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Research

March 2006

Leader

Shaping the Technology of Tomorrow

TM

Also in this issue:

Blood donors · 2 Calendar · 2 In memoriam · 2 Welcome aboard · 2 Heating up thermal protection research · 2 New contracts · 3 Happy anniversary · 3 Computer tips · 3 NEST lab in full swing · 4 Attention retirees! · 4 UDRI Award winners · 5 Student research for the real world · 7 Anniversary trivia! · 8 In the public eye · 8

The Leader is published monthly by the University of Dayton Research Institute 300 College Park Dayton, OH 45469-0101 Phone: 937.229.3268 Fax: 937.229.2888 Editor/Designer: Pamela Gregg [email protected] Proofreaders: Mary Ann Dodaro Karen Furcon Sheila Liskany Diana Muhlenkamp Julia Phelps Stefanie Rich Angi Webendorfer

Patent awarded by Pamela Gregg

Two Dayton researchers have been awarded a patent for advanced battery technology that will aid the U.S. in its effort to wean from dependence on foreign oil. University of Dayton Research Institute engineer Binod Kumar and former UDRI researcher Stanley Rodrigues were issued Patent No. 6,986,970 for a colloidal electrolyte that will enable lithium batteries that are more powerful, less-costly and safer to humans and the environment than other traditional and lithium batteries. "The development and use of high-performance, lithium rechargeable batteries are an important part of President Bush's national initiative on independence from (cont. page 6)

U.S. Senator George Voinovich visited UD March 6 to discuss the Protecting America's Competitive Edge Act of 2006, legislation designed to improve America's global competitiveness by facilitating advancements in math and science education and attracting more American students to technology-related fields of study.

Looking back with Lloyd Huff

When Lloyd Huff began what would be a 26-year career at UDRI in 1974, he did not own a hand-held calculator. Faxing a one-page document to his optical engineering group in Albuquerque, NM, took at least five minutes, and documents were edited with a manual cut-and-paste method. "There was no such thing as word processing then," Lloyd said during a recent reminiscence about his days at the Research Institute. In celebration of UDRI's 50th anniversary Sept. 1, we're inviting retirees to share their favorite memories about working at UDRI. Following is an interview with Lloyd Huff, Ph.D., who was hired as a senior optical research engineer and, during the course of his (cont. page 4)

Congratulations to Sam Liu (left) and Don Lee, winners of the 2006 Wohlleben-Hochwalt award for outstanding research. See page 5 for more information on this year's UDRI award winners.

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RESEARCH LEADER

Blood donors

provided by Mary Ann Dodaro

Welcome aboard!

provided by Mary Ann Dodaro

Thank you to recent blood donors Jeff Fox, Stephen Karth, Frank Timko and Tom Whitney; retirees Ed Kuhl and Dave Maxwell, and Mary Moorman (wife of Doug Wolf) and Diana Timko (wife of Frank Timko). To schedule an appointment to donate blood, call the center at 4613450. And please remember to mention UDRI!

Calendar

provided by Diane Leach

Driver training

Wednesday, April 12 2 - 3 p.m. Kennedy Union room 331

Holidays

Easter Friday, April 14 (campus and base) Monday, April 17 (campus only)

In memoriam

George Roth, a University of Dayton Research Institute engineer who helped UDRI build an international reputation in impact physics and structural testing, died March 11 at Hospice of Dayton. George joined UDRI in 1954 and retired in 1998, after nearly 45 years with the Research Institute. While working as a research engineer in UDRI's Aerospace Mechanics division, George established the Institute's structural test laboratory and, in 1979, was named head of the newly formed Experimental and Applied Mechanics division. Following his career at UDRI, he helped establish Thermal Systems International in Xenia, a company specializing in high-efficiency refrigerators to transport vaccines to areas of the world that do not have reliable electricity.

