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socialur mecnierebaTa seria

genderi - kulturuli da socialuri konstruqti

saleqcio kursi socialuri mecnierebebis magistraturisaTvis

mzia wereTeli

Tbilisi

2006

socialur mecnierebaTa seria mTavari redaqtori: enobrivi redaqtori: marine CitaSvili lia kaWarava

dakabadoneba, ydis dizaini: giorgi bagrationi

© socialur mecnierebaTa centri, 2006 © Center for Social Sciences, 2006

q. Tbilisi, 0108, T. WoveliZis q. # 10 el. fosta: [email protected] internet gverdi: www.ucss.ge

wigni momzadebulia da gamocemulia `socialur mecnierebaTa centris~ (Center for Social Sciences) mier, fondis OSI ­ Zug, budapeStis Ria sazogadoebis institutis umaRlesi ganaTlebis mxardaWeris programis (HESP) finansuri xelSewyobiT

The book has been published by the Center for Social Sciences, sponsored by the OSI-Zug Foundation and the Higher Education Support Program (HESP) of the Open Society Institute-Budapest.

ISBN: 99940 - 871 - 1 ­ 8

sarCevi

kursis zogadi daxasiaTeba: mizani, amocanebi, studentTa swavlebisa da Sefasebis meTodebi Tema #1 -- genderi - socialur-kulturuli konstruqti. genderul-roluri ideologia. genderuli stereotipebi. maskulinoba-feminuroba. kroskulturuli kvlevebi. genderuli kvlevebis warmoSoba da misi adgili socialur mecnierebaTa Soris sqesi da genderi genderis ZiriTadi kategoriebi da kroskulturuli kvlevebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura Tema #2 - genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli rolebis aTvisebis Teoriebi (fsiqodinamikuri, socialur-kognituri, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriebi, androginiis koncefcia, genderul-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis da genderuli sqemis Teoria) genderis gageba froidis fsiqoanalizur TeoriaSi genderis gageba pirovnebis socialur-kognitur TeoriaSi genderis gageba kognituri ganviTarebis TeoriaSi androginiis koncefcia transcendentuli genderuli tipirebis Teoriebi: genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoria genderuli sqemis Teoria ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura Tema #3 - sqesis socializacia da misi institutebi. kulturis roli genderul socializaciaSi socializaciis cneba, diferencialuri socializacia da misi meqanizmebi gansxvavebuli samuSaos davaleba bavSvebis movla da maTze zrunva Tanatolebi ganaTleba masmedia saTamaSoebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura Tema #4 - genderuli rolebi da stereotipebi. kroskulturuli monacemebi kroskulturuli monacemebi genderuli rolebisa da stereotipebis Sesaxeb umcrosebze zrunva agresia ufrosebTan siaxlove da moRvaweobis xasiaTi sakuTari Rirsebis grZnoba mamakacurobis ideologia

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ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura Tema #5 - ojaxi da sazogadoeba. qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi. kroskulturuli gansxvavebebi ojaxis cneba. ojaxi da sazogadoeba ojaxis tipebi ojaxis funqciebi, misi struqtura da dinamika colqmruli urTierToba da misi stilebi qorwinebis Tanamedrove paternebi ojaxuri Sromis sqesis niSniT ganawileba ojaxis kroskulturuli sxvaobebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura Tema #6 - genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi. Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi sxvadasxva kulturaSi genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi sxvadasxva kulturaSi genderis socialuri konstruqtivizmis Teoria ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura Tema #7 - genderuli asimetria: diskriminacia Tu norma. genderuli Tanasworobis cneba. kultura da genderuli Tanasworobis modelebi genderuli asimetriis warmoSobis mokle istoria genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevis amocanebi da RonisZiebebi Gender Mainstreaming--i. misi modelebi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura Tema #8 - qali samxreT kavkasiis kulturaSi. qarTuli kulturis genderuli analizi samxreT kavkasieli qalis statusis zogadi daxasiaTeba qali azerbaijanul kulturaSi) qali somxur kulturaSi qali qarTul kulturaSi sqesobrivi urTierTobebis foromebi saqarTvelos mTaSi genderuli cvlilebebi samxreT kavkasiaSi ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi seminaris struqtura; seminarisaTvis mozadebis gegma ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literatura GENDER: CULTURAL RESEARCHES (GENDER, CULTURE AND SOCIETY)

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kursis xangrZlivoba da ganrigi: 96 sT (8 kvira); maT Soris: saauditorio muSaoba: 32 sT; studentTa damoukidebeli samecniero muSaoba: 64sT; saauditorio muSaoba moicavs: leqciebs praqtikuli ilustraciebiT (roluri TamaSebebi, SemTxvevis ganxilva da a.S.) -- 16 sT; seminar-diskusiebs - 16 sT; studentTa damoukidebeli samecniero muSaoba moicavs: studentTa mier ZiriTadi da damxmare literaturis wakiTxva-damuSavebas, TiToeuli studentis mier esses -- 18-20 gv.-is moculobis sabiblioTeko-kvleviTi statiis momzadebas da seminarze prezentacias; studentebis mcire jgufebis mier jgufuri proeqtis momzadebas SemTxvevis Seswavlasa da prezentaciaSi. TiToeuli jgufis mier Seswavlili SemTxvevebi warmodgenili, ganxiluli da Sefasebuli iqneba jgufSi. kursis aRwera: genderi, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqti. genderulroluri ideologia, genderuli stereotipebi da maskulinoba-feminuroba kroskulturuli TvalsazrisiT. genderuli identifikaciisada genderuli rolebis aTvisebis Teoriebi (fsiqodinamikuri, socialur-kognituri, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriebi, androginiis koncefcia, genderul-roluri transcendenciis da sqemis Teoria). sqesis socializacia da misi institutebi. kulturis roli genderul socializaciaSi. genderuli rolebi da kros-kulturuli monacemebi am mimarTulebiT. sazogadoeba da ojaxi. qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi. genderuli gansxvavebebi qcevaSi kroskulturuli TvalsazrisiT. genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi. Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi kulturaTa TvalsazrisiT. genderuli asimetria: diskriminacia Tu norma. genderuli Tanasworobis cneba. kultura da genderuli Tanasworobis modelebi. qali samxreT kavkasiis kulturaSi. qarTuli kulturis genderuli analizi. kursis mizani: studentma unda SeiZinos safuuZvliani codna genderis, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqtis, misi Camoyalibebisa da moqmedebis meqanizmebis Sesaxeb da agreTve, kulturaTaSorisi genderuli sxvaobebis Sesaxeb. studentma unda icodes Tanamedrove Teoriuli da empiriuli kvlevebi am mimarTulebiT. studentma unda ganiviTaros genderul kvlevebSi samecniero informacis mopovebisa da damuSavebis unarebi. man unda SeZlos genderuli Teoriebisa da empiriuli monacemebis safuZvelze codnis sistematizireba da damoukidebeli genderuli kvlevis warmoeba. studentTa Sefasebis meTodebi: gamocda · · testi (werilobiT) -- 2 sT; jgufuri proeqti SemTxvevis Seswavlasa da prezentaciaSi. Seswavlili SemTxvevebi warmodgenili da ganxiluli iqneba jgufSi. TiToeuli jgufi Seafasebs danarCen jgufebs Semdegi kriteriumebis gaTvaliswinebiT: dizaini, SemoqmedebiToba, problemis gaazrebis siRrme, prezentaciis unar-Cvevebi; esses Sefaseba; seminarebze gamarTul diskusiebSi aqtiuroba.

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Sefasebis sistema: Sefaseba xdeba jamuri maCveneblis (seminarebi, esse, testi, jgufuri proeqti) safuZvelze, TiToeuli komponentis Semdegi procentuli woniT: seminarebze gamarTul diskusiebSi aqtiuroba - 20%, esse - 30%, testi -- 25%, jgufuri proeqti -- 25%. Sefasebis principi Semdegia: 85% -100% - 5 (friadi); 75%-84,9% - 4 (kargi); 65%-74,9% - 3 (damak.); 0 -- 64,9% - 2(aradamak.).

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kvira #1

leqcia - 2 sT

Tema #1 -- genderi - socialur-kulturuli konstruqti. genderul-roluri ideologia. genderuli stereotipebi. maskulinoba-feminuroba. kroskulturuli kvlevebi.

saleqcio kursis SesavalSi mocemuli iqneba genderis, rogorc mecnieruli kvlevis obieqtad Camoyalibebisa da genderuli kvlevebis warmoSobis mokle istoria. gansazRvruli iqneba genderuli kvlevebis adgili socialur mecnierebaTa Soris.

Tanamedrove msoflioSi demokratiuli da humanisturi Rirebulebebis da faseulobebis damkvidrebis procesebma msoflio socialur-politikuri cvlilebebi gamoiwvia, ramac uamravi axali, problemuri sakiTxi dasva mecnierebis winaSe. gansakuTrebiT gafarTovda socialur da humanitarul mecnierebaTa sfero. mravalma movlenam axali socialur-ekonomikuri moTxovnebis zegavleniT cvlileba ganicada da axli socialuri Tu sazogadoebrivi datvirTva SeiZina. am cvlilebebma bunebrivad gamoiwvia socialuri mecnierebebis winaSe axali problemuri sakiTxebis dasma da zogierT SemTxvevaSi mecnierebis axali dargebis Camoyalibebac. genderuli kvlevebi, rogorc damoukidebeli disciplina, swored am gziT Camoyalibda. genderma, rogorc socialurma movlenam Tavisi aqtualoba feministuri moZraobis zegavleniT SeiZina. Tavdapirvelad igi kacobriobis yuradRebis centrSi moeqca, rogorc qalTa diskriminaciis socialuri instituti. miuxedavad imisa, rom dReisaTvis genderuli kvlevebi Sors gascda mxolod qalTa problemebis Seswavlas, politikosebisa da saerTaSoriso samarTlis institutebisaTvis genderi dRemde inarCunebs politikur datvirTvas. igi qveynebis (sazogadoebebis) demokratiulobisa da ganviTarebis donis ganmsazRvrel erT-erTi ZiriTadi kriteriumia. genderuli kvlevebi da genderuli midgoma gaTvaliswinebulia mravali progresuli qveynis (aSSs, kanadis, skandinaviis qveynebis da sxv.) socialuri politikis agebisas, rac iTvaliswinebs genderuli realizaciisaTvis Tanabari pirobebis Seqmnas. amdenad, genderuli kvlevebis erT-erTi mizania genderis ara mxolod mecnieruli Seswavla, aramed safuZvlis momzadeba genderuli Tanasworobis modelebis Sesaqmnelad. magram, amave dros, genderi, rogorc adamianTa sazogadoebaSi mimdinare da momqmedi movlena, cxadia mecnierebis kvlevis sagnad iqca da dReisaTvis ise gafarTovda, rom socialuri mecnierebis damoukidebel disciplinad _ genderul kvlevebad (Gender Study), Camoyalibda. igi moicavs adamianis socialuri moRvaweobis yvela aspeqts, iseve, rogorc im faseulobebsa da monapovrebs, romlebic mTeli am moRvaweobis ganmavlobaSia dagrovili. amitom genderuli kvlevebi, rogorc disciplina mWidrod gadaikveTa socialuri da humaniratuli mecnierebis yvela dargTan. Sesabamisad gamoikveTa da genderuli kvlevebis calkeul mimarTulebebad Camoyalibda ojaxis, socialuri rolebis, Sromis bazris, ekonomikis, politikis, ganaTlebis da sxva sistemebis genderuli aspeqtebi. genderuli kvlevebis centrSi moeqca, agreTve, kulturis sociologiis, fsiqologiis, filosofiis da enis genderuli aspeqtebi. amdenad, genderulma kvlevebma sruliad samarTlianad interdisciplinaruli dargis kvalifikacia SeiZina.

genderis, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqtis gansazRvrebisTvis mniSvnelovania treminebs `sqesi~ da `genderi~ Soris gansxvavebis gageba.

sxvadasxva qveynebSi sxvadasxva sazogadoebebi, sxvadasxva siZlieriT usvamen xazs

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sqesTa Soris gansxvavebebs: zogierTi maTgani Zlier aqcents akeTebs am gansxvavebebze, zogierTi ki - naklebad aqcevs yuradrebas. sqesTa Soris gansxvavebulobis xazgasma miuTiTebs imaze, rom sqesi adamianis qcevis mniSvnelovani determinantia. amasTan mniSvnelovania, rom anatomiurad da fiziologiurad qalsa da mamakacs Soris gacilebiT ufro meti msgavsebaa, vidre gansxvaveba. kroskulturulma genderulma gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom sqesi, rogorc socialuri faqtori metad mcire zemoqmedebas axdens fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebis farTe sferoze sxvadasxva kulturul sferoSi. maSasadame, ZiriTadad qalebsa da mamakacebs sruliad Tavisuflad SeuZliaT SeaTavson erTmaneTi garkveul socialur rolze. marTlac, gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom umravles SemTxvevebSi qalebsa da mamakacebs Tanabrad SeswevT unari ganxorcielon erTnairi qceva, maT aqvT Tanabari potenciali Sesrulon esa Tu is socialuri roli Tu samuSao. cxadia, arsebobs, erTi mniSvnelovani gamonaklisi, romelSic sqesebi erTmaneTs ver Seenacvlebian. es aris qalis reproduqciuli (Svilebis gaCenis) unari. mecnieruli kvlevis aseTi monacemebis miuxedavad, nebismier sazogadoebaSi da kulturaSi arsebobs met-naklebi simkacriT gansazRvruli da miRebuli qalisa da mamakacisTvis aucilebeli qcevis normebi, xasiaTis Taviseburebebi, agreTve, qalisa da mamakacisaTvis miuRebeli qcevis normebi, manerebi, Taviseburebebi da sxv. ufro metic, sazogadoeba adgens saqmianobis qalur an mamakacur sferoebs, qalur da mamakacur profesiebs da a.S. tradiciulad sqesis gageba dakavSirebulia fiziologiuri da morfologiuri gansxvavebebis gamovlenasTan. sqesi ganisazRvreba biologiuri faqtorebiT. garda amisa, arsebobs gansxvavebebi adamianTa saqmianobebSi, qcevebSi, socialur rolebSi, mentalur da emocionalur maxasiaTeblebSi, romlebic biologiurad da fiziologiurad ar aris determinirebuli. isini ganpirobebulni arian socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebiT. termini genderi qalisa da mamakacis swored socialurad naswavli qcevebis, Tvisebebis da damokidebulebebis aRsaniSnavadaa mecnierebaSi Semotanili. genderi gulisxmobs socialur maxasiaTeblebs, romlis meSveobiTac adamianebi gansazRvraven cnebebs `qali~ da `mamakaci~. genderis cneba pirvelad anTropologma geil rubinma (1975w.) Semoitana mecnierebaSi da gansazRvra, rogorc `SeTanxmebaTa kompleqsi, romelic rogorc sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis sagani, aregulirebs biologiur sqess~. Tanamedrove kvlevebSi yvela avtori eyrdnoba genderis, rogorc socialuri sqesis gagebas. sqesi dakavSirebulia qalsa da mamakacs Soris fizikur, sxeulebriv gansxvavebebTan, cneba `genderi~ ki miuTiTebs maT fsiqologiur, socialur da kulturul Taviseburebebze. Tuki sqesi biologiurad aris determinirebuli, maSin genderi aris socialurad da kulturulad mocemuli. genderi -- es aris sqesTaSorisi gansxvavebebis socialuri organizacia: qcevis kulturologiuri maxasiaTebeli, romelic Seesabameba sqess mocemul droSi da mocemul sazogadoebaSi; genderi warmoadgens socio-sqesobrivi rolebis mimarTebaTa sistemis socialur konstruqcias. genderi mniSvnelovanwilad apirobebs qalebisa da mamakacebis fsiqikur Tvisebebs, unarebs, moRvaweobis sferoebs, profesiebs da saqmianobebs, samarTlebriv da eTikur normebs~. dabadebidanve bavSvi ganekuTvneba biologiur kategorias _ sqess, Sesabamisad mdedrobiTs an mamrobiTs. SemdgomSi ganviTarebis procesSi orive sqesi msgavsia fiziologiuri maxasiaTeblebiT, iseve, rogorc fsiqologiuri TaviseburebebiT (TviTSefaseba, inteleqtis done, leqsikis maragi, siarulis dawyeba, kbilebis amosvla da sxv.). magram sxvadasxva sqesis bavSvebi iReben sxvadasxvanair gamocdilebas da aRzrdas, rac gansazRvravs maTi cxovrebis stils da miznebs, maT funqciebs da rolebs.

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genderi gulisxmobs fsiqologiur atributebs, maxasiaTeblebs da qcevebs, romelTa SeZena xdeba socialur konteqstSi, rac dakavSirebulia sqesobrivi kategoriebis socialur gagebasTan. yovel sazogadoebaSi genderuli gansxvavebebi vlindeba adamianTa qcevis formebSi. magaliTad, ra samuSaos asruleben, rogor icmeven da a. S. amdenad, genderi gvevlineba socialuri urTierTobebis sazomad ama Tu im kulturaSi. genderi aris socialurad da kulturulad mocemuli, igi aRniSnavs socialuri da kulturuli normebis erTianobas, romelTa Sesrulebasac sazogadoeba miawers adamianebs maTi biologiuri sqesidan gamomdinare. genderis cneba socialur mecnierebaSi gamoiyeneba adamianis sqesobrivi mikuTvnebulobis socialur-kulturuli aspeqtis gamosaxatavad.

moyvanili gansazRvrebebis Sedegad moxdeba Sejameba da genderis erTiani koncefciis Camoyalibeba. gamoiyofa genderuli kvlevebis ori mniSvnelovani mimarTuleba: genderuli cnobierebis kvleva da genderuli midgoma.

genderi -- es aris garkveul kulturul (socialur, ekonomikur, politikur da kulturul) klimatSi qalisa da mamakacis socialuri rolebisa da funqciis Sefasebis fsiqikaSi asaxvisa da sazogadoebis socialur, politikur, ekonomikur da kulturul institutebSi am Sefasebis Sesatyvisi asaxvis erToblioba. amgvarad, erTis mxriv genderi, rogorc socialur SefasebiTi movlena (fenomeni) adamianis cnobierebis da aracnobieris nayofia da adamianTa da saerTod sazogadoebis fsiqikaSi arsebobs fsiqikuri warmonaqmnis, fsiqikuri struqturis saxiT, xolo meores mxriv, ki genderi, rogorc socialur-SefasebiTi fenomenis sazogadoebis sxvadasxva institutebSi asaxvis Sedegi, arsebobs gare samyaroSi obieqturi saxiT, rogorc sazogadoebrivi sistemebis moqmedebis erT-erTi meqanizmi da maTi socialuri produqti. genderis zemoT moyvanil gansazRvrebaze dayrdnobiT SeiZleba gamoiyos genderTan dakavSirebuli kvlevebis ori ZiriTadi klasi: 1) es aris genderuli cnobierebis (genderuli socialuri rolebi, maskulinoba-feminuroba, genderuli stereotipebi, Rirebulebebi da sxv.) kvleva. da 2) sazogadoebis socialur, politikur, ekonomikur da kulturul institutebSi genderis movlenis asaxvis Seswavla. swored am tipis kvlevebma warmoSva termini -- genderuli midgoma, romelic sxvadasxva mecnierebebSi (an maTi Seswavlis sferoebSi) genderis, rogorc fsiqikuri konstruqtis zegavlenis Sedegebis Seswavlas gulisxmobs. ase magaliTad, genderis politikuri aspeqtebi, genderuli midgoma pedagogikaSi, ojaxis genderuli aspeqtebi da a.S.

savarjiSo: genderis cnebis ukeT gagebisa da gaSinagnebis mizniT (e.w. genderuli mgrZnobelobis ganviTarebisaTvis) studentebs vTxovT CamoTvalon qalisa da mamakacis funqciebis, socialuri rolebis, Tvisebebisa da saqmianobis magaliTebi. studentebma leqtoris daxmarebiT unda gansazRvron romeli maTgania sqesiT ganszRvruli da romeli genderiT. savarjiSos Sesrulebis Semdeg ganisazRvreba genderuli kvlevebis Semdegi terminebi _ sqesobriv-roluri ideologia, genderuli stereotipebi, maskulinoba/feminuroba kroskulturuli kvlevebis magaliTze.

praqtikulad yvela sazogadoebaSi qalebs ekisrebaT meti movaleoba moRvaweobis im saxeebSi, romlebic dakavSirebulia saxlTan. xolo mamakacebs -- saxls gareT. pankulturuli msgavsebis es Tvisebebi Tavis sawyiss iRebs sqesebs Soris biologiur

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gansxvavebebSi da pirvel rigSi qalebis unarSi gaaCinon Svilebi da mouaron maT. Tumca ki unda aRiniSnos isic, rom bolo dros sul ufro met sazogadoebaSi qalebisa da mamakacebis es movaleobebi erTad sruldeba. kacebi sul ufro metad ebmebian ojaxur saqmianobaSi, xolo qalebi - saxls gareT saqmeebSi. mkvlevrebis umravlesoba sqesobriv-roluri (genderul-roluri) ideologiis klasifikacias akeTeben tradiciulidan Tanamedrovemde kontiniumis saxiT. tradiciuli ideologiebi gulisxmoben, rom mamakaci ufro `mniSvnelovania~, vidre -- qali, rom mamakacs unda qondes Zalaufleba qalze da marTavdes mas. Tanamedrove ideologiebi warmoadgenen egalitarul midgomas, romelsac zogjer feminstur midgomasac uwodeben, radganac isini qalisa da mamakacis mniSvnelobas sazogadoebaSi erTnairad afaseben da uaryofen erTi sqesis meoreze dominirebas. sqesobrivi rolebi farTod iyo Seswavlili indoeTSi, sadac erTdroulad Tanaaarseboben tradiciuli da Tanamedrove genderul-roluri ideologiebi. rodesac indoel da amerikel studentebs ekiTxebodnen, Tu ra Tvisebebi unda hqondes maTi kulturis qals, indoeli studenti qalebi iZleodnen ufro tradiciul pasuxebs, vidre - amerikelebi. sainteresoa, rom qalebi orive jgufSi ufro Tanamedrove da liberalurebi aRmoCndnen, vidre - mamakacebi. aratradiciuli sqesobriv-roluri ideologiis matarebeli studenti qalebi nuklearuli ojaxebidan aRmoCndnen, maT hyavdaT ganaTlebuli dedebi da apirebdnen dauflebodnen profesias da gaekeTebinaT kariera. ganaTlebis done da profesiul-administraciuli samsaxuri warmoadgens sakmaris safuZvels sqesovriv-roluri ganwyobebis prognozirebisaTvis, rogorc iaponel, aseve amerikel qalebTan. amerikeli qalebi, romlebsac aqvT samsaxuri (ara aqvs mniSvneloba, rogori) ufro egalitaruli urTierTobis momxreni arian, vidre isini, visac samsaxuri saerTod ara aqvs. rac Seexeba iaponel qalebs, aq egelitaruli ideologia damaxasiaTebelia mxolod im qalebisTvis, romlebsac ufro prestiJuli samsaxuri aqvs. mkvlevarTa jgufma gamoikvlia mozardebis genderuli ganwyobebi da rolebis ganawileba ojaxSi. gamokvlevaSi monawileobdnen 46 sxvadasxva qveynis warmomadgeneli mozardebi, romlebic holandiis skolebSi swavlobdnen. warmoSobis qveynebi or jgufad iyo dayofili hofstedes kulturuli Rirebulebebis mixedviT. pirvel jgufSi Sediodnen ufro mdidari da ufro individualisturi qveynebi, xolo meore jgufi moicavda ufro Rarib da ufro koleqtivistur qveynebs. gamokvlevis Sedegad meore jgufis Sesatyvisi qveynebis warmomadgenel moswavleebs ufro tradiciuli Sexedulebebi aRmoaCndaT, vidre - pirveli jgufisas. rac Seexeba sqesTa Soris gansxvavebebs, aRmoCnda, rom gogonaTa pasuxebi naklebi tradiciulobiT gamoirCeoda biWebTan SedarebiT. bevr kvlevaSi amerikelebi warmoadgendnen referentul jgufs da amitom isini Cveulebriv ufro liberalurebi Candnen, rac iwvevda azrs imis Sesaxeb, rom amerikelebi am TvalsazrisiT yvelaze liberalurebi arian. magram uialiamsis da bestis (Williams & Best) mier Caatarebulma 14 qveyanis sqesobriv-roluri ideologiis gamokvlevam aCvena, rom es ase ar aris. yvelaze Tanamedrove sqesobriv-roluri ideologia aRmoCenili iyo evropul qveynebSi - holandiaSi, germaniSi, fineTSi, inglisSi da italiaSi. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi siis SuaSi aRmoCnda, xolo yvelaze tradiciuli ideologiebi gamovlinda aziisa da afrikis qveynebSi - nigeriaSi, pakistanSi, indoeTSi, iaponiaSi da malaiziaSi. yvela qveyanaSi zogadad qalebis Sexedulebebi ufro Tanamedrove iyo, vidre -- kacebisa. Tumca gamovlinda zogierTi gamonaklisic, sadac sawinaaRmdego Sedegebi miiRes, magaliTad, malaiziasa da

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pakistanSi. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom am gamokvlevis mixedviT, gamovlinda TiToeul qveyanaSi qalebisa da mamakacebis Sexedulebebis Sesabamisobis maRali xarisxi. amgvarad, gamokvlevam aCvena, rom genderul-rolur ideologiaze kultura ufro did zegavlenas axdens, vidre -- sqesi. amas garda, gamokvlevis Sedegad dadginda aSkarad gamoxatuli kavSiri qalebisa da mamakacebis sqesobriv-rolur ideologiasa da socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis dones Soris, kerZod, sqesobriv-roluri ideologia, Cveulebriv, ufro Tanamedrovea ufro metad ganviTarebul qveynebSi. igi ufro metad Tanamedrovea, agreTve, ufro qristianizirebul qveynebSi da urbanizaciis maRali donis mqone qveynebSi. amgvarad, ekonomikaSi da ganaTlebaSi progress Tan axlavs mamakacebis, rogorc dominantebis ganxilvis tendenciis TandaTanobiTi Semcireba. sxvagavarad rom vTqvaT, rac ufro ganviTarebulia ekonomika da maRalia ganaTlebis done qveyanaSi, miT ufro mcirdeba tendencia kacebi ganixilebodnen rogorc ufro Zlierebi da aqtiurebi, vidre - qalebi. Tumca unda aRiniSnos isic, rom kvlevebi adasturebs am tendenciis mxolod Semcirebas da ara mis srul gaqrobas. adamiani socialuri arsebaa. igi izrdeba sazogadoebaSi da TandaTanobiT iTvisebs masSi arsebul stereotipebs -- ama Tu im sazogadoebisTvis mocemul istoriul periodSi mdgrad Sexedulebebs qalsa da kacs Soris gansxvavebebze, maT socialur rolebze, funqciebze, qcevis normebze. iglis (Eagly) mixedviT, genderuli strereotipebi arsebiTad socialuri normebia, xolo bernis (Bern) mixedviT, stereotipebi -- es aris ZiriTadi wesebi, romlebic gansazRvraven adamianis qcevas sazogadoebaSi da amave dros, isini fsiqikuri energiis ekonomikis funqcias asruleben. es imas niSnavs, rom stereotipebi warmoadgenen qalebisaTvis da mamakacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel TvisebaTa da qcevis modelTa krebuls, romelic gvexmareba informaciis gadamuSavebasa da adekvatur urTierTobebSi. amgvarad, genderuli stereotipebi -- es aris fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi da qceva, romelic ama Tu im sazogadoebaSi (an kulturaSi) mocemul istoriul periodSi iTvleba erTi romelime sqesisTvis metad damaxasiaTeblad. ase magaliTad: `kacebi metad agresiulebi arian~ an `kacebi ufro Wkvianebi arian~, `qalebi zedmetad emociurebi arian~, `qalebs ar SeuZliaT manqanis marTva kargad~ an `kacebma namdvili megobroba ician, qalebs ki ar SeuZliaT namdvili megobroba~ da a.S. stereotipebi xels uwyoben sqesobrivi rolebis SeTvisebas da warmoadgenen socializaciis modelebs bavSvebisTvis. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom arsebobs genderuli stereoripebis maRali xarisxiT kroskulturuli msgavseba. aqedan gamomdinare, keTdeba daskvna, rom fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi, romlebic qalisa Tu mamakacis sqesTan asocirdebian, pankulturul modelSi lagdebian. xolo specifikuri kulturuli faqtorebi apirobeben umniSvnelo gadaxrebs am zogadi modelidan. genderuli stereotipebis formirebis uiliamsis da bestis (Williams & Best) modeli efuZneba im mosazrebas, rom biologiur gansxvavebebs (mag.: qali aCens Svilebs, kacebs ki meti fizikuri Zala aqvT) mivyavarT Sromis iseT ganawilebamde, romlis drosac qalebs aqvT pasuxismgebloba bavSvebis aRzrdaze da movlaze, kacebs ki -- pasuxismgebloba ojaxis uzrunvelyofaze da dacvaze. uiliamsi da besti Tvlian, rom genderuli stereotipebi yalibdeboda, raTa uzrunveleyoT aseTnairad Camoyalibebuli Sromis ganawilebis ganmtkiceba. stereotipi gulisxmobs, rom Sesabamisi sqesis warmomadgenels aqvs an SeuZlia rom ganaviTaros misTvis mikuTvnebuli rolis Sesabamisi Tviseba. erTxel Camoyalibebuli stereoripebi socializaciis modelebis funqcias arsuleben. isini aiZuleben biWebs iyvnen ufro damoukideblebi da

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gabedulebi, xolo gogonebs -- mzrunvelebi da kontaqturebi. amgvarad, gasagebi xdeba, rom adamianebi sxvadasxva kulturaTa farTo diapazonis farglebSi midian iqamde, rom maxasiaTeblebis erTi nakrebi asocirdeba mamakacis sqesTan, xolo meore nakrebi -- asocirdeba qalTa sqesTan. qalisaTvis an kacisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli -- aseTia maskulinoba/feminurobis cnebaTa wyvilTa ZiriTadi mniSvneloba. pirovneba SeiZleba iyos qaluri an mamakacuri sruliad sxvadasxva aspeqtebSi, romelic moicavs rogorc Cacmis manaeras, aseve moqcevis stils an xmis tons. maskulinoba/feminurobis gansazRvreba Semoifargleba `me"-koncefciebiT da im xarisxiT, romliTac aseTi koncefciebi moicaven qalis an mamakacis sqesTan asocirebul maxasiaTeblebs (Tvisebebs). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ama Tu im pirovnebis maskulinoba/feminurobis xarisxi gaizomeba am pirovnebis TviTaRqmaSi, `me"-s xatSi Semavali maskulinuri Tu feminuri Tvisebebis raodenobiT. imisaTvis, rom konkretuli pirovnebis maskulinoba-feminuroba ganisazRvros, cxadia, aucilebelia, rom Tavdapirvelad dadgindes mocemul kulturaSi maskulinoba-feminurobis zogadi modeli anu is maxasiaTeblebi, romelebic am kulturaSi miRebulia rogorc qaluri an rogorc - mamakacuri. sxvadasxva avtorebis mier maskulinobafeminurobis Sesafaseblad gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva meTodebi, rogoricaa, mag. TviTSefasebis kiTxvari, socialurad sasurveli maxasiaTeblebis an sqesTan asocirebuli maxasiaTeblebis kiTxvari da sxv. maskulinoba-feminurobis gazomvisas metad mniSvnelovania emikuri da kulturul-specifikuri mosazrebebis gaTvaliswineba. uiliamsama da bestma gamoiyenes kulturul-specifikuri parametrebi maskulinoba-feminurobis kvlevaSi 14 qveynis universitetis studentebTan. yoveli studenti winaswar mocemuli 300 zedsarTavis safuZvelze aRwerda Tavis Tavs da Tavis ideals. es aRwerebi dardeboda adgilobriv (qveynis Sesabamisad) genderul stereotipebs, romlebic adre iyo gamokvleuli. aRmoCnda, rom yvela qveyanaSi mamakacebi iZlevian maskulinobis ufro maRal maCvenebels, vidre qalebi, rac sulac ar aris gasakviri. magram aRsaniSnavia is, rom idealuri `me"-s aRwerisas orive sqesi cdilobda Tavis TavisTvis miewera gacilebiT ufro maRali xarisxis maskulinoba, vidre es realur `me"-Si hqonda. es, rogorc Cans, mamakacebis dominirebiT da Sesabamisad maskulinuri Tvisebebis meti RirebulebiT unda aixsnas. aRmoCnda, rom sxvadasxva kulturul jgufebSi feminuroba/maskulinobis specifikuri gagebis gaTvaliswinebiT qalebi da kacebi erTnairad (erTi da igive xarisxiT) qalurebi arian yvela kulturaSi, xolo mamakacebi -- erTnairad mamakacurebi. magram, amave dros, ra Tqma unda, me-koncefciaSi feminuroba-maskulinobis TvalsazrisiT arsebobs garkveuli kulturuli variaciebi. genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs midis (M. Mead) kvlevebs kulturis mier qalisa da mamakacis pirovnebebis Camoyalibebis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, kulturis gavlena pirovnebis Camoyalibebaze ar niSnavs konstitucionalurad determinirebuli individualuri gansxvavebebis uaryofas, magram sqesebs Soris standartul pirovnul gansxvavebebs mainc kulturuli modelebi ayalibeben, romelsac iZulebulia daemorCilos yvela Taobis orive sqesi. ase magaliTad, rodesac omSi wasvla didad fasobs sazogadoebaSi, maSin mamrobiTi sqesis yvela bavSvi cdilobs CaaxSos SiSis nebismieri gamovlineba Tavis TavSi da SeiZinos is Tvisebebi (gambedaoba, vaJkacoba, Tavganwirva), rac damaxasiaTebelia mamakacuri saqmianobisTvis, rac identificirdeba mamakacur pirovnebasTan. xolo is Tvisebebi, romlebic moCneulia Zlier komponentebad zogierTi pirovnebisaTvis, SemdgomSi viTardeba rogorc norma yvelasaTvis (rogorc maskulinuri pirovnebis ZiriTadi elementebi). asevea qalebSic. magaliTad, Tu kulturaSi didi mniSvneloba

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aqvs qalis zrunvas bavSvze, kultura gamoyofs am Tvisebas da feminuri pirovnebis ZiriTad komponentad miiCnevs. midma, ikvlia ra sxvadasxva tomebi, aRmoaCina sxvadasxva kulturis zegavleniT ganpirobebuli mkveTri gansxvaveba qalisa da mamakacis rolebsa da stereotipebSi. ase, magaliTad, miCneulia, rom saSiSroebis atana ufro maskulinuri maxasiaTebeli iyo. patara bavSvebic ki Tavs ikavebdnen gamoemJRavnebinaT iseTi Tviseba, rogoricaa SiSi, radgan isini darwmunebuli iyvnen, rom sawinaaRmdegod moqcevisas maT miawerdnen qalur Tvisebebs. mkvlevrebi, romlebic qcevaSi gamovlenil genderul sxvaobebs swavloben, xSirad imowmeben sxvadasxva kulturaTa msgavsebas, rogorc genebisa da hormonebis rolis dasabuTebas da amiT varaudoben srul genetikur da biologiur determinizms. biologiuri determinizmi amodis iqidan, rom sqesTa Soris Seucvleli gansxvavebebis formirebas iwveven yovelTvis raime biologiuri faqtorebi an gadaxrebi, rac biologias warmoadgens rogorc aucilebels da sakmaris pirobas sqesTa gansxvavebisTvis. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom didi xnis diskusiam bunebisa Tu aRzrdis prioritetulobaze, romelic asakobriv fsiqologiaSi mimdinareobs, aCvena, rom biologia ar gansazRvravs qcevas da aseTi warmodgena sakmaod naivuria. gamokvlevebma (Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1983; Stewart, 1988) daadastura, rom sqesobrivi qromosomebi an sqesobrivi hormonebi ar warmoadgens arc aucilebel da arc sakmaris pirobas qcevis gansazRvrisaTvis. isini ubralod amcireben an zrdian garkveuli qcevis ganxorcielebis albaTobas. gotiebis (Gottlieb, 1983) gamokvlevam gamoavlina, rom genebi toveben SesaZleblobas sawinaaRmdego tipis qcevisTvis. adamianebi garkveuli xarisxiT memkvidreobiT iReben genebs, magram amasTanave, cxovroben ra mWidro kavSirSi mSoblebTan da naTesavebTan, adaminebs SeuZliaT `memkvidreobiT~ miiRon garemocvac. akvirdebodnen ra biologiisa da garemos urTierTqmedebas, sociobiologebma, evoluciuri fsiqologiis da ekonomikuri anTropologiis specialistebma ivaraudes, rom gansazRvruli qceviTi meqanizmebi yalibdeba rogorc reaqcia gadarCevis faqtorebis zewolaze. roluri sxvaobebi, romlebic sqesTan aris dakavSirebuli asaxavs im faqts, rom gansxvavebul garemoebebs mivyevarT gansxvavebul qceviT reaqciebamde, romelTagan TiToeulic winaswar gansazRvrulia biologiurad. gilmori (Gilmore, 1990) varaudobs, rom mamakacis qceva `maCos~ stilSi warmoadgens adaptacias maRali donis riskTan, romelic saWmlis mopovebasTan da sicocxlisTvis aucilebeli pirobebis mopovebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. gilmors Tavisi hipoTezis dasadastureblad magaliTad moyavs is mkveTri gansxvaveba sqesTan dakavSirebul rolur ganwyobebs Soris, romelic arsebobs wynari okeanis or kunZuls -- truksa da taitis Soris. orive kunZulze Tavs Tevzis WeriT irCenen da am saqmianobiT mamakacebi arian dakavebulni. magram kunZul trukis mamakaci -- es aris TavzexelaRebuli, mudam saomrad ganwyobili, seqsSi uxeSi da ganurCeveli. am kunZulze iTvleba, rom qalebi momTmenni da pasiurni unda iyvnen. isini ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodnen mamakacebs, maT ki, Tavis mxriv, unda daicvan qalebi. taitis kunZulis kacebi ki ar iRwvian materialuri miRwevisa da konkurenciisaTvis, isini pasiurebi da damyolebi arian, maSin roca maTi qalebi, rogorc wesi, aqtiurebi arian. gilmori am gansxvavebebs saWmlis mopovebis gansxvavebuli pirobebiT xsnis. taitis mkvidrni Tevzs iWeren did lagunebSi, sadac maT aranairi safrTxe ar emuqrebaT da sadac bevri Tevzia. trukis macxovreblebi ki Tevzs Ria zRvaSi iWeren, sadac daRupvis riski didia. gilmoris azriT, `maCos~ stili SeiZleba warmoadgendes riskTan adaftaciis im formas, romelic exmareba mamakacebs winaaRmdegoba gauwios saSiSroebebs. biologia ar gansazRvravs beds, magram biologiur faqtorebs, ueWvelad, mniSvnelovani wvlili Seaqvs genderuli sxvaobebis formirebaSi. termini `biologiuri~

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xSirad ixmareba, roca mxedvelobaSi aqvT genebi, am mocemul SemTxvevaSi sqesobrivi qromosomebi, magram cneba `biologiuri~ unda moicavdes agreTve, im pirobebis zegavlenas, romelSic organizmi aris (mdebareobs) muclis periodSi mucladyofinisa da postnataluri ganviTarebisas. xSirad am periodSi moqmedeba (an cxovreba) ganisazRvreba kulturiT. magaliTad, Zilis periodis xangrZlivoba SeiZleba varirebdes kulturiT determinirebuli dedis dRis reJimis mixedviT, xolo siarulisa da jdomis Cvevebis SeZena damokidebulia am kulturebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli bavSvebis movlis praqtikaze. gamokvlevebi (Eaton & Enns, 1986; Rosenberg & Sutton-Smith, 1972; Tanner, 1961, 1970) aCvenebs, rom axaldabadebuli biWebi gogonebTan SedarebiT ufro didebi da aqtiurebi arian, ufro maRali nivTierebaTa cvlis done aqvT, tkivilis SegrZnebis ufro maRali zRurbli aqvT da ufro kargad aqvT ganviTarebuli muskulatura. mozardobis asakamde (3-10 ww.) sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi morfologiaSi da hormonalur statusSi didi ar aris, magram dakvirvebadi gansxvavebebi Seesabameba sqesobriv dimorfizms, romelic mogvianebiT vlindeba. zrdasruli mamakacebi ufro maRlebi arian, ufro masiuri ConCxi aqvT, sisxlis JangbadiT kvebis ufro maRali done aqvT, meti Tma aqvT sxeulze, amasTanave, sxvadasxva sqesis warmomadgenlebs gansxvavebuli pirveladi da meoradi sqesobrivi niSnebi aqvT. gansxvavebis I jgufi dakavSirebulia mamakacis met ZalasTan da gamZleobasTan. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom es gansxvavebebi, cxadia, ZalaSia umravles SemTxvevebSi, radgan zogierTi konkretuli qali ufro Ronieria, vidre zogierTi konkretuli kaci. miuxedavad imisa, rom biologia mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens qcevaze, qcevis da misi ganviTarebis mniSvnelovan determinants warmoadgens socialur-kulturuli faqtorebi. am mosazrebebs adasturebs rigi mkvlevrebis naSromebi (Best &Williams, 1993; Monroe &Munroe, 1975/1994; Rogjff, Gauvain &Ellis, 1984). kultura Rrma zegavlenas axdens qcevaze, gansazRvravs ra gvaris gagrZelebas, imas, Tu rogor xdeba bavSvebis socializacia, rogor acmeven bavSvebs, romeli qveva iTvleba sworad da gonivrulad, ras aswavlian bavSvebs, ra funqciebs iReben Tavis Tavze zrdasruli qalebi da mamakacebi. bavSvis SesaZleblobebi da qcevis Camoyalibeba ganisazRvreba kulturiT, maSinac ki, roca es qceva ganixileba, rogorc biologiuri faqtorebiT determinirebuli. sqesTa Soris sxvaobebis kulturul universaliebs xSirad xsnian xolme socializaciis praqtikebis msgavsebiT, maSin roca kulturul gansxvavebulobebs miakuTvneben xolme socializaciis procesis gansxvavebulobebs. sqesTan mikuTvnebulobasTan dakavSirebuli qcevis kulturuli TaviseburebebiT gansazRvrulobis yvelaze cnobili magaliTia margaret midis (Mead, 1935) mier Catarebuli klasikuri gamokvleva axali gvineis sam tomze. midis gamokvlevebSi gamovlinda, rom dasavluri Sexedulebebis Tanaxmad, am sazogadoebebSi qalebsac da kacebsac aqvT rogorc maskulinoba, aseve feminurobac da maTi qceva ar Seesabameba miRebul seqsualur-rolur orientacias. sqesobrivi sxvaobebis Rrma bunebis kargi magaliTia 1920-ian wlebSi daarsebuli israeleli kibucebis istoria. es iyo mizanmimarTuli mcdeloba Seqmniliyo egalitaruli sazogadoeba (Rosner, 1967; Snarey & Son, 1986; Spiro, 1956). Tavdapirvelad iq ar iyo Sromis ganawileba sqesobrivi niSniT. qalebic da kacebic muSaobdnen mindvrebSi, marTavdnen traqtorebs, muSaobdnen samzareuloSi da samrecxaoSi. dro gadioda. amaRlda Sobadoba da gamoirkva, rom qalebma veRar SeZles Tavis Tavze aeRoT fizikuri samuSaos bevri saxe, romlebsac akeTebdnen kacebi. male, qalebma Tavis Tavze aiRes swored is funqciebi, romelTaganac undodaT Tavdapirvelad gaTavisufleba -- saWmlis momzadeba, recxva, bavSvebis swavla da maTi movla. aSkaraa, rom kibucebis

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mcdelobas, moexdinaT Sromis Tanabari ganawileba, didi gavlena ar mouxdenia bavSvebze. karlsoni da barnesi (Carlsson & barnes, 1986) ikvlevdnen qalebisa da mamakacebis Sexedulebebs tipur seqsualur-rolur qcevaze da sakuTari sqesobrivi mikuTvnebulobis aRqmas. maT ver aRmoaCines kulturuli an sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi Sved bavSvebsa da kibucebSi gazrdil bavSvebs Soris.

saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

sqesi - gansazRvravs qalsa da mamakacs Soris anatomiur da fiziologiur sxvaobebs da am sxvaobaTa kavSirs reproduqciis unarTan. sqesi biologiurad aris determinirebuli. genderi - gamoiyeneba qalisa da mamakacis gansxvavebuli TaviseburebebisTvis, romelic aqcents akeTebs socialur da kulturul faqtorebze da ara biologiurze. sqesobriv-roluri ideologia -- gansazRvravs sqesebs Soris adekvatur ganwyobebs da varirebs tradiciuli antifeministuri midgomidan, romelic mamakacis sqesis dominirebas gulisxmobs, Tanamedrove anu egelitarul midgomamde, romlis mixedviTac qalisa da mamakacis mniSvneloba Tanabaria da uaryofilia erTi sqesis dominireba meoreze. genderuli stereotipebi -- es aris fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebi da qceva, romelic iTvleba erTi romelime sqesisTvis metad damaxasiaTeblad (mag. `kacebi metad agresiulebi arian, qalebi ki metad emociurebi~). stereotipebi xels uwyobs sqesobrivi rolebis SeTvisebas da warmoadgens socializaciis modelebs bavSvebisTvis. maskulinoba-feminuriba (m/f) -- warmoadgens im xarisxs, romliTac qalebisa da mamakacebis TviTaRqma Seicavs Tvisebebs, romlebic maT kulturaSi ganixileba rogorc qalebiTvis an kacebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli. genderuli cnobiereba -- warmoadgens socialuri cnobierebis nawils, romelic qalebisa da mamakacebs Soris Tanacxovrebisa da urTierTobebis wesis matarebelia.

pirveli leqciis Semdeg studntebi airCeven esses Temebs (saleqcio kursis Temebis mixedviT), romlebic maT unda moamzadon ZiriTadi da damatebiTi literaturis gamoyenebiT da warmoadginon seminarze. studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis savaldebulo samecniero literaturaSi (riderSi) warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi. genderis, rogorc socialur-kulturuli konstruqtis ukeT Seswavlis mizniT, maT miecemaT, agreTve davaleba Sesarulon praqtikuli samuSao. kerZod, 1). TiToeulma studentma seminarisaTvis unda moamzados (Caiweros da warmoadginos) sul mcire 10 genderuli qcevis norma. 2). SemTxveviTad gaxsenebuli 10-15 ojaxis magaliTze aRricxos qalebisa da mamakacebis profesiebi, dasaqmebis sferoebi, Tanamdeboba, socialuri statusi.

seminari #1 (Tema # 1 ) -- 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentebis mier Sesrulebuli kvlevis Sedegebis jgufuri Sejameba da analizi. gaimarTeba diskusia genderis konstruirebaSi socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis zegavlenis Sesaxeb (1 sT); seminarze moxdeba studentis mier

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momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba diskusia seminaris Temaze (1 sT). kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi: 1. ra gansxvavebaa sqessa da genders Soris? moiyvaneT sqessa da genders Soris gansxvavebis magaliTebi. 2. rogor gansazRvraven sxvadasxva avtorebi genders? 3. ras niSnavs genderuli stereotipebi da maskulinoba/feminuroba sxvadasxva kulturebSi? 4. riTi SeiZleba davasabuToT, rom genderi warmoadgens socialur-kulturul konstruqts? 5. ra saxiT vlindeba genderuli cnobiereba yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi? 6. ra xarisxiT arian invariantuli sxvadasxva kulturaSi genderuli Taviseburebebi, rolebi, stereotipuli qcevebi da Sexedulebebi? 7. rogor gansxvavdebian isini kulturuli faqtorebis zegavlenis Sedegad? 8. ratom aris genderis Seswavla mniSvnelovani socialuri mecnierebebisaTvis? saxelmwifosaTvis?

ZiriTadi literatura: 1. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, p.: 13-55; 2. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, p.: 199-204; 3. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, p.: 17-23; 4. Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, p.:, 135-137. damatebiTi literatura: 1. Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 21-28, 238-266; 2. Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. ­ in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 316-322; 3. Judith Batler, Gender Trouble, Feminism and the subversion of identity, Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc., 1990, gv.:1-34; 4. zurikaSvili f. maRraZe g. WaniSvili n. xuciSvili g. jorbenaZe r. konfliqti, genderi da mSvidobis mSenebloba, gaeros ganviTarebis fondi qalTaTvis, Tb., 2003, nawili II; 5. m. wereTeli, genderi, rogorc fsiqikuri konstruqti -- d. uznaZis sax. fsiqologiis institutis SromaTa krebuli, 2004, Tb., gv.:185-188; 6. avaliani e. Zveli samyaros `feministuri~ kulturebi, - kr.-Si `qali politikur da socialur cxovrebaSi~, bakur sulakauris gamomc., 1998, gv.: 95-103.

