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Cable Ladders

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Cable

Ladders

INTRODUCTION

Cable Ladder of SFSP is an economical wire management system designed to support and protect electrical wires and cables. Cable Ladder is permitted in a variety of indoor and outdoor applications. Cable ladder systems can provide significant advantages in cable fill over other wiring methods. This can provide savings in the size or number of raceways required thereby reducing both material and labor costs. Cable Ladder permits much greater spacing between support hangers than for most other systems, providing savings in support costs and labor installation. SFSP's Cable Ladder is available in a variety of finishes, and in varying width and load depth for many applications including primary service entrance, main power feeders, branch wiring, instrument and communications cable.

Quality Assurance

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Cable Ladders

Cable Ladders · Runs · Fittings - Bend 45º - Bend 90º - Tee Branch - Intersection - Vertical 90º Inside Riser - Vertical 90º Outside Riser - Central Reducer - Right Side Reducer - Left Side Reducer · Accessories · Cable Ladder Covers · General Information · Engineering Information · Materials & Finishes 8 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 6

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Materials

Mild Steel - Plain

A. Hot Rolled Steel Plates, Sheets and Coils S235JR, S355 JR, As per: EN 10025 -2 / DIN 17100 / BS 4360 / ASTM A 653M / ASTM A 1011/ ASTM A 1011-01a JIS 3101 / JIS 3106 / GB 700 / GB / T1591. ASTM A 907 / ASTM A 1018M. ASTM A570M / ASTM A572M. B. Cold Rolled Steel DC 01, As per: EN 10130 / DIN 1623, Part 2 / BS 1449:1 / ASTM A366 / ASTM A 1008 / JIS G 3141 / GB 699. EN 10131 / ASTM A568M

Cable Ladders

Mild Steel - Galvanized

C. Continuously Pre- Galvanized Hot­Dip Zinc Coated Steel DX 51D + Z,

As per: EN 10327 / DIN 17162 / BS 2989/ ASTM A 527M / ASTM A 653M / JIS G 3302. EN 10326/ EN 10142 / ASTM A 526, 527, 528/ ASTM A146

D. Electro Galvanized Steel (Electrolytic Coating) DC01 + ZE,

As per: EN 10152 / DIN 17163 / ASTM A591 / JIS G 3313 / JIS G 3141/BS 1449:1 EN 10131

AluZink Steel

E.AluZink Steel DX 51D + AZ,

As per: EN 10215 / EN 10143/ DIN 55928 / ASTM A 792

Stainless Steel

F.Austenitic Stainless Steels AISI 304 & 316, As per: ASTM A 240 /EN 10088-2/ DIN 17400 / BS 1449:2 / ASTM A480 / ASTM A666 / ISO 3506 / EN 10028-7 /JIS G 4304 F.1 Stainless Steel Fasteners EN 3506 F.2 Stainless Steel Wire BS 1554 ,ASTM A276

Aluminium

G.Aluminium 5052 & 6063

Finishes

1- Hot­DIP Galvanization After Fabrication, As per: ASTM A 123 / ASTM A 153 / ISO 1461. BS 729 / DIN 50976 2- Zinc Electroplating after fabrication, As per: ASTM B633 / EN 12329 / ISO 4042/ BS 1706 / BS 3382 / DIN 50961 3- Powder Coating Epoxy / Polyester / Epoxy & Polyester BS 3900 / ISO 2409 / ISO 1519 / ISO 1520

For more details see pages at the end of the catalogue

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Cable Ladders

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Cable Ladders

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Cable Ladders

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Cable ladder consists of two longitudinal side rails connected by rungs. SFSP`s ladder designs are very popular due to their versatility and lower costs. They also provide: maximum ventilation for conductor cooling, smooth edges on side rails and rungs to protect cables, and slots for easy cable fastening when required. Various rung spacings are available to provide support for most cables, from small flexible cables to the most rigid interlocked armor power cable. Rungs are of two types: plain and slotted, and can be mounted upwards or downwards (see drawing on page 4). The 30 cm rung spacing is the most popular since it provides support for the widest range of cable sizes.