Xiangmin Han joined the carbon materials group of the Nonmetallic Materials division Feb. 16 as a post-doctoral research scientist. He specializes in polymer and composite materials, polymer processing and foaming, and attended Ohio State University before coming to UDRI. P a t r i c k O'Brien joined the Research Institute Feb. 16 as a senior research engineer in the structures group of Aerospace Mechanics. He specializes in cargo aerial delivery engineering and systems engineering. Patrick is retired as a civil servant after 33 years at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base working on a variety of aircraft. His hobbies include woodworking and carving and home remodeling. Patrick is vice president of the American Czechoslovakian Club. Christopher Klingshirn joined the fuels engineering group in Energy and

Environmental Engineering March 1 as an associate research engineer. He specializes in chemistry and instrumentation, and he worked as a research chemist and engineer at UES Inc. of Dayton stationed at WPAFB before joining the Research Institute. When not at work, Christopher enjoys golfing and riding his motorcycle. Yu h c h a e Yoon joined the materials degradation and electrochemical engineering group in M a t e r i a l s Engineering March 1 as a research scientist. He specializes in electrochemistry, corrosion and metallurgy. Before coming to UDRI, Yuhchae worked as a post-doctoral research associate in the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering at North Dakota State University. He received his doctoral degree from OSU in 2004. Yuhchae's hobbies include basketball and tennis.

Heating up thermal protection research

UDRI has been awarded nearly $10 million from the Air Force Research Laboratory to develop advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) for reusable space access and hypersonic vehicles. The work dovetails with one of UDRI's current research focus areas ­ the development of technologies that will faciliate high-speed access to space, such as space vehicles with aircraft-like ability to quickly take off and be ready for re-use, systems that will actively monitor a vehicle's structural integrity, and improved and lighterweight thermal-protection materials. "These new TPS systems go a long way towards enabling hypersonic flight vehicles that require far less maintenance and have lower mission costs than existing systems, such as the space shuttle," said Tim Fry, who is serving as the principal investigator on the work. "UDRI has been working with AFRL for some time on these technologies, and the current contract is a significant strengthening of the commitment to these reusable TPS technologies."

MARCH 2006

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New contracts

by Julia Phelps

Happy anniversary!

provided by Stefanie Rich

Computer tips

by Valerie Quinn

The Research Institute received almost $8 million in contracts in January. A few of these projects are highlighted here. UDRI received more than $3.9 million under a new $24.9 million taskorder contract from the Air Force Research Laboratory to develop materials for electronic and optical applications. Advances made in the program are expected to lead to improved materials and devices for digital, microwave, infrared detector, opto-electronic, nonlinear optical, power generation and control applications. The range of materials to be investigated includes bulk compound semiconductor materials, epitaxially engineered semiconductor materials, optical materials, and hightemperature superconducting materials. Frank Szmulowicz (Metals and Ceramics) serves as the program manager for the basic contract and principal investigator for the first task order. A new delivery order for characterizing polymer and polymer-nanomaterial hybrids worth nearly $2 million was recently placed on UDRI's on-site support contract for AFRL/MLBC. The contract, awarded in August 2005 and entitled Aerospace Organic Matrix Composite Materials, is a five-year followon to provide research services for AFRL/MLBC (Structural Composites Branch) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Research thrusts include hightemperature polymeric composites; nanomaterials processing, characterization, and analysis; durability of composites; mechanics of 3D-reinforced materials; carbon foam; and carbon-carbon materials. The five-year ceiling on the program is $20 million. Tom Whitney and Allan Crasto (Nonmetallic Materials) serve as the PI and PI, respectively. The mercury released when coal is burned for electricity generation is a highly toxic air pollutant and thus is a significant environmental issue for the industry. With $204,673 from the Department of Energy, UDRI will study how the mercury changes its chemical

Jeff Fox Steven Smith Mary Papp Linda Young Ronald Trejo Peter John Gerald Landis Vicki Hellmund Robert King Gregory Hartman Marylea Barlow David Kancler Kenneth Binns Don Klosterman Shamachary Sathish David Gasper Ashil Higgins Paul Childers Elmo Blubaugh Taaro Mandre Tim Fry Timothy Klopfenstein Roger Carr Amanda Schrand Lanchao Lin Jai-Woh Kim

32 30 20 20 19 18 18 17 15 14 14 13 11 11 10 6 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

form under a variety of conditions, to include variations in temperature and oxygen, chlorine, and water vapor concentrations. By better understanding these changes, the energy industry can better determine how to capture and remove it from the waste stream. Sukh Sidhu (Energy and Environmental Engineering) is the PI for this work, which is complemented by ongoing research funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office.