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kvira #2

leqcia-- 2 sT

Tema #2 - genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli rolebis aTvisebis Teoriebi (fsiqodinamikuri, socialur-kognituri, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriebi, androginiis koncefcia, genderul-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis da genderuli sqemis Teoria).

leqciaze ganxiluli iqneba TiToeuli Teoriis ZiriTadi principebi, genderis gageba am TeoriaTa farglebSi, agreTve, maTi kritikuli Sefaseba da mniSvneloba genderuli kvelvebis ganviTarebisaTvis.

genderis gageba froidis fsiqoanalizur TeoriaSi. genderul kvlevebze, kerZod ki, genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli sxvaobebis gagebaze udidesi gavlena moaxdina z. froidis (Freud) fsiqoanalizurma Teoriam. froidi iyo pirveli fsiqologi, romelmac pirovnebis Teoriis centrSi moaqcia biologiuri sqesi da xazi gausva mis mniSvnelovan rols ganviTarebis procesSi. marTalia, froidi genderis mkvlevarTa ricxvs ar miekuTvneba da TviT genderis mecnieruli terminic ar arsebobda am droisaTvis, magram man pirvelma axsna pirovnebis sqesobrivi identifikaciisa da sqesobrivi sxvaobebis Camoyalibebis procesi. amdenad, froidma mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvra genderis fenomenis mecnierTa yuradRebis centrSi moqceva. misma Sexedulebebma safuZveli Cauyara genderis mecnieruli kvlevis obieqtad Camoyalibebas. swored amitom, mniSvnelovnia sqesobrivi identifikaciis meqanizmis froidiseuli gagebis ganxilva. z. froidis midgoma sqesobrivi identifikaciisadmi efuZneba bavSvis fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis mis mier gamoyofil stadiebs. kerZod, froidis Teoriis mixedviT sqesobrivi identifikaciisa da sqesobrivi sxvaobebis formirebis meqanizmi bavSvis fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis procesSia Cadebuli. sqesobrivi identurobis ganviTareba mimdinareobs stadiebis seriebis mixedviT. yoveli etapi xasiaTdeba libiduri (seqsualuri) energiis koncentraciiT sxeulis garkveul nawilSi. fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis I etapze -- oralur stadiaze bavSvi aRwevs primitiul seqsualur dakmayofilebas wovis saSualebiT. II etapze -- analur stadiaze siamovneba miiRweva defekaciiT da bavSvi koncentrirebulia ganavlis Sekavebasa da gamoyofaze. froidis mixedviT, biWebisa da gogonebis fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTareba erTnairad mimdinareobs am ori sawyisi stadiis ganmavlobaSi. falosur stadiaze, romelic daaxloebiT samidan eqvs wlamde mimdinareobs, bavSvis libiduri energia fokusirdeba genitaliebze. swored am etapze xdeba sqesi da genderi gadamwyveti bavSvis ganviTarebisTvis. igi acnobierebs, rom qalebsa da mamakacebs gansxvavebuli sasqeso organoebi aqvT. am stadiamde siyvarulisa da erotikuli mimzidvelobis pirveli obieqti rogorc gogonebisaTvis, aseve biWebisaTvis, dedaa. Tumca, rodesac bavSvebi miaRweven falosur stadias, maTi urTierTobebi dedasTan rTuldeba. biWebSi dedis mimarT siyvaruli incestad iqceva da viTardeba oidipos kompleqsi. patara biWebis survili `flobdnen~ dedas da masTan urTierTobaSi `Caanacvlon~ mama, iwvevs kastraciis SiSs. swored am SiSiT gamowveuli stresi da SfoTva biWis Semdgomi ganviTarebis mamoZravebeli Zlieri Zalaa. biWebi Tavs arTmeven kastraciis SiSs dedis mimarT seqsualuri ltolvisa da mamasTan mtruli damokidebulebis gandevniT (aracno17

bierSi). es xorcieldeba mamasTan identifikaciis gziT. biWebi cdiloben moawonon mamas Tavi da gaiziaron misi Rirebulebebi. mamasTan identifikacia biWebs saSualebas aZlevs `flobdes~ dedas, Tumca ara realurad, aramed -- gaSualebulad (Canacvlebulad). mamasTan identifikaciis gziT daiZleva oidipos kompleqsi da viTardeba superego -- moraluri normebis sistema. gogonebis ganviTareba sxvagvarad mimdinareobs. falosur stadiaze gogonebis mier gakeTebuli aRmoCena, rom maT akliaT penisi, froidis mixedviT, gogonaTa ganviTarebisTvis gadamwyveti momentia. gogonas uviTardeba e.w. `penisis Suri~. es ukanaskneli gogonebis TviTSefasebas did dartymas ayenebs da maT arasrulfasovnebis kompleqss uyalibebs. Tumca deda aris gogonebis siyvarulis Tavdapirveli obieqti, magram isini swored dedas adanaSauleben penisis arqonaSi da uars amboben dedis siyvarulze. TavianT siyvaruls isini mamebisken mimarTaven, romelTac aqvT is organo, romelic maT da maT `defeqtur~ dedebs arasodes eqnebaT. gogonebis `penisis flobis~ survili mamisken siyvarulis warmarTviT ar aris srulad dakmayofilebuli. igi gardaiqmneba mamisgan bavSvis yolis survilad da mogvianebiT, bavSvis yolis survilad sakuTari meuRlisgan. froidis mixedviT, qali sruliad realizirdeba vaJiSvilis gaCenis SemTxvevaSi, radgan igi aseTnairad, bolos da bolos, aRwevs didi xnis sasurveli `penisis flobas~. amgvarad, patara gogo, romelic `patara kaci~ iyo fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis preoidipalur stadiaze, falosuri stadiis gavlis Sedegad xdeba pasiuri, mgrZnobiare da ganayofierebis momlodine qali. froidis azriT, gansxvavebiT biWebisgan, gogonebi Cveulebriv, warumateblobas ganicdian srulad gadawyviton oidipos kompleqsi (am situacias, gogonebis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba eleqtras kompleqsi ewodos). gogonebs aqvT krizisi maT mier penisis ar flobis gamo da maTi incesturi moTxovnileba mamis mimarT aris penisis mopovebis mcdeloba. biWebisgan gansxvavebiT, romlebic kastraciis SfoTviT arian motivirebulni gadaWran iodipos kompleqsi, gogonebi TavianT Tavs ukve kastrirebulad ganixilaven da amdenad, nakleb SfoTvas ganicdian. amitom qalebs Cveulebriv aqvT naklebad ganviTarebuli moralurobis grZnobaTa sistema anu superego. z. froidis mixedviT, gogonebSi iodipos kompleqsis nawilobrivi an arasruli daZleva xdeba. es ki iwvevs tipur qalur Tvisebebis Camoyalibebas, iseTebs, rogoricaa, pasiuroba da dedobis survili. froidi aRniSnavda, rom ganayofierebis survili aseve miuTiTebs mazoxizmze da siamovnebaze tkivilisa da tanjvisagan, radganac seqsualuri urTierTobebi da Svilebis gaCena SeiZleba tkivilTan iyos dakavSirebuli. amgvarad, froidis mixedviT, `penisis Suri~ da misi `flobis~ survili normaluri qalurobis Camoyalibebis mamoZravebeli Zalaa. biWisaTvis normaluri mamakacurobis Camoyalibebis mamoZravebeli Zala ki kastraciis SiSia. rac Seexeba sqesis identifikaciis meqanizms, igi, froidis mixedviT, oidipos kompleqsis daZlevasa da igive sqesis mSobelTan identifikaciaSi mdgomareobs. z. froidis Teoriam udidesi zegavlena moaxdina ara mxolod genderis, aramed, saerTod adamianis Sesaxeb mecnieruli azris ganviTarebaze. Tumca, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom misi Teoria mkacri kritikis sagani gaxda. yvelaze seriozuli kritika anTropologebis mxridan modioda, romlebic amtkicebdnen, rom es Teoria dasavluri kulturis CarCoebiT aris SezRuduli. kerZod, malinovski miuTiTebda, rom oidipos kompleqsi ar aris universaluri fenomeni, rogorc amas froidi varaudobda. malinovski aRniSnavda, rom ojaxis sabazo struqtura (mama, deda da Svili), romelzec agebulia oidipos kompleqsi, ar aris damaxasiaTebeli bevri kulturisTvis. magaliTad, trobrianis kunZulebze (papua -- axali gvinea) ojaxis ufrosi ara mama, aramed -- biZaa dedis mxridan. amasTan mkacri tabu incestze dadebulia ara bavSvebisa da

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mSoblebis urTierTobebze, aramed Zmebsa da debs Soris urTierTobebze. malinovski aRniSnavda, rom aseT pirobebSi oidipos kompleqss sruliad sxvagavari saxe unda miscemoda. marTlac, trobrianis kunZulebis miTebis Seswavlisas malinovskim aRmoaCina, rom maT safuZvels warmoadgens debsa da Zmebs Soris urTierTobebis mkacri tabu. Tumca malinovski akritikebda froids oidipos kompleqsTan dakavSirebiT, magram igi sruliad iziarebda misi Teoriis ZiriTad principebs. malinovski iziarebda froidis Sexedulebas imis Sesaxebac, rom gandevnili survilebi proeqciebSi (miTebSi, folklorSi da a. S.) vlindeba, im gansxvavebiT, rom es proeqciebi universaluri ki ar aris, aramed gansxvavdeba kulturaTa mixedviT. froidis ideebma normaluri feminuri da maskulinuri pirovnebis Sesaxeb metad farTe gavrceleba pova rogorc mis studentebSi, aseve fsiqologebsa da socialuri mecnierebebis warmomadgenlebSi. misi midgoma genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli tipirebis Sesaxeb mravali interpretaciis dasayrdeni gaxda. z. froidis Teoriis mimdevaris helen daCis azriT, gogonas ganviTarebis mamoZravebel Zalas `penisis Suris~ universaluri kategoria ki ar warmoadgens, aramed yvela adamianisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Suri imisa, rac sxvas aqvs. erik eriqsonma ganavrco froidis ganviTarebis Teoria. eriqsonis damsaxurebaa bavSvis ganviTarebaSi da identifikaciaSi biologiur impulsebTan erTad socialuri faqtorebis zegavlenis mniSvnelobis xazgasma. amasTan, eriqsonis mixedviT, qalis genderuli identifikaciis safuZvels penisis uqonloba ki ar warmoadgens, aramed -- saSvilosnos qona. eriqsonma xazi gausva Sinagani sivrcis cnebas. igi akvirdeboda 10-12 wlis bavSvebis TamaSs da daadgina, rom Sinagani sivrce gavlenas axdens sqesis identifikaciaze. bavSvebs eZleodaT adamianebisa da cxovelebis miniaturuli figurebi. maT sTxovdnen, rom aegoT kinos (filmis) scena. gogos tipuri scena Sedgeboda interieris scenisagan adamianebiT da avejiT. biWis tipuri scena iyo saxls gareT, morTuli kedlebiT, fasadebiT da boZebiT. gogonebis scenebi mSvidi da statikuri iyo, xolo biWebisa -- aqtiurobisken orientirebuli. eriqsonma paraleli gaavlo genderul konstruqtiul TamaSebs Soris gansxvavebebsa da sqesTabiologiur gansxvavebebs Soris (qalis Sinagani faqizi organoebi da kacis garegani, aqtiuri organoebi). swored es gansxvavebuli organoebi gansazRvraven, eriqsonis mixedviT, bavSvebis gansxvavebul Sinagan sivrces, romlic maTi sqesobrivi identifikaciis safuZvelia. alfred adleri Tvlida, rom adamiani upirvelasad socialuri da ara seqsualuri arsebaa. da amdenad, misi qceva motivirebulia ara biologiuri instiqtebiT, aramed socialuri interesebiT. misi azriT, maskulinuri dominantoba ar aris bunebrivi movlena. igi gamowveulia kacebisa da biWebis ufro meti socialuri RirebulebiT ojaxsa da sazogadoebaSi. karen horni Tvlida, rom froidis monacemebi qalis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb asaxavs patara biWis azrebs qalis anatomiis Sesaxeb. Tumca patara biWi SeiZleba uyurebdes patara gogos da fiqrobdes, rom man dakarga penisi, magram aranairi safuZveli ara gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom gogoc ase fiqrobs. horni ar eTanxmeboda froids, rom `penisis Suri~ da kastraciis kompleqsi qalis ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani meqanizmia. igi aRniSnavda, rom icnobda zustad imdenive kacs, romlebsac qalis saSvilosnosi SurdaT, ramdensac qals, romlebsac kacis penisis SurdaT. igi Tvlida, rom zogierTi kacis akviatebuli swrafva miRwevisaken gamoxatavs qalebis unikaluri SesaZleblobebis (reproduqciuli unaris) zekompensacias. sxvagavarad rom vTqvaT, hornis azriT, saSvilosnos Surs mivyevarT feminur kompleqsamde. hornis azriT, ar arsebobs qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris biologiurad determinitebuli fsiqologiuri sxvaobebi. isini ganpirobebulia genderul

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identifikaciaze kulturuli faqtorebis da qalis susti bunebis Sesaxeb ideologiebis didi zegavlenis gamo. biologiuri da kulturuli faqtorebis genderul identifikaciaze gavlenis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania m. midis kvlevebi. axli gvineis 3 ganxsvavebuli tomis Seswavlis Sedegad, man daadgina, rom qalisa da mamakacis stereotipuli Tvisebebi yovelTvis ar aris biologiuri sqesiT ganpirobebuli. seriozuli kritikis sagani gaxda, agreTve qalisa da qalurobis fenomenis froidiseuli gageba. feministuri moZraobis mimdevrebi amtkicebdnen, rom froidis damokidebuleba qalebisadmi viqtorianuli epoqis Sexedulebebis asaxvaa. klara tompsonis azriT, froidis Sexedulebebis SezRuduloba yvelaze kargad Cans `penisis Suris~ mis koncefciaSi. klara tompsoni aRiarebs, rom gogonebs SurT biWebis, magram misi azriT, es Suri qalebis biologiuri arasrulfasovnebiT ki ar aris gamowveuli (rogorc es froids aqvs gagebuli), aramed im privilegiebiT, romlebiTac gansxvavebiT gogonebisa da qalebisagan, sargebloben sazogadoebaSi biWebi da mamakacebi. froidis Teorias akritikeben empiriuli monacemebis simwiris gamoc. kerZod, sxva mkvlevarTa mravalricxovani empiriuli monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom zneobrivi grZnobebi bavSvebs ar uyalibdebaT sxeulebrivi dazianebebis miRebis SiSis gamo (iqneba es kastraciis SiSi Tu sxva tipis fizikuri dasja). moraluri grZnobebi bavSvs uviTardeba maSin, roca igi siyvaruliT aris garSemortymuli da cdilobs SeinarCunos es siyvaruli. es monacemebi exeba rogorc biWebs, aseve gogonebs. fsiqoanalizis feministuri mimarTulebis zogierTi warmomadgeneli Tvlis, rom froidis Teoria zedmetad individualisturia da mowyvetilia socialur garemos. nensi Codorou da jesika benJamini aRniSnavdnen, rom SeuZlebelia SeviswavloT adamiani izolirebulad da mxolod misi ltolvebi da egofunqciebi gaviTvaliswinoT. maTi azriT, mniSvnelovania, rom genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli Tvisebebis Camoyalibebis modelis agebisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos sxva adamianebTan urTierTobebic. froidis Teoria gakritikebuli iyo imis gamoc, rom misi debulebebi exeba bavSvis ganviTarebas, misi damamtkicebeli empiriuli sabuTebi ki zrdasruli adamianebis kvlevis Sedegadaa mopovebuli. zogierTi fsiqologis azriT, froidis Teorias aranairi Rirebuleba ara aqvs, radgan igi Zalian bundovani da araerTmniSvnelovania. kerZod, kritika exeba am Teoriis safuZvelze bavSvis ganviTarebis prognozirebis SesaZleblobebs. am avtorebis azriT, xSir SemTxvevebSi mas mivyevarT erTi da igive movlenis urTierTsawinaaRmdego interpretaciebamde. magaliTad, frustraciam analur stadiaze SeiZleba gamoiwvios xasiaTis iseTi Tvisebebis ganviTareba, rogoricaa, akuratuloba, sisufTave da damjeroba an piriqiT -- amboxisa da areulobisaken midrekileba. amgvarad, daskvnisaTvis SeiZleba iTqvas, rom z. froidis Teoriis farglebSi genderuli identifikaciis gagebis kritika efuZneba Semdeg argumentebs: empiriuli masalis simwire; pirovnebis biologiuri fsqtorebiT determinirebuloba; qalis moralurobisa da Tvisebebis Camoyalibebis modelis sisuste; pirovnebis socialur garemosgan mowyvetili gageba; kulturuli Rirebulebebisa da maT Soris ojaxisa da urTierTobebis kulturuli praqtikebis gauTvaliswinebloba. miuxedavad mravalricxovani da seriozuli kritikisa, froidis Teoriam udidesi gavlena moaxdina genderis gagebaze da misi, rogorc mecnieruli koncefciis ganviTarebaze. rogorc zemoT davrwmundiT, froidis bevri kritikosis Sexeduleba swored misi Teoriidan iRebs saTaves: maTi umetesoba iziarebs sqesis identifikaciis froidiseuli gagebis ZiriTad principebs. Tumca ki, froidis kritikosebi avseben da

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anviTareben mis models, sqesis identifikaciis meqanizmSi damatebiTi, kulturuli faqtorebis Semotanis gziT. amdenad, froidis Teoria unda ganvixiloT, rogorc genderis fsiqologiis ganviTarebis erT-erTi stimuli, mamoZravebeli Zala da genderis Tanamedrove gagebis mecnieruli winapiroba. genderis gageba pirovnebis socialur-kognitur TeoriaSi. pirovnebis socialur-kognituri Teoriis(Bandura, Mishell) mixedviT qcevis asaxsnelad sakmarisi ar aris mxolod adamianis Sinagani realobis gaTvaliswineba. mniSvnelovania, agreTve, kulturuli da socialuri faqtorebic, romelic zegavlenas axdens pirovnebis ganviTarebaze. banduras mixedviT, adamianis fsiqikuri funqcionirebis meqanizmi qcevis, SemecnebiTi sferos da garemos uwyveti urTierTzemoqmedebis terminebSi unda iyos agebuli. socialur-kognituri Teoria genderul-roluri orientaciis formirebas ganixilavs, rogorc gamocdilebis SeZenis rezultats. mSoblebi, maswavleblebi, Tanatolebi da socializaciis sxva agentebi ayalibeben bavSvebis genderul-rolurad orientirebul qcevas, adekvaturi da araadekvaturi qcevis ganmtkicebiTa da dasjiT, modelirebiT, molodinebiT, saTamaSoebis SerCeviT da sxva momentebiT, romelic dakavSirebulia gansxvavebuli moqceviT gogonebTan da biWebTan. socialur-kognituri Teoria biheviorizmidan da swavlis eqsperimentuli gamokvlevebidan iRebs saTaves. am Teoriis mixedviT, adamini swavlobs qcevis paternebs daaxloebiT iseve, rogorc cxoveli, magram im gansxvavebiT, rom am SemTxvevaSi gamomwvevi mizezi ar aris yovelTvis iseTi konkretuli, rogorc cxovelisaTvis sakvebi. bavSvis qceva yalibdeba mozrdilebis yuradRebiTa da waxalisebiT. rogorc angeri aRniSnavs, mSoblebi ar dayvebian TavianT patara gogonas da yovelTvis, roca is Tojinas aiRebs xelSi saTamaSod, ar aZleven kanfetebs waxalisebis mizniT. aseve ar ubrazdebian yovelTvis, roca manqaniT TamaSobs. magram Tu mama periodulad Sexedavs mas Tbili RimiliT, roca is fanqrebiT rveulSi xatavs, gogona xSirad gaimeorebs am qcevas. axlad naswavli qceva SeiZleba gavrceldes sxva situaciebzec -- gogona daiwyebs xatvas ara mxolod saxlSi, aramed -- sabavSvo baRSic. ufro zogadad, gogonam SeiZleba daiswavlos, rom `wynari~ TamaSi ukeTesia, vidre -- `aqtiuri~. am Teoriis farglebSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom bavSvi cxovelebisgan gansxvavebiT swavlobs sxvebze dakvirvebiT, modelirebiT da maTi qcevis imitirebiT. socialur-kognituri Teoriis amosavals warmoadgens debuleba imis Sesaxeb, rom qcevis axali formebis Camoyalibeba SesaZlebelia uSualo garegani ganmtkicebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSic. qcevis aTviseba SesaZlebelia magaliTis saSualebiTac. Cven vakvirdebiT, Tu rogor iqcevian sxvebi da Semdeg vimeorebT maT qcevas. amgvarad, bandura aqcents akeTebs ara pirdapir ganmtkicebaze, aramed -- swavlaze dakvirvebisa da magaliTis gziT. aseTnairad adamianebs uyalibdebaT garkveuli qcevis kognituri modeli, romelic verbaluri da kognituri reprezentaciebis saxiT inaxeba mexsierebaSi da momaval qcevaSi orientiris funqcias asrulebs. kerZod, qcevis am kognitur modelebze dayrdnobiT xorcieldeba momavali qcevis Rirebulebis kognituri Sefaseba da sazogadoebaSi misi dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi ganmtkicebis ganWvreta. aRsaniSnavia, rom qcevis kognituri modeli am Teoriis farglebSi samodelo qcevis xatia, romelic SemdgomSi Sesabamisi an Seusabamo qcevis prototipad gamoiyeneba. qcevis da maT Soris genderuli qcevis prototipis Camoyalibeba swavlis procesSi mimdinare Sesabamisi qceviTi magaliTebis, informaciis verbaluri gadacemis, imitaciisa da modelirebis Sedegia.

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imitacia an modelireba spontanurad vlindeba bavSvSi. isini manerebis, laparakis da sxva mravali qcevis imitacias axdenen. magaliTad, patara biWuna saTamaSo saparsiT iparsavs, roca mamamisi namdvil saparss iyenebs, deda axalSobils aWmevs, patara gogona ki - Tavis Tojinas. imitacia xSirad vlindeba TamaSebSi, iseTebSi, rogoricaa, `saxlobana~, omobana~, deda-Svilobana~, `skolobana~ da a.S. swavla xSirad dakvirvebis Sedegia, Tumca igi SeiZleba maSinve ar gamovlindes imitaciis saxiT. magaliTad, gogona SeiZleba akvirdebodes dedas, romelic did dros uTmobs Tavis garegnobas, kosmetikas, tansacmels da swavlobdes, rom mimzidveloba qalis aucilebeli kategoriaa. amave dros, man es codna SeiZleba ara maSinve, aramed garkveuli drois gavlis Semdeg, mxolod mozrdilobisas gamoiyenos. banduras mixedviT, aTvisebuli genderulad tipiuri qceva mexsierebaSi inaxeba da gamoiyeneba maSin, rodesac mosalodnelia am qcevis sazogadoebis mxridan dadebiTi ganmtkiceba (waxaliseba). bavSvis unari winaswar ganWvritos momavali qcevis Sedegebi (kognituri struqturebisa da funqciebis gamoyenebiT) saSualebas aZlevs mas Tavidan aicilos arasasurveli qceva da amgvarad iswavlos, Tu romeli qcevaa misaRebi misi sqesisTvis da romeli qcevaa miuRebeli. amgvarad, rogorc vxedavT, am Teoriis mixedviT, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba kognituri procesebis monawileobas qcevis modelirebaSi. miuxedavad amisa, socialurkognituri Teoria xazs usvams socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis mniSvnelovan rols sqesis identifikaciis procesSi. igi ganixilavs am faqtorTa zegavlenis 2 dones: uSualo qcevis dones (qcevis ganmtkicebas pirdapiri gamocdilebis safuZvelze) da Teoriuli qcevis dones (qcevis ganmtkicebas dakvirvebis, modelirebisa da qcevis Sedegebis kognituri Sefasebis, ganWvretis gziT). amgvarad, socialur-kognitur TeoriaSi kognituri kategoriebi da codna warmoadgens erT-erT damatebiT mniSvnelovan (adamianisaTvis specifikur) faqtors genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis procesSi. amdenad, genderuli qcevis kognituri kategoria -- prototipi, am TeoriaSi ufro genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis procesis meqanizmis amxsneli cnebaa, vidre -- uSualo dasja-waxalisabisa Tu momavali qcevis rezultatebis Sefasebis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli fsiqikuri konstruqtisa. qcevis genderuli tipireba (bavSvis mier gernderul-roluri orientaciebis aTviseba) ufro advilad mimdinareobs, roca mSoblebi ise awyoben garemocvas, rom zogi qcevis ganxorcieleba ufro iyos mosalodneli (an mosaxerxebeli) vidre -- sxvisa. magaliTad, Tu biWis oTaxi savsea sportuli danadgarebiT, ufro metia imis albaToba, rom is ufro uxeSi TamaSebiT iqneba gatacebuli, vidre misi da, romlis oTaxic naz ferebSi da nazi atributebiTaa mowyobili. arsebobs damajerebeli kroskulturuli sabuTebi, rom socialuri faqtorebi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs genderul-roluri orientaciebis aTvisebaSi. davalebebi, romlebsac bavSvebs aZleven, agreTve, roluri modelebi, romlebsac gvTavazobs kultura, ufro farTe planSi, aZlevs bavSvebs saSualebas aiTvisos sxvadasxva rolebi da qcevis tipebi. genderul identifikaciaze da tipirebaze socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis mniSvnelovan zegavlenas adastureben sxvadasxva avtorTa mier Catarebul kroskulturul kvlevebi. marTalia, yvela es kvleva socialuri daswavlis Teoriis farglebSi ar Catarebula, magram TiToeuli maTgani warmoadgens bavSvebis genderul identifikaciaze da tipirebaze socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis zegavlenis ilustracias. amdenad, es kvlevebi socialur-kognituri Teoriis damadasturebel sabu22

Tebad SeiZleba miviCnioT. amgvarad, socialur-kognituri Teoria xazs usvams kulturuli Zalebis mniSvnelobas bavSvebis mier genderuli identifikaciisa da genderul-roluri orientaciebis aTvisebaSi. socialur-kognituri Teoria socialuri gavlenebis Teoriaa. igi genderul identifikaciasa da genderul tipirebas ganixilavs ara rogorc biologiurad determinirebuls, aramed rogorc bavSvisa da misi garemos (mSoblebi, momvlelebi, media, skola, Tanatolebi da sxv.) yoveldRiuri interaqciis Sedegs. amasTan, am Teoriis mixedviT, genderuli identifikacia da tipireba imdenad socialuri garemos mxridan ganxorcielebuli uSualo (pirdapiri) ganmtkicebis Sedegi ki ar aris, ramdenadac SesaZlo qcevis Rirebulebis, misi ganmtkicebis SesaZleblobis kognituri Sefasebis Sedegia. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, am Teoriis farglebSi Semotanilia specifikuri struqtura -- kognituri modeli, romelic gamocdilebis procesSi modelirebuli qcevebis verbaluri da xatovani reprezentaciebis saxiT inaxeba mexsierebaSi. es kognituri modeli, romelsac prototipis saxe aqvs, genderuli identifikaciis meqanizmis erT-erTi rgolia: igi momavali qcevis Sefasebis nimuSad gamoiyeneba. socialur-kogniturma Teoriam didi zegavlena moaxdina genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebaze. gansakuTrebiT didia misi wvlili am TvalsazrisiT empiriuli masalis mopovebaSi. kerZod ki, genderuli identifikaciis procesSi socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis zegavlenis damadasturebeli empiriuli monacemebis dagrovebaSi. genderis gageba kognituri ganviTarebis TeoriaSi. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Teoria, romelic exeba genderul-roluri orientacis aTvisebas, aris kognituri ganviTarebis Teoria. igi efuZneba Jan piaJes gamokvlevebs. man daadastura, rom bavSvebi gadian kognituri ganviTarebis etapebs. gamokvlevebze dayrdnobiT, man aCvena, rom zogierTi koncefciis gaazreba bavSvisaTvis SeuZlebelia, sanam igi ar miaRwevs ganviTarebis garkveul kognitur etaps. bavSvis mier sakuTari sqesis gagebac icleba sxvadasxva etapze. l. kolbergis (Kohlberg) kognituri ganviTarebis koncefciis mixedviT, genderuli identifikacia da genderul-roluri orientaciebis aTviseba aris bavSvis socialuri da fizikuri samyaros aqriuri Seqmnis, Camoyalibebis (struqturirebis) Sedegi. bavSvebi mudmivad ikvleven garemos, cdiloben mis gaazrebas da am procesSi isini aqtiurad ageben axal da ufro rTul struqturebs, romlebic garemosTan kontaqtis saSualebas iZlevian. amgvarad, es Teoria xazs usvams garegani faqtorebis rols sqesobriv-roluri orientaciis formirebaSi. Tumca am faqtorebis zegavlena ganisazRvreba bavSvis kognituri struqturebis formirebiT. bavSvebi gadian Tavis ganviTarebaSi sqesTan dakavSirebuli informaciis aTvisebis gansazRvrul etapebs da maT mier SeZenili gamocdileba struqturirdeba gagebis misawvdomi donis Sesabamisad. arsebuli empiriuli monacemebi adasturebs, rom kognituri ganviTarebis faqtorebi dominantur rols TamaSoben genderuli warmodgenebis formirebis procesSi. ase magaliTad, 2-3 wlis bavSvi swor pasuxebs iZleva sakuTar sqesTan dakavSirebiT dasmul kiTxvaze. Tumca bavSvs sjera, rom adamianebs SeuZliaT sakuTari sqesis Tmis varcxnilobasTan an tansacmelTan erTad Secvla. slebi da frei (Slaby & Frey) gamoyofen amerikeli bavSvebis mier sqesTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gagebis oTx dones. Tavdapirvelad bavSvebi ar ansxvaveben sqesebs, meore etapze bavSvebi iwyeben sqesTan dakavSirebuli kategoriebis gamoyenebas, magram isini efuZnebian zedapirul fizikur maxasiaTeblebs. bolo or etapze, romelic daaxloebiT 4,5-5 wlis asakSi iwyebs mimdinareobas, bavSvebi TandaTanobiT midian imis gagebamde, rom sqesi warmoadgens myar da Seucvlel Taviseburebas.

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r. monro, Simini da monro (R.H. Munroe, Shimmin & Munroe) ikvlevdnen kulturul sxvaobebs qalisa da mamakacis sqess Soris am oTxi etapis mimdinareobaSi. rogorc navaraudevi iyo, maRali doneebis (me-3 da me-4 done) miRweva Zlierad varirebda sxvadasxva kulturebis mixedviT. mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom genderuli cnebebis aTviseba ufro nela mimdinareobs im kulturebSi, sadac bavSvebs naklebi urTierTobebi aqvT mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebTan, rac xSirad xdeba tradiciul kulturebSi, sadac bavSvebze zrunviT ZiriTadad dedaa dakavebuli. besim (Bussey) aRmoaCina, rom sqesis Seucvlelobis Sesaxeb warmodgena ar aris mniSvnelovani wanamZRvari sqesobrivi mikuTvnebulobiT gansazRvruli qcevis formirebisTvis. biWebis qcevis modeli moicavs 2 process, romelic erTis mxriv, maskulinuri qcevis aTvisebaSi mdgomareobs, meores mxriv ki feminuri qcevis miuReblobaSi. gogonebisTvis analogiuri modeli moicavs mxolod erT process: qalTa sqesTan dakavSirebuli qcevis aTvisebas, sawinaaRmdego sqesis qcevis ar miRebis gareSe. amis Sedegad, patara gogonebisTvis qala-biWa qceva sruliad misaRebia, maSin roca `dedikos Svilis~ qceva miuRebelia biWisTvis. genderuli rolebi yalibdeba qalisa da mamakacis sqesebs Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli kulturuli Sexedulebebis konteqstSi. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom bavSvebs cxovrebis pirvel or weliwadSi uyalibdebaT qalur da mamakacur sawyisTan dakavSirebuli stereotipebi, xolo ukve 3-4 wlis asakSi bavSvebi am stereotipebs iyeneben saTamaSoebis kategoriis, saqmianobis sxvadasxva saxisa da profesiebis gansasazRvrad. gamokvlevebis Sedegad dadginda, agreTve, rom bavSvebis mier im stereotipebis aTviseba, romlebic dakavSirebulia saTamaSoebisa da moRvaweobis sferoebis genderul dayofasTan, win uswrebs qalisa da mamakacis xasiaTis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli Sexedulebebis SeTvisebas. kolbergis kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriis mixedviT, zedmet dajildoebebsa da dasjas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ara aqvs genderul tipirebis procesSi. socialuri dasja da waxaliseba am Teoriis farglebSi gzamkvlevebis rols asruleben bavSvis kignituri ganviTarebis procesSi. amdenad, kognituri ganviTarebis Teoriis principebi ar uaryofs daswavlis Teorias, aramed avsebs mas. kolbergis mixedviT, genderuli identifikacia genderul-roluri orientaciebis aTvisebis Sedegia. sanam bavSvi miaRwevs stabilur genderul identifikacias, man unda moaxdinos sakuTari Tavis socializacia Sesatyvis genderul rolTan, radgan is motivirebulia iyos kargi gogo an kargi biWi. gogonebisaTvis es imas niSnavs, rom feminurobis misaRwevad maT jer unda moaxdinon feminurobis rolis identifikacia. Tumca feminuri roli sazogadoebaSi naklebad prestiJulia, vidre -- maskulinuri. rodesac gogonebi ecnobian feminurobisa da maskulinobis kategoriebs, maT aseve unda gaacnobieron maTi upiretesobebi. rogor xdeba, rom gogonebi irCeven da iTviseben sakuTar sazogadoebaSi aradafasebul rols? kolbergi varaudobs, rom gogonebi feminurobaSi pouloben iseT aspeqtebs (mag. sinaze), romlebic urCevniaT maskulinur aspeqtebs (mag. agresia). garda amisa, asakiT ufros qalebs ufro meti Zalaufleba aqvT, vidre patara gogonebs da esec SeiZleba gaxdes maTTan identifikaciis mizezi. androginiis koncefcia. sqesis identiikaciisa da tipirebis Sesaxeb arsebuli Sexedulebebis umravlesoba feminurobasa da maskulinobas ganixilavs, rogorc kontiniumis or urTierTsawinaaRmdego poluss. am Teoriebis farglebSi adamiani SeiZleba iyos maskulinuri an feminuri, magram ara orive erTdroulad, radgan ufro metad maskulinoba niSnavs ufro nakleb feminurobas. es debuleba efuZneba

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feminuroba-maskulinobis mraval tests. amgvarad, pirovnebis tradiciuli Teoriebi iziareben tradiciuli genderuli tipirebis universalurobis ideas. amis gamo, nebismieri bavSvi, romelic ar avlenda genderulad tipirebul qcevas, ganixileboda rogorc normidan gadaxra. tradiciuli fsiqologiuri Terapia exmareba maT genderuli rolebis morgebaSi. pirovnebis Teoriebis mixedviT, genderuli ganviTareba mTavrdeba maSin, roca aSkarad vlindeba agresiuli domonanturi mamakacoba da nazi, pasiuri qaloba. Tumca arseboben iseTi adamianebic, romlebsa TiTqmis erTnairad axasiaTebT maskulinobisa da feminurobis niSnebi. magaliTad, qali, romlic aTleturi aRnagobisaa da uyvars bavSvebi an mamakaci, romelic gulCvilia da gulkeTilia da amavdroulad kargad aqvs ganviTarebuli logikuri azrovneba. bolo periodSi genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebasTan erTad dagrovda didi empiriuli masala da gaCnda mravali alternatiuli Sexeduleba genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis Sesaxeb. erT-erTi aseT axali midgomaa androginiis koncefcia. androginia -- sityva, romelSic erTmaneTs erwymis berZnuli andro (kaci) da gyn (qali), aRniSnavs maskulinobisa da feminurobis balanss adamianSi. am koncefciis fesvebi klasikuri miTologiidan, literaturidan da religiidan modis. fsiqologiaSi es idea gamoyenebuli iqna iungis (Jung) animas koncefciaSi (kacSi feminuri nawili) da animusis koncefciaSi (maskulinuri nawili qalSi). iungs miaCnda, rom pirovnebis srulyofilebisaTvis aucilebelia am ori nawilis erTianoba. gasuli saukunis 70-iani wlebis dasawyisis feministuri moZraobis erT-erTi idea gaxldaT azri imis Sesaxeb, rom tradiciuli genderuli rolebi aferxeben pirovnul ganviTarebas da masSi Cadebul potencials. am ideam safuZveli Cauyara sandra bemis (S. Bem) koncefcias androginiis Sesaxeb. androginiis cnebis mixedviT, yovel adamians, damoukideblad biologiuri sqesisa, SeiZleba hqondes rogorc maskulinobis, aseve feminurobis Tvisebebi da aerTianebdes sakuTar TavSi rogorc tradiciul mamakacur Tvisebebs, aseve -- tradiciul qalur niSnebs. es adamianebs saSualebas aZlevs naklebad mkacrad daicvan genderul-roluri normebi da Tavisuflad gadainacvlon tradiciuli qaluri saqmianobidan tradiciul mamakacur saqmianobaze. amgvarad, androginiis idea kvlav gacocxlda feministi fsiqologebis gamokvlevebis Sedegad. fsiqologiuri androginia aris iseTi fsiqologiuri niSnebis balansi, romlebic maskulinurad an feminurad arian stereotipizebuli. androginiis gansazRvrebasTan erTad, es koncefcia gansazRvravs imasac, Tu ra ar aris androginia: 1) androginia ar aris qalTa liberaluri pozicia sazogadoebaSi. adamiani SeiZleba miiCnevdes sakuTar Tavs, rogorc sazogadoebaSi naklebad genderulad tipizebuls sxvebTan SedarebiT da amavdroulad, gaaCndes genderTan dakavSirebuli tradiciuli Sexedulebebi; 2) androginia ar aris seqsualur orientaciasTan dakavSirebuli. homoseqsualuri an biseqsualuri orientacia aris adamianis seqsualuri midrekilebebis forma, rac aranair kavSirSi ar aris fsiqologiuri androginiasTan da bolos 3) androginia ar aris dakavSirebuli fizikur, seqsualur an masTan dakavSirebul maxasiaTeblebTan. s. bemma SeimuSava specialuri kiTxvari maskulinobisa da feminurobis gansazRvrisaTvis. amasTan am kiTxvarSi feminuroba da maskulinoba moiazreboda rogorc erTmaneTisgan damoukidebeli pirovnebis ganzomilebebi. misi kiTxvaris mixedviT, qalebisa da kacebis gazomva SesaZlebelia dabali da maRali gamoxatulebis oTxi Semdegi parametris mixedviT: maskulinoba, feminuroba, androginia, aradiferencirebuloba. pirovneba fasdeba Zlier maskulinurad, Tu igi aRwers sakuTar Tavs,

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rogorc damoukidebels, agresiuls da uemocio adamians. pirovneba fasdeba Zlier feminurad, Tu igi aRwers Tavs, rogorc -- daucav da naz arsebad. mxolod adamianTa mcire jgufi Sefasebul iqna rogorc aradiferencirebuli, maT orive stereotipSi mcire qulebi daagroves. studentTa Soris Catarebuli farTemasStabiani gamokvlevis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom studentTa 1/3 androginulebi arian. androginis kvlevebma gviCvenes, rom genderul tipirebaSi arsebobs individualuri variabilurobis didi raodenoba. amdenad, gasarkvevia sakiTxi, arsebobs Tu ara androginiasa da adamianis (qalebisa da mamakacebis) qcevas, pirovnul niSnebs, Taviseburebebs, Sexedulebebsa Tu cxovrebis stils Soris kavSiri. miuxedavad mravalricxovani kvlevebisa, es sakiTxi dRemde erTmniSvnelovnad ar aris gadawyvetili. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom gederulad tipirebul da androginul adamianebs Soris gansxvaveba arsebobs fleqsibilobaSi. maskulinurad tipirebuli adamiani moxerxebulad grZnobs Tavs situaciaSi, sadac saWiroa aqtivoba, daJineba da damoukidebloba da ara sinaze, TanagrZnoba da emociuroba. meores mxriv, feminurad tipirebuli adamianebi komfortulad grZnoben Tavs situaciebSi, sadac saWiroa interpersonaluri urTierTobebis, sinazis, sikeTis gamovlena. sandra bemma ivarauda, rom androginuli pirovnebebi komfortulad igrZnoben Tavs orive situaciaSi. androginuli adamianebis Zlieri adaftaciis unari Semowmebuli iqna mravali kvlevis Sedegad. dadgenili iyo, agreTve, androginiis kavSiri maRal TviTpativiscemis da miRwevis motivis maRal xarisxTan. transcendentuli genderuli tipirebis Teoriebi: genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoria. genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoris (Rebecca, Hefner, Oleshancky, Forisha, Sedney) mixedviT, genderulad tipirebuli qceva da azrovneba ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT mxolod Sua stadiaa. igi Camoyalibebulia magram ar aris ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT saboloo wertili. am Sexedulebis mixedviT, genderuli ganviTarebis sawyisi etapebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia mowifulobasTan da logikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebasTan kolbergis kognituri ganviTarebis etapebis msgavsad mimdinareoben. bavSvebma Tavdapirvelad genderis arseboba ar ician (I etapi), Semdeg aqtiurad iTviseben Sesabamis stereotipul rols da ukuagdeben Seusabamos (II etapi). magram genderuli ganviTareba SeiZleba III etapamdec gagrZeldes, sadac II etapze miRebuli codnis reorganizacia xdeba unikaluri da individualuri gziT. individi aRar aris daRdasmuli maskulinobisa da feminurobis sazogadoebaSi miRebuli kanonebiT da mas SeuZlia gamoamJRavnos sakuTari unikaluri da gansxvavebuli maxasiaTeblebi. es Teoria androginias ganixilavs, ara rogorc individSi maskulinuri da feminuri niSnebis balanss, aramed rogorc pirovnebis gardaqmnisa da Camoyalibebis process, romelic orientirebulia TviTaqtualizaciaze. genderul-rolurad transcendentulma pirovnebam SeiZleba daagrovos maskulinuri, feminuri an androginuli qulebi, magram es ganzomilebebi irelevanturni iyvnen misi identurobis mimarT. transcedentuli adamiani arc feminuria da arc maskulinuri maskulinoba an feminuroba, erTad an cal-calke ar arian transcedentuli pirovnebis samyaros nawili. transcedencia miCneulia genderuli rolis swavlis (aTvisebis) umaRles etapad. igi gulisxmobs sazogadoebisa da me-s (selfis) resinTezirebas da reintegracias. amgvarad, kognitur da emociur mowifulobas adamiani, rogorc wesi, ver aRwevs zrdasrulobamde. iseTi bavSvebic ki, romelTa mSoblebi tradiciuli genderuli rolebis transcendencias axdenen, ar amJRavneben TavianT androginul zrdas, sanam ar

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gaivlian gederuli tipirebis 2 etaps. I- dan II-ze gadasvla dakavSirebulia socialur zewolasTan. II-dan III etapze gadasvlis dros ki socialuri mxardaWera Zalian sustia da swored amitomaa, rom arc ise bevri adamiani axerxebs genderiT gansazRvruli qcevisa da azrovnebis transcedencias. magram isini vinc amas axerxeben, srulfasovan pirovnebebad yalibdebian. am TeoriaSi nacadia genderuli tipirebis problemis ganxilva pirovnebis Teoriis WrilSi, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rogorc socialuri garemos zegavlenas, aseve -- adamianis kognituri ganviTarebis stadiebsac. mniSvnelovania, rom es Teoria moicavs, ara mxolod genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis zogad kanonzomierebebs (rogorc es aqamde ganxilul TeoriebSi iyo), aramed xazs usvams pirovnuli arCevanis da Tavisuflebis rols genderuli tipirebis procesSi. amdenad, TviTon tipirebasac igi rogorc e.w. yalibs ki ar ganixilavs, romelic uSvebs feminuri, maskulinuri an Tundac androginuli da aradiferencirebuli tipis arsebobas, aramed am socialuri yalibis modificirebas pirovnuli interesebis, motivebis da SesaZleblobebis WrilSi. sxvagavrad rom vTqvaT, es Teoria iTvaliswinebs pirovnebaTSoris individualur gansxvavebebs. swored amitom igi metad mniSvnelovania genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisaTvis. magram, gender-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis Teoria Zalian zogadia da adamianis ganviTarebis ufro fundamentur principebs gamoxatavs. misi naklia empiriuli masalaze dayrdnobiT gamovlenili ZiriTadi principebis damadasturebel konkretuli kanonzomierebebis ararseboba. am Teoriis farglebSi ar aris gadawyvetili, agreTve, genderuli cnobierebis (genderulad normatiulad tipirebulis Tu transcendentulis), rogorc konstruqtis raobisa da misi moqmedebis meqanizmebis problema. miuxedavad amisa, swored genderuli tipirebisa da genderuli rolis transcendenturma midgomam dasva mecnierTa winaSe genderTan dakavSirebuli informaciis gadamuSavebis da misi gamoyenebis sakiTxi. am sakiTxze pasuxis gacema nacadia genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi. genderuli sqemis Teoria. genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi genderi ganxiluli iqna rogorc kognituri kategoria. movlenebis ubralo gagebac damokidebulia mexsierebaSi codnis didi raodenobiT arsebobaze. sqemis kognituri Teoriis mixedviT, martivi winadadebis gasaazrebladac ki aucilebelia, rom am winadadebis Sinaarsi gavataroT sqemaSi. sqemebi SeiZleba iyos globaluri da ufro specifikuri. informaciis gageba xdeba Sinaarsis swor sqemasTan dakavSirebisa da Sedarebis gziT. sxva sqemebis msgavsad, genderis sqema aris zogadi codnis asociaciebis qseli, romelsac individi iyenebs gagebisa da azrovnebis procesSi. am Teoriis mixedviT, genderis sqemis Seswavla iwyeba adreul bavSvobaSi. sqema exmareba adamians gaxdes genderulad tipirebuli. genderuli tipireba Sedegia adamianis mzadyofnis gadaamuSaos informacia genderuli sqemis safuZvelze. me-koncefcia asimilirdeba genderul sqemasTan. genderuli sqemis Teoriis avtori s. bemi aRniSnavs, rom `rodesac bavSvebi swavloben sazogadoebis genderul sqemas, isini swavloben agreTve, Tu romeli atributi unda iyos dakavSirebuli maT sqesTan da masaSadame, maTTan~. genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, genderuli tipireba aris samyaros Sesaxeb informaciis genderuli terminebiT gadamuSavebis mzadyofna. ase, rom genderulad Zlierad da sustad tipirebul adamianebs Soris is gansxvavebaa, rom maT aqvT Sesabamisad metad an naklebad ganviTarebuli genderuli sqema. genderulad Zlierad tipirebul adamianebs aqvT mzadyofna samyaros Sesaxeb codna genderuli sqemis mixedviT gadaamuSaon. bemis sityvebiT, maT genderuli linzebi ukeTiaT. genderulad sustad tipirebuli adamianebi ki informaciis gadamuSavebisas ufro metad sxva

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sqemebs eyrdnobian. am Teoriis mixedviT, adamianebis umravlesobas aqvs mdidari da mravalferovani genderuli sqemebi. genderul sqemasTan dakavSirebulia iseTi koncefciebic, romlebic SeiZleba metaforulad ukavSirdebodes genders (iseTebi, rogoricaa, ferebis genderuli aRqma, mTvaris am mzis genderuli gaazreba da sxv.). genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, arsebuli sxvaobebi informaciis gadamuSavebaSi dakavSirebulia adamianTa genderulad tipirebis xarisxTan. genderuli rolis transcendenciis stadiebis Teoriisgan gansxvavebiT genderuli sqemis Teoria ar aRiarebs genderuli tipirebis maRal xarisxs momwifebis ganuyofel nawilad. am Teoriis mixedviT, bavSvebi ufro genderulad tipirebulni xdebian, radgan ufrosebi aswavlian maT samyaros sqesis mixedviT dayofas. saxlSi, gogonebs eZaxian `lamazs~ da aqedan gamomdinare, bavSvebSi silamazis cneba qalebTanaa dakavSirebuli. skolaSi, xSirad biWebi erT rigSi arian gamwkrivebulni, gogonebi ki -- meoreSi. am Teoriis mixedviT, ufrosebis mxridan aseTi qceva iwvevs genderuli sqemis ganviTarebas bavSvebSi. socializaciis mniSvneloba xazgasmulia genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi im debulebiTac, romlis mixedviTac, bavSvebis aRzrda SesaZlebelia ise, rom minimumamde daviyvanoT genderuli sqema da Tavidan aviciloT genderuli stereotipuli azrovneba. amgvarad, sqema Sexedulebebis kompleqsia, romelic gamoiyeneba informaciis organizebisTvis, axali informaciis filtraciisTvis da kognituri moRvaweobis mimarTulebis micemisTvis. genderuli sqemis Teoria varaudobs, rom genderuli prioriteti konkretuli kulturis sazRvrebSi informaciis organizaciis safuZvelia. rogorc vxedavT, genderuli sqemis Teoria kognituri ganviTarebisa da socialurkognituri Teoriis modifikaciaa. amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom genderuli sqemis Teoria erTaderTi fsiqologiuri Teoriaa, romlic ara mxolod bavSvebis mier genderuli identifikaciisa da genderuli tipirebis procesis meqanizmebs swavlobs, aramed im kognituri struqturebis Camoyalibebisa da moqmedebis meqanizmebsac, romlebic genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis Sedegad yalibdeba cnobierebaSi. sxvagavarad rom vTqvaT, genderuli sqemis Teoria mimarTulia axsnas genderuli cnobierebis meqanizmebic. genderuli sqemis Teoria gamoyofs genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis or ZiriTad socialur-fsiqologiur meqanizms. es aris normatiuli da informaciuli zewola. termini `normatiuli~ zewola aRwers meqanizms, Tu rogor xdeba adamianis `iZuleba~ Seewyos sazogadoebriv an jgufur molodinebs, raTa sazogadoebam ar uaryos igi. `normatiuli~ zewolis meqanizmi am sazogadoebaSi miRebuli qcevis normebis waxalisebaSi da am sazogadoebaSi miuRebeli qcevis normebis e.w. `dasjaSi~ gamoixateba. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom genderuli rolis Seusabamo qceva gansakuTrebul zians ayenebs popularobas biWebs Soris da rom mSoblebi uaryofiTad reagireben TavianTi bavSvebis im TamaSebze, romlebic damaxasiTebelia sawinaaRmdego sqesisaTvis. ase magaliTad, Tu biWi TojinebiT TamaSobs, mas deda eubneba - `ara grcxvenia, gogo xom ara xar?!~, xolo danarCeni bavSvebi dascinian da qalaCunas eZaxian. Tu gogona saxls ar alagebs an Tavis nivTebs yris, mSoblebi mas xSirad ase mimarTaven - `sircxvilia, Sen xom gogo xar da mowesrigrbuli unda iyo~ da a.S. informaciul zewolaSi moiazreba is, rom adamiani afarToebs ra Tavis codnas sakuTari Tavis da samyaros Sesaxeb, amave dros, igebs imasac, Tu ra pozicia unda daiWiros ama Tu im socialur sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi, Tu ra poziciaa miRebuli da mowonebuli mis sazogadoebaSi. am SemTxvevaSi adamianebi ZiriTadad eyrdnobian ara

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sakuTar gamocdilebas, Sexedulebas, pirad azrs an intesess, aramed informacias, romelsac iReben sxvebisgan. ase magaliTad, bavSvebi da mozardebi mSoblebisgan, naTesavebisgan an sxva avtoritetuli pirovnebebisgan (an jgufebisagan) arkveven, Tu rogor unda moiqcnen ama Tu im cxovrebiseul situaciaSi, magaliTad, qorwilSi, panaSvidze da sxva mraval yofiT situaciaSi, romelic adamianTa urTierTobebs moicavs. marTalia, adamianebi TviTon qmnian socialur normebs, Rirebulebebs, wes-Cveulebebs da a.S., magram, amave dros, TiToeuli adamiani akvirdeba sxvas da Tavis qcevas afasebs marTebulad manam, sanam igi Tavisi relevanturi jgufis msgavsad iqceva. amas socialuri Semowmeba hqvia. amgvarad, genderi Zlieri zegavlenis qveS imyofeba rogorc kulturuli normebis mxridan, romelic adgens, Tu ra unda gaakeTon mamakacebma da qalebma, aseve socialuri informaciis mxridanac, romelic STaagonebs adamianebs, Tu raoden didi gansxvavebaa qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris. genderul-roluri socializacia procesia, romlis drosac adamianebi swavloben, Tu ra aris socialurad miRebuli qalebisTvis da ra -- mamakacebisTvis. S. berns genderis, rogorc kognituri kategoriis sailustraciod moyavs Semdegi magaliTi: erTxel mxatvarma daxata patara komiqsi: ori personaJi sicivisgan gawiTlebuli yurebiT dgas quCaSi zamTris civ amindSi. erTi ambobs: `raSi mWirdeba qudi, me sicivis ar meSinia~. meore ki pasuxobs: `me quds ar vatareb, radgan varcxnilobas mifuWebs~. dasmul kiTxvaze, Tu romeli maTgania gogo da romeli -- biWi, bernis azriT, pasuxis gacema aravis ar gauWirdeba, radgan orive fraza asaxavs saerTod miRebul stereotips. SigadaSig Cven vxvdebiT adamianebs, romelTa sqesis gansazRvrac gviWirs. Cveulebriv aseTi situaciebi garkveuli dafiqrebisa da msjelobis sagani xdeba xolme. berns moyavs Tavisi TanamSromlis klifis magaliTi, romelic studentobis dros restoranSi muSaobda oficiantad. igi specialurad icvamda iubkas, frCxilebze isvamda laqs da ikeTebda makiaJs. garSemomyofi adamianebis umravlesobas ar SeeZlo am ambis mSvidad yureba. bernis azriT, amis mizezi klifis mier sazogadoebaSi miRebuli normebis darRveva ki ar iyo, aramed is, rom maT ar icodnen, rogor moqceuliyvnen adamianTan, romlis sqesic gaurkvevelia. fsiqologebis krosis da markusis (Cross, Markus) azriT, aseTi SemTxvevebi gansakuTrebuli interesis Rirsia, radgan isini xazs usvamen genderis, rogorc socialuri kategoriis mniSvnelobas. maT magaliTad moyavT gaurkveveli sqesis mqone petis istoria satelevizio Soudan. isini aRniSnaven, rom adamianebi, romlebic naxulobdnen scenebs am personaJis monawileobiT, ganicdidnen Sinagan diskomforts, radgan ar icodnen, Tu rogor unda aReqvaT am adamianis qceva misi genderuli mikuTvnobulobis Sesaxeb informaciis ararsebobis gamo. imisaTvis, rom gasagebi gaxdes, Tu ra didi miSvneloba aqvs genders adamianis Sesaxeb informaciis gadamuSavebisas, genderuli sqemis Teoriis warmomadgenlebi aRniSnaven, rom adamianebi ar aqceven yuradRebas adamianis Tvalebis an Tmis fers, aviwydebaT Tu rogor iyo igi Cacmuli, an ra erqva mas, magram praqtikulad yovelTvis axsovT qali iyo es adamiani Tu kaci. magaliTad, greidim (Grady) daadgina, rom metros mgzavrebi, romlebsac sTxovdnen aReweraT molare, romelmac maT bileTi miyida, pirvel rigSi an meoreSi mainc, asaxelebdnen mis sqess. amgvarad, am tipis dakvirvebebze da eqsperimentebze dayrdnobiT, genderuli sqemis Teoris warmomadgenlebi asabuTeben, rom sqesi warmoadgens umniSvnelovanes socialur kategorias, romlis saSualebiTac Cven vaxdenT garSemomyofi adamianebis Sesaxeb informaciis gadamuSavebas.

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am TeoriaSi, iseve, rogorc zogadad kognitur fsiqologiaSi, ismeba sakiTxi informaciis gadamuSavebis sistemebis gamtarunarianobisa da informaciis kodirebis Sesaxeb. sqemis Teoriis warmomadgenlebi aRiareben fsiqikuri energiis ekonomizmis princips da aRniSnaven, rom Cven ar vaxdenT mTeli Semosuli informaciis gadamuSavebas. Cveni samyaro savsea adamianTa, saganTa da sxvadasxvagvar situaciaTa uTvalavi raodenobiT. Cven SeiZleba gavgiJebuliyaviT, rom SegvemCnia da gadagvemuSavebina Semosuli sruli informacia gamonaklisis gareSe. sinamdvileSi Cven gadavamuSavebT mxolod imas, rasac vamCnevT. magram ra gvaiZulebs yuradReba mivaqcioT swored am movlenebs? kognituri sqemis Teoria am sakiTxze pasuxis gasacemad gamoyofs iseT parametrebs, rogoricaa zoma, feri, intensivoba da siaxle (uCveuloba). amave dros, aranakleb rols TamaSobs adamianis wina gamocdilebac da agreTve, adamianis gaTviTcnobierebuloba imaSi, Tu ra aris mniSvnelovani mocemul situaciaSi da ra -- ara (sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, codna imisa, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania, ramdenad Rirebulia ama Tu im informaciis (an parametris) SemCneva da am situaciis gadamuSavebis saerTo kognitur procesSi CarTva). imisaTvis, rom Cveni mravalsaxovani gare samyaro daviyvanoT kogniturad aRqmad formamde, Cven vanawilebT Semosul informacias calkeul kategoriebad. amgvarad formirdeba gansakuTrebuli kognituri kategoriebi, romlebsac sqemebs uwodeben. sqemebi gavlenas axdenen imaze, Tu rogor xdeba Semosuli informaciis aRqma, Senaxva da aRdgena. mokled, sqemebi warmarTaven informaciis gadamuSavebis process. fiskesa da teiloris (Fiske & Taylor) mixedviT, Cveulebriv, Cven gvaqvs winaswar momzadebuli kognituri kategoriebi socialuri situaciebis (movlenebis sqemebi) umravlesobisTvis, adamianebisaTvis, romlebsac vicnobT (pirovnuli sqemebi) da socialuri jgufebisaTvis, romelTa identifikaciac genderis, eTnikuri mikuTvnebulobis da moRvaweobis saxeebis (roluri sqemebi) safuZvelze xdeba. msgavsi kategoriebi marTaven adamianebisa da situaciebis Sesaxeb Semomavali informaciis gadamuSavebas. amgvarad, genderuli sqemis Teoria genderis struqturirebaSi iTvaliswinebs rogorc socialuri da kulturul faqtorebs, aseve kognituri ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebsa da kognituri funqciebis Taviseburebebs. amitom, erTi SexedviT, es Teoria universaluradac SeiZleba mogveCvenos. magram Tu yuradRebiT gavaanalizebT mas, aRmovaCenT, rom igi adekvaturad ver asaxavs genderis, rogorc socialurkulturuli konstruqtis raobas. saqme isaa, rom sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, genderi kognituri kategoriaa da amdenad, igi mxolod codnis matarebeli konstruqtia. sinamdvileSi ki genderi moicavs emociur, SefasebiT damokidebulebasac, romelic mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli Sinaarsobriv mxaresTan da Rrma mTlian pirovnebiseul xasiaTs atarebs. es Teoria ver iTvaliswinebs, agreTve, genderuli cnobierebis Camoyalibebis aracnobier meqanizmebsac. saqme isaa, genderis konstruqti (iqneba es genderuli Rirebulebebi, stereotipebi Tu sxv. ) umeteswilad adamianebis mier cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis SeZenis procesSi yalibdeba da igi xSirad aracnobieri swavlis Sedegia.

saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

genderuli identifikacia -- sakuTari Tavis ama Tu im sqesisadmi mikuTvnebuloba. genderuli tipireba - procesi, romelic mdedrsa da mamrs gardaqmnis feminur an maskulinur arsebad (e.i. qalad da mamakacad) cnobilia, rogorc sqesad tipirebis (an genderuli tipirebis) procesi.