Cable

Ladders

HCL Cable Ladders

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Lengths: 2440 / 3000 mm

Width

100 150 200 300 400 450

HCL - Z

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLZ 1010 075 100 4 HCLC 1110 075 100 4 HCLR 1210 075 100 4 HCLZ 1010 075 150 4 HCLC 1110 075 150 4 HCLR 1210 075 150 4 HCLZ 1010 075 200 4 HCLC 1110 075 200 4 HCLR 1210 075 200 4 HCLZ 1010 075 300 4 HCLC 1110 075 300 4 HCLR 1210 075 300 4 HCLZ 1010 075 400 4 HCLC 1110 075 400 4 HCLR 1210 075 400 4 HCLZ 1010 075 450 4 HCLC 1110 075 450 4 HCLR 1210 075 450 4

Z - Type

* Heavy Duty Cable Ladder

VCL Cable Ladders

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Lengths: 2440 / 3000 mm

Width

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

VCL - Z

VCLZ 1010 075 500 5 VCLZ 1010 075 600 5 VCLZ 1010 075 700 5 VCLZ 1010 075 800 5 VCLZ 1010 075 900 5

VCL - C

VCL - R

C - Type

VCLC 1110 075 500 5 VCLR 1210 075 500 5 VCLC 1110 075 600 5 VCLR 1210 075 600 5 VCLC 1110 075 700 5 VCLR 1210 075 700 5 VCLC 1110 075 800 5 VCLR 1210 075 800 5 VCLC 1110 075 900 5 VCLR 1210 075 900 5

VCLZ 1010 075 1000 5 VCLC 1110 075 1000 5 VCLR 1210 075 1000 5 VCLZ 1010 075 1100 5 VCLC 1110 075 1100 5 VCLR 1210 075 1100 5 VCLZ 1010 075 1200 5 VCLC 1110 075 1200 5 VCLR 1210 075 1200 5

* Very Heavy Duty Cable Ladder

R - Type

Features · Rounded siderail flanges protect cables. · All designs permit easy cable dropout with no sharp edges to damage insulation. · Slotted rungs allow simple cable fastening.(only upon request ) · High strength splices allow random locations between supports (full sections used on all simple beams). · Standard straight section length is 3.0 m. · Complete line of fittings and accessories.

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Cable Ladders

Ladders

Rung Type and Dimensions

Rung Thicknesses: 1.5mm - 2.0 mm Dimensions: w = 41 mm h = 21 mm

Cable

h w

50 mm Downwards 13 x 30 mm Upwards (slots only upon request )

Side Rails Cable Ladder Length and Rung Spacing

h

Height of rail h = 75 mm, 100 mm, (50 mm upon request )

300 mm

20 mm

Side Rail's End Holes

8.5 x 16 mm

h= 75, 100 mm

3000 mm 8.5 x 16 mm

h= 50mm

Ladder Side Rails Types

20 20

Z-Type Top outside Bottom inside

C-Type outside

Inside return flange

20

20

20

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Cable Ladders

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C A B L E L A D D E R FITTINGS

Cable ladder fittings are those components which provide for changes in direction or elevation of the cable ladder system. SFSP fittings are available in bending radii of 450 mm to accommodate a wide range of cable sizes and types. The horizontal and vertical elbows are available in 45, and 90 degrees of arc. All illustrations shown herein depict our standard ladder rung. The rung spacing of ladder fittings is generally maintained at the fitting centerline. Cable ladder fittings are usually manufactured in two types; cornered and curved. For a specific type, please mention at the end of the reference code the letters (S) for cornered and (C) for curved.

Cable

FITTINGS

Ladders

Bend 45º

Bend 45º 2010 Z - Type

Bend 45º Curved Z - Type

HCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm radius r = 450 mm Width

100 150 200 300 400 450

HCL - Z

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLZ 2010 075 100 4 HCLC 2110 075 100 4 HCLR 2210 075 100 4 HCLZ 2010 075 150 4 HCLC 2110 075 150 4 HCLR 2210 075 150 4 HCLZ 2010 075 200 4 HCLC 2110 075 200 4 HCLR 2210 075 200 4 HCLZ 2010 075 300 4 HCLC 2110 075 300 4 HCLR 2210 075 300 4 HCLZ 2010 075 400 4 HCLC 2110 075 400 4 HCLR 2210 075 400 4 HCLZ 2010 075 450 4 HCLC 2110 075 450 4 HCLR 2210 075 450 4

