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Psychology 415 - Experimental Psychology Starting References for Suicide Ideation Study The article by Cole might be a good place to start. Some of the major variables in the data we will look at are suicide ideation as measured by the 4 items described by Cole, depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), hopelessness as measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale, along with a measure of social desirability, some measures of various kinds of childhood abuse, and personality variables (E, N, S, and I). Beck, A.T., Kovacs, M., Weissman, A. (1975). Hopelessness and suicidal behavior: An overview. Journal of the American Medical Association, 234, 1146-1149. Beck, A.T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861-865. Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., Kovacs, M., & Garrison, B. (1985). Hopelessness and eventual suicide: A 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 559-563. Beck, A.T., Brown, G., Berchick, R.J., Stewart, B.L., & Steer, R.A. (1990). Relationship between hopelessness and ultimate suicide: A replication with psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 190-195. Beck, A.T., Brown, G.K., & Steer, R.A. (1997). Psychometric characteristics of the Scale for Suicide Ideation with psychiatric outpatients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 1039-1046. Cole, D.A. (1988). Hopelessness, social desirability, depression, and parasuicide in two college student samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 131-136. Linehan, M.M. & Nielsen, S.L. (1981). Assessment of suicide ideation and parasuicide: Hopelessness and social desirability. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 773-775.

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