effective as glyphosate. Use 1.5 to 4.0 fl oz per gallon of water. The 4 oz rate does the best job. Because Finale has limited trans location, it will leave a straight line when edging creeping turfgrasses. However, weed control is not as effective as glyphosate. RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE due to acute toxicity. For retail sale only to those with a pesticide applicator license. For spot spray, add 0.33 to 0.66 fl oz per gallon. A non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v should be added to the spray mix. Use at least 15 gallons per acre spray volume. Because Gramoxone is not translocated, it will leave a straight line when edging creeping turfgrasses. However, weed control is not as effective as glyphosate.

QuickPro (4.5 to 12.25 lb)

glyphosate + diquat (3.4 to 9.3)

existing vegetation

existing vegetation

Reward 2S (1 to 2 pt)

diquat (0.5 to 1.0)

existing vegetation

existing vegetation

Finale 1SC (3 to 6 qt)

glufosinate (0.75 to 1.5)

existing vegetation

existing vegetation

Gramoxone (2 to 4 pt)

paraquat (0.5 to 1.0)

existing vegetation

existing vegetation

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Weed Control Ratings for Preemergence Herbicides

Chickweed, Common Annual Bluegrass Spurge, Prostrate G P G P P G G G P E F G P G G E P P E G G P G G F P P E G P P E G P P G G F P F G P P P E G P G F G E P P E G P P F P G P P P G P E G P E F P E G P G P P F G G P G P F P G G P P P F G G G G G P F F P G Tufted Lovegrass G

Speedwell, Corn E P

Herbicides atrazine (AAtrex) benefin (Balan) benefin + oryzalin (XL) benefin + trifluralin (Team) bensulide (Bensumec, PreSan) bensulide + oxadiazon (Goosegrass/Crabgrass) dimethenamid (Tower) dithiopyr (Dimension) fenamirol (Rubigan) isoxaben (Gallery) metolachlor (Pennant) oryzalin (Surflan) oxadiazon (Ronstar) pendimethalin (Pendulum) prodiamine (Barricade) pronamide (Kerb) rimsulfuron (TranXit) siduron (Tupersan) simazine (Princep) sulfentrazone + prodiamine (Echelon)

F G E G G E G E P P F E G E E P P G F E

P F G F F G G G P P P G E G G P P F P G

E G G G F G G G G P G E G G G E G P E G

E G G G P

E G G G P

E P P

E P

E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair or P = Poor control. Blank = No data.

Field Madder

Goosegrass

Bittercress

Crabgrass

Spurweed

Henbit

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Turfgrass Tolerance of Preemergence Herbicides

Warm Season Kentucky Bluegrass St. Augustinegrass Cool Season Perennial Ryegrass

Centipedegrass

Bermudagrass

Zoysiagrass

Herbicide atrazine (AAtrex) benefin (Balan) benefin + oryzalin (XL 2G) benefin + trifluralin (Team) bensulide (Bensumec) bensulide + oxadiazon (Goosegrass/Crabgrass) dimethenamid (Tower) dithiopyr (Dimension) isoxaben (Gallery) metolachlor (Pennant) oryzalin (Surflan) oxadiazon (Ronstar) pendimethalin (Pre-M) prodiamine (Barricade) pronamide (Kerb) siduron (Tupersan) simazine (Princep) sulfentrazone + prodiamine (Echelon)

S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S NR I S

S S S S S NR S S S S S NR S S S NR S S

S S S S S NR S S S S S S S S S NR S NR

I-S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S

NR S NR S S S S S S NR NR S S S NR S NR S

NR S NR S S S S S S NR NR S S S NR S NR S

NR S S S S NR S S S NR S-I S S S NR S NR S-I

S = Safe at labeled rates on healthy, mature turf. I = Intermediate safety or some injury may occur, may cause minor damage to mature, healthy turf. Consider using the lower end of the rate range. Do not apply to turf under stress. NR = Not registered for use on this species.

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Tall Fescue

Preemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) AAtrex 4L, others (1 qt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) atrazine (1.0) Weeds Controlled same as for Balan (benefin) plus henbit, chickweed, spurweed Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass Comments Apply between Nov. 15 and Dec. 31 for winter weed control. For bermudagrass and zoysiagrass, atrazine should be applied only to dormant turf. Do not apply to areas that drain onto tees, greens and other desirable turfgrasses. Avoid appli cation during spring green-up. Do not apply within the root zone of azaleas, camellias, boxwoods and other shallowrooted species. Do not apply more than 1.0 lb ai/acre to hybrid bermudagrass. An additional application may be made eight weeks after the initial treatment for continued weed control. Do not apply to newly sprigged grasses until these turfs are well established. Do not use on golf course greens or make a spring application to fall-planted turfgrasses. Apply only to well-established turf. Do not apply to tees or greens. Do not exceed 1.5 lb/acre per year of Barricade 65 WDG on warm-season turf. Do not make more than two applications per calendar year, and allow at least 60 days between treat ments. Use a split application for goosegrass control. Wait four to six months per 0.75 lb of Barricade applied before reseeding. Apply high rate in fall for annual bluegrass control. Apply a light irrigation immedi ately after treatment. Do not apply to newly sprigged grasses. Delay reseeding for four months after treatment. May be used on bermudagrass and bentgrass greens.

Balan 2.5G (60 to 120 lb) Balan 1.5 EC (1 to 2 gal)

benefin (1.5 to 3.0)

summer annual grasses, annual bluegrass, some small-seeded broadleaves

established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Barricade 65 WDG (1.15 lb) Barricade 4L (1.5 pints) others

prodiamine (0.75)

same as Balan (benefin) plus chickweed, spurge, goosegrass

Bensumec 4 LF (1.9 to 3.2 gal) Pre-San 7G (107 to 180 lb) Pre-San 12.5G (60 to 100 lb) Dimension 40 WSP (0.625 to 0.95 lb) Dimension 2EW (1.0 to 1.5 pints)

bensulide (7.5 to 12.5)

same as Balan (benefin) plus chickweed, spurge, goosegrass

established bahiagrass, bentgrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

dithiopyr (0.25 to 0.38)

same as for Balan (benefin) plus oxalis (woodsorrel)

Has postemergence activity on very small crabgrass. Do not reseed, overseed or sprig within eight months of application. See label for specific pro grams related to mowing height, timing and split applications.

Echelon 4SC (8 to 36 fl oz)

sulfentrazone + prodiamine (0.25-1.125)

same as Balan (benefin) plus chickweed, spurge, goosegrass

Apply only to well-established turf. Do not apply to tees or greens. Do not exceed a maximum of 2.3 lb/acre per year for bermudagrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue and zoysiagrass. Do not make more than two applications per calendar year, and allow at least 60 days between treatments. Use split application for goosegrass control. Wait four to six months per 1.0 lb ai/acre Echelon applied before reseeding.

21

Preemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Gallery 75 DF (0.66 to 1.33 lb) Common Name (lb ai/acre) isoxaben (0.5 to 1.0) Weeds Controlled broadleaves such as chickweed, henbit, spurge, plantain, others Turfgrasses established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, creeping bentgrass, seashore paspalum, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass Comments Controls a wide range of annual broadleaf weeds. Tank mix with a grass herbicide such as Barricade, Pendulum, etc., to broaden the spec trum of control. Not for greens or tees. Do not apply to newly seeded turf until it has been mowed three times. Do not reseed or overseed within 60 days of application. Apply a light irrigation after treatment. Do not use on newly sprigged grasses until well established. Delay reseeding for five months after treatment. See label for precautions concerning use on putting greens. Preemergence and postemergence control. Apply from Sept. 15 to Feb. 1. Increase rate as annual bluegrass approaches maturity. Kerb works slowly (three to five weeks). Do not apply to cool-season grasses. A light rain or irrigation is needed to activate Kerb if no rain falls within 24 to 48 hours of application. Kerb is a RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE. Do not apply a wetting agent for 14 days before or after making an application of Kerb to greens. Do not use on newly sprigged turfgrasses. Not recommended for turfgrass that has been severely thinned due to winter stress. Do not reseed within four months of application. Use the low rate for tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The high rate may be used on warm-season grasses. Delayed spring green-up; temporary slowing of growth and yellowing may occur following application. Do not use on golf course greens, tees or collars. Do not apply to newly seeded areas. Do not reseed within four months of application. Apply between Nov. 15 and Dec. 31 for winter weed control. For bermuda grass and zoysiagrass, apply simazine only to dormant turf. Do not apply to areas that drain onto tees, greens and other desirable turfgrasses. Avoid application during spring green-up. Do not apply within the root zone of azaleas, camellias, boxwoods and other shallow-rooted species. Do not apply more than 1.0 lb ai/acre to hybrid bermudagrass.

Goosegrass/ Crabgrass Control (115 lb)

bensulide (6.0) + oxadiazon (1.5)

summer annual grasses and goosegrass

Kerb 50 WP (2 lb)

pronamide (1.0)

annual bluegrass

Pendulum 60DF, Pendulum Aquacap, Pendulum 3.3 EC (see label) also Pre-M 3.3 EC, Pre-M Aquacap Pennant MAGNUM (1.3 to 2.6 pt)

pendimethalin (1.5 to 3.0)

same as for Balan (benefin) plus goosegrass, oxalis and speedwell

established bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bahiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

metolachlor (1.24 to 2.48)

annual bluegrass, crabgrass

Princep Liquid 4L, others (1 qt)

simazine (1.0)

same as for Balan (benefin) plus henbit, chickweed, spurweed

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

22

Preemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Regalstar II, Regalstar G (200 lb) Common Name (lb ai/acre) oxadiazon + prodiamine (2.0 + 0.4) Weeds Controlled crabgrass, goosegrass Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass Comments Controls annual grasses. Regalstar II is formulated on a 38-0-0 ureaform nitrogen carrier. Regalstar G does not contain fertilizer. Apply to dry foliage. Delay application to newly sprigged bermudagrass until after stolons have rooted and the grass has filled in. Do not apply to putting greens. May cause temporary discoloration of bermudagrass, which is normally outgrown in two to three weeks. Do not apply to wet turf. Delay reseeding for four months after treatment. Do not apply to golf course greens. Ronstar 50 WP is not labeled on tall fescue. Ronstar may be used immediately before or immediately after sprigging bermudagrass. Rubigan is a systemic fungicide that reduces the infestation level of annual bluegrass. May be applied as a sequential treatment to bermuda grass greens that are overseeded with perennial ryegrass, Poa trivialis or bentgrass. Use the triple applica tion program if Poa trivialis or bentgrass is used for overseeding. For double applications, apply 6.0 fl oz of Rubigan AS per 1,000 sq ft with the last application two weeks before overseeding with ryegrass. For triple applications, apply 4 fl oz of Rubigan AS per 1,000 sq ft with the last appli cation two weeks before overseeding with ryegrass or four weeks before overseeding with Poa trivialis or bentgrass. A single application of Rubigan AS at 2.0 fl oz in January or February will help maintain annual bluegrass control. Apply 2.0 to 3.0 qt/acre for summer annual grass control, or apply 1.5 qt/acre and an additional 1.5 qt/acre eight to ten weeks after the initial application. Split applica tions are recommended for improved goosegrass control and for tall fescue. Do not apply to tall fescue less than six months old. Do not apply to newly sprigged grasses until well estab lished. Do not make a spring applica tion to fall-planted turfgrasses. Delay reseeding for three to four months after application.