Saving a PowerPoint Slide Object as a Picture Have you ever received an electronic PowerPoint presentation and seen a great photo, graphic, or other object that you thought would be useful in a future presentation or document? You can save a snapshot of any object contained in a slide ­ a picture, an AutoShape object, a diagram, a chart or a placeholder and its text ­ as a graphics file. Once you save the object, you have the option to edit the graphics file (with an appropriate graphics editing program), insert it in another program (such as a Word document), display it in a Web page, or even insert it into another PowerPoint slide as an imported picture: 1. Right-click the object then, on the menu that pops up, click Save As Picture. Note: you can also highlight several objects at one time by holding the Shift key as you click on each object. These will be saved as a single graphic. 2. In the Save As Picture dialog box, type a name for the picture in the File name box. In the Save in dropdown menu, specify the folder you want to store the picture in. Then select the type of file you want to save the picture as in the Save as type dropdown menu (jpg, tif, bmp, etc.). Your photo is now saved for future use. Automatic date and time stamping in Excel submitted by Ed Strader To automatically insert the date into an Excel spreadsheet cell or formula bar, simply press the control key and, while holding it down, press the semicolon key (Ctrl + ;). The current date will appear. This is useful for completing UDRI's online purchase request form. Pressing the control and colon keys (Ctrl + :) will automatically enter the current time. This is useful for entering a timestamp in a data file.

Daylight Saving Time April 2 Spring ahead!

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RESEARCH LEADER

Huff from page 1

career, promoted to head of the optical engineering group, head of the Applied Physics division, associate director for special projects, associate director for technology commercialization, and associate director for technology partnerships. Q: How would you sum up your time at the Research Institute? A: UDRI provided me an opportunity to pursue my professional interests while working with an outstanding group of highly talented and dedicated people. Relationships with people always stand out in any experience, and it is this element of my tenure with UDRI that holds the most meaning for me. I enjoyed all of my roles at UDRI, from my work as a research engineer and then research manager, to the leadership of the University's technology transfer program. The transfer of technology from the laboratory to the commercial marketplace has always held a fascination for me, and I feel fortunate to have been involved in the formation of the technology transfer program at UDRI. Q: What are your favorite memories? A: Sharing pizza with (former University President) Brother Ray Fitz in a motel room in Albuquerque during a visit with our group there, traveling with (colleagues) George Noland and Richard Glennon to promote our technology, working on proposals late into the night, our research projects in holography, and all the wonderful professional relationships I established in the optics community that resulted from this work. And, oh yes, all the wonderful hours I spent on the handball courts at the PAC! One other thing: I have always been rather proud of the role the optical engineering group played in the formation of the electro-optics program at UD. The scale and quality of our research programs and laboratory facilities in this area were an important contributing factor in this initiative. Q: Other than the advent of modern technical luxuries (high-speed computer systems, fax, e-mail, etc.),

NEST lab in full swing by Tom Wittberg

The University of Dayton NEST (Nanoscale Engineering Science and Technology) Laboratory was established in 2004 with funding from the University of Dayton, the Wright Brothers Institute, and Ohio's Third Frontier program. It is a multi-user facility equipped with state of the art analytical equipment that enables cutting-edge research and development through the interrogation, characterization, manipulation and fabrication of materials and devices at the nanoscale (a nanometer equals one-billionth of one meter). These capabilities have been used extensively in ongoing research at UD, primarily in the fields of materials, biology and electro-optics. Currently, there are more than 40 UD faculty, UDRI researchers, and scientists from local companies who utilize one or more of the instruments in the NEST lab, and this number is increasing. The mission of the lab is to enable and promote collaborative sponsored research, provide technical support to various R&D programs, facilitate the teaching of laboratory classes related to nanotechnology, and serve as a resource to industry to facilitate nanotechnology transition and commercialization. The major characterization equipment in the NEST lab includes a (cont. page 5) transmission electron

Attention UDRI Retirees!