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modelireba -- swavlis forma sxvis swor qcevaze dakvirvebis saSualebiT. prototipi - prototipis cneba farTed gamoiyeneba kognitur fsiqologiaSi, kerZod, ki informaciis amocnobis, gadamuSavebisa da Senaxvis modelebSi. prototipi warmoadgens ama Tu im obieqtis (an movlenis) arsebiTi niSnebis krebuls, romelic saukeTesod da srulad asaxavs am obieqtebs (an movlenebs) an maT klasebs. informaciis identifikacia anu `kognituri Zieba~ Semosuli informaciis prototipTan Sedarebis gziT mimdinareobs. androginia - androginiis cnebis mixedviT, yovel adamians, damoukideblad biologiuri sqesisa, SeiZleba hqondes rogorc maskulinobis, aseve feminurobis Tvisebebi da aerTianebdes sakuTar TavSi rogorc tradiciul mamakacur Tvisebebs, aseve -- tradiciul qalur niSnebs. kognituri modeli -- metafora, romelic dfuZnebulia dakvirvebebze da daskvnebze da aRwers informaciis Semosvlis, Senaxvis da gamoyenebis procesebs. kognituri Teoria -- Teoria, romelic gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs adamianis informaciis gadamamuSavebel sistemebs. igi adamians ganixilavs rogorc informaciis gadamamuSavebel sistemas. verbaluri da kognituri reprezentaciebi -- informaciis Senaxvis forma, romelic miiReba obieqturi informaciis pirovnuli gamocdilebisa da interesebis WrilSi gadamuSavebis Sedegad. genderuli sqema - hipoTeturi kognituri struqtura, romlis saSualebiTac xdeba genderTan dakavSirebuli informaciis aRqma, gadamuSaveba da gamoyeneba.

leqciis Semdeg studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi.

seminari #2 (Tema # 2 ) -- 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba jgufuri diskusia seminaris Temaze. kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi: 1. rogoria froidis mixedviT, genderuli identifikaciis meqanizmi? 2. ra mniSvneloba hqonda froidis Teorias genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisTvis? 3. ratom akritikebdnen feministebi froids? rogoria maTi argumentebi? 4. rogoria socialur-kognituri Teoriis mixedviT, genderuli identifikaciisa da tipirebis meqanizmi? 5. rogoria socialur-kognituri Teoriis roli genderis, rogorc socialurkognituri konstruqtis Tanamedrove gagebaSi? 6. ratom aris mniSvnelovani kroskulturuli kvlevebisTvis kognituri ganviTarebis Teoria? 7. rogoria androginiis koncefciis mecnieruli da praqtikuli mniSvneloba? 8. rogor aris gagebuli genderul-roluri transcendenciis stadiebis TeoriaSi androginia? 9. ratom aris es Teoria mniSvnelovani genderuli kvlevebis ganviTarebisTvis? 10. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs genderul identifikaciisa da tipirebis meqanizms

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genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT? 11. rogor aris gagebuli am TeoriebSi genderuli cnobiereba? 12. seminaris bolos studentebi gaecnobian maskulinoba-feminuribs s. bemis kiTxvaris principiT i. gendevaniSvilis mier qarTvel studentebze Catarebul gamokvlevis monacemebs. studentebs saSualeba eqnebaT agreTve, gamoikvlion sakuTari Tavi am mimarTulebiT.

ZiriTadi literatura: 1. Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, gv.: 28-96; 2. genderuli Teoriebis anTologia, Semdgeneli n. berekaSvili, bakur sulakauris gamomc., 2003, gv: 15-38, 49-60, 63-79; 3. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, gv.: 27-60. damatebiTi literatura: 1. Judith Batler, Gender Trouble, Feminism and the subversion of identity, Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc., 1990, gv.: 35-78; 2. Jacklin, C.N. (1989). Female and male: Issues of Gender. American Psychologist, 44, gv. :127-133; 3. Bussey K. & Bandura, A. (1984). Influence of Gender Constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 47, gv.:1292-1302; 4. Bern, S. L. (1981). Gender Schema theory: A cognitive account of sex-typing. Psychological Review, 88, gv.:354-364; 5. Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. ­ in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 337­339; 6. Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, T. I, V; 7. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, gv.: 199-204, 218-131; 8. Liben, L.S. & Signorella, M. L. (1980). Gender Related Schemata and constructive memory in Children, Child Development, 51, gv.:11-17.

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kvira #3

leqcia--2 sT

Tema #3 - sqesis socializacia da misi institutebi. kulturis roli genderul socializaciaSi.

leqciaze ganxiluli iqneba socializaciis cneba, diferencialuri socializacia da misi meqanizmebi. ganxiluli iqneba, agreTve, socializaciis ZiriTadi institutebi -- ojaxi, mSoblebis qceva, gansxvavebuli samuSaos davaleba, bavSvebis movla da maTze zrunva, Tanatolebi, ganaTlebis sistema (saxelmZRvaneloebi, seqsizmi, feisizmi) masmedia, saTamaSoebi da sxv. kroskulturuli kvlevebis monacemebi am TvalsazrisiT.

genderuli stereotipebis aTviseba xdeba bavSvobis asakidan socializaciis procesSi. socializacia gulisxmobs yvela im procesebis erTianobas, romelTa meSveobiTac adamiani iTvisebs cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas, swavlobs yoveldRiuri cxovrebis normebs, stils, wesebs da Rirebulebebs, romlebic mocemul sazogadoebaSia miRebuli. socializaciis meqanizmis Sesaswavlad sociologma e. gidensma Caatara Semdegi saxis eqsperimenti: qalebis jgufs aCvenes vardisfer mosaxvevSi gaxveuli patara bavSvi vardisferi qudiT. am bavSvze qalebi yvelaze xSirad ase reagirebdnen: `rogori pataraa~, `namdvili mzeTunaxavia~, `ra nazi xma aqvs~ da a.S. Semdeg qalebis amave jgufs aCvenes igive bavSvi, oRond amjerad bavSvi cisferebSi iyo gamowyobili. qalebma ar icodnen, rom pirveli da meore bavSvi erTi da igive iyo. e.w. meore bavSvze Semdegi reaqciebi dafiqsirda: `Tavidanve etyoba, rom Zlieri mamakaci iqneba~ an `xedav, rogori boxi xmiT tiris, etyoba, rom Tavisas yovelTvis gaitans~. qalebs Zalian gaukvirdaT, roca gaiges, rom maT orive SemTxvevaSi erTi da igive bavSvi warudgines. genderze zegavlenas axdens rogorc kulturuli normebi, romlebic adgens, Tu ra unda gaakeTon qalebma da ra mamakacebma, aseve socialuri informaciac, romelic STaagonebs adamianebs, Tu ramdenad didia qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris sxvaobebi. genderul-roluri socializacia procesia, romlis drosac adamianebi swavloben, Tu ra aris socialurad miRebuli qalebisTvis da ra -- mamakacebisTvis. gogonebsa da biWebs Soris bevri gansxvaveba aixsneba socializaciaSi gansxvavebiT. bari, bekoni da Caildi (Barry, Bacon & Child, 1957) ikvlevdnen 100-ze meti qveynis socializaciis praqtikebs. maT aRmoaCines, rom biWebs Cveulebriv aswavlian miaRwios mizans, hqondes sakuTari Zalebis imedi, iyos damoukidebeli, maSin roca gogonebs Cveulebriv aswavlian izrunon sustebze, hqondeT pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba da iyvnen damjerebi. litonma da romnim (Lytton & Romney, !991) ikvlies Crdilo amerikaSi Catarebuli 158 socializaciis kvleva metaanalizis saSualebiT. maT aRmoaCines, rom xelSesaxebi rezultatebi miRweuli iyo mxolod sqesiT gasazRvruli qcevis waxalisebis dros. dasavleTis qveynebSi Catarebuli 17 gamokvlevis Sedegebi ki gviCveneben, rom arsebobs gamoxatuli sxvaobebi bavSvis sqessa da mSoblebis mier maT aRzrdaSi fizikuri dasjis gamoyenebis sixSires Soris. amasTan, biWebTan fizikuri dasja ufro mkacri iyo, vidre - gogonebTan. gansxvavebebi biWebsa da gogonebTan moqcevaSi mcirdeboda asakis matebasTan erTad. diferencialuri socializacia - es aris procesi, romlis drosac adamiani iTvisebs Tavisi sqesis Seabamis qcevis modelebs, Rirebulebebs da a.S. diferencialuri socializaciis Canasaxebi vlindeba jer kidev bavSvis dabadebamde. mSoblebs undaT

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winaswar icodnen gogo eyolebaT maT Tu biWi, radgan amazea damokidebuli Tu ras daarqmeven mas, rogor saTamaSoebs da tansacmels uyidian da rogor gazrdian mas. magaliTad, meqsikaSi gogonebs dabadebisTanave uxvritaven yurebs da ukeTeben sayureebs, rom garSemomyofebs ar SeeSaloT maTi sqesi. amerikaSi axalSobil gogonebs ukeTeben lentebs da babTebs. saqarTveloSi miRebulia gogosaTvis vardsferi da biWisaTvis cisferi tansacmlisa da atributebis SeZena. am monacemebidan Cans, rom genderi Zalian mniSvnelovani socialuri kategoriaa da mSoblebi cdiloben Tavdapirveladve moaxdinion, bavSvTa sqesis mixedviT, diferenciacia. diferencialuri socializaciis ori ZiriTadi meqanizmia cnobili: diferencialuri gaZliereba da diferencialuri mibaZva (modelireba). diferencialuri gaZliereba muSaobs maSin, roca misaRebi genderuli qcevis waxaliseba xdeba, xolo miuReblis -- dasja (im pirobiT, rom garkveuli qcevis modelis dasja-waxaliseba Seesabameba mis biologiur sqess). ase magaliTad, peris (Perry) da misi kolegebis kvlevam aCvena, rom aSS-Si me-4-dan me-7 klasis biWebi gogonebTan SedarebiT naklebad elodebian mSoblebisgan gakicxvas agresiuli qcevisaTvis. empiriuli kvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom 7 wlis asakisTvis, zogjer ki 4-5 wlis asakisTvis bavSvebi aRweven genderul konstantobas. amasTanave, dawyebiT skolaSi wasvlamde bavSvebs ukve aqvT myari Sexedulebebi saTamaSoebSi, tansacmelSi, moqmedebebSi da saqmianobis sferoebSi genderuli sxvaobebis Sesaxeb. rogorc ki sruldeba genderuli identifikacia, bavSvi avlens gansakuTrebul interess im roluri modelebisadmi, romlebic Seesabameba maT sqess. es interesi ganpirobebulia surviliT iyos saukeTeso gogo an biWi. am movlenas diferencialuri mibaZva an diferencialuri modelireba ewodeba. banduras mixedviT, biWebis umravlesoba (iseve, rogorc gogonebi) 2 wlis asakSi akvirdeba dedis qcevas da cdilobs gaimeoros igi: icvams quslian fexsacmelebs, isvams frCxilebze laqs da a.S. magram, rodesac genderuli identifikaciis procesi sruldeba, muSaobas iwyebs diferencialuri modelirebis meqanizmi da biWi ukve cdilobs mibaZos mamas. diferencialuri mibaZvis safuZvelze SeiZleba aixsnas is, Tu ratom xdeba, rom qalebs Cveulebriv moswonT maRaziebSi siaruli, dResaswaulebisTvis mzadeba, xolo mamakacebi cdiloben am saqmianobisTvis Tavis aridebas. igive SeiZleba iTqvas Sina meurneobazec anu diasaxlisobaze. diferencialuri socializaciiT SeiZleba aixsnas, agreTve, mamakacebis da Sesabamisad biWebis midrekileba uyuron sportul telegedacemebs. socializaciis umTavres wyaroebad miCneulia ojaxi (mSoblebi), Tanatolebi, masmedia (gansakuTrebiT televizia), ganaTlebis sistema. Cven ganvixilavT socializaciis institutebis kvlevebs sxvadasxva kulturebis magaliTze. es kvlevebi naTlad gviCvenebs socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis rols genderuli tipirebis procesSi. gansxvavebuli samuSaos davaleba. im pirobaTa Seswavla, romelSic xdeba bavSvebis swavleba da aRzrda, saSualebas iZleva ukeT gavigoT Tu rogor axdenen zegavlenas kulturuli gansxvavebebi socializaciis procesSi bavSvebis ganviTarebaze. mecnierebi (Edvards & Whiting, 1974; Minturn &Lambert, 1964; E. Whitting & Edvards, 1973) akvirdebodnen bavSvTa aRzrdis pirobebs 6 kulturis kvlevis procesSi. kvleva exeboda bavSvebis qcevas, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo agresiasTan, umcrosebze zrunvasTan, pasuxismgeblobasTan, daxmarebis Ziebasa da yuradRebasTan. gamokvlevaSi monawileobdnen 3-11 wlis bavSvebi kunZul okinavadan, meqsikidan, filipinebidan, indoeTidan, keniidan da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebidan. umniSvnelo genderuli sxvaobebi aRmoCenili iyo sam SerCevaSi (amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, filipinebi,

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kenia), romlebSic rogorc gogonebs, aseve biWebs daaxloebiT erTnairi samuSao evalebodaT. danarCen sam SerCevaSi (indoeTi, meqsika da okinava) gogonebs da biWebs eqceodnen gansxvavebulad da gogonebs gacilebiT ufro xSirad sTxovdnen moearaT umcrosi da-ZmisTvis da gaekeTebinaT saxlis samuSao. rac Seexeba ojaxuri davalebebis Sesrulebebis sixSires, es maCvenebeli yvelaze mcire iyo amerikul SerCevaSi, sadac arc gogonebi da arc biWebi ar iRebdnen gansakuTrebul monawileobas ojaxur saqmianobebSi da umcrosebis movlaSi. bredlim (Bredley, 1993) gamoikvlia bavSvTa Sroma 91 kulturaSi standartuli kroskulturuli SerCevis magaliTze. man miiRo Semdegi rezultatebi: 6 wlamde bavSvebi asruleben mcire samuSaos yvela kulturaSi. 6 welze ufrosi asakis bavSvebi asruleben iseT samuSaos, romelic faqtiurad Seesabameba (uaxlovdeba) misi Sesatyvisi sqesis ufrosis samuSaos. Tumca rogorc gogonebi, aseve biWebi, ufro xSirad asruleben qalur samuSaos (mag. wylis motana), vidre mamakacurs (mag. nadiroba). amasTan, bavSvebi xSirad asruleben iseT samuSaos, romelsac ufrosebi damamcireblad an arakvalificiurad miiCneven. bavSvTa Sromas Tvals adevneben qalebi, rac xels uwyobs bavSvebis mier kulturuli normebis aTvisebas da amsubuqebs dedis Sromas. amgvarad, bredli Tvlis, rom is vinc zrdis bavSvs, ara mxolod zrdis Tavis momaval dasayrdens sibereSi, aramed, amave dros, aqvs saSualeba isargeblos bavSvTa Sromis nayofiTac. bavSvebis movla da maTze zrunva. vaisnernma da galimorma (Weisner & Gallimore, 1977) gaaanalizes 186 sazogadoebis monacemebi da mividnen im daskvnamde, rom Cvili bavSvebis movliT pirvel rigSi dakavebulni arian dedebi, ufrosi naTesavi qalebi da gogonebi. Tumca ki, rogorc ki patarebi izrdebian, maTi aRzrdis pasuxismgeblobas iReben ara mxolod maTi debi, aramed -- Zmebic. 2-4 wlis bavSvebi aseT `ZiZebTan~ yoveldRiurad drois 70% atareben im sazogadoebebSi, sadac dedebi Tavis drois umetesi nawili sxvadasxva tipis warmoebiTi saqmianobiT arian dakavebulni da mTel dros dedobrivi movaleobis Sesrulebas ar axmaren. Tumca ki yvela kulturaSi bavSvebi xedaven dedaSi imas, vinc maTze pasuxs agebs. 80 gamokvleuli kulturidan (Katz & Konner, 1981; West & Konner, 1976) faqtiurad 20%Si mamebi iSviaTad, an arasodes ar arian dakavebulni Cvil bavSvebze zrunviT. mamis axlo urTierToba CvilebTan gamovlenili iyo mxolod kulturaTa 4 %- Si, magram aseTi siaxlovis drosac ki mamebi CvilebTan Tavisi drois mxolod 14 %-s xarjavdnen da uzrunvelyofdnen maTi moTxovnilebebis mxolod 6%-s. monros (R.L. Munroe & Monroe, 1994) gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom umetes sazogadoebebSi mamis bavSvTan urTierToba -- es aris mxolod TamaSi. rig gamokvlevebSi dadasturda (Katz & Konner, 1981; Segall, 1988, B.B. Whiting, 1965), rom mamis aryofna (ararseboba) ukavSirdeba zedmet agresias an hipermaskulinur qcevas. xolo sxva gamokvlevebSi (Gronseth, 1957; Lynn & Sawrey, 1959) dadginda, rom mamis xangrZlivi aryofnis dros, magaliTad, omis gamo an zRvaS gasvlis gamo hipermaskulinur qcevasTan erTad vaJiSvilebi iqcevian aSkarad aravaJkacurad da avlenen daqvemdebarebis maRal dones, zedmetad giJur fantazias. dadgenilia, rom TiTqmis yvela kulturaSi mamebi nakleb dros uTmoben qaliSvilebs, vidre - vaJiSvilebs. amasTanave, isini, ufro metad, vidre -- dedebi, axaliseben gogonebis iseT qcevas, romelic sqesobriv-roluri orientaciiT aris gansazRvruli (Lytton & Romney, 1991). dedis aRmzrdelobiTi roli erTnairad mniSvnelovania rogorc gogonebisTvis, aseve -- biWebisTvis. magram mama Cveulebriv

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ufro mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs vaJisSvilis aRzrdaSi (Rohner & Rohner, 1982). maki da dei (Mackey, 1985; Mackey & Day, 1997) akvirdebodnen bavSvTa da mSobelTa qcevas sazogadoebriv adgilebSi 10 sxvadasxva kulturaSi da aRmoaCines, rom gogonebi ufro xSirad iyvnen iseT jgufebSi (sazogadoebaSi), sadac ar arian zrdasruli mamakacebi, maSin roca biWebi ufri xSirad arian iseT jgufebSi, romlebic mTlianad mamakacebisgan Sedgebian. aRsaniSnavia, rom es gansxvavebebi asakTan erTad matulobs. Tanatolebi. bavSvobaSi da ymawvilobisas socializaciaSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben Tanatolebi. Tanatolebis zegavlena izrdeba bavSvTa zrdasTan erTad, axdens ra bavSvobidan zrdasrulobisken gadasvlis struqturirebas. 2-10 wlis bavSvTa TanatolebTan urTierTobis analizma, romelic xorcieldeboda 6 kulturis da 6 damatebiTi SerCevis farglebSi mkvlevarTa jgufis mier (Edwards, 1992; Edwards &Whting, 1993), aCvena sakuTari sqesis warmomadgenlebisadmi upiratesobis miniWebis kros-kulturuli TvalsazrisiT universalurad mdgradi tendencia, romelic vlindeba dawyebuli 2 wlis asakidan. ufro ufros bavSvebSi sqesis mixedviT segregacia gxvdeba Zalian xSirad. edvardsi gamoTqvams varauds, rom Tavis msgavsisken swrafva SeiZleba sakuTari Tavis SecnobiT iyos ganpirobebuli, Tanatolebi ki -- yvelaze kargi sarkea. bavSvisTvis Tanatolebi -- es arian isini, visac aqvT misi msgavsi Sexedulebebi da gansazRvruli moRvaweobis da qcevis upiratesobis miniWebis msgavseba. magram Tanatolebi, aseve, uzrunvelyofen SesaZleblobebs Sejibrisa (konkurenciisa) da konfliqtebisaTvis, rac normalur farglebSi ganviTarebis safuZvelia. mozardTa iniciaciis ritualebi vlindeba bevr kulturaSi da miznad isaxavs CamoaSoron inicirebuli axloblebs (mSoblebs); moamzados igi seqsualobisTvis, domonirebisa da agresiisaTvis (im doziT, rogorc is micemul kulturaSia misaRebi); ganamtkicos politiluri kavSirebi. edvardsis gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom koleqtiuri ritualebi ufro gavrcelebulia biWebTan mimarTebaSi, vidre -- gogonebTan da xSired gvxvdeba meomarTa sazogadoebebSi, romlebic aqcents akeTeben qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel saqmianobebze. gansakuTrebiT xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebas, rom dasavluri ganaTlebis miRebas da gavrcelebas sazogadoebaSi iniciaciis ritualebis cvlileba mohyveba, magram isini ukvalod ar qrebian da mainc axdenen gavlenas gogonebisa da biWebis socializaciaze. ganaTleba. bavSvTa mier genderuli rolebis aTvisebaze aseve did zegavlenas axdens ganaTlebis sistemac. miuxedavad imisa, rom ganaTlebis sistema erTiania gogonebisa da biWebisaTvis, iseve, rogorc am sistemaSi codnasTan da qcevasTan dakavSirebuli oficialuri moTxovnebi, gamokvlevebi adasturebs, rom arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba skolis literaturaSi warmodgenil qceviT nimuSebSi biWebisTvis da gogonebisTvis da pedagogebis urTierTobaSi orive sqesis warmomadgenlebTan. ganaTlebis pirobebi mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens bavSvebis socializaciaze. iaponiisa da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis me-5 klaselebze Catarebuli dakvirebebi (Hamilton, Blumenfeld, Akhon & Miura, 1991) aCvenebs, rom maswavleblebi orive qveyanaSi met yuradRebas aqceven biWebs, amasTan afaseben maT uaryofiTad. amave dros, meti yuradReba veranairad ver aixsneba cudi moqceviT an davalebis SeusruleblobiT. genderuli rolebis aTvisebaSi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs, agreTve, skolis saxelmZRvaneloebi da maTSi moTavsebuli ilustraciebi. aq warmodgenili qalis da gogonas personaJebi tradiciuli stereotipuli Tvisebebis matarebelia: maT mamakacebi da biWebi icaven, Sevlian, aswavlian an mfarveloben. aqedan gamomdinare,

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skolis saxelmZRvaneloebi, rogorc socializaciis modelebi xels uwyobs tradiciuli genderul-roluri ideologiis ganmtkicebas da Sesabamisi stereotipuli Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebas. sabavSvo literaturaSi seqsizmis gamosavlenad genderuli mkvlevrebi akeTebdnen teqstebis Sinaarsis analizss. kroskulturuli kvlevebis umravlesobaSi dadginda, rom im wignebis kiTxva, romlebSic SeimCneva sqesobriv-roluri stereotipizacia, xels uwyoben bavSvebis TamaSebis sqesobriv-rolur tipizacias. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi bolo dros Catarebuli wignebis analizi uCvenebs, rom 1980 wlis Semdeg gamocemuli sabavSvo literatura sagrZnoblad Seicvala, magram biblioTekebSi jer kidev arsebobs seqsizmiT gaJRenTili wignebi. am literaturaSi qalebi warmodgenilni arian rogorc ojaxuri keris mfarvelebi, maSin roca mamakacebs aqvT sruli SesaZlebloba sakuTari Tavis realizacia saxls gareT moaxdinon. es istoriebi (moTxrobebi) gogonebs aswavlian, rom maTi funqciaa bavSvebis movla da ojaxuri meurneobis gaZRola, sxva rolebi ki mamakacTa privilegiaa. sabavSvo literaturis umetesobaSi gogonebisa da qalebis ilustraciebi saojaxo nivTebTan aris dakavSirebuli. magaliTad, gogonas uWiravs cocxi, dedas exmareba WurWlis recxvaSi da sxv. biWebisa da mamakacebis ilustraciebi ki amave literaturaSi iseT Sromis iaraRebTan (instrumentebTan da atributebTan) aris dakavSirebuli, romlebic saWiroa saxls gareT samuSaod. mSobelTa ganwyobebs moswrebis mimarT aseve SeuZliaT mniSvnelovani gavlenis moxdena bavSvTa miRwevebze. serpelma (Serpell, 1993) aRmoaCina, rom zambiaSi iTvleba, rom ganaTleba ufro mniSvnelovania biWebisTvis, vidre -- gogonebisaTvis. amitom skolaSi swavlebaze pasuxismgeblobas ZiriTadad iRebs mama, deda ki bavSvebis movliT aris dakavebuli. CineTSi, iaponiaSi da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi dedebi Tvlian, rom biWebi ufro kargad unda iTvisebdnen maTematikas, gogonebi ki -- kiTxvas (Lummis & Stevenson, 1990), Tumca ki, realobaSi gogonebic da biWebic erTnairi warmatebiT iTviseben orive sagans. masmedia. gavrcelebuli azris mixedviT, bolo dros televizia konkurencias uwevs mSoblebisa da maswavleblebis mier warmodgenil qceviT modelebs. televizia myari sqesobriv-roluri ideologiis matarebelia da Sesabamisad qmnis qalebisa da mamakacebis stereotipul saxeebs. mkvlevrebis mier satelevizio programebis analizma aCvena, rom umravles kulturebSi teleekranebze mamakacebi ufro xSirad Canan, vidre - qalebi. amasTan, mamakacebi warmodgenilni arian, rogorc ufro Zlierni da aqtiurni, xolo qalebi ki rogorc gulisxmierni da emociurni. reklamebSic mamakacebi dominantur rolSi gamodian. qalebi ZiriTadad iseT reklamebSi monawileoben, romlebic saojaxo saqmianobas an saojaxo nivTebs exeba. es, ra Tqma unda, Zlier zegavlenas axdens tradiciuli genderul-roluri ideologiis Camoyalibebaze. rigi gamokvlevebisa (Archer) gviCveneben, rom qalebisa da mamakacebis gamosaxulebebSi saxe warmodgenilia sxvadasxva xarisxiT. am movlenas feisizmi ewodeba. kerZod, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegad, gamovlinda, rom fotoebi presaSi mamakacebis SemTxvevaSi xazs usvamen saxes, xolo qalebis SemTxvevaSi -- maT sxeuls. mamakacebi, Cveulebriv, warmodgenilni arian kisridan zemoT, xolo qalebi -- mTlianad. es faqti, arCeris azriT, miuTiTebs imaze, rom masmedia mamakacebis saxis upiretesi CvenebiT xazs usvams mamakacebis pirovnebas da maT mniSvnelobas sazogadoebaSi. arCerisa da misi kolegebis mier gamokvleuli iyo

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12 qveynis beWvdiTi gamocemebi. yvela qveyanaSi gamovlinda feisizmis movlena. saTamaSoebi. saTamaSoebi asruleben mniSvnelovan rols diferencialuri socializaciis procesSi. arsebobs saTamaSoebis mkveTri diferenciacia, genderuli niSniT. kerZod, gogonebis saTamaSoebad yvela kulturaSi miiCneva Tojinebi, saojaxo saqmianobaSi gamosadegari nivTebis modelebi (e.w. saeqimo inventari, WurWeli, bavSvis movlasTan dakavSirebuli sagnebi, logini, etli, sabani da sxv.). biWebis saTamaSoebad miCneulia manqanebis modelebi TviTmfrinavis da manqanebis konstruqtorebi da sxv. msgavsi genderuli stereotipebi, romlebic dakavSirebuli iyo saTamaSoebTan, gamovlenili iyo rogorc dasavlur kulturebSi, aseve afrikaSic, sadac gogonebi TamaSobdnen TojinebiT, biWebi ki -- manqanebis konstruqtorebiT da iaraRebis modelebiT. gogonebisa da biWebis saTamaSoebis gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom gogonebi gadian e.w. `praqtikas~ da emzadebian momavali rolebisaTvis --diasaxlisobisa da dedobisaTvis. genderulad tipirebuli saTamaSoebi uviTareben maT urTierTobebis unarebsac. biWebis saTamaSoebi ki mimarTulia SemoqmedebiTobis, garSemomyofi samyaros gardasaxvis unaris, maTematikuri unarebis, logikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebaze. biWebis saTamaSoebi iwveven, agreTve, Sejibrze da liderobaze mimarTuli qcevebis waxalisebas. amgvarad, nebismieri saTamaSoebis maRaziis analizi gviCvenebs, rom arsebobs gogonebisa da biWebis saTamaSoebi. isini diferencialuri socializaciis instrumentebia. amasTan, saTamaSoebis genderul mikuTvnebulobaze miuTiTebs ara matro maTi funqcia, aramed saxeli da SefuTvis kolofic. amgvarad, arsebobs pankulturuli tendencia bavSvebs aswavlon, maT ki aiTvison genderis Sesatyvisi qceva, Tumca kulturaTa Soris mciredi sxvaoba vlindeba TviT swavlebis SinaarsSi.

saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

diferencialuri gaZliereba -- socializacis procesi, romlis drosac mocemuli sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebi qcevis waxaliseba xdeba, xolo miuReblis -- socialuri dasja. diferencialuri imitacia (modelireba) -- socializaciis procesi, romlis drosac adamiani irCevs rolur modelebs misTvis Sesatyvis jgufSi miRebuli normebis mixedviT da cdilobs mibaZos maT. genderuli konstantoba -- bavSvis mier imis gageba, rom sqesi mudmivia da misi Secvla SeuZlebelia. metaanalizi -- es aris statistikuri teqnika, romlis mizania jgufTa Soris sxvaobis saerTo Sefaseba dadgena ramdenime gamokvlevidan miRebuli informaciis kombinaciis gziT. seqsizmi -- winaswari ganwyobebi da madiskriminirebeli qceva ama Tu im sqesis warmomadgenlis mimarT. feisizmi -- qalisa da mamakacis gamosaxulebaSi saxisa da sxeulis gansxvavebuli xarisxiT warmoCenis tendencia.

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leqciis msvlelobisas moyvanili iqneba konkteruli magaliTebi yoveldRiuri cxovrebidanac, rac xels Seuwyobs studentebis mier genderuli socializaciis institutebis zegavlenis ukeT gacnobierebas da kulturis rolis gaazrebas am procesSi. socializaciis yoveli wyaros ganxilvisas gaTvaliswinebulia, agreTve, studentebis aqtiuri monawileoba leqciis procesSi. maT moeTxovebaT gaixsenon SemTxvevebi, roca maTi an maTi nacnobebis mier am institutebis mxridan mowodebuli genderuli qcevis nimuSebis modelireba (imitacia) xdeboda an iseTi SemTxvevebi, roca genderulad Seusabamo qcevas mSoblebis, ufrosebis an Tanatolebis mxridan uaryofiTi Sefaseba mohyva. leqciis Semdeg studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi. studentebs, agreTve, daevalebaT seminarisaTvis gaakeTon e.w. qalebisa da mamakacebis Jurnalebis analizi. kerZod, gansazRvron, maTi Tematika, ikvlion seqsizmisa da feisizmis movlena; gaanalizon, Tu rogor vlindeba genderuli stereotipebi mocemul publikaciebSi.

seminari #3 (Tema # 3 ) -- 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba jgufuri diskusia seminaris Temaze. kerZod, Semowmdeba masalis aTvisebis (socializaciis institutebis codna, ZiriTadi cnebebis floba) xarisxi; dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi: 1. daasaxeleT is faqtorebi, romlebic gansazRvraven qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris genderul sxvaobebs. 2. socializaciis romeli institutebi iciT? mokled daaxasiaTeT TiToeuli maTgani. 3. axdens Tu ar gansxvavebul zegavlenas socializacia niWier gogonebze da niWier biWebze? 4. ra zegavlenas axdenen kulturuli tradiciebi socializaciis Sedegbze? 5. ra da ra sferoebSi vlindeba genderuli diferencialuri socializaciis Sedegebi? 6. rogoria diferencialuri socializaciis meqanizmebi? 7. seminarze moxdeba Sesrulebuli davalebis warmodgena, Sedegebis jgufuri Sejameba da analizi.

ZiriTadi literatura: 1. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, p.: 144-188; 2. Handbook of Marriage and the family, edited by Marrin B. Sussman & Suzann K. Steinmetz, Plenum Press, 1988, p.: 327-370; 3. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, p.: 123-144; 4. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, p.: 204-207. damatebiTi literatura: 1. Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 29-82; 2. Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. ­ in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 329-332; 3. Families in Multicultural Perspective, edited by Bron B. Ingoldsby, Suzanna Smith, The Guilford Press, 1992, T.: 8; 4. Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, gv.:, 198-226.

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kvira #4

leqcia --2 sT

Tema #4 - genderuli rolebi da stereotipebi. kroskulturuli monacemebi.

leqciaze ganxiluli iqneba stereotipebis raoba da maTi warmoSobis kanonzomierebebi, agreTve, maTi funqcionirebis konkretuli magaliTebi sxvadasxva kulturebSi. moyvanili iqneba iluzoruli korelaciebis cneba da misi SesaZlo axsnebi. ganxiluli iqneba genderuli rolebi da maTi kroskulturuli sxvaobebi umcrosebze zrunvis, ufrosebTan siaxlovis, agresiis gamovlenis da sakuTaris Rirsebis grZnobis TvalsazrisiT. ganxiluli iqneba tradiciuli qaluri da tradiciuli mamakacuri rolebi da agreTve, is SezRudevebi, romlebsac es rolebi uweseben qalebsa da mamakacebs.

genderuli rolebi yalibdeba qalisa da mamakacis sqesebs Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli kulturuli Sexedulebebis konteqstSi. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom bavSvebs cxovrebis pirvel or weliwadSi uyalibdebaT qalur da mamakacur sawyisTan dakavSirebuli stereotipebi, xolo ukve 3-4 wlis asakSi bavSvebi am stereotipebs iyeneben saTamaSoebiis kategoriis, saqmianobis sxvadasxva saxisa da profesiebis gansasazRvrad. gamokvlevebis Sedegad dadginda, agreTve, rom im stereotipebis aTviseba bavSvebis mier, romlebic dakavSirebulia saTamaSoebisa da moRvaweobis sferoebis genderul dayofasTan, win uswrebs qalisa da mamakacis xasiaTis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb stereotipuli Sexedulebebis SeTvisebas. uiliamsma da bestma ikvlies 25 qveynis 5 da 8 wlis asakis bavSvebi. yvela qveyanaSi stereotipebis procenti izrdeboda asakis matebasTan erTad. kerZod, 5 wlis bavSvebTan stereotipizaciis done 60% iyo, xolo 8 wlis bavSvebSi -- 70%. iseTi zedsarTavi saxelebi, rogoricaa Zlieri, agresiuli, ulmobeli, gabeduli dakavSirebuli iyo mamakacTa sqesTan. xolo iseTi zedsarTavi saxelebi, rogoricaa susti, nazi, damTmobi, keTili - dakavSirebuli iyo qalTa sqesTan. stereotipizaciis TvalsazrisiT, gogonebisa da biWebis maRali monacemebi miRebuli iyo axal zelandiaSi da inglisSi, gansakuTrebiT ki -- pakistanSi. Zalian dabali monacemebi iqna miRebuli braziliaSi, taivanSi, genmaniaSi da safrangeTSi. Tumca qveynebs Soris arsebobs sxvaobebi swavlebis tempebSi, magram, saerTod, stereotipebis aTviseba iwyeba 5 wlis asakidamde, misi tempi izrdeba dawyebiT klasebSi da sabolod sruldeba Wabukobis periodSi. gogonebi da biWebi stereotipebs erTnairi tempiT iTviseben. Tumca arsebobs kroskulturuli sxvaobebi maT mier qalisa Tu mamakacis stereotipebis aTvisebis rigiTobaSi. rogorc Cans, qalis stereotipi iqneba aTvisebuli pirvelad, Tu mamakacis, es damokidebulia mocemul kulturaSi qalisa da mamakacis stereotipizaciis simkveTris xarisxze, maTi xatis met-nakleb diferencirebulobaze. ase magaliTad, genmaniaSi, braziliaSi, portugaliaSi da venesuelaSi bavSvebis mier qalis genderuli stereotipi ufro adre iyo aTvisebuli, vidre -- mamakacisa. bavSvebis mier stereotipiebis aTviseba damokidebulia, agreTve, mocemul kulturaSi qalebisa da mamakacebis stereotipizaciis da maTi Tvisebebis gamijvnis xarisxze. islamur kulturebSi 5 wlis bavSvebis gamokvlevam aCvena, rom isini ufro mkacr sazRvrebs avleben qalisa da mamakacis stereotipul Tvisebebs Soris. amasTan, islamur qveynebSi sxva qveynebisgan gansxvavebiT stereotipebis aTviseba ufro adreul asakSi mimdinareobs.

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alberti da porteri (Albert & Porter, 1986) ikvlevdnen genderul stereotipebs farTe mniSvnelobiT (damaxasiaTebel Tvisebebs da rolur ganwyobebs). maT kvlevaSi monawileobdnen 4-dan 6 wlamde asakis bavSvebi amerikis SeerTebul Statebidan da samxreT afrikidan. mkvlevrebma daadgines, rom stereotipebis Sesaxeb Sexedulebebi farTovdeba asakTan erTad. amasTan, samxreT afrikel bavSvebs ufro mkafio warmodgena hqondaT mamakacis stereotipul rolze, vidre _ amerikel bavSvebs. qalis stereotipuli rolis mimarT sxvaobebi kulturaTa Soris ar gamovlinda. intons-petersonis (Intons-Peterson, 1988) kvlevam aCvena, rom Svedi bavSvebi (11-18 ww.) qalebs miaweren ufro met mniSvnelovan Tvisebebs, vidre -- amerikeli bavSvebi. bavSvebSi gamovlenili aseTi Sedegebi gansazRvra iman, rom stereotipuli Sexedulebebi qalebisa da mamakacebis Sesaxeb ufro axlosaa erTmaneTTan SvedeTSi, vidre -- amerikaSi. amasTanave, aRsaniSnavia, rom qalebisa da mamakacebis prioritetebi profesiis arCevaSi SvedeTSi erTmaneTs ar emTxveva. qalebi upiratesobas aniWeben momsaxureobis sferos, xolo mamakacebi -- bizness. amerikaSi ki piriqiT, profesiuli prioritetebi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris erTmaneTs emTxveva. amasTan orive jgufi upiratesobas aniWebs eqimis da advokatis profesias da xelmZRvanel Tanamdebobas. uiliamisis da bestis, da, agreTve, sxva mkvlevarTa mier ganxorcielebuli kroskulturuli kvlevebi miuTiTebs, rom genderuli stereotipebi universalur xasiaTs atareben. amasTan kultura zegavlenas axdens maTi aTvisebis tempsa da araarsebiT Sinaarsobriv aspeqtebze. amgvarad, genderuli stereotipebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT im universaliebis rangSi, romlebic sxvadasxva kulturaSi sxvadasxva formiT vlindebian. mravali kvlevis Sedegi miuTiTebs, rom informacia, romelic Cvens genderul stereotipebs Seesabameba ufro metad (xSirad) iqneba SemCneuli da daxsomebuli, vidre informacia, romelic maT ar Seesabameba. informaciis gadamuSavebaze genderuli stereotipebis zegavlena farTed aris nakvlevi genderuli sqemis TeoriaSi. igi stereotipebs ganixilavs rogorc socialuri jgufebis socialur kategorias (sqemas). stereotipebi -- es aris identificirebuli jgufis wevrebis msgavsebis Sesaxeb farTed gavrcelebuli azri. stereotipebi muSaoben rogorc sqemebi am jgufebis aRqmis dros. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, iseve, rogorc nebismieri sxva sqema, isini zegavlenas axdenen aRqmasa da daxsomebaze. teilori (Taylor) aRniSnavs, rom iseTi parametrebi, rogoricaa rasa an sqesi, gamoiyeneba diskriminaciuli paternebis saxiT Cvens garSemo myofi adamianebis Sesaxeb informaciis dajgufebisa da gadamuSavebisaTvis. adamianebis gansakuTrebulad ganmasxvavebeli Taviseburebani, iseTebi, rogoricaa sqesi, eTnikuri mikuTvnebuloba, kilo -- `aaqtiureben~ saWiro sqemebs da SemdgomSi informaciis gadamuSaveba am jgufis calkeuli wevrebis Sesaxeb am sqemebiT imarTeba. kognituri sqemebis mier informaciis gadamuSavebis marTvis sailustraciod S. berns (Bern) moyavs Semdegi magaliTi: `Tu Tqven ar xarT amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis samxreTis macxovrebeli, me ki Tqven mogmarTeT samxreTuli gamoTqmiT (kiloTi) da gatyobinebT, rom vizrdebodi konfederaciis dedaqalaqSi (riCmondi, virjiniis Stati), es gamoiwvevs Tqvens cnobierebaSi garkveul stereotipebs, romlebic zegavlenas moaxdenen imaze, Tu ras miaqcevT CemSi yuradRebas da ras daixsomebT Cems Sesaxeb samudamod. aseTi informaciis miRebis gareSe Cemi qcevis da garegnobis zogierTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba SeumCneveli da daumaxsovrebeli dagrCebodaT~. kohenis (Cohen, 1981) mier Catarebul gamokvlevaSi cdispirebs aCvenebdnen videoCanawers, romelic erTi qalis dabadebis dRes asaxavda. im adamianebma, romlebsac eubneodnen, rom es qali oficiantia, daimaxsovres, rom igi svamda luds da

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uyurebda televizors, xolo im adamianebma, romlebsac igi rogorc bibilioTekari warmoudgines, daimaxsovres, rom igi saTvales atarebda da usmenda klasikur musikas. mkvlevari askvnis, rom oficiantis `xatma~ gamoiwvia erTi sqemis muSaoba, xolo `biblioTekaris~ xatma -- meore sqemisa. wveulebis Sesaxeb informaciis Semdgomi gadamuSavebac imarTeboda am mimarTulebebiT. markusis da zaioncis (Markus & Zajonc) gansazRvrebiT, mzamzareuli sqemebiT informaciis gadamuSaveba araCveulebrivia im TvalsazrisiT, rom is `ekonomiuria~, radgan warmodgenili rTuli socialuri garemocva dayavs azrobrivi kategoriebis kontrolirebad ricxvebamde. isini arasakmarisi informaciis konpensirebis saSualebas iZlevian da gvexmarebian gavideT mocemuli informaciis sazRvrebs gareT. ra Tqma unda, informaciis gadamuSavebis aseT process Tavisi naklic aqvs. rogorc fiske da teilori miuTiTeben, adamianTa kategoriebis Sesaxeb dagrovili zogadi codna saSualebas ar gvaZlevs sworad (samarTlianad) Sevafasod pirovnebaTa unikaluri Tvisebebi. ase magaliTad, bernis azriT, Setyobinebam misi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis samxreTidan warmoSobis Sesaxeb moaxdina misi aRzrdis, pirobiTad rom vTqvaT, `provinciuli~ sqemis gaSveba (amuSaveba). es sqema Seicavs iseT elementebs, rogoricaa `gauzrdeli~, `ukulturo~, `rasisti~. SemdgomSi es sqema gaaZlierebs aRmqmelis mgrZnobelobas misi nebismieri moqmedebebis an gamoTqmebis mimarT, romlebic gakvriT mainc SeiZleba dakavSirebulni iyvnen provincialobis sqemasTan. isini zedmetad miiqceven yuradRebas da iqcevian misi pirovnebis aRqmis ZiriTad safuZvlad, im SemTxvevebSic ki, roca isini ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos misi pirovnebisaTvs damaxasiaTeblad. amgvarad, stereotipebi Tavdapirvelad gavlenas axdenen imaze, Tu ras aRviqvamT, Semdgom ki imaze, Tu ras vimaxsovrebT. fiske da teilori (Fiske & Taylor) aRniSnavdnen, rom aseTi wyoba gansxvavdeba aRqmis Sesaxeb Cveni Cveulebrivi warmodgenisagan. isini werdnen, rom adamianebis umravlesoba Tvlis, rom aRqma -- es aris obieqturi monacemebis pirdapiri kopireba, maTi pirdapiri asli. sinamdvileSi ki, ase ar aris. sqemebis koncefcia dafuZnebulia im debulebaze, rom sqematizirebuli winaswari codna (sqemebi) zegavlenas axdens socialuri realobis aqtiur konstruirebaze. maSin, roca obieqturi minacemebi ayalibebs imas, rasac Cven aRviqvamT, Tqveni Sexedeulebebi da molodinebi gansazRvraven imas, Tu rogor xedavT Tqven am monacemebs. Tanamedrove kvlevebSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba genderuli sxvaobebis meqanizmis axsnas. genderuli sqemis Teoriis mixedviT, genderis safuZvelze kategorizaciis Cveni swrafva marTavs informaciis gadamuSavebis procesebs da iwvevs imas, rom Cven vxedevT qalebsa da mamakacebSi gacilebiT ufro met gansxvavebebs, vidre isini arseboben sinamdvileSi. saqme isaa, rom gamokvlevebis rezultatebi adasturebs, rom ar arsebobs mkveTrad gamoxatuli, arsebiTi gansxvavebebi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris. miuxedevad amisa, Cven jiutad vagrZelebT maTi, rogorc sxvadasxvanairebis xedvas da Sesabamisad, veqceviT maT sxvadasxvagvarad. gavrcelebuli stereotipebi warmoadgenen mamakacebs aqtiurebad, agresiulebad da efeqtianad momqmedebad, qalebs ki -- pasiurebad, damokidebulebad da emociurebad. hofmans da hersts (Hoffman, Hurst) moyavT gamokvlevis rezultatebi, romlebic gviCveneben, rom sqesTaSoris gansxvavebebis umravlesoba Zalian umniSvneloa imisaTvis, rom movelodeT maT regularul gamovlenas. es avtorebi miuTiTeben, rom rogorc Cans, arsebobs mxolod umniSvnelo korelacia sqesTa Soris sxvaobis xarisxsa da im masStabs Soris, romliTac igi vlindeba stereotipebSi. martinis (Martin) eqsperimentebma kidev erTxel daadastura Cveni tendencia davinaxoT qalebi da mamakacebi ufro gansxvavebulad, vidre es aris sinamdvileSi. am

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gamokvlevaSi qalebsa da mamakacebs sTxovdnen aReniSnaT, warmodgenili Tvisebebidan romeli aqvT maT. am TvisebaTa CamonaTvalSi Sedioda `tipuri mamakacuri~, `tipiuri qaluri~ da `neitraluri~ Tvisebebi. meore jgufs sTxoves ganesazRvraT, maTi azriT, mamakacebisa da qalebis ramdeni procenti flobda TiToeul CamoTvlil Tvisebas. kvlevis Sedegad gamoirkva, rom mamakacebis da qalebis pasuxebi, romlebic sakuTar Tavs afasebdnen, gansxvavdeboda mxolod xuTi punqtis mixedviT, maSin roca meore jgufis monacemebma qalebi da mamakacebi sruliad sxvadasxvagvarad warmogvidgines 40 punqtidan TiToeulSi. gamokvlevis Sedegebi adastureben, rom adamianebi qalebsa da mamakacebs aRiqvamen rogorc `sxvadasxva sqesis warmomadgenlebs~. am garemoebis asaxsnelad genderuli sqemis warmomadgenlebs mohyavT Semdegi argumentebi: qalebisa da mamakacebis gansxvavebuli socialuri rolebi gvaiZuleben vivaraudoT maTSi gansxvavebuli fsiqologiuri niSnebisa da SesaZleblobebis arseboba. amasTan, Cvens sazogadoebaSi Zalian xSirad saubroben qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris fundamentur gansxvavebebze. da rac mTavaria, CvenTvis dabadebidan damaxasiaTebeli informaciis gadamuSavebis strategiebi aseve SeiZleba xels uwyobdes qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris arsebuli sxvaobebis masStabebis gadametebas. yvelafer amas aqvs uSualo kavSiri genderis socialur SemecnebasTan. genderuli stereotipebi warmoadgenen genderul sqemebs (genderuli stereotipebi aq genderuli sqemebis rols TamaSoben). genderuli sqemebi -- es aris genderuli kognituri kategoriebi. isini ise marTaven Semosuli informaciis gadamuSavebis process, rom Cven viwyebT mis aRqmas, damaxsovrebas da interpretacias genderze Cveni Sexedulebebis Sesabamisad. radganac sqemebi yuradRebas mimarTavs iseTi SemTxvevebisken, romelic adasturebs (amarTlebs) Cvens molodinebs, Cven or rames Soris kavSiri ufro mdgradad (myarad) SeiZleba aRviqvaT, vidre es aris sinamdvileSi. am movlenas iluzorul korelaciebs uwodeben. isini warmoiqmneba nawilobriv imis gamoc, rom sqemebi Cvens yuradRebas mimarTavs iseTi SemTxvevebisken, romelic adasturebs Camoyalibebul stereotipebs. meores mxriv, iluzoruli korlaciebis formirebaze SeiZleba zegavlena moaxdinos informaciiis gadamuSavebis procesis sxva tendenciebmac. Cven genderul gansxvavebebs aRviqvamT ufro didad, vidre es aris sinamdvileSi, radganac sqemebi zegavlenas axdens imaze, Tu ras vamCnevT pirvel rigSi. garda amisa, informacia romelic Cvens sqemebs Seesabameba ufro advilad kodirdeba Cvens mexsierebaSi (anu kodireba martivdeba, roca Cven ubralod koreqturas ukeTebT arsebul sqemas da ar vqmniT axals). magaliTad, biWebic da gogonebic gacilebiT ukeT ixseneben adamianebs, romlebic ganasaxiereben garkveuli sqesis stereotips da maT qcevebs, vidre iseT mamakacebs da qalebs, romelTa xatebi da qcevebi ar Seesabamebian stereotipebs. amasTan mexsierebis aseTi arCeviToba gacilebiT ufro Zlieria iseT bavSvebTan, romlebsac aqvT mdgradi genderuli stereotipi. amgvarad, mamakaci, romelsac miaCnia, rom xelmZRvaneli Tanamdeboba qalisTvis Seusabamoa, xelmZRvaneli qalis yovel konfliqtSi Tavis xelqveiTTan xedavs imis dasabuTebas, rom qalebs ara aqvT emociuri simyare, romelic aucilebelia xelmZRvanelobisTvis. meores mxriv, mamakaci xelmZRvanelis analogiuri qceva misTvis sruliad misaRebia. Tavis mxriv, qali, romelic darwmunebulia, rom mamakacebs ara aqvT emociebis Zlierad gamoxatvis unari, Zalian advilad ixsenebs Tavis nacnob mamakacebs, romlebic Seesabamebian mocemul stereotips da warumateblobas ganicdis emociuri mamakacis gaxsenebis mcdelobisas. movlenas, romelic sqesTa Soris realurad arsebuli sxvaobebis gacilebiT didi masStabis genderul sxvaobebad gardasaxvaSi mdgomareobs, rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, iluzorul korelacias uwodeben da miuxedavad am Temaze gamarTuli

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aqtiuri diskusiisa, misi warmoSobis mizezebis mecnieruli dasabuTeba genderuli sqemis Teoriis farglebSi ver xerxdeba. saWirod migvaCnia genderuli iluzoruli korelaciebis Cveneuli axsnis aq moyvana. saqme isaa, rom gamokvlevebi, romlebic genderTa Soris gansxvavebebs exeba, umravles SemTxvevebSi, kiTxvarebis, Tavisufali reproduqciis (Tavisufali gaxsenebis) an iseTi eqsperimentebis saxiT momdinareobs, sadac cdis pirebma unda gamoTqvan TavianTi azri qalisa da mamakacis ama Tu im fsiqikuri Tu fizikuri maxasiaTeblis Sesaxeb. swored aseT gamokvlevebSi vlindeba mniSvnelovani genderTaSorisi gansxvavebebi. meores mxriv, ki gamokvlevebSi, romlebSic xorcieldeba garkveuli fsiqikuri Tvisebebis Tu funqciebis ufro zusti da obieqturi gazomva specialuri testebis saSualebiT, sruliad sawinaaRmdego Sedegebs iZleva. kerZod, am gamokvlevaTa mixedviT, sqesTaSorisi gansxvavebebi umniSvneloa. am ori tipis kvlevebs Tu SevadarebT erTmaneTs, aRmovaCenT, rom meore tipis kvlevebi emsaxureba e.w. realurad arsebuli sqesTa Soris sxvaobebis gamovlenas. pirveli tipis kvlevebi ki mimarTulia genderisa da genderuli sxvaobebis gamosavlenad. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, isini ikvleven sqesTa reprezentaciebsa da maT sxvaobebs Cvens cnobierebaSi anu Cvens mexsierebaSi Senaxul cnebebs `qali~ da `mamakaci~. qarTuli fsiqologiuri skolis _ ganwyobis fsiqologiis farglebSi Cvens mier Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegad dadgenil iqna mexsierebaSi semantikuri informaciis Senaxvis formebisa da meqanizmebis kanonzomierebebi. es kanonzomierebiebi naTels hfens e.w. `iluzoruli korelaciis~ meqanizms. saqme isaa, rom cnebebi `qali~ da `mamakaci~ warmoadgenen tipur bunebriv cnebebs da enis sistemaSi funqcionireben. amdenad, iseve, rogorc yvela bunebrivi cneba, isini Camoyalibdnen adamianis individualuri da istoriuli gamocdilebis procesSi. amasTan es bunebrivi cnebebi mexsierebaSi struqturirebulia ara logikis principebiT, ara arsebiTi niSnebis mixedviT, rogorc es logikuri mecnieruli cnebebis SemTxvevaSia, aramed im praqtikuli funqciis niSnis mixedviT, romelsac asruleben maTSi nagulisxmevi obieqtebi (am SemTxvevaSi qalebi da mamakacebi) socialur garemoSi. mexsierebaSi maTi struqturirebis meqanizms mTlian pirivnuli konstruqti -fiqsirebuli ganwyoba warmoadgens, romelSic asaxulia da dafiqsirebulia qalebisa da mamakacebis xSiri da mniSvnelovani (individualuri da istoriuli TvalsazrisiT) funqciebi, romlebsac isini asrulebdnen Tanacxovrebis dros ama Tu im kulturaSi. amgvarad, bunebrivi cnebebi `qali~ da `mamakaci~ anu sqesTa genderuli reprezentaciebi funqcionalurad struqturirebulni arian. swored amitom isini gansxvavdebian logikuri cnebebisagan `qali~ da `mamakaci~, romelTac ikvlevs sqesTaSorisi sxvaobebis gasazomi instrumentebi (realuri inteleqti, realuri fizikuri Zala, emociuroba, agresiuloba Tu ConCxisa da kunTebis sistemis siZliere). erT-erT cnobil gamokvlevaSi, romelic kondrim da kondrim Caatares (Condry, Condry), cdispirebs aCvenebdnen, films cxra Tvis bavSvze. amasTan mayureblebis naxevars eubnebodnen, rom es bavSvi biWia, xolo meore naxevar ki -- rom bavSvi gogoa. es umartivesi manipulacia iwvevda erTi da igive qcevis sruliad gansxvavebul Sefasebas. magaliTad, erT-erT naCveneb epizodSi bavSvi iwyebda yvirils, mas Semdeg rac kolofidan zambara amoagdebs saTamaSos. is adamianebi, romlebic Tvlidnen, rom bavSvi biWia, aRiqvamdnen mas `gabrazebulad~, xolo is adamianebi, romlebic Tvlidnen, rom bavSvi gogoa, aRiqvamdnen mas `SeSinebulad~. kondrim da rosma (Condry, Ross) aseve daadgines, rom bavSvis genderi zegavlenas axdens imaze, rom Tu rogor aRiqvamen mas ufrosebi. maT mier Catarebul kvlevaSi cdispirebs aCvenebdnen videokameraze Caweril bavSvTa TamaSis epizods. ori bavSvi