Ronstar G (100 to 200 lb) Ronstar 50 WP (4 to 8 lb) Ronstar Flo 3.17L (2.5 to 3.8 qt)

oxadiazon (2.0 to 4.0)

same as for Balan (benefin) especially for goosegrass

bermudagrass, buffalograss, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

(2.0 to 3.0)

Rubigan 1AS (see comments)

fenarimol (see comment)

annual bluegrass

overseeded bermudagrass

Surflan 4 AS (1.5 qt) Surflan 85WDG (1.75 lb)

oryzalin (1.5)

same as for Balan (benefin) plus goosegrass

bermudagrass, buffalograss, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

23

Preemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Tower (21 to 32 fl oz) Common Name (lb ai/acre) dimethenamid (1.0 to 1.5) Weeds Controlled bittercress, crabgrass, doveweed, goosegrass, purslane, spurge Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass Comments Use on golf courses only as of May 2010. Do not use on putting greens. Apply Tower to well-established turf or new seedlings that have been mown at least four times. Delay winter overseeding for at least one month follow ing the last Tower application. Delay sprigging for two months following the last Tower application. Do not apply Tower more frequently than every 35 days, and do not apply more than 64 fl oz (3.0 lb ai) of Tower per year. Do not apply to newly sprigged grasses until well established. Do not apply to putting greens. Do not make a spring application to fall-planted turfgrasses. Delay reseeding for 6 weeks (low rate) and for 12 to 16 weeks (high rate) after application. Provides short-term (30 days) preemergence control of crabgrass in newly seeded grasses. Do not use on warm-season turfs except zoysiagrass. Similar to other preemergence herbicides, water in after application. Use 4 to 12 lb/acre of Tupersan in newly seeded areas and 16 to 24 lb/acre on established turf. Do not apply to newly sprigged grasses until well established. Do not apply to golf course greens. Do not make a spring application to fallplanted turfgrasses. Delay reseeding for 12 to 16 weeks after application.

Team Pro 0.86 G (175 to 350 lb) Team 2G (75 to 150 lb)

benefin + trifluralin

same as for Balan (benefin)

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Tupersan (4 to 24 lb)

siduron (2 to 12 lb)

crabgrass

creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, other cool-season turfs and zoysiagrass

XL 2G (150 lb)

benefin (1.5) + oryzalin (1.5)

same as for Balan (benefin) plus goosegrass

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

24

Weed Control Ratings for Postemergence Broadleaf Herbicides

Strawberry, India Mock Chickweed, Mouse-ear Chickweed, Common Spurweed (Burweed) Buttonweed, Virginia Knotweed, Prostrate Garlic, Wild (Onion) Catsear, Dandelion Spurge, Prostrate Speedwell, Corn

Madder, Field

Clover, White

Parsley Piert

Herbicides 2,4-D (WeedAR) 2,4-D + dicamba 2,4-D + dichlorprop (2,4-DP) 2,4-D + clopyralid + dicamba (Millennium Ultra) 2,4-D + fluroxypyr + dicamba (Escalade 2) 2,4-D + MCPP (2 Plus 2) 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba + pyraflufen-ethyl (4-Speed) 2,4-D + triclopyr (Chaser) 2,4-D + triclopyr + fluroxypyr (Momentum FX2) atrazine (AAtrex) bentazon (Basagran) bentazon + atrazine (Prompt) bromoxynil (Buctril) carfentrazone (Quicksilver) carfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (Speedzone) carfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (Speedzone Southern) carfentrazone + MCPA + MCPP + dicamba (Powerzone) chlorsulfuron (Corsair) clopyralid (Lontrel) dicamba (Banvel) flazasulfuron (Katana) glyphosate imazaquin (Image) MCPA MCPA + MCPP + dicamba (Trimec Encore) MCPA + MCPP + dichlorprop (Triamine II) MCPA + triclopyr + dicamba (Cool Power) MCPP, mecoprop (Mecomec) MCPP + MCPA + dicamba (Trimec Southern) mesotrione (Tenacity) metribuzin (Sencor) metsulfuron (Blade or Manor) penoxsulam (Lockup) pyraflufen ethyl (Octane) quinclorac (Drive) quinclorac + MCPP + dicamba (Onetime) quinclorac + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba (Q4) simazine (Princep) sulfentrazone (Dismiss) sulfentrazone + prodiamine (Echelon) sulfentrazone + quinclorac (Solitare) sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (Surge) sulfosulfuron (Certainty) triclopyr (Turflon Ester) triclopyr + clopyralid (Confront) triclopyr + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba (T-Zone) trifloxysulfuron (Monument)

F F F G G F F F F G P P P F F F F F F F F

F G F G G F F F F F

P P E G G G E E E E E E F E E E G

P E G E E G E E E E E E F E E E G P E

P P F E G F E E G G G G F E E E G E

E E E E E E E E E E P P F E E E

G G G G G G G G G G G G

G G G G G G G G G G P P P G G G G

P E E E E E E E E E E P E G F E E E G E F G G E F G G E E G

P G G G G G G G G G

P G F G G F F G F F

P P G G E G G G E E G G

P P P P

P E E P P E E E E E E E G E E E

F F G F F G G G G G E G E F G G G

G G E G G E E E E E P P P G E E E F G P

P P F P P F F F G G G G G F F F

P G F G G F F G F F G G P F F F F G

F F G F F G E E E E E E E G F E E E

F F F F E E

P P G P P G G G G G

P P F F

F F F

G G G

P F G G G

F F F F G P G G G

P E E E G G G G

G G P G G

G G

G E G G E

E E

G G E F G G E E G G E E E

P G G G E G G E G G E E E G G G E E G G E G G G G G G E G G E G G E E E

E G G F G

F P

G F G

F

G

F G G E E E G F G E G G G G G

F

G G G F G G

G G G G P G

G G G F E G

G

G E G G E G

G

G G G G G G E G G G G

P G F P

F G

G

E

E G G G G G

G G

G G G P G G E E

G G G F G G E G

G G G F G G E E

G G F F G G E

F F F

G G P

E E E F

G G

E E E G G G E G E E G

P P F P P P P

P P F

E E E G G G G

F F G

P G

G E F E E E E

F G G G G G G

G

F F

F

G

E

G G E E

E G

G E

F F F G

G G G G

P

F

G G G G

G G G G

G G G G

F F F F

G F G

G

E G

F E E

G E E G

E G G

G G

G G G

F G

G E G

P P

E E

E F

G E G P

G E G

G G E P

G E G

G G

F G F P

E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair, or P = Poor control. Blank = No data.

25

Woodsorrel P P P G G P P P G G P P F P P P P E G G G P G G G P G G G G G G G G P

Ivy, Ground

Lespedeza

Pennywort

Dichondra

Dandelion

Plantain

Henbit

Violet

Weed Control Ratings for Postemergence Grass Herbicides

Annual Bluegrass Tufted Lovegrass F P G G G P G P P P G F P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P G P E G F P E G P F F F P P G G G P F F P P G F E F G F F G G G G F F P P P G G P P P P P G P G P Bermudagrass P P P G P G

Goosegrass

Herbicides atrazine (AAtrex) chlorsulfuron (Corsair) diclofop (Illoxan) ethofumesate (Prograss) fenoxaprop (Acclaim Extra) flazasulfuron (Katana) fluazifop (Fusilade II) foramsulfuron (Revolver) glyphosate* mesotrione (Tenacity) metribuzin (Sencor) metsulfuron (Blade or Manor) MSMA, DSMA pronamide (Kerb) quinclorac (Drive) quinclorac + mecoprop + dicamba (Onetime) glyphosate + fluazifop** rimsulfuron (TranXit) metribuzin + MSMA sethoxydim (Segment) simazine (Princep) sulfentrazone (Dismiss) sulfentrazone + prodiamine (Echelon) sulfentrazone + quinclorac (Solitaire) sulfosulfuron (Certainty) triclopyr (Turflon Ester) triclopyr + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba (T-Zone) trifloxysulfuron (Monument)

P

P

E

F

P

G

P P G F G

E P G P G G

P G P G F G E

P P G

P P P F

G P P E F G E

P P G F G

G

G G

E G F P G P G G

E F G P F P P P

E

G F

G

G P P G P P P G P P P

F P F P P P

E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair, P = Poor control. Blank = No data. * Use only in completely dormant bermudagrass or as a preplant application. **Use as a preplant application for bermudagrass control. Do not reseed for 30 days following application.

26

Tall Fescue F G P P P E P G E

Bahiagrass

Dallisgrass

Crabgrass

Ryegrass

Sandbur

Turfgrass Tolerance of Postemergence Herbicides

Warm Season St. Augustinegrass Centipedegrass Cool Season Perennial Ryegrass

Bermudagrass

Zoysiagrass

Herbicides 2,4-D (WeedAR64) 2,4-D + dicamba 2,4-D + dichlorprop (2,4-DP) 2,4-D + clopyralid + dicamba (Millenium Ultra) 2,4-D + fluroxypyr + dicamba (Escalade 2) 2,4-D + MCPP (2 Plus 2) 2,4-D + MCPP + dichlorprop (Triamine) 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba + pyraflufen-ethyl (4-Speed) 2,4-D + triclopyr 2,4-D + triclopyr + fluroxypyr atrazine (AAtrex) bentazon (Basagran) bentazon + atrazine bromoxynil (Buctril) carfentrazone (Quicksilver) carfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (Speedzone) carfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (Speedzone Southern) carfentrazone + MCPA + MCPP + dicamba (Powerzone) chlorsulfuron (Corsair) clopyralid (Lontrel) dicamba (Banvel) diclofop (Illoxan) fenoxaprop (Acclaim Extra) flazasulfuron (Katana) fluazifop-p (Fusilade II) foramsulfuron (Revolver) imazaquin (Image) MCPA MCPA + MCPP + dicamba (Trimec Encore) MCPA + MCPP + dichlorprop (Triamine II) MCPA + triclopyr + dicamba (Cool Power) MCPP, mecoprop (Mecomec) MCPP + MCPA + dicamba (Trimec Southern) mesotrione (Tenacity) metribuzin (Sencor) metsulfuron (Blade or Manor) MSMA, DSMA penoxsulam (Lockup) pronamide (Kerb) pyraflufen ethyl (Octane) quinclorac (Drive) quinclorac + mecoprop + dicamba (Onetime) quinclorac + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba (Q4) rimsulfuron (TranXit) simazine (Princep) sethoxydim (Segment) sulfentrazone (Dismiss) sulfentrazone + imazethapyr (Dismiss South) sulfentrazone + prodiamine (Echelon) sulfentrazone + quinclorac (Solitare) sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (Surge) sulfosulfuron (Certainty) triclopyr (Turflon Ester) triclopyr + clopyralid (Confront) triclopyr + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba (T-Zone) trifloxysulfuron (Monument)