In conjunction with UDRI's 50th anniversary, we would like to hear from those who have helped make the Research Institute a leader in research performance, innovation and education. If you retired from UDRI, you are invited to share your memories and what significant changes did you observe over the years? A: All the new buildings and the improvements to the University physical campus. From my perspective, of course, one of the greatest changes in the University research community at large was the increased interest in intellectual property and the growth of formal technology transfer programs at almost all research universities. Q: How do you spend your days now? A: As so many retirees have said, "I really don't know how I ever found time to work!" Every day is full and there is no lack of activity. (Wife) Merilace and I spend a fair amount of time on the usual things like travel, visiting the kids, and home projects. One project I completed recently was to set up a digital 35mm slide copying apparatus so that I could convert our slides to digital images ­ we don't have to drag out the slide projecbring your former colleagues and fellow retirees up to date on what you are doing now. Please contact Pamela Gregg at [email protected] or by phone at (937) 229-3268 for more information on how to share your memories in an upcoming Research Leader. tor now to look at all of our old photos. I have a small business, too, called Cameo Thermal Systems, LLC that requires a considerable amount of attention. Cameo sells the phase change material/silica powder product under license from the University. I have the material manufactured and shipped directly to the customer. Now that I am retired, I have time to pursue one of my long-held interests, the study of special topics in physics, including cosmology, relativity theory, and quantum mechanics. I find these subjects fascinating and I really enjoy learning more about what makes the universe work the way it does through the study of these topics. Many of the concepts involved, such as space-time dynamics and quantum uncertainty, are counter-intuitive in the extreme and are difficult to grasp, but the weirder the effect, the more interesting it is to explore.

MARCH 2006

PAGE 5

Nest from page 4

microscope (TEM), a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM), and an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The TEM, with an ultimate resolution of 0.2 nanometers, can see individual atomic planes in thin samples. The HRSEM can be used to analyze virtually any nonvolatile solid at an ultimate resolution of 1 nanometer. The ESEM can be operated with air or water vapor in the sample chamber while maintaining a high vacuum on the electron gun, allowing the analysis of wet or non-conductive samples. The nanocharacterization facility also features an ultramicrotome, X-ray diffractometer, surface profilometer, an atomic force microscope, inverse gas chromatography, and BET surface area measurement. An ion mill for TEM sample preparation, a confocal microscope, and a microRaman spectrometer will be added shortly. The staff at the NEST laboratory includes Scott Streiker, responsible for electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) analysis and training new users on NEST equipment, and Rachel Smith, whose expertise includes various scanning probe microscopy techniques. Tom Wittberg is the NEST lab manager and Allan Crasto is the interim NEST lab director. For a tour of the lab, call 229-5776.

Congratulations award winners! by Pamela Gregg

Researchers Shiqiang (Sam) Liu and Don Lee, who have been drawing international attention for recent breakthroughs in permanent magnet technology, have been named winners of the 2005-2006 Wohlleben-Hochwalt Outstanding Professional Research Award. Sam, a distinguished research engineer and leader of the magnetic materials group in UDRI's Metals and Ceramics division, and Don, a senior materials scientist in the same group, will be recognized April 13 at the Research Institute's annual awards banquet along with James Shardo (Energy and Environmental Engineering), winner of the 2005 Outstanding Technician Award, and Marla McCleskey (Structural Integrity), winner of the 2005 Outstanding Support Person award. Sam and Don's work will have significant impact on the permanent magnet industry, which has become a multibillion dollar business in recent years. That market is expected to more than double within the next eight years as hybrid vehicles ­ which contain a significantly higher proportion of magnetic materials than traditional cars ­ grow in popularity. "Permanent magnet materials play critical roles in countless commercial and military applications, such as computer, automobile, communication, medicalimaging, power and navigation systems," Sam said. "Most people are unaware of how prevalent magnets are in their everyday lives. For instance, every automobile uses 40 to 60 magnets, while the average American household uses 50 to 200 magnets. Creating a better magnet means creating a smaller, lighter and better electromagnetic device." Sam and Don drew media and peer attention in 2003 when they developed a new type of rare-earth permanent magnet whose potential power level exceeded that of any magnet of its kind in the world, and Sam presented their findings at the International Magnetics Conference in Boston a short time later. Their magnets included materials at the nanoscale (one nanometer equals one-billionth of one meter), and the breakthrough was significant because researchers around the world had not been able to successfully synthesize this type of bulk, textured nanocomposite magnet, which scientists believed would have not only great magnetic strength, but would be lightweight and highly durable as well. Working with other researchers in UDRI's magnetics lab, the pair found a way to align nanometersized particles of magnetic materials ­ overcoming one of the biggest hurdles to creating a nanocomposite magnet in bulk form (previous nanocomposite magnetic materials came in only powders, ribbons or thin films) and that was "anisotropic," or textured, with grains aligned in one direction ­ facilitating the magnet's strength and durability. Since then, with the continued support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Air Force, the Office of Naval Research, the Army Research Office and the Department of Energy, Sam and Don have further refined their research, achieving everhigher magnetic energy levels at a pace that has exceeded even their own expectations ­ and that remain well ahead of nanocomposite permanent magnet energy levels reported around the world. In addition, efforts are underway to transition their technology to industry for commercial use. "Because of the many advantages of this new technology and the nanograin composite magnets developed at UDRI, such as high magnetic performance, low production cost, improved corrosion (cont. page 6)