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TamaSobda TovliT dafarul moedanze. erTnairi kostiumebi maTi sqesis gansazRvris saSualebas ar iZleoda. naCveneb epizodSi erTi bavSvi mudmivad xels kravda meores, axteboda mas da esroda gundebs. mayurebelTa erT nawils eubnebodnen, rom orive bavSvi gogoa, meores - rom orive bavSvi biWia, mesames - rom agresori biWia, xolo meoTxes - rom agresori gogoa. mas Semdeg, rac mayureblebs auxsnes, rom agresia warmoadgens winaswar ganzraxul qmedebas, romelmac SeiZleba ziani moutanos meore bavSvs, maT sTxovdnen SeefasebinaT bavSvis agresiis xarisxi. mayureblebma, romlebic darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom orive bavSvi biWia, miiCnies naCvenebi sqema naklebad agresiulad danarCeni jgufebis SefasebasTan SedarebiT. mkvlevrebi mividnen im daskvnamde, rom genderis kognituri kategoria -- genderuli sqema mimarTavs molodinebsa da Sefasebebs garkveuli mimarTulebiT. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, radgan biWebis TamaSis ramdenadme agresiuli gamovlineba normalur movlenad iTvleba, amitom es agresiulad ar fasdeboda. teilorisa da misi kolegebis mier Catarebuli kvlevis rezultatebi aseve adasturebs, rom genderuli stereotipebi mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens informaciis gadamuSavebis procesze. imisaTvis, rom ukeT gaerkviaT, Tu rogor axdens gavlenas genderi aRqmasa da informaciis gadamuSavebaze, teilori da falkone eqsperimentis monawileebs asmeninebdnen eqvsi politikuri diskusiis Canawers, romlebic miyavdaT sam qalsa da sam mamakacs. gamosvlebi amomrCevelTa Sexvedrebze iwereboda magnitofonze, sadac TiToeuli kandidati gamoTqvamda eqvs konkretul SemoTavazebas. mkvlevrebma ise dagegmes gamokvleva, rom yvela SemoTavazeba (winadadeba) iyo Tanabrad sasargeblo. maTi arCevani (mkvlevarebis) efuZneboda msgavsi winadadebebis SefasebaTa farTo analizs. yvela gamoTqmuli winadadebidan SeirCa 36 debuleba, romlebmac daaxloebiT erTnairi reitingi miiRo. 13 wuTiani diskusiis mosmenis Semdeg cdis pirebs unda SeefasebinaT, politikurad ramdenad gonieri da damarwmunebeli iyo TiToeuli kandidati, ramdenad sasiamovno da saintereso iqneboda maTTan muSaoba da ramdenad efeqtianad SeZlebda igi mxaris (raionis) xelmZRvanelobas. Sedegad, 5 Sefasebis kriteriumidan 4-Si mamakacebma miiRes ufro maRali Sefaseba (ar iyo gansxvaveba mxolod sasiamovnoebis kriteriumiT Sefasebisas). Tumca ufri gviandel eqsperimentSi, romelic bovem da spensma (Bauvais, Spence) Caatares, eqsperimentis monawileTa umravlesobas aseTi keTilganwyoba mamakacebis mimarT ar gamouvlenia. gaurkvevelia rasTan aris es cvlileba dakavSirebuli: 1982 wlidan (roca teilorma da falkonem Caatares eqsperimenti) da 1987 wlamde (roca bovem da spensma Caatares eqsperimenti) ganwyobebis cvlilebebTan, Tu ufro gviani eqsperimentis monawileebi cdilobdnen gaemarTlebinaT eqsperomentatorebis molodinebi. ar aris gamoricxuli, agreTve, rom rezultatebze gavlena iqonia eqsperimentis Catarebis mciredma meTodologiurma sxvaobebmac. Tumca teilor-falkones da bove-spensis kvlevebis rezultatebi gansxvavdeboda mamakacebis mimarT zedmetad keTilganwyobis xarisxiT, magram orive kvlevam daadastura, rom biologiuri sqesi gamoiyeneba sqemis saxiT informaciis gadamuSavebis procesSi. orive eqsperimentSi monawileebi met Secdomebs uSvebdnen erTi sqesis farglebSi, vidre -- sqesTaSoris Secdomebs anu maT ufro xSirad eSlebodaT, Tu romel qals ekuTvnoda esa Tu is gamonaTqvami da iSviaTad uSvebdnen iseT Secdomebs, roca gamonaTqvami qals ekuTvnoda, maT ki mamakacisa egonaT an piriqiT. arsebobs sxva eqsperimentebic, romlebic miuTiTeben, rom adamianebi sxva adamianebis kategorizacias pirvel rigSi sqesis mixedviT axdenen. ase magaliTad, fiskem daadgina, rom eqsperimentis monawileebi xSirad ureven erTmaneTSi erTi da igive sqesis, rasis an iseT adamianebs, romlebic erTi da igive socialur rols

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asruleben an iseT adamianebs, romlebsac erTi da igive saxeli hqviaT. stangorma (Stangor, 1986) daadgina, rom adamianebi kategorizacias ufro xSirad sqesis mixedviT axdenen, vidre - rasisa. fiske da teilori miuTiTebdnen, rom genderul sqemaTa aqtivacia nawilobriv damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad didi xnis win aqtivirdnen isini bolos da ramdenad xSirad iyvnen isini gamoyenebuli adre. rac ufro xSirad xdeboda sqemaTa aqtivacia warsulSi, miT ufro misawvdomia isini mexsierebisaTvis da miT ufro xSirad iqnebian gamoyenebulni. es movlena praimingis efeqtis saxelis matarebelia. amgvarad, unda movelodeT, rom axalgazrdebi da mozardebi, romlebic did yuradRebas aqceven sqesis problemas, gansakuTrebiT xSirad aRiqvamen sxva adamianebs maTi genderis TvalsazrisiT. teilorisa da fiskes azriT, xSirad gamoiyenebuli sqema momarTul (mzadyofnis) mdgomareobaSia. Cvens sazogadoebaSi masmediis saSualebebi zedmetad xSirad amaxvileben yuradRebas genderis problemebze. sruliad SesaZlebelia, rom aseT mimarTebas mivyvarT iqamde, rom Cveni genderuli sqemebi momarTul mdgomareobaSi arian da mzad arian meyseuli aqtivaciisaTvis. rogorc bemi aRniSnavda: `genderuli sqemis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis mxridan daJinebiTi gaxseneba genderuli sqemas kidev ufro kogniturad misawvdomad aqcevs~. mravalricxovani gamokvlevebis rezultatebi miuTiTebs imaze, rom genderi is mniSvnelovani kognituri kategoriaa, romelic adamianis aRqmisas gamoiyeneba. Tumca ki zogjer SeiZleba SevxvdeT iseT adamianebsac, romlebic darwmunebulni arian, rom maT mier adamianebis aRqma genderze dafuZnebuli ar aris. marTlac, arsebobs, individualuri gansxvavebebi genderis, rogorc informaciis mniSvnelovani `parametris~ gamoyenebaSi sxva adamianebis aRqmisas. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, bemis mixedviT, adamiani SeiZleba CaiTvalos genderis sqemis gamomyeneblad, Tuki mas aqvs mzadyofna adamianTa ganmasxvavebeli Tvisebebis da maT Sesaxeb informaciis sortireba moaxdinos genderis safuZvelze. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, igi ekuTvnis im individebs, romlebic ar iyeneben genderul sqemebs. bemis azriT, is adamianebi, romlebic gamoxatul qalur an mamakacur sawyisebs floben, metad SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT genderuli sqemis gamomyeneblebs. genderuli sqemis Teoria genderuli sqemis warmoSobis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas eyrdnoba im mosazrebas, rom Cven dabadebidan gvaxasiaTebs kategorizaciisaken midrekileba, romelic mimdinareobs garegani stimulirebis ganmasxvavebeli Taviseburebebis safuZvelze (rogorc adamianis, aseve sagnebis SemTxvevaSi). garSemomyofi samyaros aseTi dayofa Semadgenel elementebad ukve bavSvobidan iwyeba da warmoadgens kognituri ganviTarebis procesis arss. bavSvoba -- es aris swrafi sqematuri ganviTarebisa da daxvewis periodi. bavSvis cxovrebis ZiriTadi nawili swored gare samyaros Sesaxeb informaciis SeTvisebas xmardeba. imisaTvis, rom Seimsubuqon uamravi informaciis SeTviseba, bavSvebi mimarTven kategorizacias. `qaluri~ da `mamakacuri~ warmodgenen diqotomiur amomwurav ganmasxvavebel bunebriv kategoriebs, romlebsac gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba, rogorc zrdasrulebis mxridan, aseve bavSvebis, Tanatolebis mxrdanac. genderi kategorizaciis mniSvnelovani kriteriumia nawilobriv imitomac, rom Cvens sazogadoebaSi mudmivad laparakoben genderuli sxvaobebis mniSvnelovan rolzec. rogorc ukve adre iyo naTqvami, televizia, literatura da folklori Zalian xSirad warmosaxaven qalebsa da mamakacebs iseT arsebebad, romelTa Sorisac didi gansxvavebaa da romlebic sruliad ar gvanan erTmaneTs. mSoblebi, maswavleblebi da Tanatolebi aseve xSirad ubiZgeben bavSvebs gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcion genders da rogorc Sedegi, maT uyalibdebaT azri, rom qali da mamakaci mxolod

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genitaliebiT ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan. bavSvebi amCneven, rom qalebi da mamakacebi sxvadasxvagvarad icvamen d cdiloben sxvadasxva rameebi gaakeTon. msgavsi Sexeduleba uyalibdebaT maT sazogadoebis iseTi warmomadgenlebis dakvirvebisas, rogoric arian magaliTad, maTi mSoblebi. iglis (Egly) socialuri rolebis Teoriis mixedviT, socialurma rolebma SeiZleba biZgi misces socialuri stereotipebis Camoyalibebas. is faqti, rom socialuri rolebis umravlesoba qalebis an kacebis mier sruldeba, SeiZleba xels uwyobdes genderis kognitur diqotomizacias. martini da halversoni (Martin, Halverson) werdnen, rom radgan qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris daikvirveba amdeni gansxvaveba, bavSvebi xvdebian, rom genderul kategoriebSi gaTviTcnobierebuloba Zalian sasargebloa garSemomyofTa qcevis winaswarmetyvelebisaTvis. ganvixiloT sqesTa Soris gansxvavebis oTxi kroskulturuli sfero: umcrosebze zrunva, agresia, ufrosebTan siaxlove da sakuTari Rirsebis grZnoba. umcrosebze zrunva: edvardsma da uaitingma (Edwards &Whiting, 1980) eqvsi sxvadasxva kulturi kvlevis Sedagad aRmoaCines, rom 5-dan 12 wlamde asakobriv SualedSi genderuli gansxvavebebi vlindeba ufro Tanmimdevrulad im CvilTa da bavSvTa mimarT qcevaSi, romlebic siaruls swavloben, vidre didebisa da ufroso asakis bavSvebis mimarT. radganac Cvilebi met zrunvas iTxoven, vidre ufrosi bavSvebi, gogonebi, romlebic CvilebTan did dros atareben, ufro met swrafvas avlenen umcrosebze zrunvis, videre - biWebi, romlebic ase didad ar arian dakavebulni patara bavSvebiT. barim, bekonma da Caildma (Barry, Bacon & Child) aRmoaCines, rom biWebTan SedarebiT, gogonebs metad amzadeben umcrosebze zrunvisTvis (kulturaTa 82%-Si), imisTvis, rom iyvnen ufro damjerni (kulturaTa 35%-Si) da ufro pasuxismgebliani (kulturaTa 61%-Si). biWebs ki Tavis mxriv, aswavlian miznis miRwevas (kulturaTa 87%-Si) da damoukideblobas (kulturaTa 85%-Si). uelCma, peijma da martinma (Welch, Page & Martin, 1981) 108 kulturis kvlevis Sedegad aRmoaCines, rom biWebis roluri orientaciebi metad limitirebulia, gogonebis socialuri orientaciebisgan gansxvavebiT. am ukanasknelTa socialuri orientaciebi gamoirCeva didi mravalferovnebiT. amasTanave, biWebs ufro mkacrad moeTxovebaT miRebuli rolisadmi Sesatyvisoba, videre -- gogonebs. agresia: im bavSvTa kroskulturuli gamokvlevebi, romlebmac jer ar miaRwies sqesobriv momwifebas, aCveneben, rom biWebs gogonebTan SedarebiT ufro metad axasiaTebT agresia, meqiSpeobis (Sejibris) suli, dominirebisken swrafva da CxubTan da brZolasTan dakavSirebuli TamaSebi. uaitingisa da edvardsis (B.B. Whiting & Edvards, 1981) mier eqvsi kulturisa da afrikis damatebiTi SerCevis Seswavlis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom sqesebs Soris arsebobs gansxvaveba agresiulobisa da dominirebisaken swrafvis TvalsazrisiT. dadginda, agreTve, rom agresia ar mcirdeba asakis momatebasTan erTad, aramed piriqiT, igi ufro gamoxatuli xdeba ufrosi asakis biWebSi. dakvirvevbebi, romlebic omarkma, omarkma da edelmanma (Omark, Omark & Edelman, 1975) Caatares eTiopiis, Sveicariis da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saTamaSo moednebze, aCveneben, rom biWebi ufro agresiulad iqcevian, videre - gogonebi. warmoebis TvalsazrisiT, CamorCenili oTxi kulturis Seswavlisas monrom da misma kolegebma (Munroe, ... 2000) aRmoaCines, rom agresiis gamovlineba biWebTan ufro xSiria, vidre -- gogonebTan. rodesac gogonebi da biWebi ikribebian erTgvarovan sqesobriv jgfufebad, agresiis epizodebi ufro xSirad gvxvdeba biWebTan, vidre -- gogonebTan. eqvsi kulturis kvlevam aCvena, rom dedebi, Cveulebriv, erTnairad reagireben agresiis gamovlenaze biWebisa Tu gogonebis mxridan. xolo mama mniSvnelovan rols

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asrulebs agresiulobis aRzrdaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki - biWebSi. dadgenilia, rom agresiis xarisxze Zlier zegavlenas axdens aRzrdis kulturuli sistema da am sistemaSi mamakacisa Tu qalis agresiulobisTvis miwerili valentoba. ase magaliTad, Seswavlis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom okinavaze da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi sxvadasxvagvarad udgebian gogonebTan da biWebTan agresiulobis aRzrdas. qalebisa da mamakacebis mxridan agresiis mimReblobis xarisxi dasavleT evropis qveynebSi erTnairia, Tumca gansxvavdeba qalebisa da mamakacebis mier agresiis gamovlenis formebi. mamakacebi Tavdapirvelad Zalian TavSekavebulad iqcevian, Tumca Semdeg ufro meti siSmage euflebaT, maSin roca qalebi ufro emociurebi arian da aqvT midrekileba Tavidanve mimarTon yvirils an sityvier kinklaobas. ufrosebTan siaxlove da moRvaweobis xasiaTi: fridmani (Ftedman, 1976) akvirdeboda 5-7 wlis bavSvebis TamaSs rva kulturaSi (avstralieli aborigenebi, balis, taivanis, ceilonis, kikuitus, iaponiis macxovreblebs, navahos tomis warmomadgenlebs da penjabebi). man aRmoaCina, rom biWebi TamaSis dros grovdebian did jgufebSi, did manZilebs gadian da ufro metad arian TamaSis fizikuri saxeobebiT dakavebulni, maSin roca gogonebi ufro metad iseTi TamaSebiT erTobian, romlebic garkveuli moqmedebebis gameorebasTan da laparakTan aris dakavSirebuli. garda amisa, gogonebi, Cveulebriv, naklebad Sordebian saxls. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom genderul gansxvavebaTa gaRrmavebaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs is prioritetebi, romlebic garkveul qcevebs eniWebaT biWebisa Tu gogonebis mxridan. biWebi metad eswragvian sxva biWebTan urTierTobebs, xolo gogonebi upiratesobas aniWeben ufrosebTan urTierTobas. sqesis mixedviT segregacias asaxaven, agreTve, bavSvebis naxatebic. maTi analizi gviCvenebs, rom biWebi ufro xSirad xataven biWebs, xolo gogonebi -- gogonebs. bavSvebis naxatebSi genderuli gansaxvavebebis gamovlenad miiCneva, agreTve, isic, rom biWebi ufro xSirad xataven manqanebs, urCxulebs da agresiasTan dakavSirebul scenebs, movlenebs Tu sagnebs, xolo gogonebi upiratesobas aniWeben yvavilebis daxatvas. sqesis mixedviT bavSvTa naxatTa aseT gansxvavebebi gamovlinda gamokvleuli cxra sxvadasxva kulturidan yvelaSi. sakuTari Rirsebis grZnoba: gamokvlevebis Sedegad dadgenilia, rom TiTqmis yvela kulturaSi gogonebi naklebad kmayofilni arian imiT, rom isini gogonebi arian, vidre biWebi imiT, rom isini biWebi arian. miuxedavad amisa, gogonebis Tavisi sqesiT aseTi ukmayofileba yovelTvis ar gamoixateba dabal TviTSefasebaSi. ase magaliTad, gogonebi filipinebSi, nepalSi, avstraliaSi da nigeriaSi Tvlian, rom isini biWebTan SedarebiT naklebad niWierebi arian fizikasa da maTematikaSi. amave dros, gogonebs avstraliaSi da nigeriaSi miaCniaT, rom maTi miRwevebi kiTxvaSi gacilebiT ufro didia, vidre -- biWebis warmatebebi am saganSi. nigerieli biWebi ki Tvlian, rom isini gogonebze ufro Wkvianebi arian. amgvarad, gogonebsa da biWebs Soris arsebobs myarad gamoxatuli gansxvavebebi umcrosebze zrunvaSi, agresiaSi da mobilurobaSi da es gansxvavebebi vlindeba yvela kulturaSi. kultura ayalibebs bavSvTa socialur qcevas, gansazRvravs im adamianTa wres, romelTa garemocvaSic bavSvi imyofeba. kultura gansazRvravs, agreTve, im saqmianobebis saxeebsac, romlebiTac sxvadasxva sqesis bavSvebi arian dakavebulni. mamakacebis socialuri roli dakavSirebulia maTi bunebis, rogorc `Semomtanis~ gagebasTan da umravles kulturaSi mijnavs qalebisa da mamakacebis funqciebs. feministebis did nawils miaCnia, rom ar aris saWiro mamakacis socialuri rolebis Seswavla, radgan es gvaSorebs mTavar problemas _ qalis diskriminaciul mdgomareobaze yuradRebis gamaxvilebas. magram faqtia, rom kultura uwesebs

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mamakacebs garkveul socialur SezRudvebs iseve, rogorc qalebs da amitom mniSvnelovania am SezRudvebis Seswavla. unda iTqvas, rom dReisaTvis arsebobs sakmaod mwiri empiriuli masala, romelic eZRvneba tradiciuli mamakacuri rolebis Seswavlas. es genderuli kvlevebis SedarebiT axali da naklebad ganviTarebuli sferoa. mamakacuri genderuli rolebis aTvisebis meqanizmi iseTivea, rogorc qaluri genderuli rolisa (diferencialuri socializacia, modelebze dakvirveba, kulturuli arxebis saSualebiT zegavlena) mamakacebi, iseve rogorc qalebi mudmivi informaciuli da normatiuli zewolis zegavlenis qveS imyofebian. yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi biWebi da mamakacebi socialuri informaciis didi nakadis zemoqmedebis qveS imyofebian. maTi qceva isjeba, rogorc ki igi gadauxvevs tradiciulad `mamakacuri~ qcevis normebidan. `mamakacurobis~ Sesaxeb warmodgenebs biWebi iTviseben kulturis da socializaciis sxva institutebis meSveobiT. am SexedulebaTa sistemas plekma (Pleck) da misma kolegebma mamakacurobis ideologia uwodes. faqtiurad es aris socialuri normebis krebuli mamakacebisTvis. tompsonma da plekma mamakacuri genderuli roli gansazRvres, rogorc socialuri normebi, romelic Seicavs nebarTvebsa da akrZalvebs imis Taobaze, Tu ra unda igrZnos da akeTos mamakacma da ra -ara. tompsonmma da plekma gamokvlevis Sedagad daadgines, rom mamakacTa roluri normebis struqtura Sedgeba sami mniSvnelovani faqtorisgan: pirveli -- es aris molodinebi imis Taobaze, rom mamakacebi miaRweven maRal statuss da daimsaxureben garSemomyofTa pativiscemas (statusis norma); meore -- mdgradobis norma, romelic gansazRvravs mamakacebisgan gonrbrivi, emociuri da fizikuri mdgradobis molodins; mesame _ es aris molodini imisa, rom mamakacma Tavi unda aaridos stereotipulad qalur saqmianobebs (antiqalurobis norma). zogierT sazogadoebaSi am normas iseTi Zlieri zegavlenis Zala aqvs, rom igi zogjer mamakacSi femifobiis saxiTac vlindeba. mamakacis stereotipuli normebi did zegavlenas axdens maT yoveldRiur cxovrebaze. ubralo magaliTebic ki cxadyofs, rom umravles sazogadoebebSi mamakaci -- mamakaci ar aris, Tu is fuls ar Soulobs, Tu igi emociuria, fizikurad sustia, ar SeuZlia kompetenturi rCevebis mocema an qaluri saqmianobebiT aris dakavebuli. bernma da leverma (Burn & Laver, 1994) aRmoaCines, rom amerikeli qalebi da mamakacebi srulad eTanxmebodnen erTmaneTs imaSi, rom mamakacma kariera unda gaikeTos. amasTanave, umravlesoba maTgani iziarebda im azrsac, rom mamakacma bevri fuli unda iSovos. statusis stereotipis mamakacis mimarT moqmedebas adasturebs igive avtorebis sxva kvlevac, romelSic gaanalizda amerikuli Jurnalebis e.w. `paemnebis~ nawili. aRmoCnda, rom qalebi, gansxvavebiT mamakacebisagan, sasurveli partnioris amorCevisas prioritets mis statussa da finansur mdgomareobas aniWebdnen. statusisa da warmatebulobis norma garkveul problemebs uqmnis mamakacebs. saqme isaa, rom maT umravlesobas ar Seswevs unari 100%-iT daakmayofilos igi. es ki maTi dabali TviTSefasebis safuZveli xdeba. Zalian cota mamakacs aqvs sakmarisi fuli, Zalaufleba da pativiscema sazogadebaSi, radgan yovelTvis moiZebneba adamiani, romelic socialur kibeze ufro maRla dgas. sazogadoebis mxridan mamakacebis Sefasebas maTi Semosavlebis mixedviT xSir SemTxvevaSi mivyevarT TviTaqtualizaciis xarisxis dacemamde. kerZod, mamakaci iZulebulia akeTos saqme, romelic ar ainteresebs, ar uyvars da igi muSaobs mxolod imitom, rom es samuSao kargad anazRaurebadia. finansuri zewola gansakuTrebiT mZimea iseTi mamakacebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebsac diasaxlisi colebi hyavT. rodesac mamakaci Semosavlis erTaderTi wyaroa, mas xSirad aRiqvamen rogorc fulis tomaras da yvela cdilobs am tomridan fulis amoRebas. kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom rac ufro izrdeba mamakacis Semosavali, miT ufro

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klebulobs misi wvlili bavSvebis aRzrdaSi. iaponiaSi, sadac mamakacurobis norma gulisxmobs sruli datvirTviT muSaobas, mamebi saSualod bavSvebTan 3 wT-s urTierToben samuSao dReebSi, xolo uqme dRes ki maTi bavSvebTan urTierTobis xangrZlovoba 19 wT-s Seadgens. unda aRiniSnos, rom mamakacurobis gagebaSi arsebobs garkveuli variaciebi, romlebic Seaqvs garkveul rasas, nacionalobas, socialuri klasisadmi an kulturisadmi mikuTvnebulobas, seqsualur orientacias da sxv. miuxedavad amisa, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mamakacurobis zemoT CamoTvlili normebi universaluria. mamakacebisaTvis dawesebuli kulturuli normebi Zalian xSirad maTTvis konfliqtisa da steresis safuZveli xdeba. xSir SemTxvevebSi isini aryeven mamakacTa fizikur da fsiqikur janmrTelobas, zogjer ki maTi mxridan qalebisa da bavSvebis mimarT uxeSobisa da Zaladobis safuZvelic SeiZleba gaxdnen.

leqciis msvlelobisas moyvanili iqneba konkteruli magaliTebi yoveldRiuri cxovrebidanac. rac xels Seuwyobs studentebis mier mamakacebisa da qalebis genderuli normebis moqmedebis meqanizmebis ukeT gacnobas. gansakuTrebiT xazi gaesmeba tradiciul mamakacur rolebs da normebs. gaanalizebuli iqneba genderuli stereotipebis funqciebi da, agreTve, stresi da konfliqti, romelsac iwvevs tradiciuli qaluri da mamakacuri rolebi Tanamedrove pirobebSi. saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miewodebaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

genderuli rolebi -- es aris socialuri rolebi, romlebiTac qalebi da mamakacebi arian araerTgvarovnad dakavebulni ojaxisa da profesiuli moRvaweobis sxvadasxva sferoSi, da agreTve, Tavisufali drois ganmavlobaSi. iluzoruli korelacia - cnebaTa Soris kavSiris simyaris xarisxis zedmetad maRali Sefaseba an mcdeloba daadgino igi iq, sadac kavSiri saerTod ar arsebobs. genderis SemTxvevaSi moCvenebiTi an gadametebuli kavSiri xSirad moiazreba gendersa da garkveul Tvisebebs, Cvevebs da qcevebs Soris. genderuli sxvaobebi -- sxvaobebi qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel TvisebaTa da qcevaTa Soris, romelic socialur-kulturul xasiaTs atarebs. praimingis efeqti - procesi, romlis Sedegadac cotaxniswinandeli gancdebi da procesebi aZliereben ama Tu im informaciis misawvdomobas. statusis/warmatebulobis norma _ genderuli stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacis socialuri Rirseba ganisazRvreba misi Semosavlis sididiT da warmatebis xarisxiT samsaxurSi. fizikuri siZlieris norma _ mamakacurobis stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacs unda hqondes didi fizikuri Zala da maRali biologiuri aqtivoba. gonebrivi siZlieris norma -- mamakacurobis stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakaci unda iyos mcodne da kompetenturi. emociuri mdgradobis norma -- mamakacurobis stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacs unda hqondes naklebi grZnobebi da SeeZlos gadawyvitos Tavisi emociuri problemebi damoukideblad. antiqalurobis norma -- stereotipi, romlis mixedviTac mamakacma Tavi unda aaridos specifikurad qalur saqmianobebs da qcevis modelebs. femifobia - es aris mamakacis SiSi, rom igi ar iqnes garSemomyofebisgan Sefasebuli, rogorc qaluri.

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leqciis Semdeg studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi.

seminari #4 (Tema # 4 ) -- 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba jgufuri diskusia seminaris Temaze. kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi: 1. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs genderuli stereotipebis Camoyalibebas? 2. ra zegavlenas axdens genderuli stereotipebi adamianis da sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi? 3. ras niSnavs genderulad tipirebuli adamiani da riTi gansxvavdeba igi genderulad aratipirebuli adamianisagan? 4. rogor vlindeba qalebisa da mamakacebis gansxvavebuli socialuri rolebi? 5. ra SezRudvebs uweserbs tradiciuli ideologia mamakacebs? 6. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs mcire sqesTaSoris sxvaobebis did genderul sxvaobebad gardaqmnas? 7. rogor xsnis genderuli sqemis Teoria genderul iluzorul korelaciebs? 8. rogor ixsneba genderuli iluzoruli korelaciebi qarTuli fsiqologiuri skolis poziciebidan? 9. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs gansxvavebul genderul rolebs sxvadasxva kulturebSi? seminarze gamoyenebuli iqneba, agreTve, SemTxvevis ganxilvis meTodi. kerZod, studentebs daurigdebaT kanadis adamianis uflebebis fondis 22-e saerTaSoriso sesiis masalebSi warmodgenili SemTxvevis aRwera: `sabediswero mdinaris istoria~, romelic ama Tu im kulturaSi genderuli stereotipebis da genderuli rolebis Sefasebas eZRvneba. studentebi individualurad gaecnobian istorias da Semdeg Seafaseben iq warmodgenil personaJebs specialuri Sefasebis kiTxvaris safuZvelze. moxdeba Sedegebis jgufuri ganxilva da Sejameba. jgufuri Sefasebis Semdeg studentebs eZlevaT instruqcia Secvalon sapirispiroTi yoveli personaJis sqesi da amis Semdeg, kidev erTxel Seavson Sefasebis kiTxvari. miRebuli Sedegebi kvlev ganixileba da Sejamdeba erToblivi muSaobis gziT. gakeTdeba genderuli stereotipebis analizi pirveli da meore Sefasebis urTierTSedarebis safuZvelze.

ZiriTadi literatura: 1. Male/Femaile Roles, Jonatan S. petrikin (ed.), Greenhaven press, Inc., 1995, gv.:17-82; 2. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, gv.: 102-144. damatebiTi literatura: 1. Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. ­ in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 334-337; 2. Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 196-218; 3. Male/Femaile Roles, Jonatan S. petrikin (ed.), Greenhaven press, Inc., 1995, gv.: 252-294; 4. Handbook of Marriage and the family, edited by Marrin B. Sussman & Suzann K. Steinmetz, Plenum Press, 1988, gv.: 535-560; 5. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, T. VII; 6. zurikaSvili f. maRraZe g. WaniSvili n. xuciSvili g. jorbenaZe r. konfliqti, genderi da mSvidobis mSenebloba, gaeros ganviTarebis fondi qalTaTvis, Tb., 2003, nawili II.

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kvira #5

leqcia (2 sT)

Tema #5 - ojaxi da sazogadoeba. qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi. kroskulturuli gansxvavebebi.

leqciaze mocemuli iqneba ojaxis mokle istoria, misi gansazRvreba, ojaxisa da sazogadoebis sxva institutebis mimarTeba, ojaxis struqtura, dinamika da funqciebi, colqmruli urTierToba da misi stilebi. ganxiluli iqneba ojaxis tipebis sxvadasxva klasifikaciebi. mokled ganxiluli iqneba qorwinebis Tanamedrove paterebi da agreTve, qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris urTierTobebi germanul, koreul, amerikul da Svedur ojaxebSi.

ojaxi da qorwineba warmoiSva jer kidev pirvelyofil sazogadoebaSi -- Sua paleoliTSi. sazogadoebis ganviTarebasTan erTad ojaxmac ganvlo ganviTarebis araerTi etapi, romlebSic ZiriTadia e.w. wyviladi ojaxi, patriarqalur-monogamuri ojaxi da monogamur-elitaruli ojaxi. mecniereba Tvlis, rom ojaxi sazogadoebis kvaldakval icvleba, magram mas, agreTve, aqvs konservatuli xasiaTic; radgan meyseulad sazogadoebaSi warmoqmnili axali movlenebi maSinve ki ar aisaxeba masSi, aramed _ TandaTanobiT. konservatuloba gamoixateba imaSic, rom yoveli axali periodis azrovneba mistiris wina periodis ojaxis funqcionirebas da ufro srulyofilad miiCnevs mas. azrovneba Znelad iRebs axals. cvlilebis yvela tendencia aRiqmeba, rogorc krizisis, gadagvarebis maCvenebeli. maS rodis iyo ojaxi yvela ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblis mixedviT (Sobadoba, bavSvebis aRzrda, qorwinebis sakiTxebi mogvareba, ojaxis wevriTa ufleba--movaleobebis ganawileba da sxv.) yvelaze srulyofili? aseTi wiaRsvliT Cven mivadgebiT patriarqalur ojaxs da Tanac despoturs! ra gamodis? erTis mxriv yvelaze srulyofili da organizebuli patriarqalur--despoturi ojaxi, meores mxriv, ki dRevandeli Cveni epoqisTvis misi sruli miuRebloba. amitomac ar aris gasakviri, rom dRes ojaxis Sesaxeb SromaTa umetesoba iwyeba ojaxis masStaburi kriziis aRiarebiT. ojaxis gansazRvreba. ra aris ojaxi, rogor ganisazRvreba igi aravisTvis sadavo ar aris, rom ojaxi socialuri institutia; zusti ganmartebisTvis mivmarToT filistimikas -- ojaxis Sesaxeb mecnierebas. mravali ganmartebidan saxelmZRvanelod miRebulia, Semdegi: `ojaxi aris qorwinebisa da sisxlis naTesaobis niadagze Seqmnili socialuri sistema -- mcire jgufi, romlis wevrebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian yofa-cxovrebis erTianobiT, moraluri urTierTpasuxismgeblobiT da urTierTdaxmarebiT. magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT Tanamedrove tendenciebs da gansakuTrebiT dasavleTis sazogadoebis realobas, maSin SeiZleba ufro sagulisxmod gveCvenos Semdegi ganmarteba: `ojaxi aris daqorwinebuli meuRleebi SvilebiT an maT gareSe, an martoxela mSobeli SviliT~. amgvarad, ojaxi aris sazogadoebis ujredi (mcire socialuri jgufi) dafuZnebuli col-qmrul kavSirsa da naTesaur urTierTobebze, anu igi moicavs colqmars Soris, mSoblebsa da Svilebs Soris, debsa da Zmebs Soris da sxva naTesavebs Soris urTierTobebs, urTierTobebs im adamianebs Soris, romlebic erTad cxovroben da uZRvebian saerTo meurneobas. ojaxi asrulebs udides rols, rogorc calkeuli pirovnebis, aseve mTeli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi.

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ojaxi da sazogadoeba. ojaxi socialur--biologiuri warmonaqmnia. mas ganapirobeben, rogorc socialuri, aseve biologiuri moTxovnilebebi (sqesobrivi instiqtebi). swored biofsiqosocialuri moTxovnilebebis damTxvevam warmoqmna socialuri instituti -- qorwineba. qorwineba da ojaxi sazogadoebis keTildReobis da simSvidis garantia. igi sazogadoebis seqsualuri cxovrebis momwesrigebelia, mozardi Taobis socializaciis saSualebaa. Tavis mxriv ki, sazogadoeba uzrunvelyofs ojaxis normaluri funqcionireba- ganviTarebis pirobebs da mis daculobas. sxvadasxva sazogadoebebi aregulirebs qorwinebas da ojaxs, kerZo urTierTobebs wyvilebs Soris. kanoni da kanonmdebloba gansazRvravs imas, Tu vis visTan SeuZlia qorwineba. magaliTad, sxvadasxva sqesis adamianebis garda, zogierT qveyanaSi erTi sqesis adamianebsac aqvT amis ufleba. kanoni gansazRvravs qorwinebis minimalur asaksac. sxvadasxva qveynebis da kulturebis kanonmdebloba da, agreTve, religia gansazRvravs imasac, Tu ramdeni coli SeiZleba yavdes mamakacs, an ramdeni qmari SeiZleba hyavdes qals, agreTve, gayrisa da xelaxali qorwinebis SesaZleblobas. zogi sazogadoeba qorwinebis farglebs gareT sqesobrivi kavSirisaTvisac mkacrad gansjis pirovnebas. amis magaliTebia aRmosavleTis poligamia, afrikis zogierT qveynebSi (magaliTad, burkino fsasoSi) gavrcelebuli poliandria, dasavleTis erTsqesiani ojaxebi. agreTve sagulisxmoa, rom aRmosavleTis qveynebSi qorwineba gacilebiT axalagazrdaa, vidre -- dasavleTSi. aRmosavleTSi qorwinebis saSualo asaki (qalebis) 18 welia. amerikaSi ki -- 25 weli. evropis zog qveyanaSi da skandinaviis qveynebSi ki _ kidev ufro xandazmuli. aRsaniSnavia, rom radgan qorwinebis instituts istoriulad mkacrad patriarquli xasiaTi aqvs, amitom gvari da tituli gadaicema mamakacuri xaziT; es saerToa TiTqmis yvela kulturisaTvis. ojaxis tipebi. cnobilia, rom ojaxis mravali tipologia arsebobs. umetesad tipologiis ZiriTadi kriteriumebia saqorwino wyvilis (ojaxis birTvis) dayofa arseboba-ararsebobis mixedviT da maTi raodenobis mixedviT. gamoyofen patara anu nuklearul (erTi daqorwinebuli wyvili SvilebiT (SviliT) an uSvilod) da rTul ojaxs. rTuli ojaxi arTianebs Semdeg qvetipebs: 1. erTi daqorwinebuli wyvili SviliT (SvilebiT) an uSvilod da erT--erTi meuRlis mSobeli; 2. erTi daqorwinebuli wyvili SviliT (SvilebiT) an uSvilod, erTi meuRlis mSobeli (an mis gareSe) da sxva naTesavebi;d da sxva naTesavebi (an mis gareSe); 3. deda SviliT (SvilebiT) da erT-erTi mSobeli; 4. mama SviliT (SvilebiT) da erT-erTi mSobeli; 5. danarCeni ojaxebi, sadac arian da-Zmebi, bebia-babuebi, sxva naTesavebi da a.S. ojaxis klasifikaciis erT-erTi parametria _ ojaxuri marTvis (xelmZRvanelobis) stili. es ukanaskneli specialur literaturaSi ganisazRvreba, rogorc mSoblebis im qmedebis ragvaroba, romelic miznad isaxavs bavSvebis swor gzaze dayenebas. am klasifikaciis mixedviT, ojaxi oTx ZiriTad tipad (avtoritetuli, avtoritaruli, liberaluri da indiferentuli) iyofa. es klasifikacia xorcieldeba mSoblebis Svilebisadmi gamovlenili kontrolis da maTdami gamoxatuli siTbos mixedviT. mokled davaxasiaTod TiToeuli maTgani. indiferentuli mSobeli gamoirCeva Svilebisadmi kontrolis dabali doniT, maTdami siTbos naklebobiT da ugulisyurobiT. aseTi mSoblebi TavianTi SvilebisTvis ar adgenen TiTqmis aranair SezRudvebs, rac SesaZloa maTi yoveldRiuri problemebiT da Svilebisadmi arasakmarisi interesiT aris ganpirobebuli.

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avtoritetuli mSoblebi axorcieleben Svilebze maRali donis kontrols da amave dros, maTTan aqvT Tbili urTierTobebi. avtoritetuli mSoblebi adgenen TavianTi SvilebisaTvis SezRudvebs da mkacrad icaven maT mier SemuSavebul wesebs, Tumca isini uxsnian TavianT Svilebs am SezRudvis mizezebs, ris gamoc mSoblis qceva Svils ar eCveneba Zalismierad da usamarTlod. avtoritetuli mSoblebis Svilebs aqvT maRali TviTdarwmunebis done, mTlianad akontroleben sakuTar Tavs, arian socialurad kompetenturebi. aseTi mSoblebis Svilebs aqvT maRali TviTSefaseba. maT aqvT maRali akademiuri moswrebis donec. liberaluri mSoblebi axorcieleben Svilis mimarT nakleb kontrols (SezRudvebs) da aqvT Svilisadmi sakmaod Tbili urTierTobebi. isini TiTqmis saerTod ar zRudaven Svilis qcevas da avlenen maTdami e.w. `upirobo siyvaruls~, maSinac ki, roca liberaluri mSoblebi gabrazebulni arian TavianTi Svilis qceviT, cdiloben TavSekavebas. maT axasiaTebT SvilebTan Ria, SeuZRudavi urTierTobebi. avtoritaruli mSoblebi Svilebze axorcieleben Zlier kontrols (adgenen mkacr moTxovnebs da mkacrad moiTxoven maT mier dadgenili wesebis Sesrulebas), rasac Tan erTvis SvilebTan maTi gulwrfelobis da sulieri siaxlovis araseboba da Sesabamisad, ufro civi urTierTobebi. avtoritaruli mSoblebi gacemen brZanebebs da moelian, rom es brZanebebi zustad da usityvod iqneba Sesrulebuli maTi Svilebis mier. aseTi mSoblebis Svilebi, Cveulebriv, Caketilebi, pasiuriebi da nerviulebi arian. umravles SemTxvevebSi, isini imeoreben mSobelTa marTvis stils Tavis momaval ojaxebSi. rogorc vTqviT, ojaxi sazogadoebis birTvia, umniSvnelovanesi formaa piradi yofisa, romelic dafuZnebulia col--qmaris kavSirze da naTesavebis urTierTobebze e.i. colis, qmris, mSoblebis, Svilebis, debis, Zmebis da sxva naTesavebis urTierTobebze, romlebic erTad cxovroben da erT meurneobas ewevian. ojaxi udides rolis TamaSobs, rogorc sazogadoebis, agreTve, calkeuli pirovnebis cxovrebaSi. msoflios mTeli mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 90% cxovrebis am formas -- ojaxi mimarTavs. ojaxis funqciebi, misi struqtura da dinamika. ojaxis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebia: misi funqciebi, struqtura da dinamika. ojaxis funqciebi. funqcia ewodeba ojaxis cxovelqmedebas, romelic dakavSirebulia misi wevrebis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebasTan. ojaxs imdeni funqcia aqvs, ramden moTxovnilebasac (mdgradi, ganmeorebiTi formiT) igi akmayofilebs. ojaxis ZiriTadi funqciebia; 1. aRmzrdelobiTi funqcia. is gamoixateba dedobis da mamobis individualur moTxovnilebaSi, bavSvebTan kontaqtis moTxovnilebaSi. am funqciis Sesrulebas ojaxi uzrunvelyofs mozardi Taobis socializacias; 2. sameurneo yofiTi funqcia. es funqcia mdgomareobs ojaxis materialuri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebaSi (sakvebi, sacxovrebeli, tansacmeli da a.S.) am funqciis SesrulebiT ojaxi axdens Sromis dros daxarjuli fizikuri Zalebis aRdgenas; 3. emociuri funqcia es aris urTierTpativiscemis, siTbos, siyvarulis, daculobis, simpaTiis da aRiarebis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba. am funqciis SesrulebiT ojaxi sazogadoebis wevrTa emociur stabilurobas uzrunvelyofs; 4. pirveladi socialuri kontrolis funqcia. am funqciis meSveobiT ojaxi uzrunvelyofs ojaxis wevrebis mier socialuri normebis Sesrulebas. gansakuTrebiT es

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exeba ojaxis im wevrebs, romelTac damoukideblad ar SeuZlia amis ganxorcieleba asakobrivi Tu avadmyofobis da sxva mizezebis gamo; 5. seqsualur-erotikuli funqcia. es aris ojaxis wevrTa seqsualuri moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebis funqcia. am funqciis Sesruleba mniSvnelovania, radgan uzrunvelyofs sazogadoebis biologiur kvlavwarmoebas. rac Seexeba ojaxis funqciebis moSlas, mas SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos mravalma faqtorma _ ojaxis wevrTa pirovnulma Taviseburebebma da wevrTa Soris urTierTobebma, yofiTma problemebma, mSobelTa gaurkvevlobam (uvicobam) aRzrdis sakiTxebSi, gareSe pirTa Carevam ojaxis saqmeebSi da a.S. ojaxis struqtura. ojaxis struqturaSi Sedis: ojaxis wevrebis raodenoba, maTi erTianoba da urTierTobebi. struqturis analizi gvaZlevs informacias imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra saxiT xdeba ojaxis funqciaTa realizeba -- vin xelmZRvanelobs da vin eqvemdebareba, rogor aris ganawilebuli movaleobebi ojaxSi. struqturis mixedviT, ganasxvaveben erTi piris xelmZRvanelobis qveS myof ojaxebs da ojaxebs, sadac wevrebi Tanabar monawileobas iReben marTvaSi. pirvel SemTxvevaSi ojaxis avtoritarul sistemaze laparakoben, meore SemTxvevaSi ki -- demokratiulze. ojaxebs ganasxvaveben, agreTve, wevrTa Soris movaleobaTa ganawilebis mixedviT. am TvalsazrisiT, gamoyofen ojaxebs, sadac movaleobebi Tanabaradaa ganawilebuli wevrTa Soris da ojaxebs, sadac ojaxis erT wevrs sxvebTan SedarebiT Warbi movaleobebi gaCnia. ojaxis struqturis rRvevis mizezi SeiZleba gaxdes ojaxis wevrebs Soris movaleobebis ganawilebaSi mkveTri asimetriuloba, radgan zedmeti datvirTva mavnebelia fizikuri da fsiqikuri janmrTelobisTvis (gadatvirTvis Sedegad SeiZleba veRar moxerxdes am Zalebis aRdgena). ojaxis dinamika. ojaxis funqciebi da struqtura SeiZleba icvlebodes (Seicvalos) cxovelqmedebis sxvadasxva etapebze. arsebobs ojaxis sasicocxlo mTliani ciklis etapebis gamoyofis gansxvavebuli sistemebi. gansakuTrebiT gavrcelebulia `stadiebis~ sistema, sadac stadiebis gamoyofis kriteriumad ojaxSi bavSvebis arseboba da maTi asaki aris miCneuli. arsebobs mTeli rigi periodizaciebisa, magaliTad, W.Cove--es (1973) da A.Barcai (1981)--is Raush--is (1974). Cven SevCerdebiT diuvalis (Duvall E.M. - 1957) periodizaciaze. diuvalma ojaxis sasicocxlo ciklSi gamoyo Semdegi fazebi: 1. CarTuloba. meuRlesTan Sexvedra da emociuri miziduloba; 2. mSoblis axali rolis miReba da ganviTareba; 3. axali pirovnebis miReba ojaxSi. diaduri urTierTobebidan samkuTxa urTierTobebze gadasvla; 4. bavSvebis Seyvana ojaxis gare institutebSi; 5. mozardobis xanis miReba; 6. damoukideblobis eqsperimenti; 7. bavSvebis ojaxidan wasvlis faqtis miRebisTvis mzadeba; 8. bavSvebis ojaxidan wasvla da meuRleebis marto darCena; 9. pensiaze gasvlis faqtis da siberis miReba. unda avRniSnoT, rom ojaxis ganviTarebis yovel fazaze SeiZleba aRmocendes mZime qronikuli avadmyofoba an sikvdili, rac did zegavlenas axdens ojaxis funqcionirebaze. rac Seexeba ojaxis disfunqcionirebas (funqcionirebis moSlas), amis mizezebi SeiZleba iyos: partnioris araswori arCeva, mSoblebis ojaxTan zedmetad mWidro kavSiri (yvela sakiTxebis SeTanxmeba) Ralati da kulturuli normebis Seusabamoba da sxv.

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colqmruli urTierToba da misi stilebi. warmatebuli qorwineba lederesis da jeksonis azriT, xasiaTdeba Semdegi niSnebiT: tolerantuloba, urTierTpativiscema, patiosneba, erTad yofnis survili, interesebisa da faseulobaTa sistemis Tanxvedra. colqmruli (wyvilTa) urTierTobebis ganviTareba-Camoyalibebas gaaCnia fazebi. mecnieruli literaturis analizis Sedegad SeiZleba gamoiyos Semdegi fazebi: 1) partnioris arCeva, 2) urTierTobebis romantizireba (roca wyvili mxolod Rirsebebs xedavs erTmaneTSi), 3) colqmruli urTierTobis stilis individualizacia: urTierTobebis wesebis formireba. (es wesebi gansazRvraven Semdgom urTierTobebs da qmedebebs ojaxSi), 4) urTierTobaTa stabiluroba/cvalebadoba. mravali gamocdis Sedegad meuRleebi cdiloben wonasworobis miRwevas. normalur ojaxebSi stabilurobis tendencia wonaswordeba cvalebadobis tendenciiT da 5) egzistencialuri Sefaseba (erToblivi cxovrebis Sefaseba (ojaxuri cxobrebiT da urTierTobebiT kmayofileba--ukmayofileba). bolo drois publikaciebSi gansakuTrebiT mwvaved dgeba ojaxis krizisis sakiTxi, ganixilaven mis SesaZlo mizezebs. wyvilTa Soris urTierTobebis cvlilebebs aqvs Zalian rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTi. frangi mkvlevris elizabed badenteris azriT, es imitom xdeba, rom: `arasodes ar yofilan mamakacebi da qalebi ase msgavsebi rogorc dRes. sqesebs Soris arasodes ar yofila aseTi mcire kontrasti~. qorwinebis Tanamedrove paterebi. Tanamedrove mdgomareobas (situacias) Tu gadavxedavT, aRmovaCenT, rom qorwinebaSi Tanaarsebobis bevri paterni (modeli) arsebobs. am paternebis klasificireba SeiZleba sam ZiriTad tipad. esenia: tradiciuli, modernuli da egalitaruli. aseTi tipizacia eyrdnoba sam ZiriTad maxasiaTebels: Zalauflebis ganawiolebas, specialuri rolebis gansazRvras da ojaxSi aqtivobis wvlilis dozas. tradiciulia ojaxi, Tu orive col--qmari Tanaxmaa,rom qmars hqondes meti Zalaufleba da avtoriteti anu, sxvagvarad, rom vTqvaT qmari iyos ojaxis `Tavi~. modernulia ojaxi, Tu coli muSaobs ojaxis gareTac, magram urTierTSeTanxmebis safuZvelze misi saqmianoba nakleb mniSvnelovania, vidre qmris qmari mainc mTavari Semomtania, xolo qali exmareba ojaxis ekonomikas. egalitarulia ojaxi, Tu col--qmars aqvs Tanabari Zalaufleba da maTi ojaxis gareT saqmianobac, xSirad Tanabaria. isini erTmaneTs uTanxmeben yvelafers, bavSvebis aRzrdaSic Tanabrad monawileoben. eseTi ojaxebi ufro iSviaTia. gansakuTrebuli yuradrebis Rirsia ojaxebi ayvanili bavSvebiT da Svilobilad ayvanili bavSvebiT. arsebobs bevri wyvili, romlebic dedobis da mamaobis krizisis winaSe dganan (magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi yoveli eqvsi wyvilidan erTi unayofoa). es krizisi romelime maTganis an orives unayofobis gamo Cndeba. unayofobis mizezebi mravalgvaria. Tanamedrove msoflioSi arsebobs misi daZlevis gzebic (saSualebebic): meuRlis spermis xelovnuri gadanergva, donoris spermiT daorsuleba, in-vitro ganayofiereba, xelovnuri embrionalizacia da surogatuli dedebis daxmareba. Tu yvela es saSualeba uSedegoa an arasasurvelia, wyvils SeuZlia mimarTos sxva gzas -- es aris bavSvis ayvana (Svileba). unayofo wyvilebi am gzas xSirad mimarTaven. am gzas mimarTaven isinic, visac surT ojaxis gafarToeba da sakuTari Svilebis garda ayvanili Svilebis gazrdac. bolo wlebSi bavSvebis ayvanaze gacilebiT ufro meti moTxovnilebaa, vidre aseTi

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bavSvebi arseboben realurad (es, cxadia, exeba ganviTarebul qveynebs). bavSvTa ayvanis ZiriTadi, legaluri wyaro bavSvTa saxlebia. am saxlebSi umetesad iseTi bavSvebi xvdebian, romlebsac dedebi qorwinebis gareSe aCenen. bavSvis ayvanis procesi sakmaod rTul procedurebs moicavs. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom bavSvis gaSvilebis Sesaxeb saboloo gadawyvetilebas bavSvis biologiuri mSoblebi (an deda, mamis aryolis SemTxvevaSi) iReben. arsebobs bavSvTa ayvanis specialuri komitetebi. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis monacemebiT, yovel wels 2 milion wyvils aqvs bavSvis ayvanis survili, realurad amis ganxorcielebas ki 50 aTasi wyvili axrexebs. sirTule mxolod bavSvis ayvanis procesSi ar mdgomareobs. SemdgomSi mSoblebs gadasawyveti uxdebaT kidev erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi -- uTxran Tu ara bavSvs maTi biologiuri mSoblebis arsebobis Sesaxeb, anu gaagebinon Tu ara, rom isini ayvanilni arian. Tumca bavSvTa uflebebis konvenciis mixedviT, bavSvs aqvs ufleba icodes, Tu vin arian misi biologiuri mSoblebi. problemuria, agreTve, sakiTxi _ bavSvisaTvis maTi biologiuri mSoblebis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodebisaTvis swori asakisa da formis SerCeva. Svilobilobis instituti Svilad ayvanisagan radikalurad gansxvavebuli institutia. saqme isaa, rom Svilad ayvanis dros bavSvi ojaxis sruluflebiani wevri xdeba rogorc uflebrivad, aseve iuridiulad (mas aqvs memkvidreobis ufleba, atarebis ojaxis gvars da a.S.). rac Seexeba Svilobilobis instituts, igi dafuZnebulia bavSvis uflebaze gaizardos ojaxSi. miCneulia, rom es instituti bavSvTa saxlTan SedarebiT ukeTesad axerxebs bavSvis am uflebis realizacias. bavSvi garkveuli procedurebis gavlis Semdeg bavSvTa saxlidan gadaecema ojaxs aRsazrdelad da amiT igi uzrunvelyofilia ojaxuri garemoTi. magram mas ar aqvs am ojaxis memkvidreobaze iuridiuli ufleba. ojaxuri Sromis sqesis niSniT ganawileba. istoriulad ise Camoyalibda, rom qalebi da mamakacebi sxvadasxva saqmes asruleben. samuSao mTel msoflioSi sqesis niSniT aris ganawilebuli, magram sxvadasxva kulturebSi Sromis ganawileba sqesTa Soris gansxvavebulia. genderulad ganawilebul SromiT saqmianobaSi CarTva mozardobidan iwyeba: magaliTad, meqsikaSi, salvadorSi, argentinaSi, peruSi, samxreT afrikaSi, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi da pakistanSi: gogonebi ZiriTadaT amzadeben saWmels, alageben, recxaven, uvlian patara bavSvebs; biWebi ki -- dakavebuli arian `quCis~ saqmiT: exmarebian ezoSi, baRSi. rogorc aRvniSneT, Sromis ganawileba sqesis niSniT erTgvarovani ar aris sxvadasxva qveynebSi, ase magaliTad, senegalSi brinjis mindvrebs qalebi uvlian, siera--lioneSi ki -- mamakacebi. centralur afrikaSi soflis meurneobiT qalebi arian dakavebuli, laTinur amerikaSi ki -- mamakacebi. miuxedavad am gansxvavebebisa, nebismier sazogadoebaSi saxlis saqmes ZiriTadad mainc qalebi asruleben. agreTve, bavSvis movla-aRzrdiTac umetesad qalebi arian dakavebuli. mTels msoflioSi Cveulebrivi movlenaa saxlis gareT momuSave qalebis mier saojaxo saqmis sakuTar Tavze aRebac. es gansakuTrebiT mkveTrad daikvirveba yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebSi, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, izraelSi, saberZneTsa da SveicariaSi. ojaxis kroskulturuli sxvaobebi. ojaxis struqturis, dianmikis, colqmrul urTierTobebis kroskulturuli gansxvavebebis gasarkvevad mivmarToT: germaniis, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis, koreis da SvedeTis magaliTebs.