S S S S S S S S S S S S-I S S-I S S S S S S S S S NR S NR S S S S S S-I S S I** S-I S S-I S S S S S S S S-I NR S S S S S S S-I S-I S S

I I I NR NR I I I NR I I S-I S S-I S S NR S NR S-I S I NR NR S NR NR S I I I I I S-I S NR S-I NR S NR I-S NR NR NR S S-I S S S S S S S I I I NR

I I I NR NR I I I NR I I S-I S S-I S S NR I-S* NR S-I S I NR NR NR NR NR S I I I I I S-I S*** NR S NR S NR S NR NR NR NR S-I NR I NR NR NR NR S I NR I NR

S S S S S S S S S S S S-I S S-I S S S S S S-I S S NR S S S-I S S S S S S S S I NR S-I S-I S NR S S S S S I NR S* S* S S S S S S S S

S S S S S S S S S S S NR S NR S S S S S S**** S S NR S NR NR NR NR S S S S S S S NR S**** S-I S NR S S S S NR NR NR S NR S S S S**** S S S NR

S S S S S S S S S S S NR S NR S S S S S NR S S NR S NR NR NR NR S S S S S S S NR NR S-I S NR S S S S NR NR NR S NR S S S NR S S S NR

S S S S S S S S S S S NR S NR S S S S S NR S S NR S NR S-I NR NR S S S S S S S NR NR S-I S NR S S S S NR NR NR S-I NR S-I S-I S-I NR S S S NR

S = Safe at labeled rates; I = Intermediate safety or some injury may occur, use at reduced rates; NR = Not registered for use on this turfgrass; do not use. * Safety varies by cultivar.

** Can be used safely on dormant bermudagrass.

*** Sod farm use only.

**** Safe for use on 100% Kentucky bluegrass stands as well as fine fescues. Metsulfuron, chlorsulfuron and sulfosulfuron are not safe for use on tall fescue + Kentucky bluegrass mixtures. Metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron are not safe for use on Kentucky bluegrass + perennial ryegrass mixtures, but sulfosulfuron is safe.

Tall Fescue

Kentucky Bluegrass

27

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) 2,4-D Weedar 64 (2 to 3 pt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) 2,4-D (0.95 + 1.43 Weeds Controlled many broadleaf weeds including dandelion; 2,4-D alone will not control white clover, henbit, chickweed Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Amine formulations of 2,4-D are nonvolatile and are safer than ester formulations for use near ornamental trees and shrubs. Do not spray when turfgrass is emerging from winter dormancy. Apply to small and actively growing broadleaf weeds as a summer or winter treatment. Do not apply 2,4-D to St. Augustinegrass. `Tifgreen' and `Tifdwarf' bermudagrass are more sensi tive; use reduced rates on these vari eties. Do not allow spray to drift to contact the foliage of ornamentals. For hard-to-control perennials, combination products will improve control. Use one-half rate on centipedegrass. Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not apply to St. Augustinegrass or centipedegrass.

2 Plus 2 (2.5 qt)

2,4-D + mecoprop (1.2 + 1.1)

broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass (dormant) centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass (dormant)

4-Speed (3.0 to 4.0 pt)

2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba + pyraflufen ethyl

broadleaf weeds

Controls a broader spectrum of broadleaf weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not spray when turfgrass is emerging from winter dormancy. Avoid applications if air tem peratures exceed 90° F. Delay reseeding for two weeks after treatment. Apply between Nov. 15 and Dec. 31 for winter weed control. For spurweed, apply in December or January. For bermuda grass and zoysiagrass, atrazine should be applied only to dormant turf. Do not apply to areas that drain onto tees, greens and other desirable turfgrasses. Do not apply more than 1 lb/acre on hybrid bermudagrasses. Avoid application during spring green-up. Do not apply within the root zone of azaleas, camellias, boxwoods and other shallow-rooted species. AAtrex is a RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE. Rate depends on growth stage of weedy grasses. Check label. A second applica tion may be applied two weeks after the first. Do not use on bentgrass putting greens. Use the 28 oz/acre rate for bermudagrass suppression. Apply every 28 to 35 days. Use a hooded sprayer, a sheet of plywood, cardboard or similar material as a shield to prevent drift when working near sensitive grasses. For bermudagrass suppression in tall fescue, adding Turflon Ester will improve control.

AAtrex 4L, others (1 qt)

atrazine (1.0 to 2.0)

annual bluegrass, broadleaf winter annuals

Acclaim Extra 0.57 EC (13 to 39 oz)

fenoxaprop (0.06 to 0.17)

annual weedy grasses, bermudagrass suppression

Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

28

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Banvel 4L (0.5 to 1 pt) Vanquish 4S (0.5 to 1 pt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) dicamba (0.25 to 0.5) Weeds Controlled white clover, woodsorrel, dichondra, wild onions, henbit, knotweed, lespedeza, docks and others yellow nutsedge, globe sedge, annual sedge and many broadleaf weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Do not apply over the root zone of shallow-rooted ornamental trees and shrubs. Repeat applications may be needed. Do not exceed 1.0 lb/acre dur ing the growing season. Do not apply to St. Augustinegrass. Vanquish is relatively mobile in the soil profile, so care should be exercised in its use around the root zone of broadleaf species. Apply bentazon to emerged yellow nutsedge that is actively growing under good soil moisture conditions. Apply 2 to 3 pt/A and follow 10 to 14 days later with an additional application, if necessary. Thorough spray coverage is essential for acceptable control. Spot spraying may result in turf injury. Do not mow three to five days before or after application. Does not control purple nutsedge. Safe on seedling or sprigged turf. Contact herbicide. Control is poor after weeds exceed the 4- to 6-leaf stage.

Basagran T/O (1 to 2 pt)

bentazon (1.0 to 2.0)

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Buctril 2L (1 to 2 pt) Buctril 4EC (0.5 to 1.0 pt)

bromoxynil (0.25 to 0.5)

very small broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, bentgrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

Certainty (0.75 to 1.25 oz)

sulfosulfuron (0.035 to 0.094)

annual bluegrass, sedges, kyllinga, ryegrass, tall fescue, johnsongrass, wild garlic broadleaf weeds

Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. May be used on commercial and residential turf. Do not apply within 4 feet of golf greens. Add 0.1 oz per 10 gallons of water for spot treatment.

Chaser (2 to 4 pt)

2,4-D + triclopyr (0.5 + 0.25 to 1.0 + 0.5)

Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue

Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. NOT RECOMMENDED for warm-season grasses. Apply in spring or fall months when weeds are actively growing. Newly seeded turf should be mowed three times before application. Do not reseed until three weeks after application. Repeat applications are recommended for corn speedwell, ground ivy, woodsorrel, parsley piert and wild violet(s). Contains no 2,4-D. Use high rates only on cool-season grasses. Expect some yellowing on warm-season grasses. Use on grasses mowed at 0.5 inch or greater. Do not use on residential turfgrass. Not for use on bermudagrass sod farms.

Confront 3L (1 to 2 pt)

clopyralid + triclopyr (0.09 to 0.19 + 0.28 to 0.56)

broadleaf weeds, good on legumes, plantain, ragweed, clover, vetch

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, zoysiagrass

29

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Cool Power, HorsePower (see label) Common Name (lb ai/acre) MCPA + triclopyr + dicamba (see label) Weeds Controlled broadleaf weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. Cool Power is an ester formulation of MCPA + triclopyr + dicamba primarily for use during the cool winter months. HorsePower contains amine formulations of these herbicides. Do not mow one to two days before or after application. Delay application to newly seeded grasses until after three to four mowings. Delay reseeding for three to four weeks after application. Avoid applications during the spring transition of warm-season turfgrasses. Use the high rate for tall fescue control. Very slow acting. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Controls prostrate spurge. Wild violet, Virginia buttonweed and wild garlic are listed on the label.

Corsair 75 DF (1 to 5.33 oz) Telar XP Roadside and industrial use (see label) Dismiss 4L (1/4 to 3/4 pt) Spartan 4F (1/4 to 3/4 pt) sod farms

chlorsulfuron (0.046 to 0.25)

broadleaves, wild garlic, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

sulfentrazone (0.125 to 0.375)

dandelion, henbit, clovers, chickweed, spurges, speedwells, wild garlic, annual sedges, purple and yellow nutsedge, kyllingas

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Maximum use rate on bentgrass, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue is 4 fl oz/acre. Weed control spectrum increases when tank-mixed with 2,4-D and dicamba. Do not apply to golf course tees or greens. Do not apply directly to landscape orna mentals or to ornamental beds. Do not apply with surfactants unless tests have previously demonstrated compatibility and safety on grass type. Reseeding, overseeding and sprigging can be per formed three months after application due to product inhibiting establishment. Overseeding with ryegrass should be delayed two to four weeks after application but only if slight injury can be tolerated. Do not use on newly seeded turfgrasses until they have been mowed at least twice. Recommended that sod be estab lished for at least six weeks before appli cation and not within three months of harvest. Echelon 4SC is a premix of sulfentrazone + prodiamine. Solitaire is a premix of sulfentrazone + quinclorac. May cause temporary discoloration of zoysiagrass and centipedegrass. Injury varies by zoysiagrass cultivar with Z. matrella cultivars being more sensitive. Reseeding, overseeding or sprigging of treated areas within one month after application of Dismiss South could inhibit establishment. Overseeding with ryegrass should to be delayed two to four weeks after application but only if slight injury can be tolerated. Allow sod to establish a good root system before applying Dismiss South. Do not apply to golf course greens and tees. Do not apply with surfactants unless compatibil ity tests have previously demonstrated compatibility and safety on grass type.

Dismiss South (9.5 to 14.4 fl oz)

sulfentrazone + imazethapyr (0.29 to 0.45)

dandelion, henbit, clovers, chickweed, spurges, speedwells, wild garlic, annual sedges, purple and yellow nutsedge and kyllingas

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass

30

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Drive XLR8 (2 qt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) quinclorac (0.75) Weeds Controlled crabgrass, signalgrass, barnyardgrass, foxtail, white clover, dandelion Turfgrasses bermudagrass, perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Not labeled for golf greens or collars. Add crop oil concentrate (2 pt/acre) or methylated seed oil (1.5 pt) to increase performance. Make two applications three weeks apart for perennial weeds. Onetime is a premix of quinclorac + MCPP + dicamba. Solitaire is a premix of sulfentrazone + quinclorac. Apply only to well-established turf. Do not apply to tees or greens. Do not exceed a maximum of 2.3 lb/acre per year for bermudagrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue and zoysiagrass. Do not make more than two applications per calendar year, and allow at least 60 days between treatments. Use a split application for goosegrass con trol. Wait three to five months before reseeding after application.