Amanda Schrand shows Matt Pierson some of the equipment in the NEST lab.

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RESEARCH LEADER

Award winners from page 5

resistance, enhanced fracture toughness and improved thermal stability, it is highly anticipated that these magnets will have a significant impact on the magnet industry and our society," Sam said. Since 1981, 31 UDRI researchers have won the Wohlleben-Hochwalt award, which commemorates the late Brother William Wohlleben, S.M., founder of the University of Dayton's chemistry and chemical engineering departments, and late UD alumnus Ted Hochwalt, a successful researcher for General Motors and the Monsanto Chemical Co. James Shardo, chief research technician in the engineering services group in Energy and Environmental Engineering, was named Outstanding Technician for his work operating and maintaining the Advanced Reduced Scale Fuel System Simulator system at WrightPatterson Air Force Base, as well as his work in helping his group obtain management and support of the base system known as the S-Fuel Farm ­ a network of underground tanks, storage areas and dispersing functions critical to Air Force research in combustion, fuels and lubrication areas. Supervisor Ted Williams and nominator Gordon Dieterle credited James' exceptional work and reputation with the Air Force for helping secure additional contract funding. "Jim has always been an outstanding asset to UDRI, and this has been especially true in the last year," Ted wrote. "His effort was above and beyond his normal responsibilities. The paperwork involved with the safe operation of the (fuel farm) is staggering. Not only did Jim take this on voluntarily, he also streamlined a great portion of the current system by working with several government groups." Marla McCleskey, senior administrative assistant in Structural Integrity, was named Outstanding Support Person for her "dedicated support in administering the Pcard (a new company credit card process) for the Structural Integrity division," wrote colleague Gloria Hardy in her nomination of Marla. "Along with support provided beyond the scope of her current position, Marla was responsible for establishing and administering all processes of the Pcard, and her success with this card will pave the way for introducing it to other divisions in UDRI." Gloria said Marla gave tremendous effort and personal attention to the process of administering the card, although she had no previous experience with it. "Marla established a streamlined process for using the Pcard, and this process has minimized time and effort for the professional and administrative staff. The fact that this additional task was performed in a timely and meticulous manner, while performing other administrative responsibilities for the division, demonstrated Marla's professional attitude for excellence." "Marla's cheerful and likable personality is a significant contribution to a positive and productive working environment," Gloria added. Others nominated for awards this year were: Steve Patton (Nonmetallic Materials), Wohlleben-Hochwalt award, and John Buhrmaster (Materials Engineering) and Hung Nguyen (Research Computing), Outstanding Technician award. This year's Wohlleben-Hochwalt Award committee members were John Ruschau (chair), Dan Bowman, Wally Hoppe, Steve Zabarnick, Roger Wills and alternates Jay Johnson and Peggy Miedlar. The Outstanding Technician Award committee members were Bill Ragland (Chair), Dennis Davis, James Higgins, Victor McNier, Dan Knapke and Russell Lanter. The Outstanding Support Person Award committee members were Rhonda Diehl (chair), Jerri Bond, Lou Cooper, Danita Nelson, Jacquelyn Hawkins and Jeanne Miller.

