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Pcelarstvo

SADRZAJ

OD RECENZENATA .................................................................................. 1 UMESTO PREDGOVORA ........................................................................ 21 ZIVOT PCELA POREKLO I RASPROSTIRANJE PCELA ................................................ POLOZAJ PCELA U ZIVOTINJSKOM SVETU .................................... RASE PCELA ............................................................................................. Kranjska medonosna pcela .................................................................... Italijanska zuta medonosna pcela .......................................................... Kavkaska medonosna pcela ................................................................... Tamna medonosna pcela ....................................................................... Africka pcela .......................................................................................... PCELARSTVO U PROSLOSTI (DO POJAVE POKRETNOG RAMA) ....................................................... NAJZNACAJNIJA OTKRIA IZ ZIVOTA PCELA .................................. Prirodne mere u pcelinjem stanistu ........................................................ Polna pripadnost matice ......................................................................... Partenogeneza ........................................................................................ Sporazumevanje (,,govor") pcela ........................................................... PCELA U PRIRODNOM LANCU ISHRANE .......................................... KORISTI OD PCELA ................................................................................. Oprasivanje biljaka ................................................................................ Pcelinji proizvodi i ostale koristi ........................................................... PCELINJE DRUSTVO ............................................................................... Clanovi pcelinjeg drustva ...................................................................... Matica ................................................................................................. Trut ...................................................................................................... Pcela radilica ..................................................................................... Gnezdo pcelinjeg drustva ...................................................................... Osnovne bioloske osobine pcelinjeg drustva ......................................... Prirodna pcelinja hrana .......................................................................... PCELINJI PROIZVODI ............................................................................. 25 26 26 26 27 28 28 28 29 31 31 31 32 32 33 35 35 37 37 38 38 49 51 55 60 64 70

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Med ........................................................................................................ Polen (cvetni prah) ................................................................................. Maticni mlec .......................................................................................... Propolis .................................................................................................. Pcelinji vosak ......................................................................................... Pcelinji otrov .......................................................................................... PODELA RADA U PCELINJEM DRUSTVU .......................................... IZGRADNJA SAA ................................................................................... MEUSOBNO SPORAZUMEVANJE PCELA ........................................ ORIJENTACIJA PCELA .......................................................................... STANISTA PCELA ................................................................................... Prirodna stanista ................................................................................... Kosnice sa nepokretnim saem ............................................................ Kosnice sa pokretnim saem ............................................................... ZIVOT PCELINJEG DRUSTVA U PRIRODNOM STANISTU U TOKU GODINE .................................................................................... OPREMA ZA PCELARSTVO NAJZNACAJNIJI PRONALASCI KOJI OBELEZAVAJU PERIOD SAVREMENOG PCELARENJA ............................................... Pokretna satonosa ................................................................................ Pokretni ram ......................................................................................... Kosnica nastavljaca sa pokretnim ramovima ........................................ Dimilica ................................................................................................ Centrifuga za ceenje meda ................................................................. Satna osnova ......................................................................................... Maticna resetka ..................................................................................... Vestacke osnove maticnjaka i presaivanje larvica .............................. Aparat za presaivanje maticnih larvica bez dodirivanja .................... KOSNICE .................................................................................................. Kosnice sa nepokretnim saem ............................................................. Kosnice sa pokretnim saem ................................................................ Savremene kosnice koje su najzastupljenije u praksi .......................... Dadan-Blatova (DB) kosnica ............................................................ - DB kosnica sa 10 ramova ............................................................. Langstrot-Rutova (LR) kosnica ......................................................... - Kombinovana LR kosnica sa standardnim telima i polunastavcima .......................................................................... - Kombinovana LR-DB kosnica ..................................................... Fararova kosnica .............................................................................. Poloska kosnica ................................................................................. - Poloska kosnica sa polumedistem ................................................ - Paviljoni sa kosnicama poloskama ............................................. Alberti-Znidersiceva (AZ) kosnica ....................................................