Bend 45º 2110 C - Type

radius r = 450 mm

VCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width

500 600 700 800 900

Bend 45º 2210 R - Type

VCL - Z

VCLZ 2010 075 500 5 VCLZ 2010 075 600 5 VCLZ 2010 075 700 5 VCLZ 2010 075 800 5 VCLZ 2010 075 900 5 VCLZ 2010 075 1000 5 VCLZ 2010 075 1100 5 VCLZ 2010 075 1200 5

VCL - C

VCLC 2110 075 600 5 VCLC 2110 075 700 5 VCLC 2110 075 800 5 VCLC 2110 075 900 5

VCL - R

VCLR 2210 075 600 5 VCLR 2210 075 700 5 VCLR 2210 075 800 5 VCLR 2210 075 900 5

VCLC 2110 075 500 5 VCLR 2210 075 500 5

radius r = 450 mm

1000 1100

1200

VCLC 2110 075 1000 5 VCLR 2210 075 1000 5 VCLC 2110 075 1100 5 VCLR 2210 075 1100 5 VCLC 2110 075 1200 5 VCLR 2210 0751200 5

Bend 90º

Bend 90º 2310 Z - Type

HCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width

100 150 200 300 400 450

HCL - Z

HCL - C

HCL - C

HCLZ 2310 075 100 4 HCLC 2410 075 100 4 HCLC 2510 075 100 4 HCLZ 2310 075 150 4 HCLC 2410 075 150 4 HCLC 2510 075150 4 HCLZ 2310 075 200 4 HCLC 2410 075 200 4 HCLC 2510 075 200 4 HCLZ 2310 075 300 4 HCLC 2410 075 300 4 HCLC 2510 075 300 4 HCLZ 2310 075 400 4 HCLC 2410 075 400 4 HCLC 2510 075 400 4 HCLZ 2310 075 450 4 HCLC 2410 075 450 4 HCLC 2510 075 450 4

radius r = 450 mm

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VCL

Cable

Ladders

Bend 90º 2410 C - Type

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width

500 600 700

Cable Ladders

VCL - Z

VCLZ 2310 075 500 5 VCLZ 2310 075 600 5 VCLZ 2310 075 700 5 VCLZ 2310 075 800 5 VCLZ 2310 075 900 5

VCL - C

VCLC 2410 075 500 5 VCLC 2410 075 600 5 VCLC 2410 075 700 5 VCLC 2410 075 800 5

VCL - R

VCLR 2510 075 500 5 VCLR 2510 075 600 5 VCLR 2510 075 700 5 VCLR 2510 075 800 5

radius r = 450 mm Bend 90º 2510 R - Type

800 900 1000 1100 1200

VCLC 2410 075 900 5 VCLR 2510 075 900 5

VCLZ 2310 075 1000 5 VCLC 2410 075 1000 5 VCLR 2510 075 1000 5 VCLZ 2310 075 1100 5 VCLC 2410 075 1100 5 VCLR 2510 075 1100 5 VCLZ 2310 075 1200 5 VCLC 2410 075 1200 5 VCLR 2510 075 1200 5

radius r = 450 mm

Bend 90º Curved Z -Type

Tee Branch

Tee Branch 2610 Z - Type

HCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width

100 150 200 300 400 450

HCL - Z

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLZ 2610 075 100 4 HCLC 2710 075 100 4 HCLR 2810 075 100 4 HCLZ 2610 075 150 4 HCLC 2710 075 150 4 HCLR 2810 075 150 4 HCLZ 2610 075 200 4 HCLC 2710 075 200 4 HCLR 2810 075 200 4 HCLZ 2610 075 300 4 HCLC 2710 075 300 4 HCLR 2810 075 300 4 HCLZ 2610 075 400 4 HCLC 2710 075 400 4 HCLR 2810 075 400 4 HCLZ 2610 075 450 4 HCLC 2710 075 450 4 HCLR 2810 075 450 4

radius r = 450 mm

VCL

Tee Branch 2710 C - Type Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width

500 600 700

VCL - Z

VCL - C

VCL - R

VCLR 2810 075 500 5 VCLR 2810 075 600 5 VCLR 2810 075 700 5 VCLR 2810 075 800 5 VCLR 2810 075 900 5 VCLR 2810 075 1000 5 VCLR 2810 075 1100 5