Patent from page 1

foreign energy sources," Kumar said. "Rechargeable lithium batteries have potential for use in a wide variety of applications, from small electronic devices, such as cell phones, to hybrid automobiles, aircraft and space vehicles." Because lithium is the lightest solid element and possesses the highest oxidation potential (critical to battery voltage), lithium batteries can be made lighter ­ yet with up to five times more power ­ than traditional batteries. Lithium batteries also have a high energy density, meaning a higher percentage of their weight can be used to store a charge than other battery types, such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride (currently used in hybrid cars). Conversely, these traditional battery chemistries possess low power and energy densities, contain metals toxic to humans and the environment, and are expensive. These concerns have driven the research and development behind lithium batteries, Kumar said. Still, lithium batteries have not yet reached their application potential because of some drawbacks. "State-ofthe-art lithium batteries contain a liquid organic electrolyte that is flammable and can leak out when the battery freezes," Kumar said. "In addition, these batteries are difficult and costly to manufacture." While rechargeable lithium batteries have been used in smaller applications, such as personal electronic (cont. page 7)

Did you know?

Dayton is not only the birthplace of aviation, the cash register and the pop-top can, but also of modern rare-earth permanent magnets. Scientist Karl Strnat, who discovered the strong magnetic properties of a rare-earth cobalt compound in 1966 while working at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, joined the University of Dayton in 1968 and established the magnetics laboratory in UDRI. Strnat and researchers Alden Ray and Herbert Mildrum pioneered the research and development of the first and second generations of rare earth permanent magnets.

MARCH 2006

PAGE 7

At UDRI, student research is for the real world by Michelle Tedford, University Public Relations

Stressed? Strained? Under pressure and about to break? They may be normal conditions for an overworked college student, but unacceptable for an airplane wing. So the former ­ Jon Engelsman ­ designed a way to monitor the latter by studying the electrical characteristics of carbon-fiber nanocomposites. Jon had been doing reading ­ for fun ­ on smart materials. Why not apply the nanofibers he was using for the University of Dayton Research Institute in a strip on the wing? Connect alligator clips to each end, run electricity through it and measure the resistivity of the material ­ more stress equals greater resistance. The project was for a student wing design contest, but this and other work with UDRI was Jon's launching pad to real airplanes. The junior electrical and mechanical engineering major, one of many undergraduates engaged in research at UD, is now using both disciplines to model airplane generators for the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. "If I had the time and money, I'd like to major in most everything ­ except for the homework," said Jon, who is carrying a 20-hour course load to finish both majors in four and a half years. He also learned some chemical engineering by working in the polymer nanocomposites and composites group of UDRI as part of the inaugural class of engineering freshmen placed in research internships. As an assistant in a laboratory in the basement annex of Kettering Labs, he would take containers of powdery black carbon nanofibers, mix them with a polymer and pour it into a mold to create a composite. The nanofibers change the properties of ordinary materials, creating plastics with the strength of steel or that can dissipate heat. Jon created the composites for researcher Nick Gagliardi. Results from tests run on the composites were added to UDRI's warehouse of data, which it pulls from when creating products for clients. Exposing students to research early in their college career is essential in preparing the next generation of researchers. Malcolm Daniels, chair of the electrical and computer engineering department, said few young engineers start out considering professions beyond industry or public works. The problem is, students see research as busywork ­ something they were instructed to do in high school on most any subject ­ or as something that's done in faraway labs by a few brilliant scientists. "The interesting thing about UDRI is that it said to Jon from the word go, research is not something that comes later, research is something that starts now," Daniels said. Jon's wing project was an outgrowth of a UDRI smart materials program. In another project, he and Gagliardi coated a model bridge with a nanofiber composite material that conducted electricity. In the real world, that conductivity could help melt an icy road, Jon said. Daniels identified Jon early on as academically able and intellectually curious, necessary traits for a researcher. He recommended the student for the UDRI position, and then for the base job last summer, where the two are continuing to work together during the school year in preparation for more research this coming summer. As the airplane generator modeling progresses, Daniels is seeing Jon temper his curiosity with professional reality. "He's learning to continually question what he is doing," Daniels said, "questioning your own answers, criticizing your own work. And just because you got an answer doesn't mean it's the right one." Other lessons that come with research are persistence, willingness to accept a challenge, confidence to produce an answer and the ability to squeeze every last minute out of your day, Daniels said.