Do not use on creeping bentgrass greens or tees. Delay applications to newly sodded or sprigged areas for four weeks after planting. Apply after the second mowing to newly seeded grasses. Do not apply during spring green-up.

Echelon 4SC (8 to 36 fl oz)

sulfentrazone + prodiamine (0.25 to 1.125)

controls many grassy weeds preemergently and provides postemergent chickweed, spurge and goosegrass control

controls many broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Escalade 2 (2 to 3 pt)

2,4-D + fluroxypyr + dicamba (0.8 + 0.1 + 0.1 to 1.2 + 0.15 + 0.15) glufosinate (0.75 to 1.5)

bermudagrass, perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass completely dormant bermudagrass

Finale 1SC (3 to 6 qt)

controls many winter annual broadleaf weeds and annual bluegrass

Fusilade II 2 EC (6 fl oz)

fluazifop (0.09)

bermudagrass suppression, crabgrass, goosegrass, dallisgrass

use only on established For use in residential areas but not home zoysiagrass or tall fescue lawns. Start treatments for bermudagrass suppression in zoysiagrass around June 1 when zoysiagrass is growing well. Repeat every 30 days unless zoysiagrass has not adequately recovered from the previous application. Zoysiagrass growing in shade is more readily injured. Use 5 to 6 fl oz/acre for tall fescue. Make first fescue application in the spring when bermudagrass is breaking dorman cy and the second in the fall. Tall fescue will be temporarily discolored. For bermudagrass suppression in tall fescue or zoysiagrass, adding 32 fl oz of Turflon Ester will improve control. Do not apply or allow drift onto bentgrass putting greens. Use a hooded sprayer, a sheet of plywood or cardboard or similar mate rial as a shield to prevent drift when working near sensitive grasses.

31

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Illoxan 3 EC (32 to 43 oz) Common Name (lb ai/acre) diclofop (0.75 to 1.0) Weeds Controlled goosegrass Turfgrasses bermudagrass Comments Apply to established, actively growing bermudagrass. Illoxan tends to perform better on closely mowed goosegrass (0.75 inch or less). Young goosegrass plants are easier to control. Use the higher rate on older plants. Will not ade quately control large, mature goose grass. See label for specific rates. For use only on golf courses. Do not mow for 24 to 36 hours after application. Control takes two to three weeks. Tank mixing may reduce control. Do not overseed for six weeks following application. RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE. Add a non-ionic surfactant (1 qt/100 gal). The addition of MSMA at 2 lb ai/acre (bermudagrass only) will aid in control of nutsedge(s) and escaped weedy grasses. Do not apply when turfgrass is emerging from winter dormancy. Image will severely injure fescues and ryegrasses. Do not apply to newly planted or sprigged lawns or golf greens. Multiple applications of imazaquin at high rates will inhibit turfgrass growth.

Add a non-ionic surfactant (1 qt/100 gal). Irrigate lightly after application. Katana can track from one area to another, so use with caution in warm-season turf bordering cool-season turf. Katana is a sulfonylurea herbicide that is effective for cool-season grass control. It is one of the better products for tall fescue, annual bluegrass and clump ryegrass removal.

Image 70 DG (11.4 oz)

imazaquin (0.5)

purple nutsedge, kyllinga, wild garlic, some broadleaves

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

Katana 25G (0.5 to 3.0 oz)

flazasulfuron (0.008 to 0.047)

annual bluegrass, ryegrass, tall fescue, spring transition, various weeds, sedges and kyllingas

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass

Kerb 50W (2 to 3 lb)

pronamide (1.0 to 1.5)

annual bluegrass, ryegrass clumps

bermudagrass

RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE. Use only on bermudagrass. Controls annual bluegrass and clumpy ryegrass. Do not apply to a slope that drains onto coolseason grasses. If applied in spring, three to four weeks are needed for control. Requires six weeks for clumpy ryegrass control if mowed at fairway height. Late fall or early winter applica tions are more effective on annual blue grass. If used for spring ryegrass transition, ryegrass will disappear slowly. TranXit, Revolver and Monument are the quickest to show activity. Do apply before May 1 for ryegrass transition. Not for use on putting greens or tees. Avoid contact with desirable ornamental shrubs and trees. Do not collect grass clippings for use as mulch around plants. A slight yellowing of turfgrass may occur within two weeks of application. Do not apply to centipedegrass during winter dormancy.

Lockup (various granular forms)

penoxsulam (0.02 to 0.06)

broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

32

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Lontrel 3L (0.25 to 1.33 pt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) clopyralid (0.19 to 0.5) Weeds Controlled legumes and composite family weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Do not use on home lawns. Excellent legume control including kudzu, vetch and clovers. Avoid contact with any leguminous landscape plants including honey locust, mimosa, little leaf linden and redbud. Centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass have greater tolerance for Lontrel com pared to other growth regulator herbicides (2,4-D, etc.). Do not use treated clippings for mulch. Controls a wide range of broadleaf weeds, `Pensacola' bahiagrass and wild garlic/onion. May also be used to hasten the spring transition of bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass to bermudagrass. Add a non-ionic surfac tant at 0.25% v/v. Do not exceed 0.5 oz on centipedegrass or Kentucky blue grass. Do not overseed cool-season grasses for eight weeks after application or plant woody ornamentals in treated areas for one year after application. Not recommended for use on tall fescue. Avoid applications where rainfall is expected within 48 hours. Do not use on lawns except for spot-treating. Do not use on newly seeded turf. Do not apply to St. Augustinegrass or centipedegrass. Do not water for 24 hours after application.

Manor 60 DF (0.25 to 1 oz) Blade 60 DF (0.25 to 1 oz)

metsulfuron (0.01 to 0.04)

broadleaf weeds, bahiagrass

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

MCPA-4 Amine (1 to 4 pt)

MCPA (0.46 to 1.85)

broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Mecomec (2 to 2.75 pt)

MCPP (1.25 to 1.88)

broadleaf weeds

Millenium Ultra 2 (2 to 3 pt)

2,4-D + clopyralid + dicamba (see label)

broadleaf weeds

Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not mow one to two days before or after application. Delay application to newly seeded grasses until after three to four mowings. Delay reseed ing for three to four weeks after applica tion. Do not spray when air temperatures are greater than 90° F. Not recommended for use on St. Augustinegrass and centi pedegrass. Avoid applications during the spring transition of warm-season turfgrasses. Not labeled for use on residential turfgrasses. Use the 3 pt/acre rate on warm-season grasses. Do not mow one to two days before application. Mow newly seeded areas twice before application. Do not reseed within three to four weeks after application. Avoid applications during the spring transition of warm-season turfgrasses.

Momentum FX2 (3 to 4 pt)

2,4-D + triclopyr + fluroxypyr (1.04 to 1.4)

broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

33

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Monument 75 DF (0.33 to 0.56 oz) Common Name (lb ai/acre) trifloxysulfuron (0.015 to 0.026) Weeds Controlled broadleaf weeds, annual bluegrass, ryegrass, tall fescue, sedges and kyllinga Turfgrasses bermudagrass, zoysiagrass Comments Apply Monument for control of undesirable cool-season grasses such as annual bluegrass, ryegrass and tall fescue. Monument may be used for spring transition of bermudagrass overseeded with cool-season turfgrasses the previous fall. Wait six weeks before seeding treated areas with cool-season grasses. Monument is rainfast within three hours of application. Temporary discoloration of turf will occur. On new stands of fescue, apply one-half rate after three mowings. Begin treatment when weedy grasses are in the 3- to 4-leaf stage. Use two applications seven days apart. Nutsedge and sandbur may require three to four applications. May be applied to newly sprigged bermudagrass. Do not apply to centipedegrass or St. Augustinegrass. MSMA and DSMA use is being phased out by the EPA. See page 3 of this publication for more details. Sale prohibited to resi dential turf after December 31, 2010. Starting in 2011, only spot treatments (100 ft2 maximum per spot) are allowed on existing golf courses. New golf courses can apply one broadcast application. Sod farms can apply two broadcast treatments per year. Newly seeded areas not under moisture, temperature or mechanical stress can be treated. Areas can be overseeeded one day following application. Applications to dormant turf are safe, but avoid applica tion to turf transitioning out of dormancy. Not labeled for golf greens or collars. Add crop oil concentrate (2 pt/A) or methylated seed oil (1.5 pt) to increase performance. Make two applications three weeks apart for perennial weeds. No more than two applications per year. Controls a wide range of broadleaf weeds, including spotted spurge. May be applied after the second mowing in newly established cool-season turfgrasses or four weeks after sprigging or sodding warm-season turfgrasses. Do not reseed until two weeks after application. Do not apply at air temperatures greater than 90° F.

MSMA (6 lb/gal) DSMA (6.6 lb/gal) (see label)

MSMA, DSMA (2.0)

crabgrass, bahiagrass, goosegrass, nutsedge, dallisgrass, sandbur, signalgrass

bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue

Octane (see label)

pyraflufen ethyl

chickweed, white clover, dandelion, parsley piert, pennywort

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass, ryegrass

Onetime (2 qt)

quinclorac + mecoprop + dicamba (0.75 + 0.38 + 0.1) carfentrazone + MCPA + MCPP + dicamba

crabgrass and several broadleaf weeds

PowerZone (2 to 6 pt)

many broadleaf weeds

34

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Princep 4L (1 qt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) simazine (1.0) Weeds Controlled annual bluegrass, most winter annual broadleaf weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass Comments Apply between Nov. 15 and Dec. 31 for winter weed control. For bermudagrass and zoysiagrass, simazine should be applied only to dormant turf. Do not apply to areas that drain onto tees, greens and other desirable turfgrasses. Avoid application during spring green-up. Do not apply within the root zone of azaleas, camellias, boxwoods and other shallow-rooted species. Make the first application in mid-March and the second 30 days later for bermudagrass suppression. See label for recommendations for reducing annual bluegrass in cool-season turf. Temporary St. Augustinegrass stunting may occur. Do not use more than 0.5 gallons/acre on Kentucky bluegrass or creeping bentgrass. Use on St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass and centipedegrass only. Apply no earlier than 10 days after sprigging. Use the high rate on yellow nutsedge and follow with a second application 7 to 10 days later. Hard to find a supplier. Do not use on warm-season turfgrasses or creeping bentgrass. Do not apply to greens, tees or collars. No more than two applications per year. Tall fescue may experience some short-term yellowing after application. Quicksilver can be applied seven days after the emergence (after seeding or sprigging) of bermudagrass, St. Augustine grass, creeping bentgrass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass and Kentucky blue grass. Application should be delayed until 14 days after zoysiagrass emergence. Applications to dormant warm-season grasses are permitted. Avoid applications when warm-season grasses are transition ing into or out of dormancy. Do not apply more than 0.10 lb ai/acre per application and no more than 0.40 lb ai/acre per year. Use a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Apply Revolver for a) control of undesirable cool-season grasses (includ ing tall fescue), b) control of emerged annual bluegrass two weeks before overseeding bermudagrass with peren nial ryegrass, c) postemergence control of goosegrass in late spring and early summer and d) spring transition of bermudagrass overseeded the previous fall with cool-season turfgrasses. Do not apply Revolver within two weeks of sprig ging. Revolver is rainfast within two hours of application.