VCLZ 2610 075 500 5 VCLC 2710 075 500 5 VCLZ 2610 075 600 5 VCLC 2710 075 600 5 VCLZ 2610 075 700 5 VCLZ 2610 075 800 5 VCLZ 2610 075 900 5 VCLZ 2610 075 1000 5 VCLZ 2610 075 1100 5 VCLC 2710 075 700 5 VCLC 2710 075 800 5 VCLC 2710 075 900 5 VCLC 2710 075 1000 5 VCLC 2710 075 1100 5

radius r = 450 mm Tee Branch 2810 R -Type

800 900 1000 1100 1200

VCLZ 2610 075 1200 5 VCLC 2710 075 1200 5 VCLR 2810 075 1200 5

Tee Branch Curved Z-Type

radius r = 450 mm

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Cable Ladders

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Intersection

Intersection 2910 Z - Type

HCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width

100 150 200 300 400 450

Cable

HCL - C

Ladders

HCL - Z

HCL - R

HCLZ 2910 075 150 4 HCLC 3010 075 100 4 HCLR 3110 075 100 4 HCLZ 2910 075 200 4 HCLC 3010 075 150 4 HCLR 3110 075 150 4 HCLZ 2910 075 300 4 HCLC 3010 075 200 4 HCLR 3110 075 200 4 HCLZ 2910 075 400 4 HCLC 3010 075 300 4 HCLR 3110 075 300 4 HCLZ 2910 075 500 4 HCLC 3010 075 400 4 HCLR 3110 075 400 4 HCLZ 2910 075 600 4 HCLC 3010 075 450 4 HCLR 3110 075 450 4

radius r = 450 mm Intersection 3010 C - Type

VCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

VCL - Z

VCLZ 2910 075 500 5 VCLZ 2910 075 600 5 VCLZ 2910 075 700 5 VCLZ 2910 075 800 5 VCLZ 2910 075 900 5

VCL - C

VCLC 3010 075 600 5 VCLC 3010 075 700 5 VCLC 3010 075 800 5 VCLC 3010 075 900 5

VCL - R

VCLR 3110 075 600 5 VCLR 3110 075 700 5 VCLR 3110 075 800 5 VCLR 3110 075 900 5

VCLC 3010 075 500 5 VCLR 3110 075 500 5

VCLZ 2910 075 1000 5 VCLC 3010 075 1000 5 VCLR 3110 075 1000 5 VCLZ 2910 0751100 5 VCLC 3010 075 1100 5 VCLR 3110 075 1100 5

radius r = 450 mm Intersection 3110 R - Type

1200 VCLZ 2910 075 1200 5 VCLC 3010 075 1200 5 VCLR 3110 075 1200 5

Intersection Curved Z - Type

radius r = 450 mm

Vertical 90º Risers

HCL

Vertical 90º Inside Riser 3210 Z - Type radius r = 450 mm Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width

100 150 200 300 400 450

HCL - Z

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLZ 3210 075 100 4 HCLC 3310 075 100 4 HCLR 3410 075 100 4 HCLZ 3210 075 150 4 HCLC 3310 075 150 4 HCLR 3410 075 150 4 HCLZ 3210 075 200 4 HCLC 3310 075 200 4 HCLR 3410 075 200 4 HCLZ 3210 075 300 4 HCLC 3310 075 300 4 HCLR 3410 075 300 4 HCLZ 3210 075 400 4 HCLC 3310 075 400 4 HCLR 3410 075 400 4 HCLZ 3210 075 450 4 HCLC 3310 075 450 4 HCLR 3410 075 450 4

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VCL

Cable Ladders

Cable

Ladders

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Vertical 90º Inside Riser 3310 C - Type radius r = 450 mm

VCL - Z

VCLZ 3210 075 500 5 VCLZ 3210 075 600 5

VCL - C

VCL - R

VCLR 3410 075 600 5 VCLR 3410 075 700 5 VCLR 3410 075 800 5 VCLR 3410 075 900 5 VCLR 3410 075 1000 5 VCLR 3410 075 1100 5 VCLR 3410 075 1200 5

VCLC 3310 075 500 5 VCLR 3410 075 500 5

VCLC 3310 075 600 5 VCLZ 3210 075 700 5 VCLC 3310 075 700 5 VCLZ 3210 075 800 5 VCLC 3310 075 800 5 VCLZ 3210 075 900 5 VCLC 3310 075 900 5 VCLZ 3210 075 1000 5 VCLC 3310 075 1000 5 VCLZ 3210 075 1100 5 VCLC 3310 075 1100 5 VCLZ 3210 075 1200 5 VCLC 3310 075 1200 5