70 70 70 71 71 71 72 77 80 82 85 85 86 89 91

107 107 107 110 112 112 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 116 116 124 125 128 129 130 133 135 136 137

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142 143 145 145 146 149 151 152 156 156 156 160 161 161 161 161 170 173 183 190 190 192 192 208 219 232 236 240 244 251 256 270 274 277 280 284 284 291 293 310 310 321

- AZ-Grom kosnica ......................................................................... - Ostale varijante AZ kosnice ......................................................... Kosnice koje se u praksi ree koriste ................................................... Kosnica Kongresovka ........................................................................ Alpska kosnica ................................................................................... Kosnica erzonka ............................................................................. Canderova kosnica ............................................................................ Kosnica kljestara ............................................................................... Kosnica Tamasko ............................................................................... Budue kosnice? ................................................................................... Rodna Voja ........................................................................................ Kosnica sa rotirajuim plodistem ..................................................... Kosnica Luzkova ............................................................................... IZRADA KOSNICA .................................................................................. Materijal za izradu kosnica.................................................................... Drvena graa za kosnice .................................................................. Nacin izrade kosnica ............................................................................ Alati za sklapanje kosnica ..................................................................... Alat za zakivanje ramova i razmaka .................................................... Kosnice od aluminijuma ................................................................... Kosnice od stiropora ........................................................................ RAZNE VARIJANTE DELOVA KOSNICA............................................. Podnjace ............................................................................................... Poklopna daska i krov .......................................................................... Ramovi za kosnice .............................................................................. Razmaci za ramove .............................................................................. Maticne resetke .................................................................................... Kavezi-izolatori za matice .................................................................... Oprema za odstranjivanje pcela sa ramova ......................................... Pregradne daske ................................................................................... Hranilice .............................................................................................. Nukleusi ............................................................................................... Kosnice za posmatranje pcela ............................................................. Prenosno sanduce ................................................................................. Rojnjace ............................................................................................... OPLODNJACI ZA MATICE .................................................................... Veliki oplodnjaci .................................................................................. Rosfusovi oplodnjaci ........................................................................... Mali oplodnjaci .................................................................................... Minimalni oplodnjaci ........................................................................... POSTOLJA ZA KOSNICE ........................................................................ OPREMA ZA UCVRSIVANJE, PRENOSENJE I UTOVAR-ISTOVAR KOSNICA ..............................................................

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PRIBOR ZA PRESAIVANJE LARVICA PRI UZGOJU MATICA ...... Igle za presaivanje larvica ................................................................. Aparati za presaivanje larvica ............................................................ Jenter aparat ..................................................................................... Nicot aparat ...................................................................................... Vestacke osnove maticnjaka ................................................................. Pribor za obelezavanje matica ............................................................. Kavezi za matice .................................................................................. Inkubator za izvoenje matica ............................................................ Aparat za vestacku oplodnju matica .................................................... OTPREMANJE KAVEZA SA MATICAMA POSTOM ......................... OPREMA ZA FORMIRANJE PAKETNIH ROJEVA ............................ Kutije za smestanje paketnih rojeva ................................................... Elektricni stresac pcela za formiranje paketnih rojeva ...................... KUTIJE ZA ISPORUKU ROJEVA NA RAMOVIMA ........................... PCELARSKE VAGE ................................................................................. OPREMA ZA TOPLJENJE VOSKA ........................................................ Solarni topionici voska ........................................................................ Parni sokovnik ..................................................................................... Parni topionici ..................................................................................... Prese za topljenje voska ...................................................................... Elektricni topionici za vosak ............................................................... OPREMA ZA IZRADU SATNIH OSNOVA ........................................... Rucna presa za izradu satnih osnova ................................................... Indusrijsko livenje satnih osnova ......................................................... Industrijska izrada hladno valjanih satnih osnova .............................. UGRAIVANJE SATNIH OSNOVA U RAMOVE ............................... ELEKTRICNO GREJANJE KOSNICA .................................................. OPREMA ZA PREGLEDANJE PCELA ................................................. Pcelarski nozevi ................................................................................... Pcelarske cetke ..................................................................................... Dimilice ............................................................................................... Pcelarska korpa .................................................................................... Zastitna (sivena) oprema ................................................................... Pokretne dizalice za pregledanje kosnica ............................................ POJILA ZA PCELE .................................................................................. OPREMA ZA IZRADU POGACA ZA ISHRANU PCELA ................... Rucna izrada pogaca ............................................................................ Pekarska mesalica za testo ................................................................... Specijalna mesalica za izradu pogaca ................................................. SKUPLJACI CVETNOG PRAHA ........................................................... Unutrasnji sakupljaci ...........................................................................