Prograss 1.5 EC (0.5 to 2 gal)

ethofumesate (0.75 to 3.0)

annual bluegrass, bermudagrass

perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, St. Augustinegrass

Prompt 5L (1.6 to 2.4 pt)

bentazon + atrazine (0.5 to 0.75)

many broadleaf weeds, some annual sedges

centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

Q4 (7 to 8 pt)

2,4-D + quinclorac + dicamba + sulfentrazone carfentrazone

broadleaf weeds and some grasses

bermudagrass (dormant), Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass (dormant) bermudagrass, centipedegrass, creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Quicksilver T&O 1.9EC Quicksilver 12DF

some broadleaf weeds and silvery thread moss

Revolver 0.19 EC (5.5 to 35.2 fl oz)

foramsulfuron (0.006 to 0.052)

annual bluegrass, goosegrass, ryegrass, tall fescue, partial dallisgrass control

bermudagrass, zoysiagrass

35

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Reward 2S (1 to 2 pt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) diquat (0.5 to 1.0) Weeds Controlled winter annual broadleaf weeds such as little barley, annual blue grass, henbit and Carolina geranium annual bluegrass, winter broadleaf weeds Turfgrasses dormant bermudagrass Comments Use on lawns, parks and golf courses. A non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v should be added to the spray mix. Apply only to dormant bermudagrass. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant to Reward.

Roundup ProMax and others (1 to 2 pt) Touchdown Pro (1 to 2 pt) SedgeHammer 75DF (0.66 to 1.33 oz)

glyphosate

dormant bermudagrass

Apply only to completely dormant bermudagrass with no green stolons or leaves visible. In Arkansas, mid to late January is usually the best time to apply. Apply at 10 to 20 GPA.

halosulfuron (0.031 to 0.062)

most nutsedges and kyllinga species

all turfgrasses

Apply to 3- to 8-leaf nutsedge. Use 0.5% non-ionic surfactant. Two applica tions may be made. Do not exceed 0.125 lb ai/acre in a single season. Not labeled for putting greens. For spot treat ment, mix 0.9 gram of SedgeHammer in 1 gal of water with 1/3 oz surfactant. Do not mow for two days before and after application. Use low rate on actively growing bermudagrass. Use high rate on dormant bermudagrass for winter annual weed control. Do not apply in the root zone of shallow-rooted ornamentals. Do not apply to tees, greens or other turf mowed at less than 1/2 inch. Centipedegrass only. Do not make more than two applications per season. Safe on centipedegrass seedlings after the third mowing. Crop oil has already been added to Segment. Apply no sooner than three weeks after spring green-up. Do not apply Segment to newly planted centipedegrass until after 3 inches of new stolon growth. Apply before crab grass becomes well tillered. Do not mow seven days before or after application. Two applications three weeks apart will suppress bahiagrass. Controls a wide range of broadleaf weeds, including spotted spurge. May be applied after the second mowing in newly established cool-season turfgrass es or four weeks after sprigging or sod ding warm-season turfgrasses. Do not reseed until two weeks after application. Do not apply at air temperatures greater than 90° F.

Sencor 75 Turf (0.33 to 0.66 lb)

metribuzin (0.25 to 0.5)

goosegrass, broadleaf annual weeds

bermudagrass

Segment 1 EC (1.5 to 2.25 pt)

sethoxydim (0.19 to 0.28)

crabgrass, goosegrass, sandbur, bahiagrass, bermudagrass

centipedegrass

SpeedZone (2 to 5 pt)

carfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba

many broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

36

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) SpeedZone ­ Southern (2 to 5 pt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) carfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba Weeds Controlled many broadleaf weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Controls a wide range of broadleaf weeds, including spotted spurge. May be applied after the second mowing in newly established cool-season turfgrasses or four weeks after sprigging or sodding warm-season turfgrasses. Do not reseed until one week after application. Do not apply at air temperatures greater than 90° F. Do not apply during the spring green-up of St. Augustinegrass or to `Floratam,' `BitterBlue' and other improved varieties of St. Augustinegrass. Do not apply to golf course putting greens, collars or tees. Do not apply directly to landscape ornamentals or to ornamental beds. Do not apply with sur factants unless compatibility tests have previously demonstrated compatibility and safety on grass type. Overseeding with ryegrass should to be delayed two to four weeks after application but only if slight injury can be tolerated. Do not use on newly seeded turfgrasses until they have been mowed at least twice. Recommended that sod be established for three months before application. Do not apply at air temperatures greater than 90° F or during spring transition. Provides some nutsedge suppression.

Solitare (1 to 2 lb)

sulfentrazone + quinclorac (0.75 to 1.5)

crabgrass, goosegrass, dandelion, dichondra, white clover, spurge, other broadleaf weeds, sedges and kyllinga

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Surge (2.75 to 4.0 pt)

sulfentrazone (0.06 lb/gal) + 2,4-D (1.4 lb/gal) + MCPP (0.5 lb/gal) + dicamba (0.22 lb/gal mesotrione (0.125 to 0.25)

broadleaf weeds including spotted spurge

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass dormant bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass sod, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass

Tenacity (4 to 8 fl oz)

tufted lovegrass, crabgrass, goosegrass, nutsedge, broadleaves

Causing a bleaching effect to susceptible species. Apply in 30 gallons of water per acre. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per year. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Make a repeat application two weeks after the first. For best crabgrass and goosegrass control, apply to less than four-tiller plants. Not for use on golf course putting greens. May be used a) to control annual blue grass before overseeding bermudagrass with perennial ryegrass or Poa trivialis, b) to control annual bluegrass in non overseeded bermudagrass, c) to control emerged weeds in centipedegrass and zoysiagrass and d) to remove perennial ryegrass or Poa trivialis from bermuda grass in the late spring. Add a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Apply 10 to 14 days before overseeding bermudagrass in late summer or early fall. Do not apply after overseeding or to bentgrass putting greens. To hasten spring transition on overseeded bermudagrass, apply at the 60% to 75% green-up growth stage of bermudagrass or approximately two to three weeks before transition is desired. Do not apply to residential lawns, coolseason turfgrasses or to newly sprigged or sodded bermudagrass.

TranXit 25 DF (0.5 to 2.0 oz)

rimsulfuron (0.007 to 0.03)

henbit, purple deadnettle, woodsorrel, plantains

37

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Trimec, Three Way, Trex-San, Triplet, Triplet Water Soluble, other trade names Common Name (lb ai/acre) 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (see label) Weeds Controlled broadleaf weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Several commercial formulations are available. Refer to individual labels for recommended amount of formulated product. Controls a broader spectrum of broadleaf weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not spray when turfgrass is emerging from winter dormancy. Low rates of Triplet products may be used on St. Augustinegrass or centipedegrass but can be more injurious to these species. Avoid applications if air temperatures exceed 85° F. Delay reseeding for four weeks after treatment. Controls a broad spectrum of broadleaf, grassy, and sedge weeds. MSMA use is being phased out by the EPA. See page 3 of this publication for more details. Sale prohibited to residential turf after December 31, 2010. Starting in 2011, only spot treatments (100 ft2 maximum per spot) are allowed on existing golf courses. New golf courses can apply one broadcast application. Sod farms can apply two broadcast treatments per year. Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not spray when turfgrass is emerging from winter dor mancy. Avoid application if air tempera ture exceeds 85° F. Delay reseeding for four weeks after application. Refer to label for rates on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass. Refer to individual labels for recommended amount of formulated product. Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not spray at air temperatures greater than 85° F and when warmseason turfgrasses are growing under stress conditions. Delay reseeding for four weeks after treatment. Avoid appli cation when warm-season turfgrasses are emerging from winter dormancy. Refer to individual labels for recommended amount of formulated product. Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not spray at air temperatures greater than 85° F and when warmseason turfgrasses are growing under stress conditions. Delay reseeding for four weeks after treatment.

Trimec Plus (1 to 1.3 gal)

MSMA + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (see label)

crabgrass, bahiagrass, nutsedge, dallisgrass, sandbur, signalgrass, sprangletop, broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Trimec Southern (see label)

MCPP + 2,4-D + dicamba (see label)

broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

Triamine, Tri-Ester, Dissolve (see label)

2,4-D + MCPP + 2,4-DP (see label)

broadleaf weeds

Triamine II, Tri-Ester II, (see label)

MCPA + MCPP + 2,4-DP (see label)

broadleaf weeds

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

38

Postemergence Herbicides

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Trimec Encore Tri-Power (see label) Common Name (lb ai/acre) MCPA + MCPP + dicamba (see label) Weeds Controlled broadleaf weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Controls a broader spectrum of weeds than 2,4-D alone. Do not mow one to two days before or after application. Delay application to newly seeded grasses until after three to four mowings. Delay reseeding for three to four weeks after application. Avoid applications during the spring transition of warm-season turfgrasses unless a slight delay in green-up can be tolerated. Trimec Encore is injurious on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass. Not recommended for warm-season grasses except when injury can be toler ated. Zoysiagrass is the most tolerant of the warm-season grasses. Repeat appli cations of 3 pt/acre spaced four weeks apart are recommended for corn speed well, parsley piert, violets, ground ivy and woodsorrel. Rate varies by turf species. Use 2 to 2.25 pt/acre on bermudagrass and zoysiagrass and 3.25 to 4 pt/acre on cool-season turf. Sod farms are limited to two applications per year. Delay applica tion to newly seeded turf until after the second or third mowing. Delay applica tion until three to four weeks after sod ding, sprigging or plugging turf. Treated areas may be reseeded three weeks after application. Do not use when temperatures exceed 85° F. Do not spray when turfgrass is emerging from winter dormancy.