Vertical 90º Inside Riser 3410 R - Type radius r = 450 mm

Vertical 90º Inside Riser Curved Z - Type

HCL

Vertical 90º Outside Riser 3510 Z - Type Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width

100 150 200 300 400 450

HCL - Z

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLZ 3510 075 100 4 HCLC 3610 075 100 4 HCLR 3710 075 100 4 HCLZ 3510 075 150 4 HCLC 3610 075 150 4 HCLR 3710 075 150 4 HCLZ 3510 075 200 4 HCLC 3610 075 200 4 HCLR 3710 075 200 4 HCLZ 3510 075 300 4 HCLC 3610 075 300 4 HCLR 3710 075 300 4 HCLZ 3510 075 400 4 HCLC 3610 075 400 4 HCLR 3710 075 400 4 HCLZ 3510 075 450 4 HCLC 3610 075 450 4 HCLR 3710 075 450 4

radius r = 450 mm

VCL

Vertical 90º Outside Riser 3610 C - Type Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

VCL - Z

VCLZ 3510 075 500 5 VCLZ 3510 075 600 5 VCLZ 3510 075 700 5 VCLZ 3510 075 800 5 VCLZ 3510 075 900 5

VCL - C

VCLC 3610 075 500 5 VCLC 3610 075 600 5 VCLC 3610 075 700 5 VCLC 3610 075 800 5 VCLC 3610 075 900 5

VCL - R

VCLR 3710 075 500 5 VCLR 3710 075 600 5 VCLR 3710 075 700 5 VCLR 3710 075 800 5 VCLR 3710 075 900 5

radius r = 450 mm

VCLZ 3510 075 1000 5 VCLC 3610 075 1000 5 VCLR 3710 075 1000 5 VCLZ 3510 075 1100 5 VCLC 3610 075 1100 5 VCLR 3710 075 1100 5 VCLZ 3510 075 1200 5 VCLC 3610 075 1200 5 VCLR 3710 075 1200 5

Vertical 90º Outside Riser 3710 R - Type

radius r = 450 mm Vertical 90º Outside Riser Curved Z - Type

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Cable Ladders

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Reducers

Central Central Reducer 3810 Z - Type

Reducing sizes for reducers are usually manufactured in different reducing dimensions. Kindly mention the reducing size desired when ordering, ex: HCLR 3210 050 450/300 4

Cable

HCL

A Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width (A)

150 200 300 400 450

Ladders

HCL - Z

HCLZ 3810 075 150 4 HCLZ 3810 075 200 4 HCLZ 3810 075 300 4 HCLZ 3810 075 400 4 HCLZ 3810 075 450 4

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLC 3910 075 150 4 HCLR 4010 075 150 4 HCLC 3910 075 200 4 HCLR 4010 075 200 4 HCLC 3910 075 300 4 HCLR 4010 075 300 4 HCLC 3910 075 400 4 HCLR 4010 075 400 4 HCLC 3910 075 450 4 HCLR 4010 075 450 4

B

Central Reducer 3910 C - Type

VCL

A Width (A)

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm VCL - Z VCL - C VCL - R

VCLZ 3810 075 500 5 VCLC 3910 075 500 5 VCLR 4010 075 500 5 VCLZ 3810 075 600 5 VCLC 3910 075 600 5 VCLR 4010 075 600 5 VCLZ 3810 075 700 5 VCLC 3910 075 700 5 VCLR 4010 075 700 5 VCLZ 3810 075 800 5 VCLC 3910 075 800 5 VCLR 4010 075 800 5 VCLZ 3810 075 900 5 VCLC 3910 075 900 5 VCLR 4010 075 900 5 VCLZ 3810 075 1000 5 VCLC 3910 075 1000 5 VCLR 4010 075 1000 5 VCLZ 3810 075 1100 5 VCLC 3910 075 1100 5 VCLR 4010 075 1100 5 VCLZ 3810 075 1200 5 VCLC 3910 075 1200 5 VCLR 4010 075 1200 5

B

Central Reducer 4010 R - Type

A

B Central Reducer Curved Z - Type Right Side Right Side Reducer 4110 Z - type

HCL

A Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width (A)