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germania. 50--70--ian wlebSi, germaniaSi daingra qali -- diasaxlisis myari stereotipi, romelic damyarebuli iyo wina periodis ideologiaze, romlis mixedviTac qalis funqcia gamoixateboda sami --Ti (samzareulo, bavSvebi, eklesia. germanulad samive sityva asoTi iwyba). Zveli stereotipis msxvreva moxda qveynis industrializaciis da mravali samuSao adgilis gaCenis Sedegad. am TvalsazrisiT metad mniSvnelovani iyo, agreTve, feministuri moZraobis pirveli talRac. axali aqtivoba qalebs aZlevda TviTrealizaciis, sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebis da ekonomikuri damoukideblobis saSualebas. magram es yvelaferi qalebisaTvis didi tvirTi iyo, radgan ojaxis movla kvlavac qals awva mxrebze. qali ormagi datvirTviT Sromobs, ojaxis Tavi da mTavari marCenali ki kvlav mamakacia. aRsaniSnavia, rom germania aris industriuli da umaRles doneze urbanizebuli saxelmwifo. urbanizaciam da, agreTve, saxelmwifo socialuri uzrunvelyofis rolis zrdam TandaTanobiT 70--ian wlebidan moyolebuli, mraval socialur fenas mouxsna ekonomikuri problemebi. amitom moixsna gafarTovebuli ojaxis saWiroeba, romelic ekonomikuri funqciis Sesasruleblad iyo mizanSewonili. amis Sedegad yvela Taobas gauCnda calke cxovrebis moTxovnileba da SesaZlebloba. nuklearuli ojaxis magivrad Cdeba ojaxis sxva variantebi: arasruli dedobrivi an mamobrivi ojaxi (erTi mSobeli da erTi an ramodenime Svili) meore (ganmeorebiT) qorwinebis ojaxi, sadac axali wyvili cxovrobs wina qorwinebis SvilTan an SvilebTan erTad, uSvilo ojaxi. gaxSirda, agreTve, iseTi ojaxebic, romlebsac Secvlili sqesobriv--realuri ganwyobebi axasiaTebT (sadac qali muSaobs da ojaxis marCenalia, qmari ki dakavebulia saojaxo saqmianobiT). magram unda aRiniSnos, rom rolebis aseTi cvlileba ZiriTadaT droebiT xasiaTs atarebs, radgan maT safuZvlad udevs praqtikuli motivebi -- cols karieris ukeTesi Sansi aqvs da bavSvis gaCenisas qmari iRebs diasaxlisis funqcias, raTa es Sansi ar daikargos. Tanamedrove germaniaSi partniorebs Soris jer kidev qorwinebamde yalibdeba da Tanmdeba momavali ojaxuri cxovrebis perspeqtivebi. germanul ojaxSi partnioruli urTierTobebis ramdenime varianti arsebobs, amaTgan yvelaze gavrcelebulia (bolo aTwleulebSi), ojaxuri urTierTobebis iseTi forma, roca meuRleebi, orive muSaoben da bavSvis movlas da ojaxur saqmes Tanabrad inawileben. unda aRiniSnos, rom es modeli yvelaze optimaluria konfliqtebis da stresebis asacileblad. unda iTqvas isic, rom misi ganxorcieleba germaniaSi imitom aris SesaZlebeli, rom saojaxo yofa aq uaRresad meqanizirebulia sayofacxovrebo teqnikis saSualebiT. arsebobs partnioruli urTierTobis iseTi variantic, roca qalic da mamakacic Tanabrad aris datvirTuli, rogorc samsaxurSi, aseve ojaxSic, magram ojaxis saqme TiToeulisTvis mkacrad gansazRvrulia, e.i. ojaxis yvela wevri TavisTvis irCevs garkveul saqmes. arsebobs, mesame, patriarqalur-tradiciuli variantic, sadac qali da mamakaci gansxvavebul funqciebs asruleben; mamakaci -- ojaxis materialurad uzrunvelmyofelia, qali ki -- deda da diasaxlisia. Tanamedrove germaniaSi ojaxis samive varianti arsebobs. aqve yuradReba unda gavamaxviloT germanul axalgazrdobaSi bolo dros arsebul tendenciaze. es aris faseulobiTi orientaciis Secvla. axalgazrdebi uars amboben ufrosi Taobis faseulobebze da materialuri keTildReobisa da sazogadoebrivi statusis nacvlad TviTaqtualizaciasa da TviTdamkvidrebas aRiareben. isini `Tavad zrdian sakuTar Tavs~. dRes axalgazrda germaneli qalebi ar Tvlian, rom ojaxi ufro prioritetulia, vidre kariera, romelic maT avtonomiurobas aZlevs mSoblebis da qmris mimarT. aRsaniSnavia, rom germaniaSi bolo dros Zalian gaxSirda gviani qorwinebebi (30--40

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wlis asakSi) ojaxs qmnian karieris da materialuri siZlieris Semdgom, rac TavisTavad gavlenas axdens Sobadobaze. korea. gavrcelebuli mosazrebis mixedviT, koreuli ojaxi Zalian konservatuli da stabiluri institutia. (saSualo asakis mosaxleobis 99% daojaxebulia, Zalian iSviaTia gayris SemTxvevebi) unda aRiniSnos rom keTildReobisa da sazogadoebis harmoniuli ganviTarebis es suraTi Zalian Sors aris idealurisagan, radgan sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom ojaxi koreaSi konfuciuri ideologiis modelis Sesabamisad arsebobs, sadac umcrosi mkacrad eqvemdebareba ufross. gamoyofen e.w. koreul tradiciul ojaxs, sadac qmris da misi mSoblebis mbrZanebloba mkacrad aris daculi. aseT ojaxSi akrZalulia col-qmris gayrac. aseTi ideologia koreaSi Cosonis dinastiis bolosaTvis (1392--1910) damyarda. manamde ki, rogor mecnierebi mogviTxroben, ojaxi gacilebiT ufro msubuqi (Tavisufali) iyo. magaliTad, cols daqvrivebis SemTxvevaSi SeeZlo qmris qoneba mieRo da xelmeored gaTxoviliyo. daSvebuli iyo poligamiac. es viTareba SeSfoTebis iwvevda mezobel Cinel komfucianelebs Soris, amitomac maTi ZalixmeviT da Cosonis dinastiis daxmarebiT 1392 wlidan moyolebuli, koreaSi situacia TandaTan Seicvala. dawesda axali kanonebi, romelTa meSveobiTac koreuli ojaxi sabolood moeqca komfucianuri modelis CarCoebSi. mecnierebi da mkvlevrebi XX saukunis koreeli qalis funqcias utoleben STamomavlobis Semqmnel instruments. koreel qals yvelanairi Cagvra da damcireba unda aetana qmrisgan da misi mSoblebisgan. sazogadoebis mxridan isjeboda is qmaric, romelic loialuri iyo colis mimarT. dRevandel, Tanamedrove koreaSi Zaladobis suraTi sagrZnoblad Seicvala. qveyanaSi Seiqmna (gaCnda) Zaladobis msxverplTa reabilitaciis centrebi. koreeli qali CaerTo samsaxurSi, Tumca garkveuli SezRudviT -- gaTxovebamde da Svilebis zrdasruli asakis miRwevis Semdeg. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 60--80--iani wlebis koreis respublikaSi moxda tradiciuli ojaxis struqturis ngreva da daiwyo qmari--coli = morCilebas sibrtyidan Tanabari partniorobis sibrtyeze TandaTanobiT gadasvla. amerikis SeerTebul Statebi. tradiciulad amerikel mamakacebs konkurentuli xasiaTis Tvisebebi moewerebodaT: ambiciuroba, avtoritaruloba, Zalauflebis moyvareoba, Seupovroba, damoukidebloba, Tavdajerebuloba, TviTkontroli, aqtiuroba, warmatebis survili, gambedaoba, logikuri azrovneba da uxeSi xasiaTi. gansakuTrebiT fasobda mamakaci, romelmac `TviTon Seqmna Tavis Tavi~ (Self-made man). etalonis Sesabamisad mamakacis emociuri sfero daiyvaneboda imaze, rom mas SeeZlo mxolod qalis mxridan gamovlenili grZnobebis miReba, Tavad ki ar yofiliyo amis iniciatori. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi XX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi, gansakuTrebiT ki 30ian wlebSi, didi depresiis dros, moxda mniSvnelovani cvlileba, gaCnda umuSevar mamakacTa didi armia, ramac Searyia Zlieri mamakacis stereotipi. gaxSirda gayrebi. saxlSi darCenilma umuSevarma mamakacebma daiwyes saojaxo saqmeebSi meti monawileobis miReba, gansakuTrebiT ki _ bavSvebis aRzrdaSi. meore msoflio omis Semdgomma ekonomikurma warmatebebma Sveba moutanes Semdgom Taobebs. magram mamakacis tradiciuli stereotipi ukve Seryeuli iyo, amis Sedegad ki warmoiSva mamakacebis Semdegi `tipaJebi~: Zlieri mdumare mama, rbili galanturi `don-- Juani~, meocnebe mamakaci da moxdenili warmatebaze orientirebuli `biWunebi~ wina Taobidan nasesxebi TvisebebiT. 50--iani wlebis amerikeli mamakacebis orientacia iyo

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profesionaluri warmatebis da materialuri keTildReobis miRweva. amerikeli mamakaci isev ojaxis ufrosi da marCenali iyo, sadac samsaxuridan dabrunebuls, mosiyvarule col-Svili xvdeboda. petersonis azriT, 50-iani wlebis amerikuli, kapitalisturi ojaxis funqcionirebis optimaluri modelia -- `instrumentaluri~ mama da `eqspresiuli~ deda. 60--iani wlebidan, rogorc m. midi aRniSnavs, amerikeli mamakacis roli ganicdis cvlilebas. mamakaci metad erTveba ojaxis saqmianobaSi, gansakuTrebiT bavSvebis aRzrdaSi. yalibdeba Tanabari mSoblobis idea. amerikeli mamakacis Tasnamedrove stereotipSi aucilebel kolmponentad Sedis `kargi mamoba~. 70--80--iani wlebSi aRmocenda axali, mgrZnobiare da eqspresuli mamakacis koncefciac. es ganwyoba dResac grZeldeba. am dros amerikelebis cxovrebiseul (yofiT) filosofiaSi Semovida androginulobis cnebac. genderuli stereotipebis cvlilebaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana mZlavrma feministurma moZraobamac. 90--iani wlebidan moyolebuli, amerikeli qalebi sul ufro metad momTxovni xdebian kacebis mimarT. ojaxis institutSi momxdari am mniSvnelovani cvlilebebis miuxedavad amerikeli ojaxebis umetesoba Tavis keTildReobas mainc mamakacis (qmris) samuSao statusis mixedviT afasebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom qals (cols) SeiZleba meti Semosavali qondes, Tanamedrove amerikaSi ojaxis ekonomiur mdgomareobaze pasuxismgebloba kvlavac mamakacis prioritetia. sainteresoa amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi sxvadasxva wlebSi Catarebuli gamokvlevebis Sedegebis Sedareba. kerZod, 1938 wlis monacemebiT yoveli xuTi gamokiTxulidan mxolod erTs miaCnda misaRebad, rom `gaTxovil qals emuSava biznesSi an warmoebaSi, isic im pirobiT, rom mis qmars SeuZlia misi Senaxva~. 1993 wels niuportis (Newport) mier Catarebuli gamokvlevis monacemebis mixedviT, qalis aseTi tipi misaRebad miaCnda gamokiTxuli amerikelebis 83%-s. amasTan, mniSvnelovania 1990 wels catarebuli gamokvlevis monacemebi, romlis mixedviTac respodentebis erT mesameds miaCnda, rom bavSvebisaTvis `idealuri ojaxuri situaciaa, roca mama muSaobs, deda ki saxlSia da bavSvebis movliT aris dakavebuli~. 1967 wels Catarebuli gamokvlevis Sedegebi gviCveneben, rom amerikeli pirvelkurselebis 57% daeTanxma debulebas, rom `ukeTesi iqneba, Tu qalis saqmianoba Semofargleba saxliTa da ojaxiT~, xolo 1994 wels am debulebas daeTanxma amerikeli pirvelkurselebis mxolod 25%. aRsaniSnavia, rom amerikaSi ar moqmedebs ojaxTa da bavSvTa uzrunvelyofis iseTi sistemebi, rogorica saxelmwifo daxmarebebi bavSvebze, specialuri Svebulebebi da sxv. amitom Tanamedrove amerikaSi ojaxis Seqmnasa da bavSvebis yolas didi sifrTxiliT ekidebian. Cveulebriv ojaxs qmnian karieris da materialuri siZlieris Semdgom. aq gavrcelebulia sakmaod gviani qorwinebebi (35--40 wlis asakSi). es ki TavisTavad gavlenas axdens Sobadobaze. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia SvedeTis ojaxi da XIX s. bolos misi tradiciidan egalitalurisken ganviTarebis faqtorebi. jer kidev XIX s. dasawyisSi Sveduri sazogadoeba ojaxSi genderuli rolebis ganawilebis TvalsazrisiT tradiciuli wyobis iyo. qalebi dakavebulni iyvnen diasaxlisobiT da bavSvebis aRzrdiT. SvedeTSi am droisaTvis qorwineba oficialuri kanonmdeblobiT da uklesiiT damowmebuli iyo. gameorebiTi qorwineba, isic iSviaTad, meuRlis gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi xdeboda. mcire iyo, agreTve, gayrebis ricxvic. ojaxebi cxovrobdnen did ganuyofel ojaxebSi (mSoblebi, Svilebi, SviliSvilebi) didi ojaxi erTad muSaobda fermebSi. SvedeTSi warmoebis ganviTarebam da industrializaciis procesma gamoiwvia did

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qalaqebSi samuSao Zalis gadineba. Sedegad mamakacebma qalaqebs miaSures da mTeli saojaxo meurneoba qalebis anabara darCa. Svedi mkvlevrebis TvalsazrisiT, bolo dros ojaxis institutma Zlieri saxecvla ganicada. es pirvel rigSi ganpirobebulia qveyanaSi mimdinare socialur-ekonomikuri cvlilebebiT. XX s. 90-iani wlebisaTvis Sveduri ojaxi, rogorc wesi, Sedgeba momuSave mSoblebisgan da bavSvebisgan. XXI s. dasawyisSi gaCenili bavSvebis 90%-s dedebi diasaxlisebi hyavdaT, maSin roca XX s. bolosaTvis momuSave dedebis ricxvma 90%-s miaRwia. es aris evropaSi yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli qalebis da saxlis gareT dasaqmebis TvalsazrisiT. Sveduri ojaxis aseT transformacias xeli Seuwyo ojaxis mxardaWeraze mimarTulma saxelmwifo politikam. pirvel rigSi, es mxardaWera mdgomareobda bavSvebis movlis saxelmwifo sistemis (baga--baRebi, gaxangrZlivebuli klasebi skolaSi da sxv.) da socialuri dazRvevis sistemis (sxvadasxva Semweobebis gadaxdis, maT Soris bavSvTa daxmarebis) CamoyalibebSi. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqca martoxela dedebis mxardWeris programebs; mcirewlovani bavSvebis mSoblebisaTvis SemoRebul iqna moqnili samuSao grafiki da sxv. am faqtorebma ganapiroba Sobadobis mkveTri zrda SvedeTSi. amgvarad, Sved qalebs SeeqmnaT muSaobisa da materialuri damokidebulobisaTvis keTilsasurveli pirobebi. aman ki Tavis mxriv, gamoiwvia tradiciuli Sveduri ojaxis transformacia, da tradiciuli colqmruli urTierTobebis egalitarulisken cvlileba. Tanamedrove SvedeTSi gavrcelebulia iseTi ojaxebic, romlebSic coli da qmari oficialurad qorwinebaSi ar imyofebian. aseTi ojaxebi sambos (sambo Tanamcxovreblebis) saxeliTaa cnobili. sambos tipis ojaxebi da maTSi gazrdili Svilebi sul ufro da ufro normalur movlenad iTvleba SvedeTSi. isini ufro xSirad gvxvdeba axalgazrdebSi da did qalaqebSi. zogadad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tanamedrove SvedeTSi arsebobs oficialurad daregistrirebuli qorwinebebis Semcirebis tendencia. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom oficialuri da sambos tipis ojaxebi Tanasworuflebiani da TanabarmniSvnelovania rogorc saxelmwifosTvis, aseve sazogadoebisTvis. es mxolod mcire nawilia im saxesxvaobebisa, romelic ojaxuri cxovrebis (mowyobis) stilebs Soris arsebobs msoflio kulturebSi.

saleqcio kursis bolos studentebs miewodebaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

filistimika -- mecniereba ojaxis Sesaxeb; monogamia -- erTcolianoba; polgamia -- mravalcolianoba; poliandria -- mravalqmrianoba; nuklearuli ojaxi -- ojaxis tipi, sadac mTavari birTvi dauSlelia (col--qmari). rTuli ojaxi -- ojaxis tipi, romelic moicavs ramdenime Taobas da maT ojaxebs. egalitaruli ojaxi -- ojaxi, sadac qalebi da mamakacebi Tanabari uflebebiT sargebloben da maT Tanabari pasuxismgeblobebi aqvT ojaxur cxovrebaSi;

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tradiciulia ojaxi _ ojaxi, romelSic orive col--qmari Tanaxmaa,rom qmars hqondes meti Zalaufleba da avtoriteti. modernulia ojaxi _ ojaxi, romelSic coli muSaobs ojaxis gareTac, magram urTierTSeTanxmebis safuZvelze misi saqmianoba nakleb mniSvnelovania, vidre qmris qmari mainc mTavari Semomtania, xolo qali exmareba ojaxis ekonomikas. indiferentuli tipis ojaxi - mSobelebi gamoirCevian Svilebisadmi kontrolis dabali doniT, maTdami siTbos naklebobiT da ugulisyurobiT. avtoritetuli tipis ojaxi - mSoblebi axorcieleben Svilebze maRali donis kontrols da amave dros, maTTan aqvT Tbili urTierTobebi. liberaluri tipis ojaxi - mSoblebi axorcieleben Svilis mimarT mcire donis kontrols (SezRudvebs) da aqvT Svilisadmi sakmaod Tbili urTierTobebi. avtoritaruli tipis ojaxi - mSoblebi Svilebze axorcieleben maRali donis kontrols, rasac Tan erTvis SvilebTan maTi gulwrfelobis da sulieri siaxlovis araseboba. komfucionalisturi -- Cineli filosofosis komfuciis moZRvrebaze dayrdnobili ideologia. eqspresiuli roli -- socialuri roli, romelic Cveulebriv qalebs miewerebaT da is ojaxis emociuri klimatis balansSi, ojaxis wevrebis mimarT gamovlenil zrunvasa da siyvarulSi gamoixateba. instrumentuli roli - roli, romelic Cveulebriv mamakacebs miewerebaT da is sakuTari ojaxisa da sxva socialuri jgufebis urTierTobebis mogvarebaSi, ojaxis Senaxvasa da dacvaSi vlindeba.

leqciis Semdeg studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi. maT, agreTve, miecemaT Semdegi davalebebi seminarisTvis: 1) nebismieri 5--10 ojaxi SeadareT erTmaneTs, gansazRvreT ra tipisaa. 2) ganixileT sakuTari ojaxi sqesTa Soris Sromis ganawilebis mixedviT. 3) Tqveni nacnobi ramdenime axalgazrda wyvilis urTierTobebi ganixileT da miakuTvneT romelime models.

seminari #5 (Tema # 5) -- 2 sT

seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; gaimarTeba jgufuri diskusia seminaris Temaze. kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi: 1. ra mimarTebaa ojaxsa da sazogadoebas Soris? 2. CamoTvaleT ojaxis ZiriTadi funqciebi. 3. ojaxis ra da ra tipebi iciT? ra principebze SeiZleba iyos agebuli ojaxis klasifikacia? 4. ra gansxvavebaa ojaxebs Soris marTvis stilis mixedviT? 5. ra ZiriTad fazebad SeiZleba daiyos ojaxis sasicoxlo cikli? 6. moiyvaneT sqesTa Soris Sromis ganawilebis araerTgvarovnebis magaliTebi sxvadasxva kulturaSi. 7. ra tipis ojaxebi gvxvdeba Tanamedrove germaniaSi?

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8. ra TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeboda XIX--XX sauk. koreuli ojaxi? 9. ra mimarTulebiT Seicvala 60--iani wlebidan amerikuli mamakacis roli? 10. ra tipis ojaxebia gavrcelebuli SvedeTSi? 11. ra faqtorebma Seuwyves xeli SvedeTSi ojaxis institutis transformacias? seminarze moxdeba, agreTve, Sesrulebuli davalebis ganxilva.

ZiriTadi literatura: 1. Handbook of Marriage and the family, edited by Marrin B. Sussman & Suzann K. Steinmetz, Plenum Press, 1988, p.:13-38, 309-327, 439-474; 2. Leslie G. R., Korman S.K. The Family in Social Context, NY . Oxford University Press, 1989, p.: 81111, 462-470; damatebiTi literatura: 1. Families in Multicultural Perspective, edited by Bron B. Ingoldsby, Suzanna Smith, The Guilford Press, 1992, gv.: 205-236; 2. Best D. L., Williams I. E. Gender and culture. ­ in Culture and Psychology, edited by David Matsumoto. Oxford University press, 2001, gv.: 323-326, 332-334; 3. Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 100-122; 4. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, gv.: 313-336; 336-400; 5. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, T. VII; 6. Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, T. 8; 7. Barbara Reskin, Irene Padavic, Women and Men at Work, Pine Forge Press, 1994, gv.: 165-180;

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kvira #6

leqcia (2 sT), seminari (2 sT)

Tema #6 - genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi. Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi sxvadasxva kulturaSi.

leqciaze ganxiluli iqneba genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi. kerZod, mocemuli iqneba sxvadasxva qveynebis monacemebi qalTa uflebrivi mdgomareobis, qalTa pilitikuri aqtivobis da Sromis bazarze maT warmomadgenlobis TvalsazrisiT, moyvanili iqneba qalTa dabali Semosavlebis mizezebis sxvadasxva gavrcelebuli axsnebi. ganxiluli iqneba genderuli stratifikaciis faqtorebi. moyvanili iqneba socialuri samarTlianobis koncefcia. `SuSis Weris~ (Glass ceiling) cneba da qalTa dabali statusis axsnis gavrcelebuli variantebi. ganxiluli iqneba genderuli sociluri konstruqtivizmis Teoria da misi mecnieruli wanamZRvrebi, genderis gageba am Teoriis farglebSi da misi politikuri miznebi.

me-20 saukuneSi qalebma miaRwies xmis uflebas arCevnebSi, aseve bevr qveyanaSi maT moipoves ufleba iyvnen arCeulni arCeviT Tanamdebobebze, Tundac potenciurad. qalebma miaRwies maTi uflebebis ganmtkicebas sakanonmdeblo donezec. qalebma miaRwies imasac, rom maTTvis gaizarda ganaTlebisa da jandacvis xelmisawvdomoba. qalTa uflebebis CamoyalibebiTa da maTi adamianis uflebebTan mierTebiT miaRwies imasc, rom msoflio ganviTarebis politikaSi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs genderul problematikas. miuxedavad amisa, gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom arsebobs mkveTrad gamoxatuli qalTa uTanasworoba yvelaferSi, rac exeba samuSaos, Sromis anazraurebas, statuss da Zalauflebas sazogadoebaSi. genderuli normebi zegavlenas axdens genderul urTierTobebze da genderul rolebze. gamokvlevis Sedegebi gviCvenebs, rom qalebisa da mamakacebis mier Sesrulebuli socialuri rolebi gansxvavdebian rigi parametrebis mixedviT. genderul cnobierebaze did zegavlenas axdens kulturis iseTebi aspeqtebi, rogoricaa, qalTa mdgomareoba sazogadoebaSi, sqesis mixedviT Sromis ganawileba, Sesrulebuli samuSaos nairsaxeoba, samuSaos anazRaureba, statusi, Zalaufleba, religiuri Sexedulebebi, Rirebulebebi, ekonomikuri faqtorebi da, agreTve, qalTa monawileobis xarisxi politikaSi. Zalian mokled ganvixiloT es faqtorebi. qalebis 40% mTel Tavis dros saxlSi atarebs. amasTan, es qalebi saSualod saojaxo samuSaoSi xarjaven 48 sT-dan 70 sT-mde kviraSi. zogadad, saxls gareT muSaoba momgebiania ara mxolod ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT. misi saSualebiT kmayofildeba iseTi socialuri moTxovnilebebi, rogoricaa aRiarebis, miRwevis, statusis da pativiscemis moTxovnilebebi. adamiani, romelic mTeli dRe saxlSia, am moTxovnilebebs ver ikmayofilebs. fridanis (Friedan) monacemebis mixedviT, daukmayofileblobis grZnoba aqvT im qalebsac ki, romlebic mTeli cxovreba ocnebobdnen colisa da dedis rolze. problema imaSi mdgomareobs, rom aseTi qalebi emsaxurebian sxvisi moTxovnilebebis dakamayofilebas da sakuTar pirovnebas kargaven. meore problema, romelic dakavSirebulia qalis `ojaxuri keris mfarvelis~ rolTan isaa, rom diasaxlisi `TamaSgare~ mdgomareobaSi aris, igi ar monawileobs sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi da amitom arasrulfasovan adamianad grZnobs Tavs. feris (Feree) azriT, diasaxlisebSi izolaciis gancdis warmoSobas xels uwyobs iseTi faqtorebis arsebobac, rogoricaa, gadaadgilebis SezRudva, mudmivi yuradRebam, romelsac bavSvebis aRzrda moiTxovs da momuSave qalebis didi

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raodenoba garSemo. amasTan, diasaxlisebis daukmayofileblobas sakuTari saqmianobiT xels uwyobs momuSave qalebSi farTed gavrcelebuli azri, rom maTgan gansxvavebiT diasaxlisebi udardelad da uproblemod cxovroben. zogierTi mkvlevris azriT, diasaxlisebis dabali TviTSefaseba swored am faqtorTa erToblivi zemoqmedebiT aixsneba. amgvarad, faqtia, rom saojaxo Sroma da Sesabamisad, diasaxlisis roli erTgvarovani, damRleli da araprestiJulia. 244 sazogadoebis eTnografiuli masalebis Seswavlis Sedegad dandradma (D'Andrade, 1966) gaarkvia, rom mamakacebi yvelgan dakavebulni iyvnen nadirobiT, iaraRis damzadebiT da Tavisi samuSaos procesSi isini metad scildebodnen saxls, maSin rodesac qalebis saqmianoba saxlTan iyo dakavSirebuli, isini pasuxs agebdnen sarCosanovagis Senaxvaze, saWmlis momzadebaze, zrunavdnen tansacmelze da iseTi nivTebis damzadebaze, romlebic saojaxo meurneubaSi moixmareboda. qalebi dakavebulni iyvnen bavSvebis movliTa da maTi aRzrdiT, maSin rodesac mamakacebi bavSvebis aRzrdaSi monawileobas iRebdnen gamokvleuli kulturebis mxolod 10%-Si. tradiciuli Sexedulebebi gulisxmoben, rom mamakaci CarTuli unda iyos sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, aqtiurobdes biznesSi, politikaSi da kulturaSi, qali ki saxlSi unda iyos da bavSvebs da ojaxs uvlides. aRsaniSnavia, rom Tanamedrove kroskulturuli kvlevebi avlens aseTi dixotomiis Sesustebas faqtobriv doneze. qalebi sul ufro aqriurad ebmebian muSaobasa da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi saxls gareT, mamakacebi ki sxva saqmeebTan erTad saojaxo saqmeebiTac arian dakavebulni. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom axalgazrda TaobaSi SeimCneva qalis rolis Sesaxeb Sexedulebis gafarToeba. kerZod, qalis roli moicavs rogorc saxlis saqmeebis Sesrulebas, aseve samsaxursac. am mosazrebas adasturebs gibonsisa (Gibbons et al.., 1991/1993) da misi kolegebis mier Catarebuli kvlevebi oTx sxvadasxva kulturaSi mozardebze. qalis rolis Sesaxeb mozardTa Sexedulebebi asaxaven qalis cxovrebis pirobebisa da mis mimarT damokidebulebis Secvlas mTels msoflioSi. dadgenilia, rom egaliteruli Sexedulebebi mamakacebSi vlindeba ganaTlebis maRali donisa da maRali socialuri statusis proporciulad. Tumca isic unda aRiniSnos, rom qalebisaTvis samsaxuris arCevanis SesaZleblobebis gafarToeba an ganaTlebis donis amaRleba ar iwvevs sqesTa Soris uTanasworobis saboloo aRmofxvras. devisisa da robinsonis (Davis &Robinson, 1991) mier oTx qveyanaSi (amerikis SeerTebul Statebi, didi britaneTi, germania da avstria) Catarebulma kvlevam gamoavlina Semdegi kanonzomiereba: adamianebs, romlebsac aqvT sakmaod maRali ganaTlebis done da, agreTve, qalebs, romlis qmrebic muSaoben, naklebad awuxebT sqesTa Soris diskriminaciis arseboba da naklebad zrunaven mis aRmosafxvrelad. xolo mosaxleobis is nawili, romelsac ganaTlebis SedarebiT dabali done aqvs da agreTve, qalebi, romlebsac ara hyavT marCenali qmrebi, ufro metad iswrafvian genderuli uTanasworobis aRmosafxvrelad. qalis mdgomareoba sazogadoebaSi izomeba mravali parametriT, romelTa Sorisac mniSvnelovania ekonomikuri maCveneblebi, socialuri avtoriteti da gerderulroluri ideologiis sxva parametrebi, qalTa monawileoba politikaSi da a.S. qalisa Tu kacisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebebi da qcevis normebi kulturul variaciebs eqvemdebareba, miuxedavad amisa, arsebobs kulturuli unversaliebic am TvalsazrisiT: garkveuli xarisxiT yoveli sazogadoeba gansazRvrul Tvisebebs da moRvaweobis saxeebs akavSirebs gansazRvrul sqesTan. amave dros, TiTqmis arc erT sazogadoebaSi qals ara aqvs ufro maRali statusi, vidre -- mamakacs. qalis diasaxlisis roli mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvrulia genderuli stereotipebiT da diferencialuri socializaciiT. qalis diasaxlisis rols xSirad

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gansazRvravs, agreTve, qalis Sromis ufro mcire anazRaureba mamakacTan SedarebiT. mas Semdeg, rac qali imuSavebs samsaxurSi, igi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom meore cvlaSi muSaobs saxlSi. es meore cvla qalebisa da mamakacebis dasvenebis drois gansxvavebis mizezia. Seltonisa da jonis (Shelton & Jhon,1993) monacemebis mixedviT, colebTan SedarebiT Savkaniani kacebi akeTeben saojaxo saqmeebis _ 40%-s, TeTrkaniani mamakacebi -- 34%-s, espanuri warmoSobis mamakacebi _ 36%. bolo drois monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom qmrebs saojaxo saqmianobaSi sul ufro meti wili SeaqvT, magram momuSave qali saSualo ojaxuri saqmeebis 69%-s akeTebs. im drois gazrdam, romelsac qali uTmobs saxls gareT muSaobas, gamoiwvia ojaxur saqmianobaze daxarjuli drois mxolod mciredad Semcireba. Tanamedrove droSi Zalian bevri qali muSaobs imisTvis, rom Seinaxos ojaxi. miuxedavad amisa, isini kvlav asruleben tradiciul qalur movaleobebsac ojaxSi, rac qalebis ormag datvirTvas iwvevs. qalis rolis Semcireba saojaxo meurneobaSi ar moxda im sazogadoebebSic ki, sadac qalebi warmoadgenen saerTo samuSao Zalis umetesobas. ase magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, SveicariaSi, kanadaSi, italiaSi, poloneTSi da rumineTSi saojaxo saqmeebis udides nawils qalebi asruleben, imisgan damoukideblad, ewevian Tu ara isini profesiul saqmianobas. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 3000 ojaxuri wyvilis gamokvlevis Sedegebis analizis safuZvelze bleri da lixteri (Bliar & Lichter,1991) mividnen im daskvnamde, rom qalebi ojaxSi muSaobdnen gacilebiT ufro didxans, vidre -- mamakacebi (Sesabamisad 33 sT. da 14sT.). amasTan saojaxo saqmeebi mkveTrad gamijnulia sqesobrivi niSniT. qaluri saqmeebia isini, romelTa keTebac aucilebelia sistematurad (sadili, WurWlis recxva, bavSvebze zrunva da sxv.), maSin roca mamakacTa saqmeebis sistematuri yoveldRiuri xasiaTi ara aqvs (baRSi muSaoba, raimes SekeTeba da a.S). sainteresoa Seltonis da jonis (Shelton & Jhon,1993) gamokvlevis Sedegebi. maT aRmoaCines, rom Savkanian amerikelTa ojaxebSi ojaxuri saqmianobebi ase mkveTrad ar aris ganawilebuli sqesobrivi niSniT. gamokvlevebi aseve aCvenebs, rom ojaxis biujetis ganmkargavic ufro qalia, vidre _ mamakaci. gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom momuSave qals ojaxSi ufro meti Zalaufleba aqvs, vidre -- diasaxliss. ojaxSi Zalauflebis Teoriis moxedviT, visac meti Semosavali (ekonomikuri) aqvs, imas aqvs meti Zalaufleba ojaxSi. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi momuSave qali iRebs Tavis SromaSi daaxloebiT kacis xelfasis 70%-s. amasTan Sromis bazari gayofilia genderuli niSniT da arsebobs qaluri da mamakacuri profesiebi. ufro prestiJuli profesiebi da Tanamdebobebi mamakacebs ukaviaT, qalebi Zalian sustad arian warmodgenili mTavrobaSi da maRal Tanamdebobebze msxvil organizaciebSi. amas nawilobriv gansazRvravs gavrcelebuli stereotipebi, rom qalebi cudi liderebi arian. garda amisa, qalis karieras yvela qveyanaSi xels uSlis ojaxuri da dedobrivi movaleobebi. Tanamedrove gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom dResac, bevr qveyanaSi qalebi ekonomikur diskriminacias ganicdian. isini iReben ufro dabal xelfass, vidre - maTi kolega mamakacebi igive Tanamdebobaze. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom umetes qveynebSi qalebi dResac upiratesobas aniWeben moRvaweobis tradiciul sferoebs da, agreTve, iseT samsaxurs, romelic adamianebis did wresTan urTierTobis saSualebas iZleva. mamakacebi ki upiratesad irCeven ufro maRalanazRaurebad samuSaos, romelic, amasTanave, perspeqtiulicaa samsaxureobrivi karieris TvalsazrisiT. genderul-rolur ideologiaze did zegavlenas axdens, agreTve, religiuri Sexedulebebi da Rirebulebebi. bevr kulturaSi (magaliTad, laTinuri amerikisa da axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebSi) sazogadoebis Rirebulebebi da idealebi

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dakavSirebulia pirad da ojaxis prestiJTan, romlebic moicaven mamakacis vaJkacobasa da qalis seqsualur siwmindes. aseT kulturebSi gaTxovili qali, romelic sazogadoebrivi saqmeebiT aris dakavebuli, negatiur Sefasebas iwvevs. im SemTxvevaSi Tu qali muSaobs, maSin misi kontaqtebi mamakacebTan minimumamde unda iyos dayvanili. ekonomikuri faqtorebic metad mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens genderul-rolur ideologiaze. zogadi kanonzomierebis mixedviT, colad SerTvis dros gamosyidvis instituti am qveynebSi muSaobs, sadac qalis saojaxo Sroma mniSvnelovania ojaxis bijetisaTvis. mziTvs ki, Cveulebriv, qals atanen im kulturebSi, sadac qalis Sromis wili ojaxSi SedarebiT mcirea. politikur procesebSi monawileoba yvela kulturaSi mamakacebisaTvis ufro xelmisawvdomia, vidre -- qalebisTvis. ganuviTarebeli warmoebis mqone 90 sazogadoebis gamokvlevam aCvena, rom qalebis monawileoba politikaSi ufro maRalia maSin, roca gare konfliqtebis da omebis saSiSroeba mcirea, magram arsebobs Sida sazogadoebrivi konfliqtebi da daZabuloba. genderuli mkvlevrebis umravlesoba varaudobs, rom tradiciuli genderuli rolebi aferxeben pirovnebis ganviTarebas da iwveven socialur uTanasworobas. Tanamedrove msoflios demokratiul nawilSi qalTa problematikam da aseve genderulma sakiTxebma gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina ganviTarebis konteqstSi. yuradRebis centrSi moeqca ara mxolod ganviTarebadi qveynebis mZime mdgomareobaSi myofi qalebi, romlebic moklebulni arian samoqalaqo da politikur uflebebs, aramed ganviTarebul qveynebSi jer kodev mravlad arsebuli genderuli uTanasworobis problemebi. qalTa problemaTagan gansakuTrebiT mwvavea imunodeficitis infeqciis gansakuTrebiT farTe gavrceleba qalebSi, qalebiT vaWroba, qalebis gamoyeneba seqsis industriaSi da sxv. Tumca arsebobs qalTa mravali sxva, ufro yofiTi problemebic, romelTa mogvarebac aranakleb mniSvnelovania sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebisaTvis. mTels msoflioSi gabatonebulia genderuli diskriminacia cxovrebis bevr sferoSi. Tumca diskriminaciis formebi, zomebi da xarisxi gansxvavebulia rogorc regionebs, aseve qveynebs Sorisac. ganviTarebadi msoflios arc erT qveyanaSi qalebi ar arian gaTanabrebuli mamakacebTan iuridiuli (subieqturi), socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebis TvalsazrisiT. didia genderuli gansvlebi resursebis xelmisawvdomobisa da maTi gankargvis sferoSi, ekonomikuri SesaZleblobebis sferoSi da Zalauflebisa da interesebis warmomadgenlobiT sferoSi. uflebebi.uflebebSi asimetria gavrcelebulia sasamarTlo kanonmdeblobaSi, sazogadoebebis yofiT samarTalSi, ojaxebisa da Sida meurneobebis cxovrebaSi. asimetria arsebobs saqorwino kanonmdeblobaSic, ojaxis zomis gansazRvraSi (Svilebis gaCena-argaCena da maTi raodenobis gadawyveta) qonebis memkvidreobaSi, da mis marTvaSi, Sida meurneobaSi Sromis ganawilebaSi, Semosaval-gasavlebSi, gadaadgilebis TavisuflebaSi. samxreT afrikis da afrikis bevr qveyanaSi qalebi TavianTi qmrebis mudmivi zedamxedvelobis qveS imyofebian. maT ara aqvT ufleba damoukideblad marTon sakuTreba. afrikis zogierT qveyanaSi mamakacs aqvs ufleba isargeblos qalis Sromis SedegebiT, magaram qals ara aqvs igive ufleba mamakacis Sromis nayofis mimarT. boliviaSi, gvatemalaSi da siriaSi mamakacebs aqvT ufleba SezRudon TavianTi colebi da ar miscen maT ufleba imuSaon saxls gareT. egvipteSi da gvatemalaSi qalebs sWirdebaT TavianTi meuRleebis nebarTva mogzaurobisa da mgzavrobisaTvis. zogierT arabul qveyanaSi qalebs unda hqondeT meuRleebis nebaTrTva pasportis miRebisTvis, maSin roca qmrisTvis colis mxridan aseTi nebarTvis miReba saWiro ar aris.

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monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom arc erT qveyanaSi qalebs ara aqvT mamakacebTan gaTanabrebuli uflebebi. miuxedavad amisa, arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi qalTa SedarebiTi statusis TvalsazrisiT regionebis mixedviT. saSualod, qalebs evropaSi da Sua aziaSi yvelaze meti Tanasworoba aqvT, xolo samxreT aziaSi, afrikis qveynebSi (samxreTSi), axlo aRmosavleTSi da Crdilo afrikaSi -- ufro naklebi. unda aRiniSnos, rom im qveynebSi, sadac politikuri da iuridiuli Tanasworoba oficialurad miRweulia, igi ar muSaobs sinamdvileSi. XX saukunis meore naxevarSi sagrZnoblad gaumjobesda genderuli Tanasworobis mdgomareoba ganviTarebadi qveynebis umetesobaSi: amaRlda qalTa ganaTlebis done. samxreT aziaSi, saqaras samxreTiT mdebare afrikis qveynebSi, axloaRmosavleTis qveynebSi da CrdiloeT afrikis qveynebSi dawyebiT skolaSi Caricxul gogonaTa ricxvi daaxloebiT orjer gaizarda. qalebis da da gogonebis janmrTelobis dacvis sistemebSi kapitaldabandebis Sedegad, 1990 wels qalebi samxreT aziis istoriaSi pirvelad ufro didxans cocxloben, vidre - mamakacebi. gaizarda qalTa dasaqmebis ricxvic. laTinur amerikaSi da samxreT aziaSi 1970 wlidan qalTa dasaqmebis procentuli maCvenebeli 15 punqtiT gaizarda. Semcirda genderuli sxvaobebi Sromis anazraurebaSic. miuxedavad aseTi miRwevebisa, ganviTarebadi qveynebis umaravlesobaSi kvlav narCundeba genderuli uTanasworeoba uflebebSi, resursebis xelmisawvdomobaSi da sakuTari interesebis gamoxatvis SesaZleblobebSi. ganviTarebad qveynebis arc erT regionSi qalebs ara aqvT mamakacTan Tanabari socialuri, iuridiuli d ekonomikuri uflebebi. amasTan yvela kulturisaTvis (rogorc ganviTarebad, aseve ganviTarebul qveynebSi) saerToa is, rom qals mamakacze naklebi statusi aqvs. gaeros monacemebis Tanaxmad: 1. qalebi asruleben ZiriTad saojaxo saqmes; 2. qalebs moyavT msoflios sakvebi produqtebis (soflis meurneobis) naxevari; 3. qalebi Seadgenen msoflios muSaxelis erT mesameds, magram dasaqmebulni arian mciredanazraurebad samuSaoze; 4. qalebi Sesrulebul samuSaoSi analogiur samuSaoSi mamakacebisTvis gadaxdili xelfasis sam meoTxedze naklebs iReben; 5. qalebi mcired arian warmodgenilni Zalauflebis da mmarTvelobis organoebSi. amgvarad, Tanamedrove samyaros sazogadoebaTa umravlesoba genderulad stratificirebuli sistemebia. stratifikaciis umtavresi paternebia: dasaqmebis, ekonomikuri, politikuri da samarTlebrivi. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, umravles SemTxvevaSi stratifikaciis mimarTuleba erT da igivea: mamakacebi dominanturebi arian, qalebi ki -- daqvemdebarebulni. cnobilia asimetria Sromis anazraurebaSi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris (amerikeli qali mamakacis xelfasis 68%-s iRebs, afrikeli -- 61%-s, laTinoamerikeli -- TeTrkaniani mamakacis xelfsis 53%-s, xolo TeTrkaniani qalis xelfasis 78%-s). Savkaniani da espanurenovani mamakacebi ufro maRal anazraurebas iReben, vidre Savkaniani da espanurenovani qalebi (gansxvaveba maT SemosavlebSi Sesabamisad 84%-s da 82%-s Seadgens). Tumca unda iTqvas isic, rom SedarebiT 1979 welTan, roca qalis saSualo xelfasi mamakacis saSualo xelfasis mxolod 60%-s Sedgenda, qalTa samuSaos Rirebuleba gaizarda (amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi). magram qalebi, gansakuTrebiT ki araevropuli warmomavlobis qalebi, dRemde dabalanazRaurebad samuSaoze arian dasaqmebulebi. ufro metic, isini iReben ufro naklebs, vidre igive samuSaoSi aiRebdnen mamakacebi. arsebobs qalebisa mamakacebis anazRaurebis gansxvavebis ori yvelaze gavrcelebuli axsna. pirvelis mixedviT, qalebs mamakacebTan SedarebiT

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naklebs uxdian imitom, rom isini TviTon irCeven dabalanazraurebad samsaxurs. meore Sexedulebis mixedviT, qalebs mamakacebTan SedarebiT naklebs uxdian imitom, rom isini warmoadgenen naklebad Rirebul samuSao Zalas, radganac maT akliaT gamocdileba da kvalifikacia. arsebobs mesame mosazrebac: qalebs mamakacebTan SedarebiT samuSaoSi uxdian naklebs imitom, rom isini moelian, rom cotas gadauxdian da Tanxmdebian ufro mcire xelfass. ganvixiloT TiToeuli mosazreba cal-calke. pirvel mosazrebas, romlis arsic isaa, rom qalebi dakavebulebi arian tradiciulad `qaluri~ samuSaoTi, xolo mamakacebi _ `mamakacuriT~ da es ukanaskneli ufro maRalanazRaurebadia, xSirad uwdeben makompensirebeli sxvaobebis safuZvelze axsnas. es mosazreba eyrdnoba debulebas, rom qalebi, irCeven ra dabalanazRaurebad samuSaos, amiT isini samagierod iReben Sromis ukeTes pirobebs: karg socialur klimats, ufro moqnil samuSao grafiks (magliTad gamodgeba pedagogi qalebi saqarTveloSi. gavrcelebuli azris mixedviT, pedagogoba qalebisTvis kargia, radgan is mxolod naxevar dRes muSaobs) an ufro advil samuSaos. samuSao Zala gayofilia sqesis mixedviT anu profesiebis umravlesoba yvela kulturaSi dayofilia sqesis mixedviT. ase magaliTad, saqarTveloSi Catarebuli kvlevis mixedviT (n. javaxiSvili, 2000), gamovlinda tipuri qaluri da tipuri mamakacuri profesiebi saqarTveloSi. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 1993 wlis monacemebiT mdivnebis 90%-s qalebi arian. monacemebi adasturebs imasac, rom is profesiebi da samuSao, romlebiTac sxvadasxva kulturaSi mamakacebi arian dakavebulni, ufro maRalanazraurebadia, vidre isini, romlebiTac qalebi arian dakavebulni. ase magaliTad, bernis (Burn) monacemebiT, kaliforniis politeqnikur universitetSi mRebavis sastarto xelfasi ufro maRalia, vidre meddis an mdivansaqmeTmwarmoeblis xelfasi. am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa jakobsisa da steinbergis gamokvleva (Jacobs & Steinberg, 1990). miRebuli monacemebis mixedviT, ama Tu im profesiaSi dasaqmebul qalTa wili zegavlenas axdens am sferoSi arsebuli xelfasis saerTo doneze. kerZod, rac ufro metia qali, miT ufro dabalia Sromis anazRaureba. sainteresoa, ratom xdeba, rom qalebi iSviaTad arian dakavebulni `tradiciulad~ mamakacuri samuSaoTi? xom ar aris amis mizezi tradiciulad `qaluri~ samuSaos siadvile an aseTi samuSaos pirobebSi dedobrivi funqciebis paraleluri Sesrulebis SesaZlebloba? statistikuri monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom es ase ar aris. `qaluri~ samuSaoebi sinamdvileSi sulac ar gulisxmoben ufro moqnil grafiks, samuSaos siadviles an nakleb daZabulobas. piriqiT, arsebuli monacemebis mixedviT, rac ufro meti qalia koleqtivSi, miT ufro mkacria ufrosos mxridan moTxovnebi. 1600 profesiis analizis Sedegebi gviCveneben, rom `qaluri~ profesiebi ufro xSirad dakavSirebulia e.w. Znel klientebTan, dalagebasTan (WuWyTan) meqanikurad gameorebad moqmedebebTan da avtonomiis (anu sakuTari samuSaos dagegmvisa da warmarTvis) ararsebobasTan. gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom qalebis mier tradiciulad `mamakacuri~ profesiebis arCevas win eRobeba mravali barieri. esenia: daqiravebis dros iseTi moTxovnebis wayeneba (magaliTad, ama Tu im Tvisebebis qona), romelic qals ara aqvs. ase magaliTad, cnobilia, rom amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi policiis erT-erTi akademiis misaRebi gamocdebis moTxovna iyo 170 sm simaRlis qona, romelic qalebs gansakuTrebulad zRudavda. garda amisa, mniSvnelovania is daZabulobac, romelic qals eufleba, roca igi mamakacTa koleqtivSi muSaobs. daZabulobis gamomwvev faqtorTa Soris SeiZleba davasaxeloT miuRebloba, stereotipebi, patara Secdomaze araadekvaturad mkacri reagireba da sxv. samsaxurSi miRebis dros diskriminacia genderuli diskriminaciis

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erT-erTi farTod gavrcelebuli formaa. igi safuZvels qmnis SendgomSi Sromis bazris genderuli stratifikaciisaTvis. amasTan, sainteresoa, rom genderuli diskriminacia samsaxurSi miRebis dros mxolod qalebs ar exeba. igi iseTive ZaliT moqmedebs im mamakacebis mimarTac, romlebsac tradiciulad `qalur~ samuSaoze undaT moxvedra. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom qalebis umravlesobas survili ara aqvs Seasrulos tradiciulad `mamakacuri~ samuSao. gamokvlevebis mixedviT, amis erT-erT mizezad saxeldeba qalebis azri imis Sesaxeb, rom `mamakacuri~ samuSao maT daukargavs qalur momxibvlelobas. meore mosazreba, romelic cdilobs axsnas genderuli asimetria Sromis bazarze, varaudobs, rom qalebs ufro naklebanazraurebadi samuSao imitom aqvT, rom qalebi mamakacebTan SedarebiT naklebad Rirebuli muSakebi arian. saqme isaa, rom qalebs mamakacebze naklebs uxdian maSinac ki, roca isini igive samuSaos asruleben, rasac _ mamakacebi. ase magaliTad, qali kompiuteruli programistebi amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi iReben mamakaci kompiuteruli programistebis xelfasis 83%-s, qali finansuri menejerebi igive profesiis mamakacebis xelfasis 67%-s, dawyebiTi swavlebis skolebis pedagogi qalebi igive profesiis mamakacebis xelfasis 89%-s da a.S. erTi da igive samuSaoSi qalebisa da mamakacebis xelfasebs Soris aseTi gansxvavebis erT-erTi axsna efuZneba adamianuri kapitalis Sefasebis princips. am midgomis mixedviT, individis Sromis anazRaureba damokidebulia ganaTlebaSi da profesiul momzadebaSi mis mier Cadebul investiciebze. iTvleba, rom qalebi gamoimuSaveben naklebs, radgan maT naklebi ician, naklebad ganaTlebulebi arian, an naklebi gamocdileba aqvT da Sesabamisad maTi Sroma naklebad Rirebulia. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom, umravles SemTxvevebSi, erTnair Tanamdebobebze dasaqmebuli qalebisa da mamakacebis monacemebi arsebiTad ar gansxvavdeba. aqedan gamomdinare, keTdeba daskvna, rom Sromis bazarze genderuli asimetriis umTavresi mizezi mainc gavrcelebul stereotipebSi unda veZeboT. mesame mosazrebis mixedviT, qalebi winaswar moelian dabal xelfass da swored amitom aqvT maT aseTi dabali anazraureba. es mosazreba dadasturda eqsperimentuladac. aRmoCnda, rom qalebi mamakacebTan SedarebiT marTlac ufro nakleb anazraurebas iTxovdnen igive samuSaoSi. es Sedegebi dadasturda studentebze Catarebul kvlevebSic, sadac erTi da igive specialobis mdedrobiTi da mamrobiTi sqesis studentebs ekiTxebodnen, Tu rogori iyo maTi molodinebi momavali Semosavlebis Sesaxeb. mkvlevrebis (Jackson, Major, Forcey da sxv.) azriT, es, erTis mxriv, SeiZleba aixsnas qalebis mier samuSaosTan erTad dedubrivi movaleobis Sesrulebis gaTvaliswinebiT, meores mxriv, ki imiT, rom qalebs aqvT sakuTari SesaZleblobebis da codnis daweuli Sefaseba. asea Tu ise, qalebis mxridan naklebi molodinebi maTi Sromis dabali anazraurebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezia. sainteresoa amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi niuportis (Newport) mier Catarebuli gamokvlevebis Sedegebi. am monacemebis mixedviT, 1975 wels gamokiTxuli amerikelebis 32% adasturebda, rom amerikaSi mamakacebi ukeT cxovroben, vidre -- qalebi. 1989 wels es debuleba daadastura gamokiTxulTa 49%-ma, xolo 1923 wels ki -- 60%-ma. 1975 wlis monacemebis mixedviT, gamokiTxul amerikelTa 48% Tvlida, rom qalebs da mamakacebs dasaqmebis Tanabari SesaZleblobebi aqvT. 1989 wlis gamokvlevis mixedviT, am debulebas daeTanxma gamokiTxul amerikelTa 42%, xolo 1993 wels ki _ gamokiTxulTa 39%. 1993 wels gamokiTxuli amerikeli qalebis mxolod 30% Tvlida, rom maT aqvT mamakacebTan Tanabari dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebi, xolo maTi 70% ki Tvlida, rom mamakacebs ukeTesi sastarto pirobebi aqvT amerikul Sromis bazarze. imisaTvis, rom gavarkvioT, Tu ramdenad samarTliania Sromis anazraureba

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(gadaxdili gasamrjelo) Cven, Cveulebriv, vadarebT Cvens Tavs sxvas. samuSaosTan mimarTebaSi es debuleba ase JRers: Cven garkveul Zalisxmevas (dros, energias, kvalifikacias, unarebs da a.S.) vdebT Cvens samuSaoSi da viRebT garkveul anazRaurebas. amaSi mdgomareobs adamsis (Adams) samarTlianobis Teoriis arsi. amgvarad, imisaTvis, rom gavarkvioT, Tu ramdenad samarTliania es ukanaskneli, Cven vadarebT Cvens mier Cadebuli Zalisxmevisa da anazRaurebis mimarTebas sxvis mier Cadebul Zalisxmevisa da mis anazraurebas Soris mimarTebas. aseT sxvebs, Cveulebriv, `Sesadarebel jgufs~ uwodeben. aRsaniSnavia, rom imis da mixedviT, Tu vin arian Sesadarebgeli jgufis wevrebi, Cven Tavs an daCagrulad an kmayofilad vgrZnobT. gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom qalebi, Cveulebriv, ar ganaxilaven mamakacebs `Sesadarebeli jgufis~ rangSi. isini sakuTar Tavs sxva qalebs adareben da sanam erTi romelime qalis Zalisxmevisa da Semosavlebis mimarTeba Seesabameba sxva qalebis aseT mimarTebas, am qals aqvs samarTlianobis da Sesabamisad, kmayofilebis gancda. erTi sqesis SigniT Sedarebis ganxorcielebas Tavisi fsiqologiuri fsqtorebi aqvs (magaliTad, Sedareba msgavsebis safuZvelze). amasTan, gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom sakuTar sqesTan Sedareba xdeba maSin, roca samuSao tradiciulad genderul damRas atarebs. maSin ki roca samuSao tradiciulad neitraluria, Sedarebis dros sqesis faqtoris ignorireba xdeba. samarTlianobis Teoriis mixedviT, Tu adamians aqvs usamarTlobis gancda Tavis xelfasTan dakavSirebiT, maSin igi cdilobs aRadginos samarTlianoba. qalebs ki, rogorc zemoT davrwmundiT, samarTlianobis aRdgenis es moTxovnileba ar uCndebaT, radgan maT `Sesadarebel jgufSi~ iseTive dabali xelfasia. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi arsebobs kanoni Tanaswori ananzRaurebis Sesaxeb. rogorc moyvanili gamokvlevebis monacemebi gviCvenebs, es kanoni realurad ar xorcieldeba. qalTa procentuli Semadgenloba msoflios Sromisunarian mosaxleobaSi ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT aseTia: 1950 wlis monacemebiT CrdiloeT amerikaSi da ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi (maT Soris avstraliaSi) 30 %, samxreT amerikis qveynebSi -- 18%, samxreT afrikasa da ganviTarebad qveynebSi -- 30%, CrdiloeT afrikis nawilSi -- 9%. 1985 wlis monacemebiT CrdiloeT amerikaSi da ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi (maT Soris avstraliaSi) 38 %, samxreT amerikis qveynebSi -- 27%, samxreT afrikasa da ganviTarebad qveynebSi -- 39%, CrdiloeT afrikis nawilSi -- 9%. 2000 wlis monacemebiT CrdiloeT amerikaSi da ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi (maT Soris avstraliaSi) 38 %, samxreT amerikis qveynebSi -- 28%, samxreT afrikasa da ganviTarebad qveynebSi -- 37%, CrdiloeT afrikis nawilSi -- 17%. rogorc vxedavT, qalTa dasaqmebis ricxvi ixrdeba wlidan wlamde. magram, amasTanave, zrdis tendencia Zalia mcirea da igi Zalian Sorsaa Sromis bazarze genderuli Tanasworobis damkvidrebisagan. garda imisa, rom qalebs aqvT mamakacebTan SedarebiT dabali xelfasebi, maT aseve aqvT mamakacebTan SedarebiT dabali statusic. ase magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi yvelaze prestiuli profesiebiT mamakacebi arian dakavebulni: mamakaci mecnier-muSakTa Soris 80%-ia, eqimebs Soris -- 84%, universitetebisa da kolejebis profesorebs Soris _ 61%. Tumca pedagogTa Soris SedarebiT maRalia qalTa ricxvi, magram maT Soris maRal statusze (mudmivi profesorebi) mxolod 10%-ia. advokatebs da mosamarTleebs Soris 78% mamakacia, arqiteqtorebs Soris 87% mamakacia, xolo inJinrebs Soris _ 94%. arsebobs mravali monacemic, romelic TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs, rom qalebs mamakacebTan SedarebiT naklebi Zalaufleba aqvT. maT iSviaTad ukaviaT Tanamdebobebi