332 332 334 334 335 336 340 346 359 360 361 362 362 364 364 365 371 373 376 377 380 387 392 392 394 397 399 412 417 417 420 420 424 426 429 431 437 439 440 440 441 441

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441 445 446 446 449 450 452 453 453 456 459 462 462 464 467 469 471 473 475 478 479 480 481 485 490 497 497 502 502 505 507 509 514 516 517 518 520 521 522

Spoljni sakupljaci ................................................................................. Komora za susenje polena ................................................................... Alat za vaenje perge iz saa .............................................................. PRIBOR ZA SAKUPLJANJE PROPOLISA ........................................... PRIBOR ZA VAENJE MLECA ............................................................. UREAJ ZA SAKUPLJANJE PCELINJEG OTROVA ......................... Sakupljanje pcelinjeg otrova ............................................................... OPREMA ZA OTKLAPANJE SAA I ODLAGANJE OTKLOPLJENIH RAMOVA ........................................... Oprema za rucno otklapanje saa ....................................................... Oprema za masinsko otklapanje saa .................................................. Odlaganje otklopljenih ramova ........................................................... OPREMA ZA CEENJE MEDA ............................................................. Vertikalne centrifuge ............................................................................ Tetivne (hordijalne) centrifuge ............................................................ Radijalne centrifuge ............................................................................. Horizontalna centrifuga. ...................................................................... Oprema za prihvatanje, pretakanje i skladistenje oceenog meda .................................................................................... Linije za otklapanje saa i ceenje meda ............................................. OPREMA ZA DEKRISTALIZACIJU MEDA. ........................................ Komore za dekristalizaciju meda ........................................................ Samopotapajui elektricni dekristalizatori ........................................... Duplikatori ........................................................................................... OPREMA ZA PAKOVANJE MEDA ....................................................... OSTALA SREDSTVA I OPREMA .......................................................... PCELARSKI OBJEKTI ............................................................................ TEHNIKA PCELARENJA FORMIRANJE PCELINJAKA ................................................................ Izbor mesta za pcelinjak ..................................................................... Vrste pcelinjaka ................................................................................. Stacionarni pcelinjaci ....................................................................... Pokretni pcelinjaci ............................................................................ Gradski pcelinjaci ............................................................................ Ureenje terena za smestaj pcelinjaka ................................................ Izbor tipa kosnice i vrste pcelinjaka ................................................... Broj kosnica na jednom pcelinjaku .................................................... Raspored kosnica na pcelinjaku ......................................................... Sa koliko pcelinjih drustava kada i kako zapoceti pcelarenje ........... Nega i razvoj rojeva ............................................................................ OSNOVNI PCELARSKI RADOVI U TOKU SEZONE ........................ Izimljavanje pcelinjih drustava ...........................................................