150

HCL - Z

HCLR 4110 075 150 4 HCLR 4110 075 200 4 HCLR 4110 075 300 4 HCLR 4110 075 400 4 HCLR 4110 075 450 4

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLS 4210 075 150 4 HCLR 4310 075 150 4 HCLS 4210 075 200 4 HCLR 4310 075 200 4 HCLS 4210 075 300 4 HCLR 4310 075 300 4 HCLS 4210 075 400 4 HCLR 4310 075 400 4 HCLS 4210 075 450 4 HCLR 4310 075 450 4

B

200 300 400 450

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VCL

Cable Ladders

Cable

Ladders

A

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width (A)

500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Right Side Reducer 4210 C - Type

VCL - Z

VCLZ 4110 075 600 5 VCLZ 4110 075 600 5 VCLZ 4110 075 600 5 VCLZ 4110 075 600 5 VCLZ 4110 075 600 5 VCLZ 4110 075 600 5 VCLZ 4110 075 600 5 VCLZ 4110 075 600 5

VCL - C

VCL - R

VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5 VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5 VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5 VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5 VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5 VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5 VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5 VCLC 4210 075 600 5 VCLR 4310 075 600 5

B Right Side Reducer 4310 R - Type

A Right Side Reducer Curved Z - Type

B Left Side Left Side Reducer 4410 Z - type A

HCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 1.5 mm Width (A)

150 200 300

HCL - Z

HCL - C

HCL - R

HCLZ 4410 075 150 4 HCLC 4510 075 150 4 HCLR 4610 075 150 4 HCLZ 4410 075 200 4 HCLC 4510 075 200 4 HCLR 4610 075 200 4 HCLZ 4410 075 300 4 HCLC 4510 075 300 4 HCLR 4610 075 300 4 HCLZ 4410 075 400 4 HCLC 4510 075 400 4 HCLR 4610 075 400 4 HCLZ 4410 075 450 4 HCLC 4510 075 450 4 HCLR 4610 075 450 4

B

400 450

Left Side Reducer 4510 C - Type A

VCL

Steel Thicknesses: Side rail: 2 mm Rung: 2 mm Width (A)

500 600 700

VCL - Z

VCLZ 4410 075 500 5 VCLZ 4410 075 600 5 VCLZ 4410 075 700 5 VCLZ 4410 075 800 5 VCLZ 4410 075 900 5

VCL - C

VCL - R

VCLC 4510 075 500 5 VCLR 4610 075 500 5 VCLC 4510 075 600 5 VCLR 4610 075 600 5 VCLC 4510 075 700 5 VCLR 4610 075 700 5 VCLC 4510 075 800 5 VCLR 4610 075 800 5 VCLC 4510 075 900 5 VCLR 4610 075 900 5

B

800 900 1000

VCLZ 4410 075 1000 5 VCLC 4510 075 1000 5 VCLR 4610 075 1000 5 VCLZ 4410 075 1100 5 VCLC 4510 075 1100 5 VCLR 4610 075 1100 5 VCLZ 4410 075 1200 5 VCLC 4510 075 1200 5 VCLR 4610 075 1200 5

Left Side Reducer 4610 R - Type

1100 1200

A

Left Side Reducer Curved Z - Type

B

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Cable Ladders

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C A B L E LADDER ACCESSORIES

Cable

Straight Connector

Thickness: 1.5 mm

240

Item

Straight Connector Straight Connector Straight Connector

Dimensions

240 x 45 mm 240 x 70 mm 240 x 95 mm

Code

ACL 1000 045 4 ACL 1000 070 4 ACL 1000 095 4

ACCESSORIES

Ladders

h

Angle Connector

Thickness: 1.5 mm

240

Item

Angle Connector Angle Connector Angle Connector

Dimensions

Code

240 x 45 x 20 mm ACL 1010 045 4 240 x 70 x 20 mm ACL 1010 070 4 240 x 95 x 20 mm ACL 1010 090 4