Turflon Ester 4EC (1 to 2 pt)

triclopyr (0.5 to 1.0)

broadleaf weeds and partial bermudagrass suppression

Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

T-Zone (2 to 4 pt)

triclopyr + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba

broadleaf weeds, yellow nutsedge suppression

bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

39

Putting Greens, Annual Bluegrass and Bermudagrass Suppression

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Trimmit 2EC (16 oz) Common Name (lb ai/acre) paclobutrazol (0.25) Weeds Controlled annual bluegrass suppression Turfgrasses bentgrass putting greens Comments For Poa annua suppression, apply once or twice in mid-fall (Sept.-Nov.) plus once or twice in early spring (March-April) while the bentgrass is actively growing. Space applications one month apart. Do not exceed 1.0 gallon/acre/year. Apply in combination with a non-burning fertilizer. Water-in with at least 0.25 inch of irriga tion within 24 hours of application. In spring, apply at least one month before onset of high temperatures. Do not use on areas containing more than 70% Poa annua. Do not use more than 0.25 lb active ingredient per acre on bentgrass. Research has shown that application of a sterol-inhibiting fungicide (DMI) two weeks after each paclobutra zol application may improve control. This program is designed to encourage a grad ual transition from Poa annua to bentgrass and will take repeat applications over several years. Make the first application in April using 3.0 fl oz Prograss 1.5EC + 0.6 oz Cutless 50W when bermudagrass is breaking dormancy. Make the second application six weeks later (1.7 oz + 0.14 oz) followed by third and fourth applications spaced three weeks apart. The first treatment supplies temporary bermudagrass suppression. Repeat treatments are needed to maintain sup pression. Approximately 30 percent bermudagrass discoloration and thinning may follow high rate but should recover within three weeks. The effectiveness of this treatment for bermudagrass encroachment is variable. Make the first application in late April when bermudagrass begins to grow. A typical schedule would be April + May + early June and then late September + October + November. Apply on an 8- to 12-inch band using a single nozzle. Failing to start early when bermudagrass is breaking dormancy will reduce the chances of success. Water-in with at least 0.5 inch of water within three days of application.

Prograss 1.5 EC + Cutless 50 W (see comments)

ethofumesate + flurprimidol (see comments)

bermudagrass encroachment

creeping bentgrass greens

Tupersan 50 WP (20 lb)

siduron (10.0)

bermudagrass encroachment

creeping bentgrass greens

40

Putting Greens, Preemergence

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Bensumec 4LF (7.5 to 12.5 lb) Pre-San 7G (7.5 to 12.5 lb) Goosegrass/ Crabgrass Control (115 lb) bensulide + oxadiazon (6.0 + 1.5) Common Name (lb ai/acre) bensulide (1.9 to 3.1 gal) (107.0 to 180.0 lb) Weeds Controlled controls annual grasses and selected broadleaf weeds controls summer annual grasses Turfgrasses bentgrass, bermudagrass Comments Apply high rate in fall for annual bluegrass control. Apply a light irrigation immediately after treatment. Do not apply to newly sprigged grasses. Delay reseed ing for four months after treatment. Apply a light irrigation after treatment. Do not use on newly sprigged grasses until well established. Delay reseeding for five months after treatment. See label for precautions concerning use on putting greens. Apply to non-overseeded bermudagrass greens. Do not apply closer than 90 days before overseeding cool-season grasses unless deactivation with activated char coal is planned. To deactivate Kerb with activated charcoal, such as Gro-Safe, use 10 lb charcoal per 1,000 sq ft. Reseed no sooner than seven days after charcoal application. A light overhead irrigation is necessary to move Kerb into the weed root zone if no rainfall occurs within 24 hours. Do not apply Kerb to any cool-season turfgrass. Kerb is a RESTRICTED USE HERBICIDE. Fenarimol is a systemic fungicide that reduces the infestation level of annual bluegrass. May be applied as a sequential treatment to bermudagrass greens overseeded with perennial ryegrass, Poa trivi alis or bentgrass. Use the triple application program if bentgrass or Poa trivialis is used for overseeding. For double applica tions, apply 6.0 fl oz of Rubigan AS or 6.0 lb of Patchwork per 1,000 sq ft, with the last application two weeks prior to overseeding ryegrass. For triple applications, apply 4.0 fl oz of Rubigan AS or 4.0 lb Patchwork per 1,000 sq ft with the last application two weeks prior to overseed ing ryegrass or four weeks prior to overseeding bentgrass or Poa trivialis. A single application of Rubigan AS at 2.0 fl oz or Patchwork at 2.0 lb per 1,000 sq ft in January or February will help maintain annual bluegrass control. Rubigan will not control perennial bluegrass. Siduron does not control goosegrass or annual bluegrass. Irrigate within three days of application with 2 inches of water per acre if rainfall does not occur. Tupersan at 1.0 lb product per 1,000 sq ft may be used as band treatment along the perimeter of creeping bentgrass putting greens to suppress stolon growth of bermudagrass. Make the initial applica tion in the March/April time frame. Repeat applications can be made at four- to five-week intervals.

bentgrass, bermudagrass

Kerb T/O (2 to 4 lb)

pronamide (1.0 to 2.0)

preemergence or postemergence applications of Kerb will control annual bluegrass

bermudagrass

Rubigan, Patchwork (see label)

fenarimol (see label)

annual bluegrass

overseeded bermudagrass

Tupersan 50 WP (4.0 to 24.0 lb)

siduron (2.0 to 12.0)

crabgrass

May be applied at the time of seed ing or to estab lished creeping bentgrass for crabgrass control, bermudagrass suppression.

41

Putting Greens, Postemergence

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Illoxan 3EC (1 to 1.4 qt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) diclofop (0.75 to 1.0) Weeds Controlled goosegrass Turfgrass Use bermudagrass Comments Do not use on creeping bentgrass greens or tees. Illoxan may be used for goosegrass control on bermudagrass golf greens, tees and fairways. Use the high rate for goosegrass with one to two tillers. Lower rates may be used on smaller goosegrass. DO NOT mow for 24 to 36 hours after application. Control requires two to three weeks. May cause temporary phytotoxicity (7 to 10 days). DO NOT tank mix with other pesticides or fertilizers because control will be reduced. DO NOT overseed treated areas for at least two months after the last application. Use only on actively growing turf that is not under stress. Do not apply MCPP, 2,4-D or other growth regulator herbicides to bermudagrass greens during transition. Monument is not recommended for use on creeping bentgrass. Add a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% to 0.5% v/v to the spray mix. Monument at rates of 0.1 to 0.3 oz per acre may be used as a spring transition aid for the removal of perennial ryegrass and Poa trivialis. Avoid mowing for one to two days before and after appli cation. For nutsedge, repeat the applica tion at four to six weeks if regrowth is observed. DO NOT overseed bermuda grass with cool-season turfgrasses for three weeks after application. Do not use on creeping bentgrass greens or tees. Temporary discoloration of bermudagrass will occur. Begin treatment when weedy grasses are in the three- to four-leaf stage. Use two applications seven days apart. May be applied to newly sprigged bermudagrass. MSMA use is being phased out by the EPA. See page 3 of this publication for more details. Starting in 2011, only spot treat ments (100 ft2 maximum per spot) are allowed on existing golf courses. New golf courses can apply one broadcast application. Quicksilver (carfentrazone) T&O 1.9EC at 2.0 to 6.7 oz per acre when temperatures are less than 85° F provides excellent moss control. Apply as often as every two weeks to putting greens infested with silvery thread moss. Annual bluegrass can be damaged at rates greater than 2.0 oz Quicksilver T&O 1.9EC per acre. Use a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Do not apply to bentgrass when temperatures exceed 90° F.

Mecomec 4 (2 to 2.7 pt)

mecoprop (1.0)

broadleaf weeds

bentgrass, bermudagrass

Monument 75DG (0.33 to 0.56 oz)

trifloxysulfuron (0.015 to 0.026)

perennial ryegrass, rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis), controls nutsedges, annual sedges, kyllinga species and certain broadleaf weeds in established bermudagrass putting greens crabgrass, nutsedge, sandbur, goosegrass, broadleaf annual weeds

Applications should be made to actively growing bermudagrass after 100% spring green-up.

MSMA (6 lb/gal)

MSMA (2.0)

bermudagrass

Quicksilver T&O 1.9EC Quicksilver 12DF

carfentrazone

some broadleaf weeds and silvery thread moss

bermudagrass, creeping bentgrass

42

Putting Greens, Postemergence

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Revolver (8.8 to 26.2 fl oz) Common Name (lb ai/acre) foramsulfuron (0.013 to 0.4) Weeds Controlled goosegrass, annual bluegrass, ryegrass Turfgrass Use bermudagrass Comments Revolver is NOT recommended for use on creeping bentgrass greens. Apply Revolver for a) control of emerged annual bluegrass two weeks before overseeding bermuda grass with perennial ryegrass, b) postemer gence control of goosegrass in late spring and early summer and c) spring transition of bermudagrass overseeded the previous fall with cool-season turfgrasses. DO NOT apply Revolver within two weeks of sprig ging. Revolver is rainfast within two hours of application. Revolver must be allowed to dry on bermudagrass foliage before traffic is allowed through treated areas. Do not use on creeping bentgrass greens or tees. Do not apply at air temperatures greater than 90° F or during spring transi tion. Provides some nutsedge suppression. Do not use on creeping bentgrass greens or tees. May be used a) to control annual bluegrass before overseeding bermuda grass with perennial ryegrass or Poa trivialis, b) to control annual bluegrass in non-overseeded bermudagrass and c) to remove perennial ryegrass or Poa trivialis from bermudagrass in the late spring. Add a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v. Apply 10 to 14 days before overseeding bermudagrass in late summer or early fall. Do not apply after overseeding or to bentgrass putting greens. To hasten spring transition on overseeded bermudagrass, apply at the 60% to 75% green-up growth stage of bermudagrass or approximately two to three weeks before transition is desired. Do not apply to newly sprigged or sodded bermudagrass. Check label for rates because formulations vary from brand to brand. Do not apply to bentgrass under stress. Do not apply 2,4-D or other growth regulator herbicides to bermudagrass greens during spring transition or prior to winter dormancy.