Patent from page 6

devices, scaling them up in size for larger applications ­ such as aircraft and electric vehicles ­ has raised safety and cost concerns, Kumar added. The colloidal electrolyte ­ a combination of liquid and submicroscopic ceramic particles ­ addresses these concerns and will facilitate the development of next-generation lithium batteries with improved performance and lower cost, he said. "This invention will increase the power rating, reduce the manufacture and sale price and extend the life of lithium batteries," he said. "It shows improved performance at low temperatures and suppresses the flammability of liquid electrolyte, thus enabling the manufacture and transportation of larger size batteries." Larger, safe and more efficient rechargeable batteries are critical to advancing hybrid gas-and-electric vehicles, which currently use nickelmetal hydride batteries. Better batteries will extend the distance hybrid vehicles can travel before switching from electric to fuel power, thus reducing the amount of fuel required for everyday travel. Discussing his Advanced Energy Initiative earlier this year, President Bush said the 2007 federal budget would includes $31 million in new research funding to support advanced battery research.

Jon Engelsman with a prototype jet engine casing, the final outcome of nanofiber sensor grid work he did for UDRI.

300 College Park Dayton OH 45469-0101 Phone: 937.229.3268 Fax: 937.229.2888 [email protected] www.udri.udayton.edu

the spirit of UDRI's 50th ? ? we'reIntemporarily replacing ouranniversary, regular brain teaser with a "trivia teaser." Each month's question will represent a different decade in UDRI history. In addition, the anniversary committee will award one $20 gift certificate each month to a trivia winner, selected by random drawing from all correct answers submitted by deadline. All Research Leader subscribers are eligible! (For a hint, e-mail [email protected], or call (937) 229-3268.) Good luck!

Anniversary Trivia 1: Although the University of Dayton Research Institute was formally organized in 1956, its roots date back to a contract awarded in 1949 to UD faculty and students to analyze flight-loads data for Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The contract included $10,000 for payroll, and an additional $200 for what kind of equipment?

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Anniversary Trivia!

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In the public eye

Thanks to the Dayton Daily News, WDTN and WHIO television stations for their coverage of Senator George Voinovich's visit to campus March 6. The DDN included a new $10 million contract to Aerospace Mechanics for space vehicle thermal protection research in its March 7 business briefs, and published a story on late UDRI researcher George Roth March 14. Superconductor Week included a story on a $25million-ceiling contract awarded to Metals and Ceramics for materials research in its March 7 issue. The Ohio Journal of Science featured a photo of aligned carbon nanotubes, created and photographed by Khalid Lafdi (Nonmetallic Materials), on the cover of its March issue.

Please submit your answer (along with your name and division) by April 14 to Pamela Gregg at [email protected] or in campus mail zip 0101. Answer to the February brain teaser:

Argentina, Hungary, Luxembourg

Thanks to Julie Kinarney (Accounting), Mike Bouchard, Michael Craft, Tim Fry and Jesse Walker (Aerospace Mechanics), Jessica Gaible and Jon Nieberding (Contracts and Grants), Karen Furcon, Diane Leach and Stefanie Rich (Human Resources), Charles Griffin, Karolyn Hansen, Denny Holthaus, Doug Hufnagle and Dick Tocci (Materials Engineering), Cheryl Castro, Alex Morgan and Rachel Smith (Nonmetallic Materials), Susan Culbertson (RCSO), Mandy Brogdon (Structural Integrity), Rebecca Koesters (Subcontracts) Larrell Walters (Technology Partnerships), Julie Shelley (University Development Operations), and retirees Bob Artman (Human Resources), Ron Cornwell (Nonmetallic Materials), Gretchen Walther (Contracts and Grants), and Herbert Mildrum and wife Louise for submitting answers.

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