h 20

Adjustable Connector

Thickness: 1.5 mm

150

Item

Adjustable Connector Adjustable Connector

150

Dimensions

150 x 20 mm 150 x 40 mm

Code

ACL 1030 020 4 ACL 1040 040 4

Wrap-over Connector

Thickness: 1.5 mm

Item

Wrap-over Connector Wrap-over Connector Wrap-over Connector

Dimensions

45 x 20 mm 70 x 20 mm 95 x 20 mm

Code

ACL 1050 020 4 ACL 1050 020 4 ACL 1050 020 4

Item Barrier Strip

Thickness: 1.5 mm Barrier Strip Barrier Strip Barrier Strip

Dimensions

3000 x 45 x 20 mm 3000 x 70 x 20 mm 3000 x 090 x 20 mm

Code

ACL 1070 045 4 ACL 1070 070 4 ACL 1070 090 4

Barrier strips, also known as dividers or separators, are used to separate cables in a ladder. The barrier may be used to separate cables of varying voltage classes as required. Barriers also divide the ladder into compartments to isolate circuitry such as communications/computer cables from cables for dedicated power etc. Straight section barriers are supplied 3.0 m long with appropriate slots in the bottom leg to accommodate any type of rung or bottom.

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Cable Ladders

Ladders

Item

End Plate End Plate End Plate

Cable

End Plate

Thickness: 1.5 mm

Dimensions

w x 50 x 75 mm w x 75 x 75 mm w x 100 x 75 mm

Code

ACL 1100 050 4 ACL 1100 075 4 ACL 1100 100 4

Drop Out Plate

Thickness: 1.5 mm

Item

Drop Out Plate Drop Out Plate Drop Out Plate Drop Out Plate

Dimensions

143 mm

Code

ACL 1110 15 4 ACL 1110 20 4 ACL 1110 30 4 ACL 1110 40 4 ACL 1110 50 4 ACL 1110 60 4 ACL 1110 70 4 ACL 1110 80 4 ACL 1110 90 4 ACL 1110 100 4

193 mm

293 mm 393 mm 493 mm 593 mm 693 mm 793 mm 893 mm 993 mm

w

=w

Drop Out Plate

idt

ho

Drop Out Plate

f la

dd

Drop Out Plate

er

- 7 mm

Drop Out Plate Drop Out Plate Drop Out Plate

Provides a round radiused surface for cable exit from bottom of ladder. Item Elematic Cable Ties

Cable Tie Cable Tie Cable Tie Cable Tie Cable Tie Cable Tie Cable Tie Cable Tie Cable Tie

Dimensions

2.5 x 98 mm 2.5 x 160 mm 3.6 x 140 mm 3.6 x 200 mm 4.5 x 160 mm 4.8 x 200 mm 4.8 x 250 mm 3.6 x 370 mm 4.8 x 290 mm 7.8 x 300 mm

Code

EL-1110-C-5203CTS EL-1130-C-5206CTS EL-1150-C-5209CTS EL-1160-C-5214CTS EL-1190-C-5211CTS EL-1210-C-5215CTS EL-1220-C-5216CTS EL-1230-C-5208TS EL-1240-C-5217TS EL-1310-C-5226TS

Provide an easy attachment of cables to ladder rungs

Cable Tie

item Slotted Round Head Screws

Round Head Screw Round Head Screw Round Head Screw Round Head Screw Round Head Screw Round Head Screw Round Head Screw

Dimensions

6 x 15 6 x 20 6 x 30 6 x 40 8 x 30 8 x 40 10 x 30

Code

RB 0615 RB 0620 RB 0630 RB 0640 RB 0830 RB 0840 RB 1030

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Cable Ladders

13

CABLE LADDER Covers

Cable Ladder covers are supplied with or without a 15 mm downturned flange. Straight section covers are furnished 3 meters long. All fitting covers are furnished in solid design only. Steel Thickness: 1.2 mm Cable Ladder Cover Width

150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Cable

Ladders

HCW

HCW 5000 150 3 HCW 5000 200 3 HCW 5000 300 3 HCW 5000 400 3 HCW 5000 500 3 HCW 5000 600 3 HCW 5000 700 3 HCW 5000 800 3 HCW 5000 900 3 HCW 5000 1000 3 HCW 5000 1100 3 HCW 5000 1200 3

Cable Ladder Cover with Lock Width

150 200 300 400 500 600

HCC

HCC 5500 150 3 HCC 5500 200 3 HCC 5500 300 3 HCC 5500 400 3 HCC 5500 500 3 HCC 5500 600 3 HCC 5500 700 3 HCC 5500 800 3 HCC 5500 900 3 HCC 5500 1000 3 HCC 5500 1100 3 HCC 5500 1200 3