Surge (2.75 to 4.0 pt)

sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba rimsulfuron (0.015 to 0.030)

broadleaf weeds including spotted spurge perennial ryegrass, rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis), annual bluegrass

bermudagrass

TranXit 25 DF (1 to 2 oz)

bermudagrass

Trimec Bentgrass (2.7 pt)

mecoprop + 2,4-D + dicamba (0.5 + 0.15 + 0.06)

broadleaf weeds

bentgrass, bermudagrass

43

Sedge Control and Turf Tolerance Ratings

Turf Tolerance Sedge Control Perennial Kyllinga Warm Season St. Augustinegrass Cool Season Kentucky Bluegrass Perennial Ryegrass S S NR S NR NR S NR S-I S NR S S S S NR

Purple Nutsedge

Yellow Nutsedge

Annual Kyllinga

Centipedegrass

Bermudagrass

Annual Sedge

Zoysiagrass

Herbicides bentazone (Basagran T & O) dimethenamid (Tower)* flazasulfuron (Katana) halosulfuron (SedgeHammer) imazaquin + MSMA (Image + MSMA ) imazaquin (Image) mesotrione metolachlor (Pennant MAGNUM) PRE MSMA sulfentrazone (Dismiss)* sulfentrazone + imazethapyr (Dismiss South)* sulfentrazone + quinclorac (Solitaire)* sulfentrazone + prodiamine (Echelon)* sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba (Surge)* sulfosulfuron (Certainty) triclopyr + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba (T-Zone) trifloxysulfuron (Monument)

G G G G G G P G G G G G G F G F G

P F

G P

F-G P G G G G P F-G G F F F F P G P G

F-G P F-G F-G G G P P G F F F F P G P G

S S S S S-I S-I NR S S-I S S S S S S S S

S S S S NR I S S NR S S S-I S NR S NR NR

S S NR S NR S-I S** S NR I NR NR I NR S NR NR

S S S S S-I S-I I S S-I S*** S*** S S*** S S S S

S S NR S NR NR S NR S-I S NR S S S

G-E G-E G-E G-E G-E G P F P-F P-F E P-F P-F P E P E G F G G F F F F F P G P G

NR S NR NR S NR I S NR S S S NR S NR

S**** NR S NR

E = Excellent, G = Good, F = Fair, or P = Poor control. Blank = No data.

S = Safe at labeled rates on healthy, mature turf. I = Intermediate safety or some injury may occur, may cause minor damage to mature, healthy

turf. Consider using the lower end of the rate range. Do not apply to turf under stress. NR = Not registered for use on this species.

These are relative rankings. Performance will vary with environmental conditions, application timing, turfgrass vigor, etc. This table is intended

only as a guide. Repeat applications of all herbicides are needed for complete control.

* Provides preemergence suppression of yellow nutsedge.

** For use on sod farms only.

*** Safety varies by zoysiagrass cultivar.

**** Safe for use on 100% Kentucky bluegrass stands as well as fine fescues. Sulfosulfuron is not safe for use on tall fescue + Kentucky bluegrass mixtures, but it is safe for use on Kentucky bluegrass + perennial ryegrass mixtures.

44

Tall Fescue S S

Sedges

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Basagran T/O (2 pt) Common Name (lb ai/acre) bentazon (1.0) Weeds Controlled yellow nutsedge, globe sedge, annual sedge, many broadleaf annual weeds Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Apply bentazon to emerged yellow nutsedge actively growing under good soil moisture conditions. Spray with at least 1 gallon/1,000 ft2 of water volume. Apply 2 pt/acre, and follow 10 to 14 days later with an additional application if necessary. Thorough spray coverage is essential for acceptable control. Spot spraying may result in turf injury. Do not mow three to five days before or after application. Does not control purple nutsedge. Do not use on putting greens. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. May be used on commercial and residential turf. Do not apply within 4 feet of golf greens. Add 0.1 oz per 10 gallons of water for spot treatment. Add a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v (1 qt per 100 gal of spray solution). Good coverage is needed for optimum control. Rates less than 12 fl oz/acre will generally suppress most sedges for at least 60 days but will require a second application. Temporary discoloration may result due to use of surfactant. Test compatibility of surfactant before use. May cause temporary discoloration of zoysiagrass and centipedegrass. Injury varies by zoysiagrass cultivar with Z. matrella cultivars being more sensitive. Rates less than 14.4 fl oz/acre will gen erally suppress most sedges for at least 60 days but will require a second appli cation. Allow sod to establish a good root system before applying Dismiss South. No not apply to golf course greens and tees. Do not apply with sur factants unless compatibility tests have previously demonstrated compatibility and safety on grass type. Apply only to well-established turf. Do not apply to tees or greens. Do not exceed a maximum of 2.3 lb/acre per year for bermudagrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue and zoysiagrass. Do not make more than two applications per calendar year, and allow at least 60 days between treatments. Use a split applica tion for goosegrass control. Wait three to five months before reseeding after application.

Certainty (0.75 to 1.25 oz)

sulfosulfuron (0.035 to 0.094)

annual bluegrass, sedges, ryegrass, tall fescue, johnsongrass Supresses and controls annual sedges, purple and yellow nutsedge and kyllingas. Also controls various broadleaf weeds. annual sedges, purple and yellow nutsedge, kyllingas

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Dismiss 4L (1/4 to 3/4 pt) Spartan 4L (1/4 to 3/4 pt) sod farms

sulfentrazone (0.125 to 0.375)

Dismiss South (9.5 to 14.4 fl oz)

sulfentrazone + imazethapyr (0.29 to 0.45)

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass

Echelon 4SC (8 to 36 fl oz)

sulfentrazone + prodiamine (0.25 to 1.125)

Suppresses and controls annual sedges, purple and yellow nutsedge and kyllingas.

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

45

Sedges

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Image 70 DG (11.4 oz) Common Name (lb ai/acre) imazaquin (0.5) Weeds Controlled purple nutsedge, kyllinga, wild garlic, some broadleaves Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass Comments Add a non-ionic surfactant (1.0 qt per 100 gal). The addition of MSMA at 2 lb ai/A (bermudagrass only) will aid in con trol of nutsedges and escaped weedy grasses. Do not apply when turfgrass is emerging from winter dormancy. Image will severely injure fescues and ryegrasses. Do not apply to newly planted or sprigged lawns or golf greens. Multiple applications of imazaquin at high rates will inhibit turfgrass growth. Add a non-ionic surfactant (1.0 qt per 100 gal). Irrigate lightly after application. Katana can track from one area to another, so use with caution in warmseason turf bordering cool-season turf. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Do not use on cool-season grasses, centipedegrass or St. Augustinegrass. Do not apply where runoff onto cool-season grasses may occur. Repeat application when regrowth appears. Rainfast within three hours of application. Temporary discoloration of turf will occur. Repeat applications will be needed 10 to 14 days apart. Most effective on kyllinga and annual sedges May be applied to newly sprigged bermudagrass. Do not apply to centipedegrass or St. Augustine grass. MSMA use is being phased out by the EPA. See page 3 of this publication for more details. Sale prohibited to residential turf after December 31, 2010. Starting in 2011, only spot treatments (100 ft2 maxi mum per spot) are allowed on exist ing golf courses. New golf courses can apply one broadcast application. Sod farms can apply two broadcast treatments per year. Delayed spring green-up, temporary slowing of growth and yellowing may occur following application. Do not use on golf course greens, tees or collars. Do not apply to newly seeded areas. Do not reseed within four months of application. Apply to three- to eight-leaf nutsedge. Use 0.5% non-ionic surfactant. Two appli cations may be made. Do not exceed 0.125 lb/ai/acre in a single season. Not labeled for putting greens. For spot treat ment, mix 0.9 gram of SedgeHammer in 1 gallon of water with 1/3 oz surfactant. Do not mow for two days before and after application.

Katana 25G (0.5 to 3.0 oz)

flazasulfuron (0.008 to 0.047)

sedges and kyllinga

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, zoysiagrass

Monument 75 DF (0.33 to 0.56)

trifloxysulfuron (0.015 to 0.026)

yellow and purple nutsedge, kyllinga

bermudagrass, zoysiagrass

MSMA (2.6 to 3.3. pt)

MSMA (2.0 to 2.5)

yellow nutsedge, annual sedge

bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue

Pennant MAGNUM (2.6 pt)

metolachlor (2.48)

annual sedge, yellow nutsedge, annual kyllinga

bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

SedgeHammer 75DF (0.66 to 1.33 oz)

halosulfuron (0.031 to 0.062)

most nutsedges and kyllinga species

all turfgrasses

46

Sedges

(refer to herbicide labels for weeds controlled and specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Solitaire (1 to 2 lb) Common Name (lb ai/acre) sulfentrazone + quinclorac (0.75 to 1.5) Weeds Controlled sedges and kyllinga Turfgrasses bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass Comments Do not apply to golf course putting greens, collars or tees. Do not apply directly to landscape ornamentals or to ornamental beds. Do not apply with sur factants unless compatibility tests have previously demonstrated compatibility and safety on grass type. Overseeding with ryegrass should to be delayed two to four weeks after application but only if slight injury can be tolerated. Do not use on newly seeded turfgrasses until they have been mowed at least twice. Recommended that sod be established for three months before application. Do not apply at air temperatures greater than 90° F or during spring transition. Provides some nutsedge suppression.

Surge (2.75 to 4.0 pt)

sulfentrazone (0.06 lb/gal) + 2,4-D (1.4 lb/gal) + MCPP (0.5 lb/gal) + dicamba (0.22 lb/gal) mesotrione (0.125 to 0.25)

yellow nutsedge suppression

bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

Tenacity (4 to 8 fl oz)

yellow nutsedge

centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass sod, zoysiagrass bermudagrass, centipedegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, zoysiagrass

Causing a bleaching effect to susceptible species. Apply in 30 gallons of water per acre. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per year. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfac tant. Make a repeat application two weeks after the first. No for use on golf course putting greens. Use on golf courses only in 2010. Label uses will be expanded beyond golf course use in the future. Apply Tower to well-established turf or new seedlings that have been mown at least four times. Do not use on putting greens. Delay winter overseeding for at least one month following the last Tower applica tion. Delay sprigging for two months fol lowing the last Tower application. Do not apply Tower more frequently than every 35 days and do not apply more than 64 fl oz (3.0 lb ai) of Tower per year. Rate varies by turf species. Use 2 to 2.25 pt/acre on bermudagrass and zoysiagrass and 3.25 to 4 pt/acre on cool-season turf. Sod farms are limited to two applications per year. Delay applica tion to newly seeded turf until after the second or third mowing. Delay applica tion until three to four weeks after sod ding, sprigging or plugging turf. Treated areas may be reseeded three weeks after application. Do not use when temperatures exceed 85 °F. Do not spray when turfgrass is emerging from winter dormancy.