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Zimska prihrana pcelinjih drustava ................................................. Brzi zimski pregled ........................................................................... Prvi detaljni proleni pregled pcelinjih drustava ................................ Saniranje nedostataka uocenih pri prvom prolenom pregledu .......... Saniranje bezmatka .......................................................................... Saniranje bezmataka koji ima leglo i maticnjake ............................ Saniranje drustva sa laznim maticama ............................................ Saniranje drustva sa losom maticom ............................................... Saniranje drustva sa maticom trutusom ........................................... Znacaj pretapanja i zamene starog saa ............................................... Proleni razvoj pcelinjih drustava i priprema za glavne pase ............. Podsticajno prihranjivanje seernim sirupom ................................. Proleno iscezavanje pcela .............................................................. Prosirivanje plodisnog prostora ...................................................... Ram graevnjak ............................................................................... Predvajanje pcelinjih drustava u DB-kosnicama na proizvodna i pomona ................................................................. Rad sa pomonim drustvima ............................................................ Rad sa proizvodnim drustvima ........................................................ Karakteristike ranih izdasnijih pasa ............................................... Blokada plodisnog prostora polenom .............................................. Sakupljanje cvetnog praha .............................................................. Korisenje medisnih tela .................................................................. Korisenje sirokih medisnih ramova ............................................... O PRIRODNOM ROJENJU .................................................................... Uzroci pojave nagona za rojenje ........................................................ Mere protiv pojave nagona za rojenje ................................................ O kvalitetu matica iz rojevog nagona ................................................. Postupak sa drustvom u kome se pojavio rojevi nagon ..................... ,,Zbrinjavanje" prirodnih rojeva .......................................................... ZASTITA PCELINJIH DRUSTAVA U PRIRODNIM STANISTIMA .... VREME MEDOBERA (KORISENJE DOBRIH PCELINJIH PASA) .................................................................................. Bagremova pasa .................................................................................. Izbor podrucja za seobu kosnica ...................................................... Karakteristike bagremove pase ....................................................... Analiza mogunosti korisenja tri bagremove pase ........................ Seoba kosnica ................................................................................... Korisenje bagremovih pasa............................................................. Ceenje meda ...................................................................................... Pakovanje saa u medu ................................................................... Med u sau ....................................................................................... Voe u medu .....................................................................................

522 534 536 544 544 545 545 547 547 547 549 549 550 551 554 556 559 561 562 565 566 567 570 572 572 574 577 577 581 590 591 592 592 594 597 600 604 608 609 610 611

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612 613 614 616 617 624 625 626 628 633 634 635 636 638 641 643 644 647 647 648 649 650 651 656 658 659 660 662 663 666 667 676 678 679 680 680 681 681 682 682

Zalfijina pasa ....................................................................................... Pasa pitomog kestena .......................................................................... Korisenje livadske pase ..................................................................... Lipova pasa ......................................................................................... Suncokretova pasa ............................................................................... Vrijeskova pasa ................................................................................... Cetinarska pasa ................................................................................... Kako poboljsati pcelinju pasu ............................................................ Karakteristike znacajnijih medonosnih biljaka kojima mozemo poboljsati pcelinju pasu ........................................................ PRIPREME ZA ZAZIMLJAVANJE PCELINJIH DRUSTAVA .............. Zamena i dodavanje matica ................................................................. Cuvanje matica ................................................................................. Uslovi za uspesan prijem matica ..................................................... Metode dodavanja matica ................................................................ Grabez .................................................................................................. Svoenje kosnica na plodisni prostor ................................................. Koliko je hrane potrebno pcelinjim drustvima za prezimljavanje i rani proleni razvoj ............................................. Cuvanje ramova sa saem ................................................................... Predostroznosti pri tretmanu drustava protiv varoe ........................... ZAZIMLJAVANJE PCELINJIH DRUSTAVA ......................................... Utopljavanje kosnica ............................................................................ SPECIFICNOSTI PCELARENJA POJEDINIM TIPOVIMA KOSNICA ............................................................................. Pcelarenje LR kosnicama .................................................................... Pcelarenje Fararovim kosnicama ........................................................ Pcelarenje poloskama kosnicama ........................................................ Pcelarenje AZ kosnicama .................................................................... Pcelarenje alpskim kosnicama ............................................................ Pcelarenje kosnicama erzonkama ..................................................... Pcelarenje vrskarama ........................................................................... PCELARENJE SA DVE MATICE U JEDNOJ KOSNICI ...................... Dvomaticno pcelarenje ........................................................................ Dvojno pcelarenje ................................................................................ UZGOJ MATICA ...................................................................................... Korisenje prirodno izgraenih maticnjaka ........................................ Planski uzgoj matica ............................................................................ Uzgoj matica bez presaivanja larvica ............................................... Dobijanje prisilnih maticnjaka ......................................................... Dobijanje maticnjaka na podrezanom sau ...................................... Milerova metoda ............................................................................... Alejeva metoda .................................................................................