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da politikaSic mcired arian warmodgenilni. amasTan rac ufro maRalia Zalauflebis ierarqiuli safexuri, miT ufro mcirea qalTa warmomadgenloba. aswleulebis manZilze miuRebeli iyo nebismier politikur formaciaSi qalebis monawileoba. sul axlaxansac, qalTa minawileoba politikaSi dagmobili iyo, radgan gavrcelebuli stereotipuli Sexedulebis mixedviT, qalis pilitikaSi CarTva ojaxisa da sazogadoebis daSlas gamoiwvevda. dRes Tanamedrove msoflios bevr qveyanaSi qalebi aqtiurad monawileoben politikur cxovrebaSi, gaizarda maTi aseTi saqmianobebis mimReblobis xarisxi ara mxolod skandinaviisa, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi da demokratiis wamyvan qveynebSi, aramed tradiciuli kulturebis matarebel qveynebSic. magaliTad, m. wereTlis 2002-2003 wlebSi Caterebuli gamokvlevebis monacemebis mixedviT saqarTveloSi qalis politikaSi moRvaweobis faqts gamokiTxulTa ori mesamedi nawili dasaSvebad afasebs. kacobriobis politikuri ganviTarebis istorias Tu gavaanalizebT, davinaxavT, rom politikur cxovrebas metwilad egelitaruli wre qmnida: mefeebi didgvrovanni, aristokratia da a.S. mas Semdeg, rac politikiT da qveynis mmarTvelobiT Cveulebrivi xalxi dakavda, politikis sferoSi arsebuli genderuli asimetria kidev uro gamokveTili gaxda. politikuri uflebebi pirvel rigSi mamakacebs hqondaT. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi da evropis wamyvan qveynebSi politikuri da samoqalaqo uflebebi, kerZod, ki saarCevno uflebebi qalebma me-20 saukunis 40-iani wlebidan moipoves. saqarTveloSi momqmedi qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciis `WomenAid international"is monacemebis mixedviT, XXI saukunis dasawyisSi msoflios sxvadasxva qveynebSi politikaSi qalTa monawileobis Semdegi suraTi gvaqvs: qalTa warmomadgenloba parlamentSi (procentuli Semedgenloba TiToeul jgufSi daklagebulia sididis mixedviT): 40-50% qali parlamentarebi qveyanaSi -- SvedeTi; 35-39,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi --dania, fineTi, norvegia, holandia; 30-34,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- islandia, genmania, axali zelandia, mozambiki; 25-29,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- samxreT afrika, bosnia, kuba, avstria, argentina, TurqmeneTi; 20-24,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- belgia, avstralia, CineTi, espsneTi, xorvatia; 15-19,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- kanada, inglisi, estoneTi litva, CexeTi; 10-14,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- slovakeTi, poloneTi, israeli, azerbaijani, italia, safrangeTi, bulgareTi, yazaxeTi slovenia; 5-9,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- yirgizeTi, ungreTi, monRoleTi, ukraina, ruseTi, rumineTi, saqarTvelo, saberZneTi, iaponia; 3-4,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- belorusia, TurqeTi korea, irani, somxeTi; 0,1-2,9% qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- egvipte, nigeria; 0 % qali parlamentarebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi -- quveiTi, arabTa emiretebi. gaeros monacemebiT, 2000 wlisaTvis qalebi msoflios 190 qveynidan mxolod 9 saxelmwifoSi arian meTaurebi da mTavrobis Tavmjdonmareebi: bangladeSi, fineTi, irlandia, latvia, axali zelandia, panama, san marino, Sri72

lanka. am sias bolo dros daemata saqarTvelo da ukraina.

studentebs daevalebaT internetis saSualebiT moipovon uaxlesi informacia am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.

qalebi msoflios 190 qveynidan saxelmwifo meTaurebisa da mTavrobis Tavmjdomareebis moadgileebi arian Semdeg qveynebSi: albaneTi, avstria, belgia, kosta-rika, xorvatia, dania, fiji, hondurasi, indonezia, irlandia. msoflios regionebis mixedviT, qalTa xelisuflebaSi monawileobis suraTi Semdegia: skandinaviis qveynebi _ 38,8%, evropis qveynebi (skandinaviis qveynebis CaTvliT) _ 15,2%, amerika _ 15,2%, azia _ 14,2%, evropis qveynebi (skandinaviis qveynebis gamoklebiT) _ 13,4%, xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebi _ 13,5%, afrikis saqaris samxreTiT mdebare qveynebi _ 11,75, arabeTis saxelmwifoebi _ 3,5%. iseve, rogorc politikur organizaciebSi da saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis struqturebSi, mamakacebs aqvT ufro meti Zalaufleba biznessa da warmoebaSi. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis menejerebis 39% qalia, magram rac ufro zemoT iwevs samsaxureobrivi ierarqiuli kibe, miT ufro nakalebi qali gvxvdeba. komerciul organizaciebSi da msxvil kompaniebSi xelmZRvanel Tanamdebobebis mxolod 1-2% ukaviaT qalebs. jekobsis (Jacobs, 1992) gamokvlevis monacemebis mixedviT, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 1988 wels SedarebiT 1970 welTan qalTa raodenoba xelmZRvanel Tanamdebobebze mkveTrad gaizarda, kerZod, 18%-dan 40%-mde. magram amasTan, qali menejerebis xelfasi da avtoriteti kvlevac ufro dabalia, vidre igive Tanamdebobebze dasaqmebuli mamakaci menejerebisa. qalebi, romlebsac undaT karieris gakeTeba ejaxebian e.w. `SuSis Wers~. es aris metafora imis Sesaxeb, rom organizaciaTa umravlesobaSi arsebobs e.w. uxilavi Weri, romlis zemoTac qalebi da, agreTve, araevropuli warmoSobis amerikelebi, ubralod ver adian. lin martinma `SuSis Weri~ gansaxRvra, rogorc xelovnurad Seqmnili barierebi, romlebic dafuZnebulni arian organizaciis SigniT arsebul crurwmenebze. es saSualebas ar aZlevs kvlalificiur muSakebs waiwion win samsaxureobriv kibeze da gaikeTon kariera. kvlalificiuri specialisti qalebi da umciresobebis warmomadgenlebi, umravles SemTxvevaSi, swored am uxilavi kibis qveS aRmoCndebian, xolme. maT mxolod is darCeniaT, rom qvemodan adevnen Tvali imas, Tu rogor miiweven win sxva TanamSromlebi. afrikoamerikeli da laTinoamerikeli qalebi warmoadgenen amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi arsebul qal menejerTa mxolod 4%-s. amitom, zogierTi mecnieri amasTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnavs, rom am jgufis qalebisTvis ar Tu `SuSis~, aramed _ `betonis Weria~. gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom umciresobebis warmomadgeneli qalebi ormagi diskriminaciis qveS imyofebian. es aris rasobrivi da sqesobrivi diskriminacia. rogorc zemoT iyo ganxiluli, erT-erTi Sexedulebis mixedviT, qalebs eSiniaT maRali Tanamdebobebis, radgan maT isini qalurobasTan SeuTavseblad miaCniaT da amitom TviTon amboben uars karieris gakaTebaze. magram 70-iani da 80-iani wlebis Sua periodSi socialurma fsiqologebma sabolood uaryves es Sexeduleba. cxadi gaxda, rom qalis sazogadoebaSi dabali statusis axsna SeuZlebelia mxolod qalis pirovnebaze centrirebuli poziciidan. kanteris (Kanter, 1977) naSromis gamosvliT safuZveli Caeyara axal, situaciaze centrirebul midgomas. es midgoma eurdnoboda iseT axsnebs, rogoricaa diskriminaciuli politika, romelsac axorcieleben calkeuli pirovnebebi Tu organizaciebi da sazogadoebrivi stereotipebi.

sazogadoebis da socialuri institutebis genderuli stratifikaciis ukeT gaazrebisaTvis mniSvnelovania am sakiTxze zogierTi feministuri Sexedulebis

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ganxilva, kerZod, ki Cven mokled ganvixilavT genderis socialuri konstruqtivizmis Teorias.

genderuli socialuri konstruirebis momxreebi eWvqveS ayeneben im mosazrebas, rom yvelaferi socialuri biologiurzea dasfuZnebuli da amitom iTvleba bunebrivad da normalurad. am debulebiT isini akritikeben im mimarTebebs, romlebic Tanamedrove samyaroSi damkvidrda biologiur sqessa da maT socialur reprezentaciebs, genderul rolebsa da funqciebs Soris. socialuri konstruqtivizmis feeministi mimdevrebi akritikeben, erTis mxriv, e.w. `saRi azris" pozicias, meores mxriv, sociologiuri Teoriis ZiriTad mimarTulebas da mesame _ im feministur mimarTulebebs, romlebic genders ganixilaven rogorc biologiuri sqesisgan kulturis mier nawarmoebs. `saRi azris~ poziciis kritikisas, socialuri konstruqtivizmis warmomadgenlebi acxadeben, rom adamianis buneba dualisturia, masSi bunebrivad Cadebulia rogorc qaluri, aseve -- mamakacuri. amitom qalebad da mamakacebad xdebian da ara -- ibadebian. socialuri konstruqtivizmis momxreebi akritikeben genderis Sromis ganawilebaze da civilizaciis ganviTarebaze agebul Sexedulebebs, romelsac emil diurkgeimi aviTarebda. talkot parsonsis azriT, sqesTa Soris urTirTobebSi wamyvania maTi funqcionaluri datvirTva. am Sexedulebam rolebis Teoriis anu sqesobriv-roluri midgomis saxeli daimkvidra. am mosazrebis mixedviT, qali asrulebs eqspresiul rols kaci ki _instrumentuls (ix. mamakacisa da qakis rolebi amerikul ojaxSi) eqspresiuli roli mdgomareobs zrunvis gamovlenaSi, ojaxis emociur mxardaWeraSi, siyvarulSi, ojaxSi dadebiTi emociuri klimatis SenarCunebaSi. es aris diasaxlisis monopoliuri socialuri roli. rac Seexeba instrumentul rols, igi mamakacis monopoliaa da pirvel rigSi, vlindeba Tavis ojaxsa da sxva socialur jgufebs Soris urTierTobebis uzrunvelyofaSi. es aris Semomtanisa da damcvelis socialuri roli. rolebis aTviseba qalebisa da mamakacebis mxridan socializaciisa da socialuri normebis interiorizaciis (gaTavisebis, gaSinagnebis) procesSi xdeba. rolis swori Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofa xdeba dasjisa da waxalisebis socialuri sistemebis muSaobiT, dadebiTi da uaryofiTi ganmtkicebiT. gofmanis (Goffman) dramaturgiuli intraspeqcionizmi iTvleba genderuli urTierTobebis socialur-konstruqtivistuli interpretaciis amosavlad. Tumca ki, misi Sromebi gamsWvalulia esencialisturi TezisebiT: sqesobrivi sxvaobebi, romlebic socialuri urTierTmimarTebis doneze ganixileba, warmoadgenen individebis sqesobrivi arsis bunebriv gamovlinebas; `genderuli TamaSi~, Tumca socialurad aris organizebuli, magram igi warmoadgens bunebrivi sqesis gamovlinebas. am SexedulebaTa sawinaaRmdegod, 70-iani wlebis feministebis naSromebSi genderuli urTierTobebi Tavisufldeba sqesiT determinizaciisagan da Semdegnairad ganisazRvreba: genderuli urTierTobebi es aris Zalauflebisa da Tanasworobis socialurad organizebuli urTierTobebi. amgvarad, socialuri konstruqtivizmis farglebSi genderuli urTierTobebis aseTi gageba Camoyalibda. socialuri konstruqtivizmi uaryofs, rogorc ukve avRniSneT, adreuli feminizmis erT-erT amosaval debulebas imis Sesaxeb, rom `qalad ibadebian~. es aris Tezisi, romlis mixedviTac, genderi aris sqesze (biologiaze) dafuZnebuli kulturuli konstruqti. es Tezisi gabatonebuli iyo feministebSi 70-ian wlebamde. socialur-konstruqtivistuli feministuri kritikis zegavleniT, eWv qveS dgeba genderis sqesiT (anatomiurad da biologiurad) gansazRvruloba. sakiTxi sxvagvari kuTxiT ganixileba da aqedan gamomdinare, genderic axleburad isazRvreba: genderi warmoadgens sazogadoebis mxridan gakontrolebuli yoveldRiuri urTierTmoq74

medebis mizezsa da Sedegs. biologiuri determinizmi miuRebeli xdeba feministebisaTvis politikuri mosazrebebidan gamomdinarec, radgan feminizmi orientirebulia socialur cvlilebebze anu genderulad stratificirebuli sistemebis cvlilebebze. amdenad, maTTvis miuRebelia biologiuri determinizmi. amgvarad, genderis socialur konstruqtivistuli Teoria moicavs politikur motivs da mimarTulia politikur Sedegze. socialuri konstruqtivizmis Teoria sam ZiriTad Teorias efuZneba. es aris bergerisa da lukmanis socialur- konstruqtiuli midgoma, garfinkelis eTnomeTodologia da gofmanis dramaturgiuli intraspeqcionizmi.

Cven ar SevudgebiT am SexedulebaTa detalur ganxilvas. Cven mokled ganvixilavT mxolod genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmis Teoriis ZiriTad debulebebs.

genderi da Zalaufleba. genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmis erT-erT mniSvnelovani Tezisia ZalauflebiTi urTierTobebSi genderis inkorporirebulobis Sesaxeb. am debulebis mixedviT, socialuri realobis genderuli organizebis safuZvels ZalauflebiTi urTierTobebi warmoadgens. maT mixedviT, Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi qalursa da mamakacurs Soris mimarTeba - es aris im gansxvavebebis mimarTeba, romlebic SesaZleblobebis uTanasworobas warmoadgens. urTierTobaTa asimetria Sefarulia genderuli displeiT, romelic genderul diskriminacias genderul sxvaobebad warmogvidgens. genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmis Sexeduleba uars ambobs socialur-sqesobrivi urTierTobebis adre arsebul or Sexedulebaze: socialuri rolebis (genderuli rolebis) koncefciaze da fsiqologiuri sqesobrivi sxvaobebis koncefciaze. konstruqtivistebis mixedviT, genderi ar SeiZleba moviazroT, rogorc socialuri roli. genderi sabazo identobaa. am TvalsazrisiT, genderi aris eTnikurobis msgvsi kategoria, radgan igi aseve apirobebs im konstruqts, romelsac iZenen konkretuli rolebi pirovnebisa Tu socialuri jgufebisaTvis. genderis dayvana fsiqologiur niSnebze (maskulinurze an feminurze) ar SeiZleba. genderis fsiqologizacia, genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmis warmomadgenlebis moxedviT, xels uSlis imis analizs, Tu rogor xdeba, rom socialuri institutebi genderulad stratificirebulni xdebian. genderuli urTierTobebi, rogorc sqesis mixedviT uTanasworobis socialuri urTierTobebi Cazrdilia socialuri wyobaSi iseTnirad, rom fsiqologiuri maxasiaTeblebis miwera warmoadgens am urTierTobaTa mxolod erT aspeqts. amgvarad, genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmis Teoriis moxedviT, genderi -- es ar aris arc roli da arc fsiqologiur niSan-TvisebaTa erToblioba. genderuli urTierTobebis safuZvels ZalauflebiTi urTierTobebi warmoadgenen da amitom _ es aris stratifikaciis safuZveli. am mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmis warmomadgenlebi miznad isaxaven konkretul amocanebs genderuli Tanasworobis misaRwevad.

saleqcio Temis ukeT gazrebis mizniT, gamoyenebuli iqneba roluri TamaSis meTodi. kerZod, Tavdapirvelad jgufis TiToeuli wevri patara baraTebze cal-calke Camowers dRevandel saqarTveloSi qalebisa da mamakcebisTvis gankuTvnil movaleobebs ojaxsa da sazogadoebaSi. Semdeg jgufidan amoirCeva studenti gogona da vaJi, romlebic gamovlen oTaxis centrSi. TiTTeuli studenti waikiTxavs yovel movaleobas rigrigobiT da sqesis Sesabamisad gadascems gamosul students baraTs da am mizniT winaswar momzadebul tvirTs (savaraudod wigns). saboloo jamSi jgufi dainaxavs, Tu ramdeni movaleoba aqvs Cvens sazogadoebasi qals da ramdeni mamakacs, rogoria maTi Tanafardoba. studentebma unda ifiqron imaze, Tu ratom aris aseTi

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uTanasworoba da ra gziT SeiZleba misi gamosworeba. es TamaSi amave dros safuZvels moamzadebs Semdegi Temis ukeT gaazrebisaTvis. studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis savaldebulo samecniero literaturSi (riderSi) warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi. leqciis bolos studentebs miewodebaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

samarTlianobis Teoria (Adams) _ Cven garkveul Zalisxmevas (dros, energias, kvalifikacias, unarebs da a.S.) vdebT Cvens samuSaoSi da viRebT garkveul anazRaurebas., imisaTvis, rom gavarkvioT, Tu ramdenad samarTliania es ukanaskneli, Cven vadarebT Cvens mier Cadebuli Zalisxmevisa da anazRaurebis mimarTebas `Sesadarebeli jgufis~ mier Cadebul Zalisxmevisa da mis anazraurebas Soris mimarTebas. `SuSis Weri~ _ es aris metafora imis Sesaxeb, rom organizaciaTa umravlesobaSi arsebobs e.w. uxilavi Weri, romlis zemoTac qalebi da agreTve, araevropuli warmoSobis amerikelebi, ubralod ver adian. genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmi _ feministuri Teoria, romlis mixedviTac genderi ar aris biologiurad determinirebuli, aramed igi socialurad konstruirebulia Zalauflebis asimertiuli gadanawilebis gamo. genderuli urTierTobebi (genderis sociluri konstruqtivizmis mixedviT) _ es aris Zalauflebisa da Tanasworobis socialurad organizebuli urTierTobebi. ZiriTadi literatura: 1. Crawford M., Unger R., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, The McGraw-hill, 2004, p.: 359-395; 2. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, p.: 194-224; 3. Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the 21st Century, "Beijing+5" (2000) - 23rd Special Session of the General Assembly, New York, 5-9 June 2000 ­ www.un.org/womenwatch/ 4. sapiro v. qali da politika, - kr.-Si `qali politikur da socialur cxovrebaSi~, bakur sulakauris gamomcemloba, 1998, gv.: 40-75. damatebiTi literatura: 1. Fourth World Conference on Women (1995) -Beijing, China, 4-15 September 1995 -­ www.un.org/womenwatch/ 2. qalTa dasaqmebis sakiTxebi, kr., gaeros ganviTarebis programa "qalebi ganviTarebis procesSi~, Tb., 1998; 3. Women, Economic Development and Conflict,UNDP "Women in Development", Tbilisi, 1998; 4. Barbara Reskin, Irene Padavic, Women and Men at Work, Pine Forge Press, 1994, p.: 1-13, 57-79 5. Superwomen and The Double Burden (Women's experience of change in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union ), edited by Cris Corrin, Scavlet Press,1992, p.: 1-179 6. Families in Multicultural Perspective, edited by Bron B. Ingoldsby, Suzanna Smith, The Guilford Press, 1992, c.: 11 7. Women, Economic Development and Conflict,UNDP "Women in Development", Tbilisi, 1998. seminari # 6 Tema # 6 (2 sT)

seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia; seminarze gaimarTeba diskusia ZiriTad sakiTxTa garSemo. kerZod dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis

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kiTxvebi: 1. ras niSnavs genderuli stratifikacia? 2. daasaxeleT genderuli stratifikaciis paternebi. SeadareT isini erTmaneTs. 3. rogoria genderuli stratifikaciis paternebis mimarTuleba sxvadasxva kulturebSi? 4. ra faqtorebi gansazRvravs sazogadoebis genderul stratipikacias? 5. rogoria Sromis bazris genderuli aspeqtebi? 6. rogoria qalTa monawileobis xarisxi politikaSi? 7. rogor da ra sferoebSi vlindeba gansxvavebebi qalTa da mamakacTa uflebebSi? 8. ra aris genderuli socialuri konstruqtivizmis arsi? 9. ra Teoriulma da politikurma wanamZRvrebma gansazRvra genderuli socialuri konstruqtivizmis aRmoceneba? 10. rogor aris gagebuli genderuli socialuri konstruqtivizmis TeoriaSi genderi?

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kvira #7

leqcia --2 sT

Tema #7 - genderuli asimetria: diskriminacia Tu norma. genderuli Tanasworobis cneba. kultura da genderuli Tanasworobis modelebi.

leqciaze ganxiluli iqneba genderuli asimetriis warmoSobis mokle istoria. sakiTxi ganxiluli iqneba rogorc religiur WrilSi, aseve, antikuri filosofiuri azris ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiTac. kerZod, ganxiluli iqneba platonisa da aristoteles mosazrebebi qalisa da mamakacis funqciebze da rolebze sazogadoebaSi. ganxiluli iqneba genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba, genderuli Tanasworobis misaRwevad mniSvnelovani amocanebi da RonisZiebebi. ganxiluli iqneba, agreTve, Gender Mainstreaming ­i da misi ganxorcielebis modelebi sxvadasxva qveynebSi.

mTlianobaSi Tu moviazrebT yvela im SesaZlo mizezebs, romelic ganapirobebs qalis dabal statuss, maTi sakmaod farTo speqtri arsebobs: sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi gamjdari stereotipebi qalis tradiciuli rolis da marTvis unarebis uqonlobis Sesaxeb, organizaciebsa da dawesebulebebSi arsebuli normebi, romlis mixedviT mamakacs eniWeba upiratesoba. TviTon qalebSi arsebuli ganwyobebi, dabali statusis molodini da mimRebloba. miuxedavad imisa, rom qalis dabali statusi zogadi tendencia yvela kulturisTvis saerToa, kulturaTa Soris arsebuli variaciebi mainc sakmaod mravalferovania da damokidebulia: sazogadoebis kulturis da ganaTlebis doneze. Cven patriarqalur samyaroSi vcxovrobT da Cveni cnobierebac amis Sesabamisia. jari, industria, teqnologia, universitetebi, mecniereba, politikuri dawesebulebebi, finansebi, maSasadame, yvelaferi rac Zalauflebas ukavSirdeba mamakacTa xelSia. am fenomenis aRsaniSnavad XX saukuneSi Cndeba axali cnebac -- androcentrizmi. rogorc Sarlot perkins gilmani ambobs: `mamakacis Seqmnili samyaro, anu Cveni androcentruli kultura~. am kulturis Tanaxmad, ki mamakaci ganasaxierebs kacobriobas, qali ki erTgvari damatebaa, mamakacs daqvemdebarebuli damxmarea. androcentrizms da Sesabamisad qalis diskriminacias xangrZlivi istoria aqvs, Tumca kacobriobisTvis es eTgvari `norma~ iyo. XIX saukunis meore naxevramde TiTqos mTeli msoflio da maT Soris amerikelebic, Tavisuflebis flamgmanebi -- TiTqos ver amCnevden gansvlas Tavisuflebis idealis erTgulebasa da qalTa uflebebis uaryofs (diskriminacias) Soris. amaze maT Tvalebi feministuri moZraobis pirvelma talRam auxila. 60-iani wlebis feminizmis meore talRam win wamowia `seqsizmis~ socialuri cnobiereba yvela im ideologiur da praqtikul sferoSi, sadac diskriminacia sqesis safuZvelze xdeboda. feministebma naTeli gaxades, rom qalisTvis naklebi samuSaos, (Tanac, dabali statusis mqone) miecema da naklebi anazRaureba, sworedac rom diskriminacia iyo, romelic mxolod dromoWmul kulturul stereotipebs efuZneboda. (amis Semdeg TviT reaqciulma politikosebmac ki dauWires mxari Tanabari xelfasis ideas). magram bolo periodSi sazogadoebaSi da cnobierebaSi momxdari cvlilebebis miuxedavad aRmoCnda, rom sqesisa da genderis Sesaxeb arseabuli stereotipuli Sexedulebebi Zalian farTod iyo gamjdari rogorc adamianis fsiqikaSi, aseve

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socialur institutebSi, rac mamakacTa Zalauflebis mudmiv kvlavwarmoebas iwvevda. `androcentrizms~ Tavisi didi istoria aqvs, is maSin iwyeba, roca daiwyo qalRmerTis mamrobiTi RmerTiT Secvlis procesi da Sesabamisad qalis arasrulfasovan da macdur arsebad gamocxadeba. manamde ki iyo xana, sadac adidebdnen `zeciur diad dedofals~, memkvidreoba qalis xaziT gadaecemoda Taobidan Taobas, kaci ar akontrolebda qals; sufevda matriarqati. mesopotamiuri wyaroebi savsea diad qalRmerTze miTiTebebiT. Sumeruli locvebi adideben didebul dedofals -- nanas, rogorc Zlevamosil qalbatonsa da Semoqmeds. qalRmerTis Zalauflebas yvelaze Zolierad daupirispirda iudaizmi, mama-- RmerTis ideiT. es iyo me--17 saukuneSi Cvens welTaRricxvamde, roca abraamma iahvesTan `xelSekruleba~ dado. ase daiwyo mTels axlo aRmosavleTSi qalRmerTis mamrobiTi RmerTiT Secvlis procesi. cnobierebaSi damkvidrda mamrobiTi sqesis RmerTis -- Sesabamisad ki srulfasovani mamakacis da arasrulfasovani qalis stereotipi, romelic acdunebs mamakacs, rom WeSmariti gzidan gadaaxvevinos. qalRmerTis sruli uaryofisTvis ebraelebma samyaros Seqmnis axlebuli versia wamoayenes, romelic gansxvavdeboda aRmosavluri versiebisagan, sadac ZalauflebisTvis brZola mdedrobiT da mamrobiT RvTaebebs Soris mimdinareobs. iahves mimdevrebi saerTod uaryofdnen sxva RmerTebis arsebobas da yvela diad saqmes mxolod iahves miawerdnen (samyaros Seqmnas). amrigad qalRmerTis sruli uaryofa xdeboda. amis Semdeg ki mamakaci, rogorc samyaros Semoqmedi da misi STamomavali, sazRvravs qalTan, rogorc `sxvasTan~ damokidebulebasa da urTierTobas. androcentruli TvalsazrisiT, SeiZleba gamoiyos mamakacis qalTan damokidebulebis sami aspeqti: 1) qali, rogorc arasrulfasovani universalur standartTan mimarTebaSi, romelTanac mamakacs sakuTari Tavi aqvs identificirebuli. 2) qals mxolod saojaxo da reproduqciuli funqciebi aqvs ojaxSi, romlis ufrosadac mamakaci sakuTar Tavs miiCnevs. 3) qals aqvs unari aRZras da daakmayofilos mamakacis seqsualuri mada, romelic mamakacisTvis erTdToulad amaRelvebelicaa da saSiSic. es ideebi warmodgenilia samyaros Seqmnis bibliur versiaSic. magaliTad, adams uflisgan miniWebuli aqvs gansakuTrebuli ufleba sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr saxeli mianiWos yovel qmnilebas, maT Soris qalsac; amasTan RmerTis xatad mxolod adami aris Seqmnili. `RmerTma ZilquSi mohgvara adams da ra daeZina, gamouRo erTi nekni da mis adgilas xorci Caudo. im neknisagan, adams, rom gamouRo, dedakaci Seqmna ufalma RmerTma da adams miuyvana. Tqva adamma: es ki marTlac Zvalia Cemi ZvalTagani da xorci Cemi xorcTagani; dedakaci erqvas mas, radgan kacisagan aris gamoRebuli~. (dabadeba 2:18--23). amrigad, bibliis mixedviT, eva aris arasrulfasovani, meoradi qmnileba, mamakacis damxmared Seqmnili. is ar aris `saxelebis damrqmevi~. qalis arasrulfasovnebaze miuTiTebs codviT dacemis istoriac.l gvelma imitom daiyolia eva. gaasinja akrZaluli xis nayofi, rom igi arasrulfasovan arsebad da RmerTTan naklebad daaxloebulad CaTvala. codviT dacemis ambavSi, agreTve, kargad Cans qalis macduri buneba; roca eva daiTanxmebs adams gaakeTos is, rac mas ufalma aukrZala. saukuneebis manZilze interpretatorebi adamis codvas evas macdurobas miawerdnen. da bolos, bibliaSi moTxroblia im sasjelis Sesaxebac, romelsac qali iRebs reproduqciuli da ojaxuri funqciis SesrulebiT. qali isedac mamakacis damxmared iyo Seqmnili, magram codvis dacemis Semdgom kidev ufro daqvemdebarebuli da tanjuli gaxda. RmerTma uTxra dedakacs: `satanjvels gagimravleb da gagiZneleb

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orsulobas, tanjviT Sob Svilebs. qmrisken geqneba ltolva, is ki ibatonebs Senze~. qalis arasrulfasovnad, meorexarisxovnad Sefasebis tendencia grZeldeba da Rrmavdeba qristianobaSic. qristianebi, romlebic ebraelTa RmerTs -- iahves -- qristes mamad miiCnevdnen, da Sesabamisad monoTeizms da RmerTis mamrobiToba aRiarebdnen. aranaklebi mondomebiT cdilobdnen bibliidan da axali aRTqmidan qalis RvTaebriobis niSanwyalis aRmofxvras. qristianebi kategoriulad daupirispirdnen gnostikosebis Sexedulebebs, romelTa azriT, bibliis dabadebis teqstSi arsebuli muxlis `Seqmna RmerTma kaci, Tavis xatad Seqmna igi; mamakacad da dedakacad Seqmna igi~ (dabadeba 1:27) -- interpretireba saSualebas iZleva mamakacisa da qalis Tanasworobis da Sesabamisad Tanasoruflebianobis aRiarebisa. orTodoqsma qristianebma kategoriuli miuRebloba gamoucxades gnostikosTa Sexedulebebs, maTi azrebi eretikulad gamoacxades da Semdegom gnostikosTa teqstebi saerTod gaanadgures. bibliuri istoria mTeli dasavluri civilizaciisTvis qalis Sesaxeb koncefciis safuZvels qmnis. magram am koncefciis CamoyalibebaSi dasavluri azrovneba ara mxolod bibliur istorias eyrdnoboda, aramed antikur filosofiur da politikur tradiciebsac, romlebic saTaves Zvel saberZneTSi iReben. istorikosebi antikuri xanis berZnebs dasavluri civilizaciis damfuZneblad miiCneven. maT Seqmnes pirovnuli Tavisuflebisa da samarTlianobis tradiciebi, maTi xelovneba da mecniereba dasavluris fundamentia, magram am dadebiTi wvlilis garda maTve Seqmnes mizoginiis (qalTmoZuleobis) tradiciac, romelic SemdgomSi dasavluri qalis koncefciis ganmsazRvreli gaxda. Zalze mniSvnelovania platonis da aristoteles azrebi da gansazRvrebebi qalis bunebis Sesaxeb. maTi Sexedulebebi Zalian axlosaa iudeur da qristianul SexedulebebTan, Tumca platonis da aristoteles TxzulebebSi qali ar iyo ganxiluli, rogorc macdunebeli da qalis seqsualoba maTTvis angariSgasawevi fenomeni ar iyo. platonis azriT, adamianis buneba ori saxisaa, sadac mamakacebi `upiratesi rasaa~. Tavdapirveli Seqmna, saerTod ar Seicavda qalebs. Seiqmnen mxolod mamakacebi, romelTa sulebi calkeulvarskvlavebtan iyvnen dakavSirebulni da vin am qveynad wesierad cxovrobda, isev Tavis varskvlavze brunedeboda dalocvili da araCveulebrivi cxovrebisTvis. codvili mamakacebi ki, meored dabadebisas qalad evlinebodnen samyaros da Tu am saxiTac ver Seikavebdnen Tavs borotebisgan, SemdgomSi ukve sazarel arsebebad gadaiqceodnen. Seqmnis am miTis Tanaxmad qali mamakacisgan aris warmoqmnili, iseve, rogorc bibliaSi da metic, qali Seqmnilia codvili, mxdali da uRirsi mamakacisagan. is ki, vinc qalad yofnisasac agrZelebda uRirs cxovrebas, mdabal mankier cxovelad iqceoda xelaxali dabadebisas. platonma, rogorc socialurma vizionerma, ori qalaqis aRwerilobac mogvca: idealuri qalaqi -- sadac mTel sakuTrebas erTad flobs `mcvelebis~ elitaruli jgufi, romelTac ar amoZavebs piradi interesebi da meore idealuri qalaqi -- sadac sakuTreba ar aris saerTo. platonis pirvel idealur qalaqSi anu sazogadoebaSi iyo yovelgvari kerZo -- ojaxic, Svilic da colic. platonis idealur sazogadoebaSi qals uCveulo roli eniWeboda; mas iseve unda Seesrulebina `mcvelis~ roli, rogorc mamakacs. amisTvis ki isini unda gadaemzadebinaT, Tumca amis miuxedavad, qali, savaraudod, mainc uaresad Seasrulebda am rols, radgan ar flobda, im umaRles Tvisebebs, rasac - mamakaci. aRsaniSnavia, rom iseTi xedviT qalis erTmeoda seqsualuri atributika. Zveli berZnebis ganmartebaSi qals tradiciuli androcentruli elementebidan erTi aklia, es aris qali, rogorc seqsualuri, saSiSi arseba -- macduri. xolo

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platonis mier kerZo ojaxis ideis uaryofiT (kerZo colis, Svilis) qalma dakarga kidev erTi tradiciuli elementi -- qali, rogorc daqvemdebarebuli patriarqalur ojaxSi. magram platonis meore idealur ojaxSi qalis daqvemdebarebuloba da metic diskriminacia kvlav gamoCnda. aq qalebi moklebulni arian ZiriTad samoqalaqo da kanonier uflebebs, maT Soris: sakuTrebis uflebas, memkvidreobis uflebas da sasamarTloSi mowmed yofnis uflebas. maT mxolod yoveldRiuri, rutinuli samuSaos Sesruleba uwevT -- saojaxo saqme, bavSvebis mrovla da meTvalyureoba -- bavSvebis aRzrda ganaTlebaze zrunvac ki ar Sedis maT funqciebSi, radgan es funqciebi, rogorc inteleqtualuri da prioritetuli, mamakacebs ekuTvnis. unda aRiniSnos, rom Tu platoni pirveli idealuri qalaqis Sesaxeb msjelobisas, mainc uSvebs qalisa da mamakacis gaTanabrebis SesaZleblobas, aristotele am SesaZleblobas saerTod gamoricxavs. aristotelesTvis samyaro erTiani struqturaa, sadac Semadgeneli nawilebi ierarqiulad aris organizebuli, mxolod saukeTesosa da upiratess aqvs racionaluri arsebobis principi, xolo yvela danarCeni misi xelSewyobis funqcias asrulebs. asevea qalisa da mamakacis mimarTebaSic. mamakaci ierarqiis saTaveSia, rogorc srulyofili da unariani, xolo qali, rogorc bunebrivi naklis mqone Tavisze `upiratesis~ sasargeblod arsebobs. miuxedavad imisa, rom Zveli berZnebis daSvebebi imis Sesaxeb, rom bunebrivi gansxvavebebi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris amarTlebs politikur uTanasworobas SeuTavsebeli iyo adamianTa uflebebis saerTaSoriso enasTan, maT mainc SeaRwies ganmanaTlebeli Teoretikosebis naSromebSi da, agreTve, Tanamedrove demokratiul konstituciebSic. (magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebul Statebis konstituciaSic yvelaze ZiriTad uflebas -- xmis uflebas -- feradkanianebTan erTad moklebuli iyvnen qalebic. Jan--Jak ruso mgznebared gamodioda yovelgvari politikuri uTanasworobis winaaRmdeg, man bunebrivi gansxvavebebis da politikuri uTanasworobis gamo Zveli berZnebis sawinaaRmdego azri gamoTqva, magram es exeboda mxolod mamakacebs da qalebis Sesaxeb mas sityvac ar dauZravs. Tuki es filosofiuri da religiuri ideebi ganapirobebden aTasi wlis winandel androcentrizms, arsebobs ideebic, romlebic uaxles, Tanamedrove androcentrizms daedo safuZvlad. amjerad mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs androcentrizmis asi wlis winandeli gamocdileba, romelmac kidev ufri gaamyara Zveli stereotipebi. man, agreTve, mniSvnelovnad ganapiroba adamianuri bunebis gageba dasavlur kulturaSi da Tamamad SeiZleba miviCnioT qalis Tanamedrove koncefciis ZiriTad qvakuTxedad. -- es aris zigmund froidis Sexedulebebi qalisa da mamakacis Sesaxeb. Tuki iudaistebis da qristianebis Tanaxmad, mamakacebs da qalebs RmerTma mianiWa Tavidanve gansxvavebuli buneba, Tu berZeni filosofosebis Tanaxmad, sqesTa Soris gansxvavebebi bunebam ganapiroba, z. froidis Teoriis Tanaxmad (rogorc zemoT davinaxeT), mamakacebsa da qalebs Soris fsiqologiuri gansxvavebebi, ganviTarebis procesSi Camoyalibda. fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis procesSi, garkveuli etapebis gavTliT mamakacebsa da qalebs gansxvavebuli xasiaTis Strixebi uyalibdebaT, sadac mamakacebis da qalebis fsiqologiuri portretebi mkveTrad asimetriulia, xolo qalis portreti sakmaod da meorexarisxovani arasrulfaysovani magaliTad: mamakaci -- dominanturi, aqtiuri, mamaci, gonieri da a.S. qali ki-- pasiuri, eWviani, narcisuli, crumorwmune da a.S. miuxedavad kerZo da sazogadoebriv cnobierebis aseTi xangrZlivi ganpirobebulobisa, bolo dros sazogadoebaSi icvleba ganwyobebi genderuli Tanasworobis ideis

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sasargeblod (qalis sazogadoebrivi statusis gazrdisa da gamyarebis momxreTa ricxvi rom sagrZnoblad gaizarda, amaze metyvelebs oskampis (Oskamp, 1991) kvlevebic. am kvlevebis mixedviT, qalis prezidentobis kandidaturas 1937 wels -- 33% -- uWerda mxars 1987 wels ki -- 82%). Tanamedrove msoflioSi mniSvnelovnad gaxSirda da gaZlierda qalis uflebebisTvis brZola da qalebs statusis gaumjobesebis RonisZiebebi (konferenciebi, seminarebi, aqciebi, programebi da sxv.) -- es im procesis Sedegs warmoadgenen, rasac feministurma moZraobebma daudes saTave. gaeros egidiT qalTa konferenciebi Catarda: mexikoSi (1975), kopenhagenSi (1980) da nairobiSi (1985). am konferenciebze moxda qalis statusis Sefaseba da qalTa ganviTarebis da winsvlis strategiebis dasaxva. 80--90--ian wlebSi sxvadasxva qveynis warmomadgenelma qalebma wamowies adamianis uflebaTa sakiTxi da daJinebiT moiTxoves adamianis uflebebis koreqcia da qalis uflebebis, integracia; adamianis uflebebis ganxilva Seicavda im ormagi standartebis analizsac, romelic adamianis uflebebsa da qalis cxovrebis realobas Soris arsebobs. qalebma farTo sazogadoebas daanaxves, rom adamianis uflebebis ganxorcielebas genderuli elferi dahkravs da, agreTve, moiTxoves, rom adamianebis uflebebis struqtura srulfasovnad iTvaliswinebdes kacobriobis meore naxevris -- qalebis gamocdilebas. qalis adamianis uflebebis moxmobiT qali uaryofs adamianis uflebebis iseT ierarqias, sadac politikuri da moqalaqis uflebebi an socialur--ekonomikuri uflebebi ganixileba, rogorc upiratesi. amis sapirispirod, qalebi amtkiceben, rom politikuri stabiloba ar ganxorcieldeba manam, sanam ar mogvardeba qalis socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebis sakiTxi; mdgradi ganviTareba SeuZlebelia politikur procesebSi qalis kulturuli da socialuri rolis CarTvisa da mis mimarT pativiscemis gareSe. Tanasworoba ver damyardeba ekonomikuri samarTlianobis da politikuri gadawyvetilebis miRebis yvela doneze qalis monawileobis gareSe. mTeli msoflios qalebi xangrZlivi drois granmavlobaSi cdilobdnen yuradRebis centrSi daeyenebinaT qalTa diskriminaciis sakiTxi; agreTve, ayenebdnen sakiTxs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ratom aqvs qalis uflebebs adamianis uflebebis mimarT damxmare statusi. am mcdelobam 90--iani wlebis dasawyisSi garkveuli winsvla ganicada. 1993 wels venaSi gamarTuli gaeros saerTaSoriso konferenciai adamianis uflebebis Sesaxeb, gadaiqca qalTa mier SemuSavebuli adamianis uflebebis axali xedvisa da praqtikis gatarebis saSualebad. am konferenciaze qalTa uflebebis saerTaSoriso kampaniam gaitana peticia, romelic msoflio konferencias mouwodebda yvela doneze gaeTvaliswinebina qalis adamianis uflebebi da eRiarebina genderuli Zaladoba, rogorc sayovelTao fenomeni (Tumca ki yvela kulturaSi specifikuri formiT gamovlenili). qalebma gaagrZeles am sakiTxis lobireba da 1994 wels kairoSi gaerTianebuli erebis konferenciaze gamorCeulad aRiarebuli iqna qalTa reproduqciuli uflebebi. 1995 wels pekinSi ki, qalTa msoflio konferenciaze SeimuSaves moqmedebis platforma. amiT niSani mieca qalTa uflebebis adamianis uflebebad oficialur aRiarebas. marTalia am konferenciaze miRweul SeTanxmebebs iuridiuli Zala ara aqvs; Tumca maT namdvilad aqvT eTikuri da politikuri wona. yvela es mcdeloba mimarTulia qalsa da mamakacs Soris Tanasworobis dasamyareblad. sqesTa Soris TanasworobaSi ki igulisxmeba: Tanabari mdgomareoba (socialuri), damoukidebloba, sazogadoebrivi da kerZo cxovrebis yvela sferoSi Tanabari monawileoba da pasuxismgebloba. Tanasworobis cneba gulisxmobs qalisa da mamakacis yovlismomcveli monawileobis princips sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. Zvelad (zogjer exlac, Tanamedrove droSic,

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vxvdebiT xolme aseT viTarebas) evropaSi sqesTa Tanasworoba ganisazRvreboda mamakacebisa da qalebis deiure uflebebiT aRWurviT. Cvens droSi aRiarebulia, rom deiure uflebebs aucileblad ar mivyevarT defaqto viTarebisaken. realurad mamakacisa da qalis cxovrebis pirobebi sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. amgvarad, Tanamedrove gansazRvrebiT, genderuli Tanasworoba an sqesTa Tanasworoba -- es aris Tanasworoba kanonis winaSe, SesaZleblobaTa Tanasworoba, romelic moicavs adamianuri kapitalisa da warmoebis sxva resursebis Tanaswor xelmisawvdomobas, agreTve, Tanasworobas Sromis anazRaurebaSi da interesebis gamoxatvis da gadawyvetilebis miRebis Tanasworobas. sqesTa Tanasworoba ar niSnavs urTierTdamsgavsebasa da identurobas. Tanasworoba arc mamakacisTvis damaxasiaTebeli cxovrebis wesis normad damkvidrebas gulisxmobs. Tanasworobis arsis garkvevaSi mTavari mniSvneloba or aspeqts aqvs: sqesis socialur struqturas da sqesTa Soris urTierTobebs. qalisa da mamakacis genderad, socialur sqesad dayofa qalisa da mamakacis socialuri identifikaciis aRmocenebis droidan momdinareobs. genderi, romelic biologiuri sqesis socialuri anabeWdia da ganpirobebulia sazogadoebaSi TiToeuli sqesis damaxasiaTebeli funqciebisa da rolebis ganawilebaze. es ganawileba, romelsac pirvel rigSi kulturuli xasiaTi aqvs, varirebs (cvalebadobas ganicdis) droisa da adgilis Sesabamisad. aseTi saxiT gansazRvrul genderis struqturas aqvs individualuri da socialuri ganzomileba. aRsaniSnavia, rom orive es faqtori erTnairad mniSvnelovania. TavianTi sicocxlis (cxovelqmedebis) ganmavlobaSi manZilze adamianebi individualurad ayalibeben sqesobriv rolebs da normebs, magram, amave dros, genderi, agreTve, politikur da institucionalur planSi unda ganixilebodes. politikuri da sazogadoebriv--politikuri struqturebi pirvelxarisxovan rolis TamaSoben cxovrebis pirobebis modelirebaSi da xSirad ganapirobeben ama Tu im sqesis statusis ZalaSi darCenas, romelic dadgenilia mocemiuli sazogadoebis pirobebSi. diskriminaciis xangrZlivi istoria (ama Tu im sqesis mimarT) uxilavad da uneblied axdens zemoqmedebas adamianTa yoveldRiur qcevebsa da gadawyvetilebebze. radgan tradiciulad aRiarebulia, rom Cveni sazogadoebis RerZi mamakacuria, es imas niSnavs, rom norma, romelic mamakacebisTvis aris miRebuli, normaa mTeli sazogadoebisTvis, rac aisaxeba sazogadoebis struqturaSi da politikur gadawyvetilebebSi, da rac xSirad, Tumca ara aucileblad ganzraxulad, aaSkaravebs sqesTa Soris uTanasworobas. sqesTa Soris Tanasworobis idea gvaiZulebs SevafasoT mamakacisa da qalis rolebs Soris gansxvaveba. Tanasworobis principi Seicavs gansxvavebulobis uflebas, rac gulisxmobs aucileblobas gaviTvaliswinoT is ganmasxvavebeli Tvisebebi (Strixebi), rac sxvadasxva socialuri klasis, politikuri Sexedulebebis, religiuri Sexedulebebisa, eTnikuri jgufis da seqsualuri orientaciis qalebsa da mamakacebs axasiaTebT. Tanasworobis principi imazec gvafiqrebinebs, Tu rogor unda mivaRwioT warmatebas, cvlilebebis Sesatanad im sazogadoebriv struqturebSi, sadac ZalauflebiTi damokidebulebebi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris ar aris dabalansebuli. Tanasworobis principi gvafiqrebinebs, agreTve, Tu rogor unda damyardes wonasworoba garkveul faseulobebsa da prioritetebs Soris, romlebic sqesebs aqvT. Tanasworobis koncefcia gviCvenebs, rom sqesTa socialuri identifikacia gvaZlevs saSualebas qalebisa da mamakacebs Soris gansxvavebebisaTvis. amasTan, ise, rom am dros ar daveyrdnoT ierarqiis princips (romelic mamakacs maRla ayenebs). es iTxovs sqesebs Soris partniorobis gacnobierebas (Segnebas) da faseulobebis iseT gana83

wilebas, rom likvidirebul iqnes wonasworobis darRveva kerZo, Tu sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. saqme exeba TiToeuli adamianis codnisa da talantis gamoyenebas imis misaRwevad, rom qalebi da mamakacebi Tanasworad monawileobdnen sazogadoebis mSeneblobaSi da rekonstruqciaSi. sqesTa Soris Tanasworobis dasamyareblad da SesanarCuneblad aucilebeli xelaxali gaazrebisa da gadafasebis mudmivi, uwyveti procesi. arsebobs rigi RonisZiebebisa, romlebic cxovrebis yvela sferoSi da doneze qalTa da mamakacTa Tanasworobis damkvidrebisaTvis unda gadatardes. yvelaze mniSvnelovani miznebi, romlebic dRes am mimarTulebiT unda iqnes miRweuli aris: 1. qalTa uflebebis, romlebic aseve adamianTa uflebebis ganuyofeli nawilia -- sruli miReba da pativiscema; agreTve, im zomebis gatareba, romlebic saSualebas miscems qalebs realuriad gamoiyenon sakuTari uflebebi; 2. demokratiuli reprezentatiulobis ganviTareba da gaumjobeseba. miuxedavad qalis pirobebis gaumjobesebisa, TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi arasakmarisi reprezentatiulobaa. anu qalis monawileobis ararsebobaa gadawyvetilebis miRebis yvela doeneze; 3. ekonomikuri damoukidebloba amis ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia: Sromis Tanabari anazRaurebis daweseba, kreditebis miRebis Tanabari SesaZleblobebi; Sromis bazarze Tanabari pirobebis Seqmna; 4. ganaTleba. igi Zlieri instrumentia -- sqesTa Tanasworobis sferoSi, rameTu ganaTlebis wyalobiT sazogadoeba Taobidan Taobas gadascems rolebisa da normebis Sesaxeb codnas. agreTve misi meSveobiT SeiZleba arsebuli ierarqiuli sistemis koreqtireba; 5. orive sqesis erToblivi moqmedeba. Zalze mniSvnelovania orive sqesis SeTanxmeba, arsebuli socialuri disproporciebis Sesaxeb da erToblivi moqmedeba mis gamosasworeblad. mniSvnelovania pasuxismgeblobisa da Zalisxmevis ganawileba; gaeros, qalTa problemebisadmi miZRvnili, mesame konferenciis (naiobi, 1985) Semdgom sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso dokumentebSi gamoCnda sqesTa Tanasworobisadmi kompleqsuri midgomis axali koncefcia. meinstrimingi (Mainstreaming) -- kompleqsuri midgoma sqesTa Tanasworobis problemisadmi, Znelad saTargmnia sxvadasxva enebze. magram es midgoma gulisxmobs sqesTa Soris Tanasworobis sakiTxebis integrirebis mcdelobas sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis konteqstSi. amgvarad, is SeiZleba CamovayaliboT aseTnairad: `qalTa da mamakacTa Tanasworobis problemisadmi midgoma~. aRsaniSnavia, rom sqesTa Soris Tanasworobis kompleqsuri midgomis mimarT specialistTa erToblivi azri, konsensusi jer kidev ar arsebobs. kompleqsuri midgomis momxreebi Tvlian, rom yvela qveyanaSi sqesTa Tanasworobis koncefcia unda detalurad ganimartos da aixsnas, raTa gaTvaliswonebuli iyos qveynis specifika (pilitikuri wyoba, mmarTvelobis struqtura, tradiciebi da a.S.) rac Seexeba zogadad `Mainstriming"-is koncefcias, misTvis amosavali wertili aris sazogadoeba mTlianad (mTlianobaSi). mokled ganvixiloT rogoria `Mainstriming"-is midgoma sxvadasxva qveynebSi. CrdiloeT qveynebis ministrTa sabWom aamuSava proeqti, romlis mizani iyo meTodebis da instrumentebis amoqmedeba qalTa da mamakacTa Tanasworobis problemis integraciis mizniT Sromismowyobis da axalgazrdaTa saqmeebis politikaSi. proeqtis struqtura iyo `qolgis~ msgavsi da moicavda moqmedebis rig sferoebs. amoqmedda Semdegi nacionaluri proeqtebi:

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daniaSi ringstedis komunam aamoqmeda proeqti, romlis mizani iyo genderuli Tanasworobis problemis integracia sakadro politikaSi. misi mizani iyo, agreTve, genderuli Tanasworobis problematikis integracia komunis administraciis muSaobaSi da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi; fineTma proeqtis ganxorcieleba daiwyo samTavrobo doneze. yoveli saministro proeqtis farglebSi gamoimuSavebda meTodebsa da instrumentebs genderuli Tanasworobis problematikis sakuTar sferoSi integraciisaTvis; islandiaSi ganxorcielda ori proeqti: erTi q. reikiavikSi, meore q. akureirSi. Tavisufali drois organizaciis municipaluri komisiebis farglebSi tardeboda eqsperimentebi, romelic problemis mogvarebis gzebsa da da meTodebs avlenda. komisiebi TanamSromlobdnen sportul da kulturul organizaciebTan, raTa maT moexdinaT resursebis (drois, sportuli moednebis, finansebis da a.S.) samarTliani ganawileba qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris; norvegiaSi amoqmedda ori proeqti -- erTi nacionalur doneze, meore ki -- regionalurze. Tavis Cveul saqmianobaSi am problemis integrireba moaxdina ojaxisa da bavSvebis saqmeebis saministrom. mimdinareobs saxelmwifo moxeleebis momzdeba, romlebic CaerTvebian saqmeSi da pasuxismgeblebi iqnebian sqesTa Soris Tanasworobis sakiTxebze; SvedeTma aamoqmeda ori proeqti (orive regionalur doneze). regionaluri Zalovani struqturebis yvelaze maRali donis moxeleebi TanamSromlobdnen am proeqtebTan. aRsaniSnavia, rom Tanasworobis problemiT SeSfoTebulobis donis gasarkvevad Sromismowyobis biuroSi moxda testireba (3 R meTodiT). am proeqtis farglebSi moxda Tavisufali drois organizatori administraciuli struqturis samuSao procesSi Tanasworobis axali meTodebiT integrireba. fareris kunZulebze ki maswavebelTa momzadebis dawesebulebaSi xorcieldeba proeqti, romlis mizania genderuli Tanasworobis problematikis integracia skolamdeli asakis bavSvebis maswavebelTa momzadebis procesSi. portugaliuaSi 1997 wels qveynis premier ministris TaosnobiT moxda genderuli Tanasworobis gamyarebis gegmis SemuSaveba, romelSic yvela saministro iRebda monawileobas. gegmis ZiriTad elementebs warmoadgendnen Semdegi aspeqtebi: im sakiTxebis integracia saskolo programebSi, romlebic genderul Tanasworobas exeba, axal samuSao adgilTa Seqmnis programebi, mosamsaxureTa ideuri momzadeba genderuli Tanasworobis ideis mimReblobisaTvis. statistikuri monacemebis xelaxali analizi da am monacemTa dalageba sqesobrivi niSniT; axal zelandiaSi 1995 wels qalTa saqmeebis saministrom gamoaqveyna saxelmZRvanelo analizisTvis, romelic iTvaliswinebs qalTa da mamakacTa damaxasiaTvebel yvela kritetiums. am saxelmZRvanelos (faqtiurad gzamkvlevis) mizania, rom daexmaros yvelas, vinc amzadebs proeqtebs genderuli Tanasworobis problematikasTan dakavSirebuli mTavrobis politikuri miznebis praqtikuli ganxorcielebisaTvis. Tumca isic unda iTqvas, rom saxelmZRvanelos ZiriTadi debulebebi exeba ara mxolod samTavrobo seqtors, aramed _ kerZo organizaciebsac.