Tower (21 to 32 fl oz)

dimethenamid (1.0 to 1.5)

yellow nutsedge

T-Zone (2 to 4 pt)

triclopyr + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba

yellow nutsedge suppression

bermudagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

47

Growth Regulators

(refer to herbicide labels for specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Cutless 50W (see label) Common Name (lb ai/acre) flurprimidol (see label) Turfgrasses bermudagrass (Tifway, Tifgreen, common), creeping bentgrass putting greens, zoysiagrass Comments Bermudagrass and zoysiagrass. Cutless may be used on medium- to high-quality, well-maintained turfgrasses. Refer to label for rates for different bermudagrass cultivars and zoysiagrass. Make the first application after full spring green-up (usu ally mid-May to mid-June). An additional application may be made in late summer to bermudagrasses only. Treated areas should receive 0.5 inch of rainfall or irrigation within 24 hours of application. Make uniform application with a boom-type sprayer and avoid overlaps. Creeping bentgrass. Apply to actively growing bentgrass putting greens to suppress annual bluegrass. Apply in the spring after three to four mowings or in the fall. If necessary, repeat the application at three- to six-week intervals. Do not exceed 2.0 lb ai/acre per growing season. Make the final fall application eight weeks before the onset of winter dormancy. Delay reseeding for two weeks after application. Embark 2S (4 pt) Embark T&O (see label) mefluidide (1.0) mefluidide (see label) cool-season and tall fescue warm-season Apply after uniform spring green-up but prior to seedhead emergence. Suppresses vegetative and seedhead develop ment. Recommended for turfgrasses on difficult-to-mow sites. Not recommended for turfgrasses when maintained under intensive management systems. Do not mow two days prior to or after application. Remove clippings prior to application. The addition of a non-ionic surfactant (0.25% v/v) may enhance suppression; however, temporary discoloration may increase. Do not apply within four growing months of seeding or reseed within three days of application. Embark requires an eight-hour rain-free period for optimum activity. Embark is effective on cool-season grasses. Use Embark T&O at 0.5 fl oz per 1,000 sq ft on a two-week spray application interval starting before seedhead emergence in the spring for seedhead suppression of annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass. Apply the 5 fl oz/acre rate if more than 50% annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Apply the 10 fl oz/acre rate if less than 50% annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Higher rates (15 to 30 fl oz/acre) can be used on Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass. Spray interval will vary between two to six weeks depending upon desirable growth suppression, rate and other factors. Do not seed three weeks before or after application. Do not apply to turf under temperature, moisture or pest stress. Do not apply more than 350 fl oz of Legacy per acre per year. Apply in the spring after turf resumes active growth. Make last application four weeks before the onset of inactive grass growth. Foliar-absorbed and rainfast within one hour. Apply 3 oz/acre for `Tifdwarf' bermudagrass greens and 6 oz/acre for `Tifgreen.' A typical program for a `Tifway' or common bermudagrass fairway would be 11 fl oz of Primo 1EC per acre starting around June 1 and repeated at four-week intervals through the peak growing season. Rates for zoysiagrass fairways should be 6 to 8 oz/acre for `Meyer' and 8 to 10 oz/acre for `El Toro.' Do not mow 12 hours before or after application to minimize injury. May also be used as a winter overseeding aid to retard bermudagrass and allow overseeded cool-season grasses to become established. Apply 22 oz/acre one to five days before overseeding and before verticutting, scalping or spiking. Do not add a surfactant. To extend the life of painted lines on sports fields, add 1 oz Primo 1EC or 1/2 oz Primo 25 WSB to each gallon of marking paint. Extends life of lines 7 to 14 days on cool-season and up to 30 days on warm-season grasses. A lower rate may be used in athletic field paint depending on the paint application rate.

Legacy (5 to 10 fl oz)

flurprimidol + trinexapac-ethyl

creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass

Primo 1EC (see label) Primo 25WSB (see label) T-NEX 1AQ (see label) Governor (see label)

trinexepac-ethyl (see label)

bahiagrass, creeping bentgrass, bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass

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Growth Regulators

(refer to herbicide labels for specific turfgrass species use instructions)

Trade Name (product/acre) Proxy (1.7 gal or 5 fl oz/1,000 ft2) Common Name (lb ai/acre) ethephon (see label) Turfgrasses creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, red fescue, tall fescue bahiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, common bermudagrass Comments Not for residential use. Useful for annual bluegrass seedhead suppression. Make the initial application prior to the emer gence of new seedheads. Do not exceed 30 fl oz/1,000 ft2 per year. Apply after uniform spring green-up but prior to seedhead emergence. Suppresses vegetative growth and seedhead development. If seedheads have already formed, mow one week after application to remove emerged seedheads. Recommended for turfgrasses on difficult-to-mow sites. Not recommended for turfgrasses when maintained under intensive management systems. Remove clippings prior to application. Do not apply to turf less than three years old and delay reseed ing for three days. DO NOT add a surfactant. Maleic hydrazide requires a 12-hour rain-free period for optimum activity. Apply 10 grams ai/acre weekly or 25 grams ai/acre every two weeks in 25 to 100 GPA to promote growth and prevent discol oration during periods of cold stress and light frost on bermudagrass putting greens or other areas. Do not apply when night temperatures exceed 65° F. This product can reverse the effects of gibberellic acid, inhibiting plant growth regulators such as Primo. Not for residential use. Do not use on bermudagrass putting greens. Use on actively growing turf. Apply when annual blue grass is actively growing. Repeated applications in the spring and fall will suppress annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass. Do not use on areas where greater than 70% annual blue grass is present. Do not use more than 4 quarts per acre per year.

Retard (1.3 gal)

maleic hydrazide (3.0)

Pro-Gibb T&O (10 to 25 fl oz/A)

gibberellic acid (10 to 25 grams ai/A)

bermudagrass

Trimmit 2SC (see label)

paclobutrazol (see label)

creeping bentgrass, hybrid bermudagrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass

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Approximate Costs of Herbicides*

Herbicides AAtrex 4 L Acclaim Extra Balan 2.5 G Barricade 4 FL Barricade 65 WDG Bensumec 4LF Blade 60 DF Certainty Confront 3 L Cool Power Corsair 75 DF Dimension 2 EW Dismiss 4 L Dismiss South Dithiopyr 40 WSB Drive 75 DF Drive XLR8 Escalade 2 Echelon 4SC Finale 1 SC Fusilade II 2 EC Gallery 75 DF Glyphosate T&O Horsepower Illoxan 3 EC Image 70 DG Kerb 50 WP Lontrel Manor 60 DF Mecomec 4 Millennium Ultra 2 Monument 75 DF MSMA 6 MSM Turf Oryzalin 4 PRO Oxadiazon 2G Oxadiazon 50 WSB Oxadiazon SC Pendulum 2 G Pendulum Aquacap PowerZone PreSan 7G Ingredient atrazine fenoxyprop benefin prodiamine prodiamine bensulide metsulfuron sulfosulfuron triclopyr + clopyralid MCPA + triclopyr + dicamba chlorsulfuron dithiopyr sulfentrazone sulfentrazone + imazethapyr dithiopyr quinclorac quinclorac 2,4-D + fluroxypyr + dicamba sulfentrazone + prodiamine glufosinate fluazifop-P-butyl isoxaben glyphosate MCPP + triclopyr + dicamba diclofop imazaquin pronamide clopyralid metsulfuron MCPP 2,4-D + clopyralid + dicamba trifloxysulfuron MSMA metsulfuron oryzalin oxadiazon oxadiazon oxadiazon pendimethalin pendimethalin MCPA + MCPP + dicamba + carfentrazone bensulide Pre/Post/Non pre + post post pre pre pre pre post post post post post pre + post pre + post pre + post pre + post post post post pre + post non-selective post pre non-selective post post post post post post post post post post post pre pre pre pre pre pre post pre Cost/Unit $0.18 /oz $5.12 /oz $0.03 /oz $1.11 /oz $2.25 /oz $0.74 /oz $42.00 /oz $76.00 /oz $1.21 /oz $0.46 /oz $40.80 /oz $2.41 /oz $9.63 /oz $11.56 /oz $3.25 /oz $5.84 /oz $1.79 /oz $0.45 /oz $1.95 /oz $0.69 /oz $1.88 /oz $10.90 /oz $0.22 /oz $0.37 /oz $1.29 /oz $7.17 /oz $2.46 /oz $5.83 /oz $64.00 /oz $0.15 /oz $0.45 /oz $259.09 /oz $0.17 /oz $47.50 /oz $0.48 /oz $0.09 /oz $1.38 /oz $1.41 /oz $0.08 /oz $0.58 /oz $0.48 /oz $0.14 /oz

*These 2009 prices were collected from three distributors and are intended for purposes of planning and preparing future budgets. Specific prices should be obtained from a local distributor.

50

Approximate Costs of Herbicides*

Herbicides Princep 4 L Prodiamine 65 WDG Prograss Q4 QuickPro Quinclorac 75DF Revolver Reward 2S Rimsulfuron 25 DF Ronstar 50 WSP Ronstar G Roundup Pro Roundup PROMAX SedgeHammer Sencor 75 Turf SpeedZone SpeedZone Southern Surflan 4 AS Surge Team Pro 0.86 G Tenacity Touchdown Pro Tower TranXit 25 DF Trimec 992 Trimec Bent Trimec Classic Trimec Encore Trimec Plus Trimec Southern Triplet Tupersan Turflon Ester T-Zone Vanquish Weedar 64 Ingredient simazine prodiamine ethofumesate quinclorac + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba glyphosate + diquat quinclorac foramsulfuron diquat rimsulfuron oxadiazon oxadiazon glyphosate glyphosate halosulfuron metribuzin 2,4-D + MCPA + dicamba + carfentrazone 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba + carfentrazone oryzalin 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba + sulfentrazone benefin + trifuralin mesotrione glyphosate dimethenamid rimsulfuron 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba MCPA, MCPP, dicamba 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba + MSMA MCPP + 2,4-D + dicamba 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba siduron triclopyr triclopyr + sulfentrazone + 2,4-D + dicamba dicamba 2,4-D Pre/Post/Non pre + post pre post pre + post non-selective post post post post pre pre non-selective non-selective post post post post pre pre + post pre post non-selective pre post post post post post post post post pre post post post post Cost/Unit $0.16 /oz $1.25 /oz $1.13 /oz $0.70 /oz $0.95 /oz $4.06 /oz $5.78 /oz $0.70 /oz $5.00 /oz $1.50 /oz $0.10 /oz $0.39 /oz $0.68 /oz $90.23 /oz $2.88 /oz $0.50 /oz $0.38 /oz $0.58 /oz $0.37 /oz $0.04 /oz $5.66 /oz $0.48 /oz $4.83 /oz $81.33 /oz $0.20 /oz $0.25 /oz $0.27 /oz $0.16 /oz $0.32 /oz $0.41 /oz $0.20 /oz $1.16 /oz $0.92 /oz $0.63 /oz $0.65 /oz $0.17 /oz

*These 2009 prices were collected from three distributors and are intended for purposes of planning and preparing future budgets. Specific prices should be obtained from a local distributor.

Additional Information

Additional publications available at http://www.uaex.edu/. Additional information about managing the turf on golf courses is available at http://turf.uark.edu/.

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The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to products is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended nor endorsement by the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service.

Printed by University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service Printing Services.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Director, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Arkansas. The Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to all eligible persons regardless of race, color, national origin, religion, gender, age, disability, marital or veteran status, or any other legally protected status, and is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer. MP370-PD-6-10RV

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2010 Turfgrass Weed Control for Professionals - MP370

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