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Canderova metoda ........................................................................... Uzgoj matica presaivanjem larvica (opsti uslovi) ............................ Matica rodonacelnica ....................................................................... Trutovske zajednice .......................................................................... Selekcija pcela (matica rodonacelnica) ............................................ Kontrolisano sparivanje matica ....................................................... Kalendar i satnica aktivnosti pri uzgoju matica ............................. Uzgoj matica u vise turnusa ............................................................. Dobijanje maticnjaka i uzgoj matica presaivanjem larvica dodirivanjem ................................................... Odgajivacka drustva ........................................................................ Presaivanje larvica ........................................................................ Kontrola broja izraenih maticnjaka ............................................... Formiranje oplodnjaka .................................................................... Presaivanje maticnjaka .................................................................. Kontrola oplodnje i kvaliteta i oduzimanje matica iz oplodnjaka .... Dobijanje maticnjaka i uzgoj matica presaivanjem larvica bez dodirivanja ........................................................................ Rad sa Jenterovim aparatom ............................................................... Rad sa malim osmodelnim oplodnjacima ........................................... Formiranje malih oplodnjaka i dodavanje maticnjaka .................... Kontrola kvaliteta i oduzimanje matica ........................................... Zavrsetak rada sa malim oplodnjacima ........................................... Rad sa Nicot aparatom ........................................................................ Pripremanje hrane koja se stavlja u transportne kaveze .................... Dobijanje maticnog mleca .................................................................. Plansko formiranje rojeva ................................................................... Formiranje rojeva za sopstvene potrebe .......................................... Formiranje rojeva za trziste ............................................................. Formiranje paketnih rojeva .............................................................

683 683 683 685 686 686 688 690 691 692 697 700 702 703 705 707 707 715 1 723 24 726 730 731 733 733 736 739

O R G A N S K O P C E L A R E N J E ................................................ 743 BOLESTI PCELA Americka (zloudna) trulez ­ kuga pcelinjeg legla ............................. Evropska dobroudna trulez pcelinjeg legla ....................................... Krecno leglo ........................................................................................ Nozemoza (Nozema) ........................................................................... Varoza (Varoatoza) .............................................................................. Virusi ................................................................................................... Mala kosnicina buba ........................................................................... 745 747 748 749 750 753 754

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755 755 757 757 758 758 761 761 761 762 762 762 762 762 763 763 763 763 763 764 764 765 765 765 766 766 767 767 767

N E P R I J AT E L J I ( S T E T O C I N E ) P C E L A Insekti .................................................................................................. Vostani moljac .................................................................................. Mrtvacka glava ................................................................................ Bogomoljka obicna .......................................................................... Osa obicna ....................................................................................... Strsljen ............................................................................................. Crni mrav bastenski ........................................................................ Pauci .................................................................................................... Pauk krstas ....................................................................................... Osoliki pauk ..................................................................................... Pauci koji ne pletu mrezu ................................................................... Kicmenjaci ............................................................................................ Vodozemci .......................................................................................... - Zelena krastava zaba .................................................................... - Obicna krastava zaba ................................................................... Gmizavci ............................................................................................ - Zelemba ...................................................................................... - Sivi guster .................................................................................. Ptice ................................................................................................... - Pcelarica ...................................................................................... - Senica obicna ............................................................................... - Vrabac domai ............................................................................. - Lasta seoska ................................................................................. - Detli sareni ................................................................................. Sisari .................................................................................................. - Mis domai ................................................................................... - Rovcica obicna ............................................................................. - Mrki medved ................................................................................. C o v e k .............................................................................................

SVETSKO ORGANIZOVANJE PCELARA APIMONDIA ............................................................................................ 768 REGISTAR IMENA I POJMOVA ...................................................... 1 LITERATURA ........................................................................................ 9 O AUTORU .............................................................................................. 781 PRENUMERANTI ................................................................................. 783

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