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aRsaniSnavia, rom ganviTarebis saqmeebSi TanamSromlobis SvedeTis saerTaSoriso saagento _ SIDA, 1980 wlidan moyolebuli muSaobs qalTa da mamakacTa Tanasworobis problemisadmi kompleqsuri midgomis sakiTxebis TanamSromlobis sferoSi da ganviTarebis saqmeSi gamoyenebisaTvis. axal programaSi, romlebic exeba qalTa da mamakacTa Tanasworobis waxalisebis moqmedebebs partnior qveynebSi (1997) kompleqsuri midgoma aris gansaxRvruli, rogorc mTavari midgoma.

leqciis Semdeg studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

androcentrizmi -- mamakacze orientirebuli.

genderuli Tanasworoba -- Tanasworoba kanonis winaSe, SesaZleblobaTa Tanasworoba,

romelic moicavs adamianuri kapitalisa da warmoebis sxva resursebis Tanaswor xelmisawvdomobas, agreTve, Tanasworobas Sromos anazraurebaSi da interesebis gamoxatvis da gadawyvetilebis miRebis Tanasworobas. genderuli meinstrimingi - qalTa da mamakacTa Tanasworobis problemisadmi midgoma

studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi. seminari #7 Tema #7 (2 sT) seminarze moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia. seminarze gaimarTeba diskusia ZiriTad sakiTxTa garSemo. kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Semdegi tipis kiTxvebi: 1. ras niSnavs androcentrizmi? 2. saidan iRebs androcentrizmi saTaves? 3. rogori iyo plstonisa da aristoteles Sexedulebebi qalebisa da mamakacebis funqciebze? maT Tanasworobaze? 4. ra mniSvneloba hqonda froidis fsiqoanalizur Teorias androcentrizmis ganmtkicebaSi? ratom? 5. ra aris genderuli Tanasworoba gansazRvrebis moxedviT? axseniT Tqveni sitvebiT. moiyvaneT magaliTebi; 6. ra aris genderuli meinstrimingi da riTi gansxvavdeba igi genderuli Tanasworobisagan? 7. rogoria genderuli Tanasworobis damkvidrebis mcdelobis modelebi sxvadasxva qveynebSi? moiyvaneT konkretuli magaliTebi; 8. qveynisaTvis genderuli Tanasworobis politikis SemuSavebisas mniSvnelovania Tu ara am qveynis kulturuli faqtorebis gaTvaliswineba? ratom? 9. qveynisaTvis genderuli Tanasworobis politikis SemuSavebisas, Tqveni azriT, ra faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebaa mniSvnelovani? ratom? amasTanave, seminarze SemuSavebuli iqneba genderuli Tanasworobis qarTuli modelis studenturi varianti. amisaTvis maT daevalebaT (leqciis Semdeg) winaswar gansazRvron da seminarze warmoadginon: ZiriTadi sferoebi, sadac sqesTa uTanasworoba gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia, ZiriTadi faqtorebi, romlebic, maTi azriT, gansazRvraven movlenaTa aseT viTarebas (pirovnuli, kulturuli, politikuri), ZiriTadi nabijebi, romlebic unda gadaidgas Tanasworobis misaRwevad,

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ZiriTadi sferoebi, sadac unda gatrdes struqturuli cvlilebebi, uaxloesi Sedegebi da samomavlo prognozebi.

ZiriTadi literatura: 1. genderuli Teoriebis anTologia, Semdgeneli nana berekaSvili, bakur sualakauris gamomcemloba, 2003, gv.: 15-62; 2. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, gv.: 211-237; 3. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, gv.: 282-303. 4. Gender Mainstriming - ­ www.un.org/womenwatch/

damatebiTi literatura: 1. qalis adamianis uflebebi nabij-nabij, redaqtor-gamomcemlebi: Suleri m.a. Tomasi d.q., Tb., gamomc.: logos presi, 2001. 2. Burn S.M. The Socal Psychology of Gender, McGraw-Hill, Inc.1996, gv.: 267-303 3. m. wereTeli, qalTa uflebebi maTi Rirebulebebis TvalsazrisiT (mon.), Tb., 2000, gv.: 6-32; 4. Barbara Reskin, Irene Padavic, Women and Men at Work, Pine Forge Press, 1994, p.: 31-43 5. Theoretical Perspectives on Sexual Difference, edited by Deborah L. Rhode, Yale University press, 1990, p.: 239-257 6. http://www/unhchr.ch/women/genderequality.html

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kvira #8

leqcia - 2 sT

Tema #8 - qali samxreT kavkasiis kulturaSi. qarTuli kulturis genderuli analizi

leqciaze warmodgenili iqneba azerbaijanel, somex da qarTvel xalxTa tradiciuli kulturis genderuli analizi. kerZod, ganxiluli iqneba saojaxo yofa, qalisa da mamakacis qonebrivi da uflebrivi statusi ojaxsa da sazogadoebaSi, Sromis genderuli ganawileba, qorwinebis genderuli analizi. ganxiluli iqneba, agreTve, saqarTvelos mTaSi gavrcelebuli sqesobrivi urTierTobebis wawlobisa da sworfrobis institutebi. mokled warmodgenili iqneba, agreTve, samxreT kavkasiaSi mimdinare genderuli cvlilebebi rogorc ojaxis, aseve sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sxvadasxva doneebze.

kavkasiis saxelmwifoTa (azerbaijani, somxeTi, saqarTvelo) da ruseTis samxreT nawilis (Crdilo kavkasia) xalxTa kultura koleqtivisturi tipisaa da sqesobrivgenderuli ideologiac tradiciulia. tradiciulad qali aq dedisa da ojaxis diasaxlisis roliT iyo SezRuduli. misi ZiriTadi funqcia iyo bavSvebis aRzrda, ojaxis movla da Sina mrewveloba, agreTve, tradiciebis dacva da axali TaobebisaTvis maTi gadacema. tradiciuli mentalitetis mixedviT qals, garda amisa, mSvidobis myofelis funqciac eniWeboda, rac istoriulad ojaxebs Soris arsebuli dapirispirebebis mogvarebis tradiciul xerxebSi vlindeboda. kavkasiuri normaa ojaxis uxucesi qalis instituti. mas ebara ojaxis mier mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi moweuli sursaT-sanovagis da fuladi saxsrebis Senaxva, saWmlis momzadeba, sanovagis da Sromis Tanabari ganawileba rZlebisa da Svilebis ojaxebisTvis misi suladobis, asakis da sqesis mixedviT. qalis statusi regulirdeboda tradiciuli samarTlis normebiT (adaTebiT, uxucesTa sabWoebis gadawyvetilebebiT, musulmanur nawilSi --SariaTiT) da oficialuri samarTlis normebiT -samarTlis wignebiT (dawyebuli me-11 s. -dan). samarTlis normebSi detalurad iyo gansazRvruli qalis ojaxuri da qonebrivi uflebebi. mTaSi qalis memkvidreobis ufleba ar hqonda, mas aZlevdnen mziTvs, romelic Semoifargleboda qalis tansacmliT da xelsaqmis yuTiT. barSi, SedarebiT SeZlebul ojaxebSi qals memkvidreobaSi aZlevdnen miwas. Cveulebriv qali sazogadoebriv-politikur cxovrebaSi da gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi ar monawileobda. Tumca saqarTvelos oqros xanaSi 12s. -- Si qveyanas qali (Tamar mefe) marTavda. garda amisa, kavkasiaSi Zalian xSirad dedofalTa da Tavadis qalTa pirovnuli gadawyvetilebebi erTmniSvnelovnad gansazRvravda qveynis bedsa da politikur cxovrebas. amdenad, istoriulad kavkasieli qali religiis, zneobisa da saxelmwifoebriobis SenarCunebis funqcias atarebs. maRali wris qalebis sarwmunoebis, enisa da eris gadarCenisaTvis Cadenili gmirobebis istoriuli da istoriul-literaturuli magaliTebi kavkasiaSi axali Taobebis aRzrdis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani istoriuli institutia. samxreT kavkasiaSi qalis yofiTi da sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis Sesaswavlad mniSvnelovania kavkasiuri ojaxis ganxilva, radgan swored ojaxi warmoadgenda, Cveulebriv, qalis moRvaweobis erTaderT asparezs. zogadkavkasiuri ojaxis tipi moicavs rig Tvisebebs: ojaxis `ufrosi mamakacis~ ganusazRvreli uflebebi anu ojaxis marTvis avtoritaruli forma, ufros-umcrosobis instituti, ojaxis wevrTa statusis ierarqiuloba, qalis damokidebuli mdgomareoba, `ufrosi qalis~

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Zalaufleba danarCen qalebze, Sromis mkacri sqesobriv-asakobrivi ganawileba, `ganridebisa~ da `umZraxobis~ wes-CveulebaTa dacva. qalis uflebriv mdgomareobis erT aspeqts `ufrosi qalis~ maRali statusi warmoadgenda, xolo meores _ ki danarCeni qalebis uufleboba. SeiZleba vilaparakoT `ufrosi qalis~ saerTokavkasiur modelze, romelsac axasiaTebs rigi saerTo niSnebi. esenia: `ufrosi qalis~ naklebdasaqmebuloba ojaxSi, qalebis SromiTi saqmianobis organizeba, aRmzrdelobiTi funqcia, tradiciebisa da sawesCveulebo ritualebis Sesrulebis xelmZRvanloba. `ufrosi qali~ iTvleboda erTmmarTvelad mxolod Sida saojaxo saqmianobis sferoSi. `ufrosi qalis~ uflebrivi mdgomareobis gamoxatulebis simbolo iyo saojaxo sursaTis Sesanaxi saTavsos gasaRebis mudmivad Tan tareba da sursaT-sanovagis ganawileba ojaxis wevrebs Soris. ojaxis `ufrosi qalis~ funqcia iyo, agreTve, ojaxuri tradiciebis Taobidan Taobaze gadacema da amdenad, Senaxva. `ufrosi qalis~ uflebebi vlindeboda saojaxo xalxur etiketSic: mamakacebi mas pativs scemdnen, igi saojaxo saqmeebis garCevaSi monawileobda, sadavo situaciaSi mis azrs gadamwyveti Tu ara, gasaTvaliswinebeli mniSvneloba mainc eniWeboda. Cveulebriv, `ufrosi qali~ iyo is erTaderTi qali (garda bavSvebisa), visTanac urTierTobda ojaxis `ufrosi mamakaci~. `ufrosi qali~ imdenad mniSvnelovani figura iyo ojaxSi, rom misi statusi da avtoriteti mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravda saerTod ojaxis statussa da avtoritets. me- 20 saukunemde azerbaijanSi gabatonebuli iyo ojaxis mkveTrad gamoxatuli patriarqaluri wyoba. ojaxis ufrosi warmoadgenda ojaxis moZravi da uZravi qonebis erTpirovnul mflobelsa da sruluflebian mmarTvels. ojaxis SigniT arsebuli qonebrivi urTierTobebi mTlianad damokidebuli iyo ojaxis ufrossze. daoblebul arasrulwlovan bavSvebs uniSnavdnen meurves -- umetaswilad biZas mamis an dedis mxridan. ojaxis ufrosis anderZis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi qoneba iyofoda SariaTis kanonebis mixedviT. vaJSvils orjer ufro meti wili ergeboda saerTo qonebidan, vidre -- qaliSvils. gardacvlili ojaxis ufrosis qvrivi iRebda mTeli qonebis erT merved nawils da aseve im qonebas, romelic piradad mas ekuTvnoda saqorwino SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad. azerbaijanul ojaxSi mniSvnelovani adgili ekava soflis uxucesebis -- aRsakalebis instituts. maT rCevas ekiTxebodnen da maTi azri metad mniSvnelovani iyo sofelSi romelime ojaxSi garkveuli problemis gadawyvetisas. aRsakalebi adaTis mimdevarni, damcvelni da gamtarebelni iyvnen. isini adaTisa da SariaTis safuZvelze gadawyvetdnen sazogadoebriv da saojaxo problemebs. isini saqmebis gansaxilvelad meCeTTan ikribebodnen saRamos locvis Semdeg. Cveulebriv, am Sekrebas molac eswreboda. axalgazrdebs da bavSvebs da, aseve, qalebsac am SekrebebSi monawileobis ufleba ar hqondaT. Zalian iSviaTad Sekrebas eswrebodnen is moxuci qalebi, romlebic gansakuTrebuli pativiscemiT sargeblobdnen sazogadoebaSi. maTi mowveva krebaze mxolod maSin xdeboda, roca gansaxilveli sakiTxi qals exeboda an qaliSvilis bedTan iyo dakavSirebuli. amgvarad, qalis sazogadoebrivi cxovreba SezRuduli iyo. igi gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi ar monawileobda. ufro metic, qalis uflebebi SezRuduli iyo ojaxSic. ojaxur urTierTobebSi batonobda umcrosebis mxridan ufrosebis sruli morCileba. vaJiSvils ar hqonda ufleba Sepasuxeboda (SekamaTeboda) an ar damorCileboda mamas, miTumetes ki papas. amgvarad, mamis an papis gadawyvetilebas ama Tu im ojaxuri an sameurneo sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT kanonis Zala hqonda ojaxis umcrosi wevrebisaTvis. ufrosebis pativiscema dRemde warmoadgens azerbaijaneli xalxis saojaxo da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mniSvnelovan elements.

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istoriulad azerbaijanSi mamakacs qalTan SedarebiT privilegirebuli mdgomareoba ekava. es upiratesoba vrceldeboda rogorc sazogadoebriv doneze, aseve ojaxur cxovrebaSic. mSobliur saxlSi qaliSvili srulad emorCileboda dedas da bebias. qaliSvils ar hqonda ufleba Sepasuxeboda ufrosebs an gamoexata raime ukmayofileba, gansakuTrebiT ki, mamisa da papis TandaswrebiT. gaTxovili qali yvela sakiTxSi emorCileboda ojaxis ufros diasaxliss -- dedamTils an ufrosi mazlis cols. Tu axaldaqorwinebulebi cxovrobdnen qmris mSoblebTan erTad, maSin axalgazrda qali unda morideboda yvela mamakacs ojaxSi. mas ar hqonda, agreTve, im oTaxSi Sesvlis uflebac, sadac ufrosebi isxdnen da Tu saxlSi calke oTaxi ar iyo, igi udides dros samzareuloSi atarebda. axalgazrda rZali movale iyo saRamos savele samuSaoebidan dabrunebuli ojaxis yvela mamakacisaTvis fexebi daebana. amasTan qals saxe dafaruli unda hqonoda. Tu ki ojaxSi rZali ar iyo, maSin am movaleobas qaliSvili asrulebda. azerbaijanuli wes-Cveulebebis mixedviT, axalgazrda rZals pirveli Svilis gaCenamde ufleba ar hqonda uSualod miemarTa ojaxis romelime ufrosi wevrisaTvis an maT mier dasmul SekiTxvaze epasuxa. amitom, icavda ra adaTs, ojaxis ufrosi wevri TviTonac erideboda rZalTan Sexvedras da SeZlebisdagvarad ar elaparakeboda mas. axalgazrda qali movale iyo ojaxis yvela mamakacisgan daemala rogorc saxe, aseve Tmebic. ufrosi qalebis garemocvaSi ki mas mxolod piri, nikapi da yeli unda daefara TavSalis boloTi. miuReblad iTvleboda, agreTve, qalis mxridan xmamarali saubari da xSiri sicili. axalgazrda qals ar hqonda ufleba qmris da ufrosi diasaxlisis nebarTvis gareSe wasuliyo mSobliur saxlSi, gasuliyo baRSi an mezobelTan stumrad. bavSvebis movla mTlianad qalis movaleobas warmoadgenda. mama ara Tu ar monawileobda bavSvebis aRzrdaSi, aramed igi mSobliuri grZnobebis gamovlenisganac ki ikavebda Tavs. es gansakuTrebiT miuRebeli iyo ucxoebis garemocvaSi. Tu ki mama mainc gamoavlenda mSobliur siyvaruls Svilis mimarT, es, Cveulebriv, vaJiSvilis rogorc memkvidrisa da gvaris gamgrZeleblis mimarT xdeboda. vaJiSvilis mdgomareoba ojaxSi mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda qaliSvilis mdgomareobisgan. biWebs bavSvobidanve unergavdnen qedmaRlur, privilegirebul damokidebulebas qalebis mimarT. 6-7 wlidan biWebis aRzrdas xels hkidebda papa, mama da misi ufrosi Zma. amave asakidan iwyeboda bavSvebis religiuri aRzrdac. warsulSi azerbaijanel xalaxTan gabatonebuli iyo endogamia. Cveulebriv, sofeli Sedgeboda ramdenime ubnisagan, romelTaganac TiToeulSi naTesavebi cxovrobdnen. qorwinebis SemTxvevaSi upiratesoba eniWeboda ubnis Sida kavSirebs. SeuRleba pirvel rigSi xdeboda biZaSvil-mamidaSvilebTan da deidaSvilebTan (RviZli Zmebis da debis SvilebTan), Semdgom mesame Taobis naTesavebTan da ase Soreuli naTesavebiT gaTavebuli. akrZaluli iyo RviZl da-Zmebs Soris qorwineba. SeuRleba xdeboda aranaTesavebTanac, pirvel rigSi TanasoflelebTan, Semdeg mezobeli soflebis da qalaqebis macxovreblebTan (amasTan aucileblad daculi unda yofiliyo naTesauri siaxlovis rigiToba). SariaTis mixedviT, nebadarTuli iyo, agreTve, SeuRleba sxva nacionalobis, oRond musulmanuri aRmsareblobis, warmomadgenelTan. magram, unda iTqvas, rom warsulSi aseTi ojaxebi Zalian iSviaTi iyo. azerbaijanSi gavrcelebuli iyo mravalcolianoba, iseve, rogorc yvelgan, sadac es SariaTiT nebadarTuli iyo. magram umeteswilad igi gvxvdeboda mosaxleobis SeZlebul nawilSi. is vinc mdidari ar iyo, Cveulebriv, am wess ar iyenebda. gamonakliss warmoadgenda SemTxveva, roca pirveli colisgan ar hyavdaT Svilebi. rac Seexeba gaWrvebul fenas, maT xSirad erTi colis SerTvac ki uWirdaT, radgan qorwineba tradiciulad xarjebTan iyo dakavSirebuli.

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qorwinebis wes-CveulebebSi metad sainteresoa soriratisa da leviratis wesebi. Tu axalgazrda qali gardaicvleboda, misi meuRle, garkveuli drois gasvlis Semdeg colad irTavda gardacvlili qalis umcros das. specialistebis azriT, es wesi dakavSirebuli iyo xelmeore qorwilis xarjebis Tavidan acilebasTan. Tu ojaxebs Soris kargi urTierTobebi iyo, maSin mSoblebi yovelgvari winaaRmdegobis gareSe atandnen TavianT meore qaliSvils daqvrivebul siZes. magram am SemTxvevaSi, gansxvavebiT Cveulebrivi qorwinebisgan, qaliSvils winaswar acnobebdnen da uTanxmebdnen momaval qorwinebas. soriratis wesTan aris dakavSirebuli azerbaijanSi farTed gavrcelebuli andaza: `colis gardacvaleba im mamakacma iglovos, visac colis da ara hyavso~. soritarTan erTad, farTod iyo gavrcelebuli, agreTve, leviratis wesic. leviratiuli qorwinebis SemTxvevaSi saWiro iyo orive mxaris Tanxmoba, amasTan qvrivi qalis Tanxmoba warmoadgenda aucilebel winapirobas. umcrosi Zmis qorwineba ufrosi Zmis qvrivze farTod iyo gavrcelebuli mosaxleobis SedarebiT SeZlebul fenaSi. specialistebis azriT, leviratis wesi dakavSirebuli iyo ojaxisaTvis im zaralis Tavidan asacileblad, romelic qvrivi rZlis mSobliur ojaxSi dabruneba gamoiwvevda. saqme isaa, rom am SemTxvevaSi, rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, mas ojaxis saerTo qonebis erTi mervedi nawili ekuTvnoda, mis sakuTrebas warmoadgenda agreTve mis mier mziTvis saxiT ojaxSi Semotanili qoneba. soriratisa da leviratis wesebi Tumca Tanamedrove azerbaijanSi aRar aris miRebuli, magram erTeuli SemTxvevebis saxiT (gansakuTrebiT soflebSi) axlac gvxvdeba. tradiciulad qals aTxovebdnen 14-dan 18 wlamde. vaJi qorwindeboda 18-dan 22 wlamde. iyo ufro gviani qorwinebis SemTxvevebic, rac ukiduresi siRaribiT iyo gamowveuli. arsebobda dabadebidanve niSnobis wesic, rodesac ojaxebi winaswar Tanxmdebodnen TavianTi Svilebis qorwinebis Sesaxeb. moqmedebda jer ar gaCenili Svilebis qorwinebis SeTanxmebis wesic. Cveulebriv, axalgazrdebs momaval qorwinebas ar uTanxmebdnen xolme da gadawyvetilebas mSoblebi iRebdnen. axalgazrda qalebs ara Tu ar uTanxmebdnen momaval qorwinebas, aramed arc ki atyobinebdnen mis Sesaxeb. sacoles axalgazrda kacisaTvis, Cveulebriv, misi deda an da amoirCevda. Tu momavali sacole moewonebodaT ojaxis sxva wevrebs, pirvel rigSi papas, mamas da ufros Zmas, maSin am ojaxis qalebi midiodnen gogos dedasTan araoficialurad xelis saTxovnelad, xolo ukve amis Semdeg, mamasTan oficialurad midiodnen xelis mTxovneli ojaxis mamakacebi. am ceremonials eswrebodnen soflis uxucesebic -- aRsakalebic. isini monawileobdnen agreTve, qorwinebaze SeTanxmebis SemTxvevaSi, ojaxTa Soris damoyvrebisas gankuTvnili gadasaxadis mexrisa da baSligis odenobaze molaparakebebSic. mexri warmoadgenda im gadasaxads, romelic meuRles unda gadaexada colisTvis Tavisi iniciativiT gayris SemTxvevaSi. xolo baSligi iyo gadasaxads patarZlisaTvis, romelsac iRebda misi mama qaliSvilis qorwinebis SemTxvevaSi. TviT qorwinebis rituali moicavda sam etaps: 1) winaswari SeTanxmeba, roca Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi, vaJis mxare maSinve aZlevda qals beWeds, abreSumis Tavsafars da tkbileuls 2) niSnoba, am dRes saqmros sacolisTvis moaqvs samkaulebi, kabisaTvis qsovili da misi ojaxisTvis tkbileuli 3) sakuTriv qorwili, romelsac Tan axlda saqorwilo saCuqrebi. tradiciulad iTvleboda, agreTve, sacolis motacebac. es gansakuTrebiT miRebuli iyo gaWirvebul fenebSi, sadac ar iyo materialuri SesaZlebloba qorwilis rTuli ritualis Catarebisa, amitom xSirad, sacolis motaceba ojaxebis Tanxmobis fonzec ki mimdinareobda.

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rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, axalgaTxovil qals faqtiurad aranairi uflebebi ar hqonda. mxolod Svilis gaCenis Semdeg mas eZleoda neba saxlSi moexada Tavsafari da esaubra uaxloes naTesavebTan. amgvarad, gaTxovili qalis poziciebi myardeboda ojaxSi pirveli Svilis gaCenis Semdeg. biWis gaCenas, gogosagan gansxvavebiT gansakuTrebuli nadimiT aRniSnavdnen. amasTan, axaldabadebuli vaJis Wiplars marxavdnen sajiniboSi an meCeTis ezoSi. es rituali gadmocemis mixedviT, imitom tardeboda, rom momaval mamakacs yvareboda saqoneli an daufleboda codnas, xolo axaldabadebuli gogos Wiplars ki karebTan axlos marxavdnen, raTa igi saxlidan Sors ar wasuliyo. amgvarad, qorwinebis, agreTve, masTan dakavSirebuli tradiciuli ritualis da bavSvebis gaCenis analizi naTlad gviCvenebs azerbaijanul kulturaSi gabatonebul genderul uTanasworobas, romelic qalis mimarT gansakuTrebuli asimetriulobiT gamoirCeva. tradiciul azerbaijanul kulturaSi qalTa uflebaTa SezRudva kargad Cans, agreTve, gayros wesebSic. tradiciulad gayris ufleba mxolod mamakacs hqonda. Tumca ki am SemTxvevaSi qmars colisTvis unda gadaexada winaswar niSnobis SeTanxmebuli sazRauri -- mexri, gayris mizezebs aravin ar kiTxulobda. gayris rituali erTi da igive frazis (am SemTxvevisTvis specialurad dawesebuli) saxalxod samjer gameorebaSi mdgomareobda. igive gzisTvis SeeZlo miemarTa qalsac, magram am SemTxvevaSi igi gayras miaRwevda mxolod Tavisi mziTvis dakargvis fasad. am gzas qali mxolod Zalian iSviaTad, gausaZlis pirobebSi mimarTavda, radgan am SemTxvevaSi igi yovelgvari saxsrebis gareSe rCeboda. azerbaijanul ojaxSi qali SinameurneobiT iyo dakavebuli. saojaxo saqmeebs, iseve rogorc zogadad kavkasiur ojaxSi, xelmZRvanelobda `ufrosi qali~. mTels azerbaijanSi qali Cadrs atarebda, magram Cadri gansakuTrebiT gavrcelebuli iyo qalaqebSi, sadac saxlidan gamosvlisas qali valdebuli iyo mTeli sxeuli CadriT daefara. soflebSi Cadrs SedarebiT iSviaTad xmarobdnen, umeteswilad is gamoiyeneboda, roca qali mezobel sofelSi an soflis gareT gadioda, soflis SigniT ki igi, Cveulebriv, mxolod cxvirs da pirs malavda. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qals mamakacisagan gansxvavebiT ar hqonda sazamTro, Tbili tansacmeli. es ganpirobebuli iyo imiT, rom qalis mier saxlis didxans datoveba ar iyo miRebuli. amgvarad, tansacmeli, iseve, rogorc yofiTi kulturis sxva elementebi da wes-- Cveulebebi naTlad gviCveneben azerbaijanul tradiciul sazogadoebaSi gabatonebul genderul uTanasworobas. jer kidev XIX s--Si somxebTan gavrcelebuli iyo saojaxo satvistomo -- gerdastani, romelic aerTianebda ramodenime Taobas, romelsac uxucesi uZRveboda. erT ojaxad cxovrobdnen mSoblebi zrdasruli SvilebiT, romelTac, Tavis mxriv, hyavdaT Svilebi da SviliSvilebi. Rrma provinciaSi aseT gerdastanSi SeiZleba yofiliyo 50-- mde adamiani, romelic erT Wer qveS cxovrobda. Tumca ki samxreT kavkasiaSi zogadad, es iSviaTi movlena iyo. me-20 saukunis dasawyisisTvis TandaTanobiT daiwyo aseTi didi saTvistomoebis rRveva da ojaxi ukve Sedgeboda mxolod mSoblebisgan da maTi vaJebisgan, romlebsac meuRle da mcirewlovani Svilebi hyavdaT. daiwyo me-3 Taobidan Svilebiani ojaxebis gamoyofis procesi. miuxedavad amisa, es ojaxebi cdilobdnen erTmaneTTan axlo dasaxlebas. ase, rom mTeli kvartlebi atarebda erTi ojaxis gvars. erTi ojaxis SigniT, bavSvebi, romelic Zmisac ar unda yofiliyvnen, Tanabar pirobebSi iyvnen, isini yvelani iTvlebodnen da-Zmebad. miuRebeli iyo, rom romelime dedas Tavisi mazlebis SvilebTan SedarebiT Tavisi RviZli Svilebis mimarT meti siyvaruli gamoevlina. yvela bavSvisadmi erTnairi mzrunveloba unda gamoeCinaT

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ojaxis ufrosebsac -- saxlis patronsa da diasaxliss. eqvs-Svid wlamde bavSvebi (gogonebic da biWebic) Tavisi drois udides nawils ezoSi TamaSSi atarebdnen. Semdeg iwyeboda maTi aRzrda TavianTi sqesis Sesatyvisi saqmianobis aTvisebis mizniT. gogonebs aswavlidnen saojaxo saqmianobas, xSirad isini uvlidnen umcros da-Zmas, Semdeg maT aswavlidnen ojaxis wevrebisa da stumrebisaTvis momsaxureobas, xelsaqmes. biWebs aswavlidnen batknis da xbos mwyemsvas, saqonlis sadgomSi Serekvas, Semdeg ki isini ojaxis mamakacebs savele samuSaoebSic exmarebodnen. amgvarad, 7-8 wlis asakidan somxur ojaxebSi bavSvebi aqtiurad erTvebodnen genderulad tipirebul saqmianobebSi. saxlis patroni erTpirovnulad marTavda mTels meurneobas da aravis ar abarebda angariSs Tavisi saqmianobis Sesaxeb. Tumca ojaxisaTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas mas SeeZlo rCeva ekiTxa ojaxis ufrosi wevrebisTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki, Tavisi ZmebisTvis, Tu isini maTTan erTad erT ojaxad cxovrobdnen. ojaxSi mkveTrad iyo sameurneo funqciebi gayofili sqesis mixedviT. yvela savele samuSaos mamakacebi asrulebdnen, saojaxos ki -- qalebi. samuSao winaswar nawildeboda. rodesac ojaxi savaxSmod ikribeboda saRamos, isini ufrosobis mixedviT sxdebodnen. TiToeauli ojaxis wevri moaxsenebda, Tu ra gaakeTa dRis ganmavlobaSi da maSinve iRebda axal davalebas. ojaxis yoveli wevris piradi Semosavali saerTo meurneobaSi ideboda. ojaxur saqmeebs xelmZRvanelobda ufrosi qali, diasaxlisi anu tantikini. is, Cveulebriv, ojaxis ufrosis meuRle iyo, magram Tu igi qmarze adre gardaicvleboda, maSin misi uflebebi gadadioda ufrosobis mixedviT Semdegi mamakacis (ufrosi Zmis an ufrosi vaJiSvilis) colze. aseTi `ufrosi qalis~ avtoriteti aRiarebuli iyo rogorc ojaxis ufrosis, aseve sxva wevrebis mxridan. igi am SemTxvevaSi uflebrivi TvalsazrisiT ufro maRla idga, vidre misi meuRle, radgan es ukanaskneli ojaxis Cveulebriv, daqvemdebarebul wevrs warmoadgenda. saxlSi yvela emorCileboda tantikinis mier dadgenil wesebs. mas saxlis sazRvrebSi emorCileboda ufrosi mamakacic. tantikinis ufleba iyo agreTve, axalgazrda kacisTvis sacolis SerCevac. tantikins mimarTavdnen ojaxSi axalgazrda qalis mTxovnelebic, Tumca gadawyvetilebis miRebisas is rCevas ekiTxeboda qmars da ufros Zmas. tantikini iyo erTaderTi qali ojaxSi, vinc mimarTavda ojaxis ufros mamakacs kiTxviT, rCeviT an problemiT. mdedrobiTi sqesis ojaxis danarCen wevrebs saxlis patronisTvis mimarTvis ufleba ar hqondaT. tantikinis uflebebi gamorCeuli iyo sufrasTanac, igi iyo is erTaderTi qali, romelsac ufleba hqonda damjdariyo sufrasTan mamakacebis gverdiT. tantikinis xelmZRvanelobiT da misi uSualo zedamxedvelobiT mimdinareobda mTeli saojaxo saqmianoba. saukuneebis manZilze dadgenili iyo qalTa funqciebi ojaxSi, dawyebuli ufrosi rZlidan damTavrebuli umcrosamde. ufrosi rZali warmoadgenda diasaxlisis TanaSemwes da iTavsebda xolme mis funqciebs, rodesac tantikini saxlSi ar iyo an midioda zafxulSi SviliSvilebTan erTad saZovrebze. axali rZali Tavsaburavs ramdenime weli atarebda ojaxSi da Tu rodis miecemoda mas misi moxsnis ufleba, amas tantikini gansazRvravda erTpirovnulad. diasaxlisis funqcia iyo, agreTve, bavSvebisaTvis zRaprebis moyola. rZals neba ar hqonda esaubra `ufrosebTan~ maTTvis mas miniSnebebiT (niSnebiT) unda miemarTa. amgvarad Camoyalibda niSnebis garkveuli sistema, romlebiTac sargeblobdnen rZlebi, roca saWiro iyo miemarTaT ufrosi mamakacebisTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki, mamamTilisa da ufrosi mazlisTvis. TavianT naTlias isini mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi CurCuliT elaparakebodnen. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu aucilebeli

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iyo raimes Tqma da axlomaxlo ar iyvnen bavSvebi, romelTa saSualebiTac SeiZleboda saTqmelis gadacema, maSin rZali mimarTavda bavSvs akvanSi, an katas an raime Sinaur cxovels da maT eubneboda, rom gadaecaT saTqmeli magaliTad, iseTi rogoricaa, mezoblis Txovna. mamakacisTvis tradiciul somxur ojaxSi qalis cema did sircxvilad iTvleboda. Tumca diasaxliss -- tantikins hqonda ufleba gaertya rZlisaTvis, magram mis Svils anu qalis qmars amis ufleba ar hqonda. da Tu es mainc moxdeboda, rZals hqonda ufleba miemarTa diasaxlisisTvis saCivriT. rogorc vxedavT, somxur ojaxSi daculi iyo mkveTri genderuli uflebrivi ierarqia. mamakacebi qalebTan SedarebiT privilegirebulni iyvnen, Tumca diasaxlisi -- tantikini ojaxis ufrosTan TiTqmis Tanabari uflebebiT sargeblobda, magram es ar exeboda danarCen qalebs. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom uflebrivi ierarqia agebuli iyo rogorc sqesobrivi faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, aseve ufros--umcrosobis safuZvlzec. uflebriv ierarqiaSi am orive faqtoris rolze miuTiTebs agreTve, somxur tradiciul kulturaSi arsebuli daZinebis (mosvenebis) wesic. yvelaze adre dasaZineblad wveboda ufrosi mamakaci -- (tanteri) Semdeg rigrigobiT ojaxis sxva mamakacebi ufrosobis mixedviT. Semdeg wveboda `ufrosi qali~ da mas mosdevdnen sxva qalebi aseve ufros-- umcrosobis gaTvaliswinebiT. amgvarad, umcrosi rZali yvelaze gvian wveboda. amasTanave, igi yvelaze adre iRviZebda da ierarqiis sapirispiro mimarTulebiT TandaTanobiT iRviZebdnen ojaxis sxva wevrebi: jer Zalebi, Semdeg ki -- mamakacebi. yvelaze gvian loginidan dgeboda ojaxis `ufrosi mamakaci~. Zilis win umcrosi rZali an umcrosi qaliSvili ojaxis yvela mamakac wevrs fexebs banda da umSralebda. roca ojaxi Zalian farTovdeboda da SeuZlebeli xdeboda erTad cxovreba, didi ojaxi iSleboda, magram erToblivi RonisZiebebis (qorwili, dakrZalva da sxv.) dros ufrosumcrosobis instituti SenarCunebuli iyo. ojaxis qonebis pirdapir memkvidreebad mamakacebi iTvlebodnen, qaliSvilebs ki, Tu Zmebi cocxlebi hyavdaT, araferi ar ekuTvnodaT. am kulturis genderuli analizisaTvis sainteresoa naTesauri mimarTebebic. kerZod, mamis mxridan naTesavebs somxebi azRakans uwodebdnen, rac sityvasityviTi TargmaniT naTesavs, mogvares niSnavs, xolo dedis mxridan naTesavs ki -- barekamas, rac pirdapiri TargmaniT keTilismsurvels aRniSnavs. aRsaniSnavia, rom miuxedavad qalisa da kacis mxridan naTesavebisadmi aseTi araTanaswori damokidebulebisa, qorwilebisa an sxva saerTo Tavyrilobebis dros, orive mxaris daswreba-dapatiJeba savaldebulod iTvleboda. sainteresoa SeuRlebis wes--Cveulebebic. naTesavebs Soris qorwineba nebadarTuli iyo ara uaxloes 7 Taobisa, somxebi tradiciulad qorwindebodnen Zalian adreul asakSi. moqmedebda akvanSi daniSvnis wesic. qorwinebis iniciativa da patarZlis arCeva momdinareobda `ufrosi qalisagan~ an vaJis dedisgan, romelic winaswar uTanxmebda Tavis arCevans qmars da naTesavebs. somxebi maWanklis saSualebiT arkvevdnen daTanxmdeboda Tu ara qalis ojaxi qorwinebaze. gogos deda rCevas ekiTxeboda Tavis Zmebs. mama ki am gadawyvetilebaSi monawileobas ar iRebda. dadebiTi pasuxis SemTxvevaSi gogos mSoblebTan midiodnen sasiZos mSoblebi naTesavebTan erTad, raTa gadaecaT niSnobis beWedi. niSanis funqcias, Cveulebriv, beWedi an raime sxva samkauli asrulebda. am dRidan dawyebuli qaliSvili daniSnulad iTvleboda. niSnobidan qorwilamde zogjer ramdenime weliwadi gadioda. magram niSnobis Semdeg ojaxebi ukve damoyvrebulad iTvlebodnen da yvelanairad exmarebodnen

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erTmaneTs. saqorwino rituali, miuxedavad imisa, rom sasomxeTis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi gansxvavebebs moicavs, ZiriTadad erTnairad mimdinareobda. somxuri qorwinebisTvis specifikuria garkveuli Tanxis gadaxda vaJis mSoblebis mxridan patarZlis dedisTvis. am Tanxas wiwagins uwodeben, romelic pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT `ZuZus fass~ anu im rZis safasurs aRniSnavs, romliTac dedam Tavisi qaliSvili gamokveba. somxur kulturaSi tradiciulad iTvleba, agreTve, mziTvis gataneba qaliSvilisTvis, romlis ragvaroba da sididec aseve winaswari SeTanxmebis sagania. Cveulebriv, mziTevSi Sedioda loginis TeTreuli, saqorwilo farda, WurWeli, zogjer ki pirutyvic. sainteresoa, rom Zroxas somxeTSi arasodes ar atandnen mziTevSi. xalxuri gadmocemis mixedviT, es imiT aixsneba, rom ojaxidan mdedrobiTi sqesis ori wevri ar gasuliyo. patarZlis saqorwilo tansacmelze zrunva sasiZos movaleoba iyo. iseve, rogorc sxva samxreT kavkasiur kulturebSi (azerbaijani, saqarTvelo) qorwili aqac Semodgomaze imarTeboda. somxeTSic, iseve rogorc azerbaijanSi moqmedebda ubiwobis instituti. orivegan did sircxvilad iTvleboda, Tu pirvel saqorwilo Rames patarZali ubiwo ar iyo. magram somxeTSi sruldeboda Semdegi ritualic. rogorc ki gairkveoda, rom qmari `daeufla~ qaliSvils, am faqtis aRsaniSnad Tofs isrodnen, xolo Semdeg patarZlis dedas ugzavnidnen daklul qaTams, saqorwilo Ramis zewars da milocvebs. am ritualis Semdeg iTvleboda, rom qorwineba bednieri iqneboda. qorwinebis darRveva miuRebeli iyo. cols RalatisaTvis Tmebs kreWdnen, virze ukuRma svamdnen da atarebdnen quCa-quCa, igivenairad eqceodnen mamakacebsac, romlebic cols uRalatebdnen. somexi qalisaTvis yvelaze did ubedurebad uSviloba iTvleboda, orsul qals ekrZaleboda uSvilos gverdze dajdoma, raTa es seni ar gadasdeboda. fexmZime qals ekrZaleboda mSobliur saxlSi stumrobac. mSobiarobis Semdeg qali midioda xolme mSobliur saxlSi dedis mosanaxuleblad, oRond mxolod maSin, roca mama saxlSi ar iyo. amasTan mas bavSvi arasodes Tan ar miyavda. es gaxldaT ganridebis wes-Cveulebis erT-erTi gamovlineba, msgavsi wesi moqmedebda saqarTveloSic. aRsaniSnavia, rom somxur kulturaSic biWis dabadeba ufro sasixarulo iyo, vidre -- gogosi. biWis dabadebis SemTxvevaSi qalTan moqondaT tkbileuli (Tafli), misi saxlis win ukravda musika, Tvis saxli ki morTuli iyo mwvane totebiT, romelic gvaris gagrZelebis simbolod iTvleboda. qarTuli ojaxi zogadkavkasiuri ojaxis tips warmoadgens. amitom qarTul ojaxSi misi wevrebis ufleba-movaleobebi sxva kavkasiur ojaxebSi arsebuli uflebrivi sistemebis msgavsia. saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi moqmedebda ojaxis wevrebs Soris ufros-umcrosobis ierarqiuli instituti, `ufrosi qalis~ instituti, `umZraxobisa~ da `ganridebis~ wesebi. ufros qals, Cveulebriv, ufrosi deda anu dedamTili warmoadgenda. misi funqciebi iyo ojaxis tradiciebis dacva da, agreTve, Senaxva da gadacema axali TaobebisaTvis, sursaT-sanovagis ganawileba didi ojaxis Semadgeneli patar-patara ojaxebisaTvis suladobisa da patara bavSvebis raodenebis mixedviT. qals, feodalur saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc sxva kavkasiur kulturebSi, memkvidreoba ar ekuTvnoda. umetes SemTxvevaSi mis qonebas Seadgenda mziTvi, romelic Cveulebriv, loginis TeTreulisgan, tansacmlisgan, WurWelisgan da pirutyvisgan Sedgeboda. mTaSi qals mxolod sakuTari tansacmlsa da xelsaqmis yuTs atandnen mziTvSi. patarZlis saqorwilo tansacmelze zrunva sasiZos movaleoba iyo. sasiZos mxares unda ezruna, agreTve, patarZlis Cacmaze qorwili dRes.

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saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli genderuli urTierTobebis Sesaxeb metad saintereso masalebs gvawvdis saqorwino wes-Cveulebebis analizi. saqorwino wes-Cveulebebi saqarTveloSi sami ZiriTadi etapisgan Sedgeba. esaa winasaqorwino periodi, TviTon qorwili da qorwilis Semdgomi periodi. qorwinebis rituali ZiriTadad xuT cikls Seicavda: qalis SerTvis saSualebebi (daniSvna), niSnoba, periodi niSnobidan qorwilamde, qorwili da qorwilis Semdgomi periodi. saqarTveloSi naTesavTa Soris egzogamia daculia manam, sanam naTesaoba STamomavalTa mexsierebaSi aris Senaxuli. amasTan egzogamia daculia iyo ar mxolod naTesavTa Soris, aramed erTi soflis an erTi Temis SigniTac, romelTa mkvidrnic erTi salocavis (xatis) mfarvelobis qveS imyofebodnen (magaliTad, mTaSi). qorwineba ikrZaleboda, agreTve, mosisxle gvarebs Sorisac, imis Semdegac ki, roca gvarebi Serigdebodnen. akrZalva ZalaSi iyo manam, sanam es STamomavalTa mesxierebaSi arsebobda. vaJiSvilisaTvis meuRlis arCeva mSoblebis movaleobas da uflebas warmoadgenda. dasaqorwinebeli wyvilis SerCevisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceoda sapatarZlos dedis, rogorc diasaxlisis reputacias, radgan iTvleboda, rom qali ara mxolod swavlobda dedisagan diasaxlisobas, aramed memkvidreobiT iRebda misgan pirovnul niSan-Tvisebebsac. vaJis SemTxvevaSi, aseve, arkvevdnen mis da misi winaprebis fizikur da gonebriv sijansaRes, saojaxo da sameurneo saqmianobis gaZRolis unars, zneobas da sxv. saqarTveloSi arsebobda qalis daniSvnis sxvadasxva wesebi: dabadebamde daniSvna, akvanSi daniSvna, `xelis dakvriT~ daniSvna da sxv. ganvixiloT TiToeuli maTgani calcalke. saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi gavrcelebuli iyo bavSvis dabadebamde daniSvnis wesi. danaTesavebis mizniT, ojaxebi Tanxmdebodnen momavali Svilebis qorwinebis Sesaxeb. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli iyo akvanSi daniSvnis wesic. am wesis mixedviTac, bavSvebis momavali bedi wydeboda mSoblebis SeTanxmebis safuZvelze. am SemTxvevaSi akvanSi mwoliare daniSnul gogos miutandnen xolme saCuqars (TavSals, beWeds), xolo mis ojaxs ZRvens puris, saklavis, sasmelis da sxva saxiT. samkauls akvanze kidebdnen da es iyo momavali qaliSvilis daniSvnis niSani. iseve rogorc pirvel SemTxvevaSi, akvanSi daniSvnis drosac, daniSnuli vaJis mSoblebi movaleni iyvnen qorwinebis asakis dadgomamde garkveuli periodulobiT (magaliTad, weliwadSi erTxel) qaliSvilis ojaxSi saCuqrebi mietanaT. SesaZlebeli iyo zrdasrulobisas qaliSvils uari eTqva qorwinebaze, magram am SemTxvevaSi mis ojaxs e.w. `danaxarji~ unda aenazraurebina vaJiSvilis ojaxisaTvis. amgvarad, daniSvnis es wesebi, TvalnaTliv gviCveneben qalis uuflebobas feodalur saqarTveloSi. saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi arsebobda daniSvnis sxva saxeebic. metad sainteresoa qalis daniSvnis wesi, romelic ZiriTadad xevsureTSi da afxazeTSi gvxvdeba da romelsac `xelis dakvriT~ daniSvna ewodeba. aseTi wesiT daniSvna SeiZleba momxdariyo TavSeyris adgilebSi. es rituali SemdegSi mdgomareobda. qals vaJis mama, biZa an sxva mamrobiTi sqesis axlo naTesavi mxarze xels dakravda, rac imas niSnavda, rom qali `xeldakrulia~, `xelmokidebulia~ da mas sxvagan gaTxovwebis ufleba aRar hqonda. saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi arsebobda qalis daniSvnis sxva wesic. igi qalis nivTebiT daniSvnis wesis saxeliTaa cnobili. ojaxSi mosuli stumari (mamakaci) ojaxSi tovebda raime nivTs (saTuTunes, maTraxs, fuls da a.S.), rac imis niSani iyo, rom stumars am ojaxSi qaliSvili moewona sacoled an sarZlod. am dros maspinZeli araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar ifiqrebda, rom es SemTxveviT moxda. ori dRis Semdeg, qaliSvilis ojaxs ugzavnidnen Suamavlebs. aseTi wesiT qalis daniSvnis Semdeg qorwilze uaris Tqma did Seuracyofad iTvleboda. arsebobda qalis daniSvnis kidev sxva wesebic, magaliTad, cekvis dros qudis

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srolis wesi. saqarTvelos zogierT nawilSi farTed iyo gavrcelebuli colis SerTva motacebis gziT. es wesi metad popularuli iyo afxazeTSi da samegreloSi. specialistebis azriT, qalis motacebis mizezebi qorwinebastan dakavSirebuli materialuri danaxarjebis Tavidan acilebaSi unda veZeboT. xSirad motaceba xdeboda axalgazrdebis SeTanxmebiTac, gansakuTrebiT ki maSin, roca qaliSvils saqmro hyavda da iwunebda. zogierTi specialistis azriT, qalis motaceba gamowveuli iyo feodalur saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli `pirveli Ramis~ wesiT, romlis mixedviTac patarZalTan pirveli Ramis gatarebis ufleba batons hqonda. Tu gamtaceblebs mdevari gamoedevneboda, maSin vaJis ojaxs mdevrisaTvis saxlis karebTan saklavi unda daexvedrebina Semosarigeblad. Tu qali winaaRmdegi iyo, maSin mas sruli ufleba hqonda ukan gayoloda mdevars. amgvarad, motacebis SemTxvevaSi qalis azrs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeboda. garigebiT daniSvna mTels saqarTveloSi farTed gavrcelebuli wesi iyo. igi dRemde SemorCa mosaxleobis garkveul fenebSi. garigebaSi mTavari momqmedi gmiri iyo `maWankali~ an misi Semcvleli axlo naTesavi. `maWankali~ saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi sxvadasxva motivebiT moqmedebda. zogan is ubralod axlo naTesavi an keTilmosurne iyo da amitom misTvis gasamrjelos an saCuqris SeTavazeba did Seuracyofad iTvleboda. zogan igi saCuqars iRebda, zogan ki igi gasamrjelosaTvis irjeboda. amasTan, am SemTxvevaSi gasamrjelos odenoba mziTvis odenobis proporciulad izrdeboda. niSnoba warmoadgens saqorwino mxareebis SeTanxmebis dadasturebis gamomxatvel rituals. niSnobis ritualiTvis mniSvnelovania beWdis an raime sxva samkaulis gadacema. niSnobis Semdeg ojaxebi ukve danaTesavebulad iTvlebodnen. daniSvnis Semdeg qali faqtiurad gaTxovilad iTvleboda da misi Txova sxva pirisagan miuRebeli iyo. sainteresoa `kveTilSi Casmis~ rituali. es rituali maSin sruldeboda, roca qali daiwunebda Tavis daniSnul saqmros. am SemTxvevaSi saqmro qals `kveTilSi svamda~, rac imas niSnavda, rom vaJi ramdenime wliT ukrZalavda qals gaTxovebas an usaxelebda im soflebs, sadac mas gaTxoveba ar SeeZlo. saqarTveloSi niSnobidan qorwinebamde, Cveulebriv, erTi weli gadioda. Tumca es periodi SeiZleba ufro gagrZelebuliyo. es damokidebuli iyo ojaxebis materialur mdgomareobaze da daniSnuli wyvilis asakze. niSnobidan qorwilamde peroidSi, Cveulebriv, qal-vaJs erTmaneTis naxvis ufleba ar hqondaT. daniSnuli qali moridebulad unda moqceuliyo, saxlidan iSviaTad unda gasuliyo. miuRebeli iyo, agreTve, misi stumroba sxva soflebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki, saqmros sofelSi. zogierT kuTxeSi am periods `sapatarZlos tyveobis~ periodsac uwodeben. saintersoa, rom tradiciis mixedviT, erT-erTi daniSnulis gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi, meore mas ise iglovebda, rogorc namdvili meuRle, Tumca ki erTmaneTi SeiZleba nanaxic ki ar hyavdaT. qorwili saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc mTels samxreT kavkasiaSi or etapad mimdinareobda: qorwili qalis mamis saxlSi da qorwili vaJis mamis saxlSi. amasTan, saqarTveloSic qalis mamis saxlSi gamarTuli qorwili ufro mcirericxovani iyo. rogorc viciT, es rituali dRemde arsebobs samxreT kavkasiaSi. qorwilis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani rituali iyo jvriswera, romelic, Cveulebriv, sapatarZlos sofelSi arsebul eklesiaSi mimdinareobda. qalis cxovreba axal ojaxSi moicavda rig ritualebs, romlebic dakavSirebuli iyo rogorc rZlis ojaxSi miRebasTan, aseve qalis mier axal ojaxsa da Tavisi mSoblebis ojaxs Soris naTesavuri kavSirebis ganmtkicebasTan. saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi arsebobda col-qmris gayris specialuri wesic. Tu

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mamakaci daiwunebda cols anu gayras gadawyvetda, maSin mas colisaTvis `namaSvrali~ unda gadaexada. `namaSvrali~ imdeni saqonlis micemas gulisxmobda colisTvis, ramdeni welic qali cxovrobda da muSaobda qmris ojaxSi, pirveli da bolo wlebis gamoklebiT. saqarTveloSi qalis statusis gasaanalizeblad metad sainteresoa sqesobrivi urTierTobebis formebi, romlebic gavrcelebuli iyo saqarTvelos mTian nawilSi (xevsureTSi da fSavSi). mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs fSavuri wawlobisa da xevsuruli sworfrobis insitutebi. wawloba fSavelTa Soris gavrcelebuli seqsualuri xasiaTis Cveulebaa. wawlobas nadob-naZmobasac uwodebdnen xolme. wawloba iwyeba fSaveli qal-vaJis sqesobrivi simwifis periodidan (ToTxmeti wlidan). rac ufro meti wawali hyavda ymawvil qalsa Tu vaJs, miT ufro pativcemuli iyo igi. Tu qaliSvils an vaJiSvils ar yavda wawlebi, maSin is fSavSi `uxeirod~ iTvleboda. miRebuli iyo, rom axalgazrda ise unda moqceuliyo, rom miezida wawlebi. wawloba niSnavs naTesav da ucxo qal-vaJs Soris sqesobrivi urTierTobebis wes-Cveulebas fSavSi. es Cveuleba daculia xatis sjuliTa da wesebiT. qal-vaJis sqesobrivi urTierTobebi garkveuli uflebebiTa da SezRudvebiT xasiaTdeba. kerZod, wawloba daSvebulia rogorc naTesavTa, aseve - ucxo pirTa Soris. miuxedavad amisa, fSavSi naTesavTa Soris wawlobas eridebian. saqmes isaa, rom wawlobis wes-Cveulebis mixedviT, sqesobrivi urTierTobebi qal-vaJs Soris SezRudulia xvevna-kocniT da wels zeviT alersiT. wawlis orsuloba did sircxvilad iTvleboda. wawlebis mxridan wesis darRveva maTi Temidan gandevniT isjeboda. es wesi gansakuTrebiT mkacrad moqmedebda naTesav wawalTa Soris, romlebic sisxlis aRrevis gamo ara Tu Temidan gandevniT, aramed sikvdiliTac SeeZloT daesajaT. amdenad, rogorc vxedavT, naTesavTa Soris dasaSvebia wawloba, magram qorwineba miuRebelia. erTi Temis wawlebs xatisgan akrZaluri hqondaT SeuRleba, SesaZlebeli iyo sxvadasxva Temis wawlebis SeuRleba. wawloba, cxadia, urTierTmowonebaze da ltolvaze iyo dafuZnebuli. qaliSvili da vaJiSvili urTierTmowonebis SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTs nadob-naZmobas ucxadebdnen da amis Semdeg mimarTavdnen wawlobis wesis Sesrulebas anu erTad wolas. fSavSi miRebulia, rom daniSnul adgilas qaliSvilTan vaJi mivides. es adgili Tavdapirvelad saxlidan moSorebiT mdebareobs (tyeSi nabdis qveS, sabZelSi, boselSi da a.S.). garkveuli siaxlovis damyarebis Semdeg vaJi midis qaliSvilis saxlSi ise, rom misma mSoblebma ar gaigon. Tu mSoblebi mainc SeamCneven TavianTi qaliSvilis wawalis stumrobas, wesisamebr ise moiqcevian, rom viTom araferi gaugiaT. wawloba, Cveulebriv, Rame mimdinareobs da mamlis yivilamde grZeldeba. fSavSi gavrcelebulia mravalwawlianoba. SesaZlebelia xuTi an aTi wawlis yola. eTnografiuli masalebidan cnobilia oci wawlis yolis SemTxvevebic. es, cxadia, warmoSobs naZmobTa (wawali vaJi) Soris qiSpobis SemTxvevebs. mtrobisa da konfliqtebis Tavidan acileba da daregulireba qalis saqmea. man ise unda moawyos Sexvedra, rom misi sxva wawali amas ar Seeswros (magaliTad, qali mxolod erT wawals uSvebs saxlSi anu mxolod maSin uRebs karebs vaJs, winaswar setanxmebuli specialuri niSnis, stvenis an kakunis Semdeg, Tu igi sxva wawalTan dakavebuli ar aris). fSaveli qalis gaTxovebas sruliad ar uSlida xels wawloba. piriqiT, wawloba xels uwyobda gaTxovwebas. saqme isaa, rom fSavelTa SexedulebiT, rac ufro meti wawali hyavs qaliSvils, miT ufro Rirseul da pativcemul qalad iTvleba igi. miRebuli iyo, rom rodesac nadobi (wawali qali) Txovdeboda, mas mayrebad Tan mihyvebodnen naZmobni (wawlebi). amasTan nadobis (wawali qalis) qorwilis dros naZmobebis (wawali mamakacebis) mayarSi wayola da maTi simravle qalisaTvis saamayod iTvleboda. garda trfoba-alersisa, wawlobis instituti moicavda wyvilis mier erTmaneTisTvis saCuqrebis gakeTebis wes-Cveulebasac: ase magaliTad, qali uqsovda vaJs

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Wrel windebs, ukeravda saTambaqoes, xolo vaJi Cuqnida qals kalaTas windebisTvis, TiTis tarebs da xelsaqmis sxva instrumentebs. xSirad wawloba wyvils Soris maTi gaTxoveba/colis SerTvis Semdegac grZeldeboda. zogi qmari qals gaTxovebis Semdeg wawlobis uflebas ar aZlevda. amitom qali xSirad eyreboda anu gaurboda qmars. fSavuri ojaxis keTildReoba qalze iyo damyarebuli. mamakaci, Cveulebriv, ar muSaobda da ojaxur meurneobas mTlianad qali uZRveboda. qali mkida da Tibavda yanas, mwyemsavda Zroxebs, amzadebda rZis nawarms. garda amisa, qali uvlida ojaxs, qsovda da keravda tansacmels. amgvarad, qalze iyo damokidebuli ojaxis ekonomikuri siZliere. aqedan gamomdinare, qalis ojaxidan wasvla ar iyo sasurveli. ufro metic, es SesaZlebelia ojaxis sruli ganadgurebiTac dasrulebuliyo. amitom mamakaci iZulebuli iyo Segueboda qalis wawlobas. garda amisa, colis gaqceva fSavSi did sircxvilad iTvleboda. aseT kacze gaTxovba qalebs aRar undodaT. am garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT qmari, Cveulebriv, egueboda qalis wawlobas. ra Tqma unda, igi TviTonac wawlobda. xevsureTSi gavrcelebuli iyo qal-vaJTa sqesobrivi urTierTobebis msgavsi wesi, romelic sworfrobis saxelwodebiTaa cnobili. xevsureTis sworfroba urTierTobaTa ZiriTadi principiT fSavuri wawlobis msgavsia. sworfrobis ritualSic akrZalulia qal-vaJis urTierTobaSi dawesebuli zRvris gadalaxva. Tumca ki arsebobs rigi gansxvavebebisa maT Soris: fSavSi qalTan vaJi midis, xevsureTSi ki, piriqiT, qali midis vaJTan. garda amisa, xevsureTSi Zmobili Tavis sworfer qals stumars uwvens pativiscemis niSnad. rogorc sworfrobis, aseve wawlobis wes-Cveulebis genezisi da funqciebi dRemde ar aris sabolood garkveuli. me-19 s.-is meore naxevridan kavkasiaSi kapitalizmis SemoWrasTan erTad qals ukve kanoniT ekuTvnoda momkvidreobidan wili. es iyo mcire miwis nakveTi. amave dros, kavkasiis mTian sasazRvro da gzispira regionebSi gaCnda wesi -- gaTxovebisas qalisaTvis ojaxidan mcire kapitalis gataneba (saqarTveloSi -- `saTavno~, somxeTSi -- `arnegini~). am ukanasknels an pirutyvis an fulis saxe hqonda, romlisganac miRebul mogebasc (rZis, yvelis, matylis da sxv. gayidviT an mevaxSoebiT) qalis pirad sakuTrebas warmoadgenda. amdenad, qali am qonebas sakuTari neba-survilis mixedviT gankargavda. `saTavnosa~ da `arneginis~ wesi qals SedarebiT finansur Tavisuflebas aZlevda ojaxSi. amdenad, qali ukve aRar iyo iseTi SezRuduli ojaxSi, rogorc es feodaluri wyobis dros iyo. me-19s.-Si daiwyo, agreTve, metad mZlavri qalTa saqvelmoqmedo da saganmanaTleblo moZraoba, romelsac saTaveSi maRali wris qalebi edgnen. misi mizani iyo dabali fenebisaTvis qvelmoqmedeba, wera-kiTxvisa da xelsaqmis swavleba. sabWoTa kavSiris periodSi qalTa da mamakacTa Tanasworoba oficialuri ideologiiT propagandirebuli da kanonmdeblobiT ganmtkicebuli iyo. mmarTvelobis umaRles organoSi -- umaRles sabWoSi qali deputatebisaTvis 38-40%-iani kvota arsebobda; sabWoTa kavSirSi 1948 wlidan arsebobda oficialuri da erTaderTi qalTa organizaciac -- qalTa sabWo, romelsac centralizirebuli mmarTveloba da qseluri struqrura hqonda. qalisaTvis mamakacTan Tanasworad xelmisawvdomi iyo ganaTlebis sistemis yvela safexuri, nebismieri profesia da moRvaweobis sfero. miuxedavad amisa, qalis intagracia sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi mainc formalur xasiaTs atarebda, radganac realuri polirikuri gadawyvetilebis mimReb Tanamdebobebze qalebi ar iniSnebodnen. qalis mier arCeul profesia da moRvaweobis sfero mainc tradiciul CarCoebSi rCeboda. arsebobda tradiciuli mentalitetiT gansazRvruli qalis prestiJuli profesiebi, rogoricaa magaliTad, aRmzrdeli, pedagogi, eqimi. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg kavkasiis qveynebSi demokratiis mSeneblobis

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procesi daiwyo. 1991 wlidan kavkasiaSi Seiqmna qalTa pirveli arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, romlebic postsabWoTa periodSi mkveTri politikur-ekonomikuri cvlilebebis fonze aRmocenda. Tavdapirvelad qalTa organizaciebi ZiriTadad qalTa tradiciuli funqciis gaZlierebiT iyvnen dakavebulni da maTi moRvaweoba saqvelmoqmedo, mSvidobis myofeli an daucvel fenaTa daxmarebis programebiT Semoifargleboda. 1995 wels kavkasiis yvela qveyana SeuerTda konvencias `qalis mimarT diskriminaciiis yvela formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb~. (CEDAW). Seiqmna mudmivmomqmedi specialuri saxelmwifo komisiebi, romelTa funqciaa saxelmwifo genderuli politikis SemuSaveba da gatareba. qalTa moZraobis sagrZnobi gaaqtiureba gamoiwvia aseve bolo wlebSi dasavleTTan kontaqtebis zrdam, ucxouri fondebis daxmarebam da samoqalaqo kulturis ganviTarebam. dRes kavkasiis qveynebSi arsebobs mZlavrad ganviTarebuli qalTa organizaciebi (daax. 150-170 momqmedi organizacia), romlebic qalTa sakiTxis TiTqmis yvela sferos moicaven. bolo 3-4 weliwadia, rac kavkasiis wamyvan umaRles saswavleblebSi daiwyo genderis sxvadasxva aspeqtebis swavleba, magram jerjerobiT es sfero mainc naklebadaa ganviTarebuli. kavkasiis did qalaqebSi arsebobs genderisa da qalTa uflebebis samecniero-kvleviTi centrebic. miuxedavad qalTa arasamTavrobo seqtoris, saxelmwifosa da saerTaSoriso fondebis didi Zalisxmevisa kavkasiaSi qalTa moRvaweoba feministuri moZraobis saxiT ar Camoyalibda. regionSi kvlav Zlieria tradiciuli kulturis gavlena da kavkasiis qveynebi jer kidev Sorsaa genderuli Tanasworobisagan. marTalia kavkasieli qalebi gascdnen qalis tradiciul rols da aqtiurad CaerTnen sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, magram Sromisa da dasaqmebis bazarze, iseve, rogorc qveynis mmarTvelobis struqturebSi maTTvis naklebad misawvdomia gadawyvetilebis mimRebi Tanamdebobebi. Tumca kavkasiis erT-erT qveyanaSi -- saqarTveloSi, 2002-2004 wlebSi parlamentis Tavmjdomare da Semdeg ki prezidentis movaleobis Semsrulebeli qali iyo (nino burjanaZe, romelic dRemde parlamentis Tavmjdomarea), magram qalTa CarTva gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi sistemur xasiaTs ar atarebs (ase, mag. kavkasiis qveynebis parlamentSi qali deputatebi saSualod 12%-s Seadgenen). aRsaniSnavia isic, rom TviT kavkasieli qalebis umetesoba gamokiTxvisas prioritets mainc tradiciul rolebs aniWebs. gamonakliss warmoadgens axalgazrda Taoba, romelisTvisac prioritetulia sakuTari profesionalizmi da ganviTareba. genderuli uTanasworoba da qalTa uflebebis diskriminacia gansakuTrebiT Zlieria kavkasiis musulmanur nawilSi, agreTve, provinciebSi da konfliqtis zonebSi, sadac qalebis umravlesoba jer kidev tradiciuli genderuli rolebiTaa Semofargluli da xSirad xdebian Zaladobis -- colad SerTvis mizniT motacebis, vaWrobis, ojaxuri Zaladobisa da a.S. msxverplni.

leqciis bolos studentebs miecemaT ZiriTad terminTa gansazRvrebebi:

ojaxis `ufrosi qali~ -- didi ojaxis ufrosi deda an dedamTili; ojaxis `ufrosi mamakaci~ -- didi ojaxis ufrosi mama an mamamTili; `ganridebis~ wesi -- kavkasiuri wes-Cveuleba, romlis mixedviTac umcrosebi eridebodnen ufrosebs, qalebi ufrosebs da mamakacebs, rac magaliTad, gulisxmobda rogorc fizikur moridebas, agreTve, orsuli qalis moridebas (damalvas) rogorc mSobel mamasTan, aseve qmris ojaxis mamakacebTan da sxv. `umZraxobis~ wesi - kavkasiuri wes-Cveuleba, romlis mixedviTac qalebs ar hqondaT ojaxis ufros mamakacebTan dalaparakebis ufleba.

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SariaTi -- musulmanuri samarTali, religiuri da iuridiuli normebis krebuli, romelic dafuZnebulia yuranze. endogamia -- qorwineba erTi garkveuli jgufis wevrebs Soris, ase, magaliTad, tomis, kastis an religiuri saTvistomos SigniT. leqciaSi ganxilul azrebaijanis SemTxvevaSi sisxliT naTesavTa Soris. endogamiis tendencia aqvT Tanamedrove xalxebis did nawilsac, rac maT mier erTi nacionalobis an erTi religiis SigniT ganxorcielebuli qorwinebis saxiT vlindeba. egzogamia _ sazogadoebriv-gvarovnuli wyobis wesi, romelic krZalavs erTi garkveuli jgufis wevrebs Soris qorwinebas. magaliTad, tomis, kastis an naTesavTa (sisxliT an mironiT) SigniT. sorirati -- gardacvlili colis umcrosi dis colad SerTvis wesi azerbaijanSi; levirati -- umcrosi Zmis qorwinebis wesi azerbaijanSi ufrosi Zmis qvrivze; baSligi _ gadasaxadi patarZlisaTvis azerbaijanSi, romelsac iRebda misi mama qaliSvilis qorwinebis SemTxvevaSi. mexri _ gadasaxadi, romelic meuRles unda gadaexada colisTvis Tavisi iniciativiT gayris SemTxvevaSi azerbaijanSi. wiwagini - Tanxis gadaxda vaJis mSoblebis mxridan patarZlis dedisTvis somxeTSi. tanteri -- ufrosi mamakaci somxur did ojaxSi; tantikini -- ufrosi qali somxur did ojaxSi; gerdestani -- ramdenime Taobisgan Sedgenili didi ojaxi somxeTSi; wawloba - naTesav da ucxo qal-vaJs Soris sqesobrivi urTierTobebis wes-Cveuleba fSavSi. igi SezRudulia xvevna-kocniT da wels zeviT alersiT. sworfroba - sqesobrivi urTierTobebis wes-Cveuleba xevsureTSi.

studentebs daevalebaT individualuri muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnil droSi moamzadon saswavlo kursis riderSi warmodgenili leqciis Tematikis Sesatyvis masalebi da maT safuZvelze gaakeTon qalis statusis SedarebiTi analizi kavkasiur kulturebSi. amasTanave, studentebs miecemaT Semdegi davalebebi: 1) maT unda gamoikiTxon erTi an ori gaTxovili qali da gaarkvion (Sesabamisi instruqciis mixedviT) misi qonebrivuflebrivi statusi ojaxSi. 2) maT unda ifiqron imaze, Tu rogor vlindeba `umZraxobisa~ da `ganridebis~ wes-Cveulebebi Tanamedrove kavkasiaSi da moiyvanon konkretuli magaliTebi saqarTvelos Tanamedrove cxovrebidan.

seminari #8 (Tema # 8 ) -- 2 sT

seminarze gaimarTeba diskusia ZiriTad sakiTxTa garSemo. kerZod, dasmuli iqneba Sendegi kiTxvebi: 1. rogoria qalis yofa azerbaijanul kulturaSi? 2. rogoria qalis yofa somxur kulturaSi? 3. rogoria qalis yofa qarTul kulturaSi? 4. ra gansxvavebaa qarTul, azernbaijanul da somxur kulturebs Soris qalis qonebriv-uflebrivi statusis mixedviT? 5. ra daskvnebi SeiZleba gavakeToT qalTa uflebrivi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb daniSvnis wes-Cveulebebidan gamomdinare? 6. ramdenad Tanabari iyo qaliSvilebisa da vaJiSvilebis uflebebi qorwinebis dros

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tradiciulad samxreT kavkasiaSi? 7. rogor vlindeba `umZraxobisa~ da `ganridebis~ wes-Cveulebebi Tanamedrove kavkasiaSi? moiyvaneT konkretuli magaliTebi saqarTvelos Tanamedrove cxovrebidan. 8. rogoria qalis qonebriv-uflebrivi statusi dRevandel saqarTveloSi? 9. rogori iyo qalis uflebrivi statusi saqarTvelos mTaSi wawlobisa da sworfrobis institutebis arsebobis fonze? seminarze ganxiluli iqneba, agreTve, Sesrulebuli davaleba da misi Sedegebi. moxdeba studentis mier momzadebuli esses prezentacia.

ZiriTadi literatura: 1. Exploring Gender Issues in the Caucasus, edited by Pauline M. hallam and Barbara J. Merguerian, Civic Education Project, Yerevan, Armenia, 2000, gv.: 31-47, 97-102; 2. Superwomen and The Double Burden (Women's experience of change in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union ), edited by Cris Corrin, Scarlet Press,1992, gv.: 180-236; 3. n. cincaZe, socializaciis tradiciuli normebis asaxva axal garemoSi, kr.- Si: usafrTxoebis strategiis eTnikuri aspeqtebi (pankisis krizisi), Tb., 2002, gv.: 238-265; 4. T. ivelaSvili, saqorwilo wes-Cveulebani saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1999, gv.: 263-286, 99-130; 5. n. cincaZe. qalis yofiTi da sazogadoebrivi roli sxvadasxva eTnikur jgufebSi. kr.-Si: konfliqturi situaciebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi, Tb., mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, 1998, gv.: 218-237; 6. surmaniZe l. qali qarTul mentalitetSi, kr.-Si, gaeros ganviTarebis programa "qalebi ganviTarebis procesSi~, Tb., 1998, gv.: 3-28; 7. ser. makalaTia, fSavuri wawloba da xevsuruli sworfroba (eTnografiuli masalebi), tfilisi, s.m.u.s. poligraftrestis ganyofilebis me-3 stamba, 1935, gv.: 3-5; 23-26. damatebiTi literatura: 1. Culture of Peace: Democracy and Dialogue of Cultures, Yerevan (Materials of International conference), Association of Women with University Education, 1999 2. Women and Society . Gender Equality in the perspective of DemocraticDevelopment, (The materials of thr third international conference), Armenia, Association of Women with University Education, 1999; 3. abaSiZe T. Jvania i. qalTa mdgomareobis socialur-fsiqologiuri gamokvleva saqarTveloSi, gaeros ganviTarebis programa "qalebi ganviTarebis procesSi~, Tb., 1998; 4. meliqiSvili l. qonebrivi urTierTobis zogierTi formis Sesaxeb mTiuleTSi -- saTavno, kr.- Si kavkasiis eTnografiuli krebuli, naw. III , 1971 w, gv.: 160-173; 5. qalTa mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi, gaeros ganviTarebis programa, genderuli ganviTarebis asociacia, gam., `nekeri~, 2000; 6. CitaSvili m. kandelaki a. qalTa RirebulebaTa orientaciebi dRevandel saqarTveloSi, - kr.-Si `qali politikur da socialur cxovrebaSi~, bakur sulakauris gamomc., 1998, gv.: 112-124; 7. zurikaSvili f. devnili qali da eTnokonfliqtebi saqarTveloSi, - kr.-Si `qali politikur da socialur cxovrebaSi~, bakur sulakauris gamomc., 1998, gv.: 145-155; 8. javaxiSvili m. qalebi qristianul religiaSi, kr.-Si, gaeros ganviTarebis programa "qalebi ganviTarebis procesSi~, Tb., 1998, gv.: 3-14; 9. m.wereTeli qalTa uflebebi maTi Rirebulebebis TvalsazrisiT, Tb., 2000; 10. n. baliauri, sworfroba xevsureTSi, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1991.

saleqcio kurisis bolos studentebi daurigdebaT kursis Sefasebis furceli.

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Mzia Tsereteli

GENDER: CULTURAL RESEARCHES (GENDER, CULTURE AND SOCIETY)

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Course duration and timetable: 96 hours (8 weeks) Of which Classroom work: 32 hours Student's independent research work: 64 hours Classroom work includes: Lectures with practical illustrations (role play, case study, etc.,):16 hours Seminar-discussions: 16 hours Student's Independent Research Work consists of: Core and reference literature reading and study by students, preparation and presentation of a library -research article (18-20 pages). Course description: Gender as a social-cultural construct; gender-role ideology, gender stereotypes and masculinity-femininity from cross-cultural point of view; Gender identification and gender type theories (psychodynamic, social learning, cognitive development theories, androgyny theory, stages of gender-role transcendence and scheme theory). Sex socialization and its institutions; Culture role in gender socialization; Gender roles and cross-cultural data in this direction; Society and family; Relationships between men and women; Gender differences from cross-cultural point of view; Patterns of gender stratification; Gender aspects of labor market from multicultural point of view. Gender asymmetry: Discrimination or norm; Gender equality; Culture and Gender equality models; Women in south Caucasian culture; Gender analysis of Georgian culture. Course goal: Students will have to gain fundamental knowledge on gender as a social-cultural construct, its establishing and acting mechanisms, and also gender differences in various cultures. Students will have to become familiar with modern theoretical and empiric researches in this field. Students have to develop research skills and learn how to retrieve scientific information and data. Candidate has to be able to provide an independent research and systemization of gender theories and empirical data. Students' grading system: Examination -Test (written)-2 hours -Written examination (the student has to choose 3 questions from given 10)-2 hours -Essay evaluation -Participation in seminar-discussions

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Grades: Grades are made of sum of seminars, essays, tests, written tests and percentage weight of each component below: seminar-20%, essey-25%, test-25%, written test-30% Grading principles: 90% -100% - 5 74% - 89.9% - 4 65% - 73.9% - 3 0 - 64.9% - failure

Course structure: Week #1, Lecture- 2 hours, Seminar ­ 2 hours Topic #1- Gender, as a Social and Cultural Construct; Gender Role Ideology; Gender Stereotypes, Masculinity-Femininity, Cross-Cultural Researches. The Introduction will deal with a brief history of establishment of gender as a scientific research object and origin of gender studies. The place of gender researches among social sciences will be determined. To define gender as a social-cultural construct, it is important to make distinction between "sex" and "gender". The difference between genders is differently highlighted in various societies, various countries, hence, proving that sex is an important determinant of a human's behavior. Note, anatomically and physiologically there is more similarity than difference between women and men. In the majority of cases women and men are equally capable of carrying out similar behavior, have equal potential to conduct this or that social role or work. Despite this, any society and culture have more or less strictly determined and approved mandatory behavioral norms, jobs, professions for women and men, etc. Traditionally understanding of sex depends on identification of physiological and morphological differences. The term of gender was introduced in the science to denote socially learnt behaviors, features and attitudes. The concept of gender is used to express socio-cultural aspect of sex belonging. Two main groups of gender research could be singled out: 1. study of gender conscious (gender social roles, masculinity ­ femininity, gender stereotypes, values, etc.); and 2. study of gender reflection in social, political, economical and cultural institutes of the society. Such kind of studies created the term ­ gender approach, which in various sciences means study of impact consequences of gender as a psychic construct. For example, political aspects of gender, gender approach in pedagogy, family gender aspects, etc. Exercise: To better understand the term of gender, students are asked to name the examples of the functions, social roles, features and activities of women and men. The students together with the lecturer shall have to define which of them is determined by sex and which - by gender. The following terms of gender research will be defined: sexual-role ideology, gender stereotypes, masculinity/femininity. Sex-role (gender-role) ideology is classified as a continuum from traditional to modern. Traditional ideologies indicate that a man is more "important", than a woman; that a man should have power over a woman and control her. Modern ideologies represent egalitarian approach, sometimes called feministic approach, since these ideologies attach equal importance to men and women in the society and reject domination of one sex by another.

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Gender stereotypes ­ are psychological characteristics and behavior, which at a certain historical period in this or other society (culture) is considered as more characteristic for one sex. For example: "Men are too aggressive" or "Men are cleverer", "Women are too emotional", "Women cannot drive well" or "Men could be real friends, but women could not", etc. Stereotypes facilitate to learning gender roles and represent socialization models for children. Masculinity-femininity ­ is an extent of certain features in self-perception of women and men, which in their culture are considered as more characteristic either for men or women. Cross-cultural researches show that the main factors of gender-role ideology change from traditional to egalitarian are: education level, urbanization level, economical level of a country, family, individualization of a society and religion. The results of study of gender-role ideology in 14 countries carried out by Williams and Best showed that the most modern ideology is in European countries ­ the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, England and Italy. The USA was found in the middle of the list, as to the most traditional ideologies, they were found in Asian and Africal countries ­ Nigeria, Pakistan, India, Japan amd Malasya. Social roles theory by Eagly, formation of gender stereotype models by Williams & Bestand and heir data of cross-cultural survey, also obsrvations by Gilmore and M. Mead will be also discussed. For every seminar each student will have: 1. to prepare (write down and present) at least 10 gender behavior norms; 2. to record professions, employment fields, positions, social status of men and women on the examples of randomly recollected families. Reference: 1. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, p.: 13-122 2. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, pp.: 199-204 3. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, pp.: 17-23 4. Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, pp.:, 135137 Week #2 Lecture ­ 2 hours, seminar ­ 2 hours. Topic #2 Gender Identification and Gender Typing Theories (Psychodynamics, Social Learning, Cognitive Development Theories, Androgyny Theory, Gender-Role Transcendance Stages and Gender Scheme Theory Freud was the firs psychologist who explained the sexual identification process of a person. The mechanism of sexual identification and sexual difference formation are ingrained in psycho-sexual development process of a child. "Envy for penis" and desire "to own" it are driving force for the development of a normal femininity. Such driving force for a boy to develop normal masculinity is "freight of castration". As regards the sex identification mechanism, it is revealed through overcoming Oedipus complex and identifying oneself with the parent of the similar sex. Freud does not belong to gender researchers and even its scientific term of gender didn't exist then, but Freud's theory had an immense influence on the development of scientific idea of

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gender. Freud's critics (Malinowski, Mead, Deutsch, Erikson, Horney, Thompson, Adler, Chodorov, Bendjamin, etc.) fill in and further develop his model by introducing additional cultural factors in the sex identification mechanism. Hence, Froyd's theory should be considered as one of the stimulus for the development of gender psychology and scientific prerequisite of today's understanding of gender. Social-cognitive theory. Formation of gender-role orientation is defined by Bandura, Mishell as a result of experience acquisition. The socialization agents form children's gender-role orientation behavior by strengthening adequate and inadequate behavior and punishment. Unlike animals a child learns by watching others, modelling and imitating others behavior. People tend to develop cognitive model of certain behavior, which in the form of verbal and cognitive representations are kept in the memory and which acquire a checkpoint function in the future behavior. Behavioral cognitive model represents a model behavior image later used as either adequate or inadequate behavior prototype. Ability to foresee the consequences of the future behavior enables the child to avoid undesirable behavior and hence, learn which behavior is acceptable for his/her gender and which ­ unacceptable. According to L. Kohlberg's cognitive development theory, gender identification and mastering of gender-role orientations are the result of creation, formation (structuring) of the child's social and physical world. In their development children go through certain stages of mastering sex information and the experience acquired by them is structured in compliance with their level of understanding. Slaby & Frey single out four levels of understanding of problems connected with sex in American children. At the initial stage children do not make any distinction between sexes, at the following stage they begin to use certain categories in regard with sex based on superficial physical characteristics. On the last two stages which starts approxilmately at the age of 4- 4,5, little by little children begin to understand that gender is stable and unchangeable pecularity. According to cross-cultural study by R.H. Munroe, Shimmin & Munroe, achievement of 3rd and 4th stages significantly varies from culture to culture. Perception of gender concepts is slower in traditional cultures, where children have less contact with men and basically mothers take care of their children. Bussey discovered that model of gender typing for boys comprises two processes: mastering masculine behavior and unaccaptability of feminine behavior. The model for the girls comprises only one process: mastering behavior connected with women sex without unaccepting behavior of the opposite sex. As a result the behavior of a boyish girl is quite acceptable, while the behavior of a "mother's son" is unacceptable for boys. Personality traditional theories recognize universality of gender typing into masculinity/femininity. Due to this any child not revealing gender typing behavior was considered as a deviation from the norm. Though an alternative opinion on gender identification and typing ­ Androgyne concept (S.Bem) also exists. It (in Greek andro means man and gyne - woman) recognizes balance of masculinity and femininity in a human. S. Bem developed a special questionnaire measuring the four following parameters in men and women: masculinity, femininity, androgyny, nondifferentiality. As a result of large scale survey conducted among the students revealed that 1/3 of the students are androgenic. According to gender-role transcendence stage theory Rebecca, Hefner, Oleshancky, Forisha, Sedney gender typing behavior and thinking from the development point of view belong to middle stage and not the final point. Children have no idea about gender at the beginning (I stage), then they start to learn actively adequate steretype role and reject inadequate (II stage). But gender development could continue until III stage when the knowledge acquired on the II stage is reorganized specifically and individualy. The individual is no more marked in terms of the laws

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adopted by the society of masculinity and femininity and s/he can show own originalityand different features. Trnscendental person is neither feminine nor masculine, masculinity or femininity together or seperately is the part of a transcendental person's world. In gender scheme theory gender will be defined as a cognitive category. Gender scheme is a association network of general knowledge used by an individual in the process of understanding and thinking. Study of gender scheme begins in early childhood. The scheme helps the person to become gender typed. Gender typing is the result of a human's readiness to process information by means of gender scheme. I-concept is associated with gender scheme. Author of gender scheme S.Bem says that "when children learn gender scheme of the society, they also study which attribute is connected with their sex and, hence, with them." Gender identification and typing occur by means of two main social-psychological mechanisms ­ normative and informational pressure. Researches by Cross & Markus; Burn; Grady; Fiske & Taylo proving the importance of gender as a social category in the process of information processing will be discussed. The students will be given definition of the main terms: gender identification, gender typing, modelling, prototype, androgyne, cogntive model, cognitive theory, verbal and cognitive reprezentations, gender scheme. Student will be asked to prepare within a period assigned for individual work material on the topic of the lecture presented in the course reader. At the seminar the group discussions around the basic issues will be held. Students will become familiar with the survey data conducted on Georgian students by I. Gedevanishvili using the principle of S. Bem's questionnaiore. Students will be able to look into themselves in this direction. Reference: 1. Juanita H. Williams, Psychology of Women, W.W.Norton & Company, N.Y.,1987, pp.: 2896. 2. Anthology of Gender Theories, compiled by N. Berekashvili, Bakuri Sulakauri Publishing House, 2003, pp.: 15-38, 49-60, 63-79. 3. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A Feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, pp.: 27-60 Week #3 Lecture ­ 2 hours, seminar ­ 2 hours. Topic #3 ­ Gender Socialization and Its Institutes. Culture Role in Gender Socialization. Learning of gender stereotypes occurs during the socialization from childhood age. Gender is influenced by cultural norms defining what women should do and what men, and social information inspiring people the extent of difference between women and men. Gender role socialization is a process when people learn what is socially acceptable for women and what - for men. Differentiated socialization is a process when a human masters the behavior models, values, etc. adequate for his/her gender. Rudiment of differential socializations are already revealed prior to the child's birth (by selecting name, cloths' color, toys, etc). Two known basic mechanisms of differential socialization are: differential reinforcement and differential modeling. Cross-cultural researches by Barry, Bacon & Child, Lytton & Romney, Perry, etc. will be discussed. Main sources of socialization are family (parents, their views, assignment different tasks to children, peculiarities of child-care and nurture), peers (rituals of initiation), media (especially TV), education system (text-books, attitudes of teachers and parents, expectations), toys.

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Cross-cultural researches conducted by various authors (Edvards & Whiting; Mintur & Lambert; E. Whitting & Edvards; Bredley; Weisner & Gallimore; Katz & Konner; Segall; Whiting; Lytton & Romney; R.L. Munroe & Munroe; Rohner & Rohner; Mackey; Mackey & Day; Edwards; Edwards &Whting; Hamilton, Blumenfeld, Akhon & Miura; Serpell; Lummis & Stevenso; Archer) will be seperately discussed. Students will be given definition of the terms: gender socialization, differential enhancement, differential imitation (modeling), gender constancy, meta-analysis, sexism, faceism. While discussing each source of socialization, it is envisaged for the students to recollect such cases, when they observed among themselves or their acquaintances modeling (imitating) of gender behavior samples dictated by these institutes, or such cases when inadequate gender behavior resulted in negative appraisal from parents, adults or peers. Student will be asked to prepare within a period assigned for individual work material on the topic of the lecture presented in the course reader. They will be also asked to analyse so called local magazines for women and men for the seminar: to define their topics, gender stereotypes, look into the phenomenon of sexism and feisism. Reference: 1. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A Feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, pp.: 144-188 2. Handbook of Marriage and the Family, edited by Marrin B. Sussman & Suzann K. Steinmetz, Plenum Press, 1988, pp.: 327-370 3. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994,pp.: 123-144 4. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, pp.: 204-207 Week #4 Lecture ­ 2 hours, seminar ­ 2 hours. Topic #4 ­Gender Roles and Stereotypes. Cross-cultural Data The studies show that children tend to establish stereotypes connected with feminine and masculine origin within first two years, from the age of 3-4 they start to use these stereotypes to define the category of toys, activities and professions. Williams and Best studied 5 and 8 year-old children in 25 countries. In all the countries the percentage of stereotypes went up with the age. Particularly, the stereotyping level among 5 yearold children was 60%, while among 8 year-old children ­ 70%. From stereotyping point of view high data of girls and boys were collected in New Zealand and England, especially in Pakistan. The data were low in Brazil, Taiwan, Germany and France. Though due to education pace there are certain differences among the countries, but in general mastering of stereotypes begins before the age of 5, its pace goes up at primary classes and finally finishes in adolescence. Both girls and boys master stereotypes at the same pace. Though there are cross-cultural differences in the sequence of mastering feminine or masculine stereotypes. Obviously whether feminine stereotype or masculine will be mastered first depends on the extent of vividness of feminine or masculine stereotyping in the given culture, on more or les differentiation of their image. These factors will be briefly discussed. To illustrate these data on gender role distribution in various cultures will be given (Friedan; Feree; D'Andrade; Shelton & Jhon; Bliar & Lichter;Gibbons et al..;Davis & Robinson; Shelton & Jhon).

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Peculiarities and behavioral norms characteristic for women or men are subject to cultural variations. Nevertheless there are cultural universalities too. At a certain extent each society links certain features and activities to a certain gender. At the same time, almost in none society has a woman higher than a man status. Social role of men is connected with their nature as "an earner" and in many cultures makes distinction between men and women's functions. Today empiric material dedicated to the study of traditional masculine roles is very scarce. This is a relatively new and less developed field of gender research. Mastering mechanism of masculine gender roles is the same as of the feminine role: Pleck and Thompson called opinion system of "masculinity" masculinity ideology. In fact these are social norms comprising permissions and prohibitions on what a man should feel and do. The structure of men's role norms consists of three important factors: status/success norm, sustainability and antifemininity norm. Each norm will be separately discussed. Concrete examples from everyday life will be given helping students to better familiarize the mechanisms of gender norms of men and women. Traditional masculine roles and norms will be especially highlighted. Gender stereotype functions, also stress and conflicts caused by traditional feminine and masculine roles in modern conditions will be analyzed. Students will be given definition of basic terms: gender roles, illusive correlation, gender differences, priming effect, status/success norm, physical strength norm, intelligence strength norm, emotional stability norm, anti-femininity norm, femifobia. Students will be asked to prepare within a period assigned for individual work material on the topic of the lecture presented in the course reader. At the seminar the group discussions around the basic issues will be held.The essay prepared by students will be presented; case study method will be also applied: students will become familiar with the case described in the materials of 22nd International Session of the Human Rights Canada Foundation: Story of Fatal River dedicated to the evaluation of gender stereotypes and gender roles in various cultures. Reference 1. Male/Femaile Roles, Jonatan S. Petrikin (ed.), Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1995, pp.:9-82 2. Unger R., Crawford M., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, Temple University Press, Philadelphia,1992, pp.: 102-144

Week #5 ­ Lecture ­ 2 hours, seminar ­ 2 hours Topic #5 ­ Family and society. Relations between Men and Women. Cross-cultural Differences. Family is a social institute, system made up as a result of marriage and based on blood consanguinity. Family and marriage are guarantors of society wellbeing and quiet; It arranges sexual life and socialization of the adolescent generation. Society provides conditions for normal functioning and protection of the family. Civil law determines the age for marriage, eligibility of marriage between sexes and number of spouses. Basic characteristics of the family are: functions, structure and dynamic. Function is viability connected with satisfaction of needs of the family members. Functions of the family are: 1. nurturing 2. economic-life 3. emotional 4.primary social control 5.sexual-erotic. Structure comprises number of family members, their unity and relations. The analysis of the family structure provides us with the information on how family functions are realized ­ who is the leader and who - subordinate; how duties are distributed in the family.

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Dynamic is expressed in the fact that the family structure and its functions could vary at various stages of family life cycle whether it is newly married, pregnancy, child birth, teenager child, leaving of the family by a child, after spouses stay alone (empty nest) or accepting old age stage. There are many family typologies. The typology criteria are: number of married couples, existence-nonexistence, number of children in the family, characteristic management style. There are big nuclear and reduced families, also complex families. According to the management style, authoritarian, authoritative, liberal and indifferent families are distinguished. According to family borders, there are open, close and chaotic families. Note, monogamy, polygamy and polyandry families. Among many models of spouse relations three main types are singled out: traditional, modern and egalitarian. Classifications are also made in regard with heterosexuality and homosexuality of the couples. Examples of German, Canadian, American and Sweden families will be discussed. In German the stable stereotype of a woman ­ housewife was destroyed in 50-70-ies, according to which the main function of a woman was ­ kitchen, children and church. Today's Germany is highly industrial and urban country where women are as involved in work as men. Government policy, also economic development and mechanization of housework greatly contributed to it. In modern Germany traditional, modern and egalitarian families co-exist. Single parents, childless families, families with changed gender roles are also in abundance there. Korean family is one of the most conservative and stable families. Under the influence of Confucian ideology the family was framed within strict borders. Woman had no rights and experienced all sorts of oppression and humiliation. Husband and his parents were completely dominating her. Society also punished husbands loyal to their wives. In today's Korea the picture of violence has significantly changed. Women are involved in office work but until she gets married or if she has grown up children. It could be said that starting from the 60-80-ies a traditional family began to collapse and move towards equal gender plane. American men traditionally used to have dominant role in the family. As a result of Great Depression a huge army of unemployed men appeared and undermined the stereotype of a strong man. Men in the families started to get more involved in family affairs. "Good daddy" is an important component of the stereotype of the modern American man. Feministic movement of the 70-ies significantly contributed to the destruction of a man stereotype. In the 30-ies only one out of five had positive attitude toward women working either in business or enterprise, in the 70-ies 57% of the interviewed students was for limiting housewife's role of a woman, and at the end of XX century only 25% favors this opinion. Swedish family and its development process from traditional to egalitarian at the end of XX century seems very interesting: economic development of the country and implementation of government policy supporting family contributed to lightening housework of women and increasing in their employment outside the house. Working parents and children is a typical family form in modern Sweden. Families (Sambo) with spouses not under official wedlock are also widely spread in modern Sweden. Both official and Sambo-type families enjoy equal rights and have equal value for both the country and society. Students will be given definition of the basic terms: monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, extended family, nuclear family, Confucian. Students will be asked to prepare within a period assigned for individual work material on the topic of the lecture presented in the course reader. Students will be assigned 1. to compare family systems of different cultures based on the material given in the reader; 2. to discuss their families from the point of labor distribution between sexes. At the seminar the group discussions will be held around the basic issue;.3. compare any 5-10 families. Define their types.

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Reference: 1. Handbook of Marriage and the family, edited by Marrin B. Sussman & Suzann K. Steinmetz, Plenum Press, 1988, pp.:13-38, 309-327, 439-474. 2. Leslie G. R., Korman S.K. The Family in Social Context, NY . Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.: 81-111

Week #6 ­ Lecture- 2hours, Seminar ­ 2 hours Topic #6 ­ Gender Stratification Patterns. Labor Market Gender Aspects in Various Cultures. In the 20th century women obtained the right to vote in the elections. In addition in many countries they also acquired the right to be elected to the elective positions, at least potentially. Their rights were enhanced on the legislative level. Nevertheless, the studies reveal acute inequality at work, in remuneration, status and authority. Gender norms influence gender relations and gender roles. The research results show that social roles accomplished by women and men differ in several parameters. Such culture aspects as women's status in the society, labor distribution by sex, variety of performance, remuneration, status, authority, religion views, values, economic factors and the extent of women participation in politics significantly affect gender consciousness. Friedan and Feree's opinion in regard with a woman's role as a "family hearth patron", also the results of studies of D'Andrade ( 1966) ethnographic materials of 244 society, Bliar & Lichte, (1991), Shelton & Jhon (1993) , etc will be discussed. Most of gender researchers assume that traditional gender role hinders person's development and results in social inequality. In the democratic part of the modern world women's problems and gender issues acquired special importance in the develipment context. Not only the women in hard conditions of the developing countries, women deprived of civil and political rights came under the limelight, but also gender inequality problems in the developed countries, which are still in abundance. In the second half of the 20th century the condition of gender equality significantly improved in most of the developing countries: the level of women education increased. The number of girls' enrollment in primary schools in South Africa, African countires in the south of the Sahara, middle east countries and North African countries doubled. As a result of capital investments in the healthcare of women and girls in 1990, for the first time in the history of South Asia, women's life span is longer than men's. The number of women employees has also increased. In Latin America and South Asia women employment indicator has increased by 15 points since 1970. Gender differences in remuneration have also reduced. Despite such achievements, in the majority of the developing countries gender inequality in rights, resource availability and possibilities of expressing own interests still remain. Not in a single region of the developing countries do women have equal with men social, legal and economic rights. Furthermore, all cultures (both in developing and developed countries) share the similarity in the fact that a woman has lower than a man status. According to the UN data 1. basic housework is done by women; 2. half of the world's food (agricultural) products is produced by women; 3. one third of human resources is made of women, but they are employed in low-salary jobs; 4. women get less than three fourth of men remuneration paid for the same kind of work; 5. women are less presented in power organs. Hence, most of the societies of the modern world represent gender stratified systems. The main stratification patterns are: employment, economic, political and legal. In the majority of cases

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stratification directions are the same: men are dominant, women ­ subordinate. Asymmetry in remuneration between men and women is well-known (an American woman gets 68% of a man's salary, African ­ 61%, Latino-American ­ 53%). This fact has several explanations: 1. women earn less than men because they choose less paid work ­ mainly traditionally feminine work, such as cleaning ladies, nurses, etc; 2. women are less valuable employees due to their inexperience and low qualification; 3. they have fewer expectations and accept lower pay. Low status of women is also well-known. Prestigious professions in the society are basically occupied by men (according to US data among scientific researchers 80% are men, among doctors ­ 84%, lawyers ­ 78%). A lot of data also prove less power of women in comparison with men. They seldom have key positions and their presence in politics is also insignificant. Furthermore, the higher the power hierarchy level, the lower the presence of women. The concept of Glass Ceiling will be discussed, as well as widely spread explanations of low status of women. The picture of women participation in politics in various countries as given in WomenAidinternational data will be presented. To better understand the issue, role playing method will be applied. Partilularly, each group memebr will write down the duties of women and men in the family and society in todays' Georgia on seperate small cards. Then a girl and a boy will be chosen from the group who will come out into the room center. Each student will read each duty in turn and will pass a card to the students in the center in compliance with the gender and a burden prepared in advance specially for this purpose (presumably - a book). Eventually the group will see how many duties does a woman have in our society, how many ­ a man, what is their ratio. Students will have to think about the reasons for such inequality and the ways to improve it. Such a role- play will prepare grounds for the better understanding of the following topic. Students will be assigned to prepare materials for the lecture topic presented in the course reader in the assigned for individual work time. The discussions around the basic issue will be held at the seminar. Reference: 1. Crawford M., Unger R., Women and Gender. A feminist Psychology, The McGraw-hill, 2004, pp.: 359-395; 2. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, pp.: 194-224; 3. Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the 21st Century, "Beijing+5" (2000) - 23rd Special Session of the General Assembly, New York, 5-9 June 2000 ­ www.un.org/womenwatch/ 4. V. Sapiro. Woman and Politics, Collection of articles Woman in Political and Social Life, Bakur Sulakauri Publishing House, 1998, pp. 40-75

Week #7 ­ Lecture ­ 2 hours, Seminar ­ 2 hours. Topic #7 ­ Gender Asymmetry: Discrimination or Norm. Concept of Gender Equality. Culture and Gender Equality Models. The fact that a woman has lower than a man status is common for all cultures: seldom do women have power, their work is less paid, they seldom have prestigious professions, they seldom happen to have key positions, jobs in government systems, etc. Some of the scientists explain the low status of women in the society from a personcentered position ­ women themselves do not have features and skills relevant for high status;

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some scientists ­ from a situation-oriented position ­ certain persons and organizations apply discriminatory policy against women. But the most efficient is the explanation lying in androcentering of our consciousness, which has long and important prerequisites for its development. Andro-centered or masculine-centered has been considered as a norm for a long time. Asymmetric attitude towards gender, moreover, the existence of women discrimination was revealed by the first wave of feminism and turned into an acute social and political issue. A man "became a king" when Judaic religion opposed a goddess cult spread in the Middle East and offered an idea of Father-God as a world creator. Gradually stereotypes of a perfect man and imperfect woman were established (in compliance with almighty god). Orthodox Christians also significantly contributed to the enhancement of a man cult who by means of Bible versions declared a woman as a secondary creature created from a man. She was also proclaimed as a tempting, devilish force. Hence, evaluation stereotypes of a woman comprised the following features: a woman is a secondary, imperfect creature; she is a seducer and threat to a man's power. In addition to biblical story, antique philosophy and political traditions originated in the Ancient Greece also influenced the concept of gender inequality. In this regard Plato's and Aristotle's views are very important. According to Plato a human has two natures in which men belong to "a superior race". At the beginning creation of a woman was not considered, only - men. Women were supposed to be born by sinned men, after the latter's rebirth. In his doctrine on ideal city Plato also defined social role of a woman. In his opinion, in the society free of private property, a woman should have same as a man role, or a role of a Guard. For this purpose women should be trained but still they won't be able to accomplish this function as perfectly as men could. Unlike Plato, who more or less admits the possibility of equality between men and women, Aristotle considers the world as a single structure in which components are hierarchically organized. Only the best and advantageous have the principle of rational existence, the rest act as facilitators. Correspondingly, a woman exists in favor of a man. In addition, for a hundred years androcentrism has been fed by one of the most powerful theory from the point of view of influence on public consciousness - Z. Freud's psycho-analytic theory. According to this theory psycho-types of a man and a woman are formed through psychosexual development stages and are strongly asymmetric. A woman's portrait in this theory is discriminated and imperfect. Despite such a long-term conditionality of private and public consciousness, attitudes of modern society dramatically change in favor of gender equality idea (the number of supporters of woman's status increase and its strengthening goes up). In the modern world fights for women's rights have significantly increased and strengthened. Women conferences under UN were held. They evaluated women's status and set goals of objectives to improve women's legal conditions and strengthen their status. Action Platform was developed at the Women's World Conference In Beijing in 1995. This helped to establish recognition of women's rights as human rights. Every endeavor (women's conferences, activities, special programs, etc.) aims at establishing equality between men and women. Under equality we mean: equal social status, independence, equal participation and responsibilities in all fields of social and private life. The term of equality means the principle of comprehensive participation of both woman and man in social life. Sex equality does not mean mutual similarity and identity. But equality does not mean establishing man's lifestyle as a norm. The idea of sex equality forces us to evaluate the difference between man and woman roles. Equality principle comprises the right of being different. This means that those distinguishing

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features which are characteristic for different social classes, political and religious views, ethnical groups and sexual orientation of women and men should be taken into consideration by all means. Equality principles make us think about how we could achieve success in introducing changes in the public structure where authority relations between sexes are not balanced. Equality conception requires perception of equality between a man and woman. Establishing equality is a constant, continues process requiring reevaluation and re-realization of values. To realize equality conception the following goals are very important to achieve: 1. recognition and respect of women's rights; 2. improvement of democratic representation; 3. economic independence; 4. high education level; 5. joint endeavor of both genders; After the III UN Conference dedicated to women's problems, a new conception of complex approach to gender equality emerged in various international documents. This new conception is known as Gender Mainstreaming. National projects of the Netherlands, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Belgium on Gender Mainstreaming Policy will be discussed. Students will be given definitions of basic terms: androcentrism, gender equality, Gender Mainstreaming. Students will be assigned to prepare materials for the lecture topic presented in the course reader in the assigned for individual work time. The discussions around the basic issue will be held at the seminar. In addition, students' version of Georgian mode ofl gender equality will be worked out. For this students will have to predetermine and present at the seminar: main fields in which gender ineqaulity is especially obvious, main factors which in their opinion determine such a condition of events (personal, cultural, political), main steps to be taken to achieve equality, main fields, in which structural changes should be introduced, recent results and future forecasts. Reference: 1. Anthology of Gender Theories, compiled by Nana Berekashvili, Bakur Sulakauri Publishing House, 2003, pp.: 15-62 2. George J. Bryjak, Michael P. Soroka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World, Second Edition, Fllin and Bacon, 1994, pp..: 221-237 3. Judith Lorber, Paradoxes of Gender, Yale University Press, 1994, pp..: 282-303 4. Gender Mainstriming - ­ www.un.org/womenwatch/

Week #8 ­ Lecture ­ 2 hours, Seminar ­ 2 hours Topic #8 ­ Women in South Caucasus Culture. Gender Analysis of Georgian Culture States of Caucasian peoples (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Southern part of Russia (North Caucasus) tend to enjoy collectivist type of culture and, hence, gender-role ideology is also traditional. In feudalistic Caucasus a woman was confined to only family activities and her functions were bringing up children, taking care of the family and housekeeping. The elderly woman institute in the family is a Caucasian norm. The elderly woman was responsible for safeguarding the whole family food products and money means, cooking, equal distribution of food and labor among daughter-inlaws and sons' families in terms of the number of members, age and gender . Furthermore, in

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terms of traditional mentality, woman also was given the function of peace-maker historically revealed in traditional means of settling opposition between the families. Woman's status was regulated by means of traditional legal norms (customs, decisions of the elderly councils, in the Muslim part ­ by Shariat) and official legal norms ­ legal books (starting from XI century). Woman's family and property rights were determined in detail by legal norms, according to which a woman did not have any right for the legacy, she was given dowry consisting only women clothing and fancy-work box. In the plain regions women from relatively well-off families were given plot in heredity. Women, generally, did not take part in either community and political life or decision making. Nevertheless, in the period of renaissance in XII century the king of the country was a woman (Tamar). In addition, very often personal decisions of queens and noble ladies in the Caucasus unanimously determined the country's fate and political life. Hence, historically Caucasian women bore the function of retention of religion, decency and statehood. Historical and historical-literary examples of heroical deeds conducted by high society women to protect religion, language and nation are one of the important historical institutions for bringing up new generations in the Caucasus. Starting from the second half of the 19-th century with the advance of capitalism in the Caucasus women legally acquired the right on a share from the heredity. In addition in mountainous bordery and road side regions of the Caucasus a rule came up ­ to provide a woman upon wedding with a small part of the capital (in Georgia "Satavno", in Armenia "Arnegini"). The latter was granted in the form of a domestic animal or cash, profit from which (sale of milk, cheese, wool, etc. or pawn brokering) could have been disposed by the woman on her accord . In the 19-th century a powerful charity and enlightenment movement headed by women from the high society was launched. It aimed at charity activities in favor of the lower layers of the society, and teaching them literacy and fancy work. During the Soviet period equality between women and men was advocated by the official ideology and enhanced by the legislation. The highest management body had 38-40% of quotas for women deputation in the Supreme Soviet. Starting from 1948 the only official women organization ­ women council - having centralized administrative and network structure, also existed. Any education stage, profession or career was equally accessible for men and women. And yet women's integration into the community life was still conventional, since women were not appointed on the positions where actual political decisions were made. The profession selected by a women and the career remained within traditional framework. The professions of a doctor, caretaker, teacher were the ones considered prestigious by traditional mentality. After the dismantling of the Soviet Union the process of democratic construction began in the Caucasian countries. From 1991 the first women NGO-s started to appear. Initially women NGO-s were busy enhancing traditional women functions and their activities were confined to charity, peace-making or protection of vulnerable layers of the population programs. In 1995 all the Caucasian countries joined the convention "Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women" (CEDAW). Permanently operating special women state committees were also set up. Today women organizations in the Caucasian countries are powerfully developed (approx. 150-170 acting organizations) encompassing almost all the fields of women activities. In the higher educational institutions various gender aspects are being taught. Scientific research centers on gender and women rights are also operating. Despite the endeavor of the women non-governmental sector, government and international foundations, the activities of the women organizations in the Caucasus have not acquired the shape of feministic movement. Modern Caucasian women went ahead of women's traditional role and are actively involved in the community life, but on the labor and employment market, as well as in the public administration

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structures decision-making positions are less accessible for them. Though in one of the Caucasian countries ­ Georgia - in 2002-2004 the Speaker of the Parliament, then the interim president was a woman (Nino Burjanadze is still Parliament Chairperson), but women's involvement in the process of the decision-making does not have a regular character (the average proportion of women deputation in the Caucasian countries is 12%). Note, most of the Caucasian women respondents give the priority to the traditional roles, except the young generation for whom professionalism and development is the most vital. Gender inequality and women's rights discrimination are especially strong in the Moslem part of the Caucasus, also in the provinces and conflict zones, where most women are yet limited to traditional gender roles and are often become victims of violence ­ abduction for getting married, bargaining, family violence , etc. Family life of women and their property and right status in Azerbajanian, Armenian and Georgian culture will be discussed. Marriage and wedding customs will be analyzed. Student will be given definitiion of terms: custom, Shariat, endogamy, tantikin, levirat, sororat, tavani, arnegin. Student will be asked to prepare within a period assigned for individual work material on the topic of the lecture presented in the course reader and on the basis of these materials do comparative analysis in Caucsian cultures. Students will be assigned to interview one married woman and determine (in terms of the appropriate gudelines) her property right status in the family. Reference: 1. Exploring Gender Issues in the Caucasus, edited by Pauline M. hallam and Barbara J. Merguerian, Civic Education Project, Yerevan, Armenia, 2000, gv.: 31-47, 97-102 2. N. Tsintsadze, Describing Traditional Norms of Socialization in a New Environment, collection of articles: Etrhnic Aspects of Security Starategy (Pankisi Cfisis), Tbilisi, 2002, pp.:238-265 3. T. Ivelashvili, Wedding Customs in Georgia, Tbilisi, 1999, pp.:263-286, 99-130 4. N. Tsintsadze. Women's Everyday and Social Role in Different Ethnic groups. Collection of Articles: Conflict Situations in Polyethnic Society, Tbilisi, Caucasus Institute of Peace, Democracy and Development, 1998, pp.: 218-237 5. L. Surmanidze. Woman in Georgian Mentality, Collection of articles, UN Development Program "Women in Developing Process", Tbilisi, 1998, pp.: 3-28

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