Cover

700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Lock Ladder

Cable Ladder Cover with Locking Clamp (only upon request ) Bolt M6x15

Locking Clamp

Covers Side Height Types · Solid without flange · Solid with flange

25 x 95 x 2 mm Functions Cable ladder covers should be considered for any of the following purposes: · Protection from falling objects or debris, as may occur beneath personnel walkways. · Shielding from ultra-violet rays of the sun and to guard against other weathering elements. · To minimize accumulation of foreign contaminants such as ash or other industrial deposits. · Protection of cables and personnel where a riser ladder penetrates a floor or grating. · To assist in EMI/RFI shielding of sensitive circuits installed in solid bottom ladders. · Aesthetic considerations in prominent areas of the installation or as deemed necessary by the user.

17

14

Cable Ladders

Ladders

· Cable splices are permitted within a cable ladder

system provided that they are accessible and do not project above the top of the tray. · Future cables can be added to an existing cable ladder system as easily as the initial cables were installed. Future cable taps and splices can also be made with ease. · Installed cables can easily be inspected and cable faults can often be located and repaired without total replacement of the original cable run. · Rounded side rail flanges protect cables from damage. · Rung designs permit easy cable drop out with no sharp edges to damage cable.

Cable

General Information

Advantages of Cable Ladder System · Increased cable fill over other wiring methods can save material costs and installation labor. · Increased conductor ampacities due to full ventilation can provide significant savings in conductor costs. · Cable ladder takes up less space and requires less labor than comparable conduit and wire systems. · Increased support spans up to 3 meters save material and labor costs for supports. · Metallic cable ladders can be used as an equipment ground conductor. · Cables can enter or exit (drop out) at any point in the cable ladder system without expensive boxes or fittings.

Order Number

When Ordering Cable Ladder, the order number will include: - Type of Ladder: · HCL (Heavy Duty Cable Ladder) · VCL (Very Heavy Duty Cable Ladder) - Type of Side Height: · R (Return Flange Inside ) HCL -R 1010 075 150 4

Type Type of Side Height Item Number Side Height

Width of Ladder - Item Number: · Items numbers 1010, 1110,1210 stand for raceways Material Thickness of Rung · Items number 2000 and higher stands for fittings · For Accessories ACL is added to the item number · For Covers HCW & HCC are used. WARNING

- Side Height:s · 75, 100 mm side heights are available (50 mm upon request) - Width of ladder · Widths from 150 mm up to 1200 mm are manufactured - Material Thicknesses · Order number 2 for (1.0 mm) · Order number 3 for (1.2 mm) · Order number 4 for (1.5 mm) · Order number 5 for (2.0 mm)

Cable ladder is not to be used as a walkway, ladder, or support for personnel. To be used only as a mechanical support for cables and tubing."

Abbreviations

Materials

· Pre Galvanized · Hot-dip Galvanized

Code:

: PG : HD · Electrolytic Galvanized · Powder Coated

Code:

: EG : PC

Side Type

Code:

Thickness

·Sheet ·Sheet ·Sheet ·Sheet of of of of 1.00 mm 1.20 mm 1.50 mm 2.00 mm

Code:

: : : : 2 3 4 5

· Z-Type: Top Outside / Bottom Inside : Z · C-Type: Outside Top & Bottom : C · R-Type: Inside Return Flange : R

18

Cable Ladders

Engineering Information

15

Cable

Structural Information SFSP cable ladder has been designed to offer maximum strength and load carrying capabilities at the most economical installed costs to the user. The following information is presented to aid the designer/user in the best application of our products to suit his particular requirements. Cable Ladder Loads - Cable Ladder loads are generally uniform loads expressed in Kg per meter. Loads commonly referred to in the cable ladder industry are: · Cable Load - Total static weight of the cables to be supported in the ladder. This may include future cable loads if applicable. · Live loads- Weather Loads, such as wind, snow, and ice, should be considered in outdoor installations. · Working Load - Combination of the cable load and live loads to be applied to your cable ladder system. · Allowable Load - Is the destruction load capacity of the cable ladder divided by a safety factor of 1.5. The allowable load capacity should equal or exceed the working load to be applied. Support Spans - A support span is merely the centerline to centerline distance between supports. In actual practice, the support spans of an installed cable ladder system will vary, but the engineer/user should specify the maximum support span. Two support spans commonly referred to are: * Simple Beam­A single span with the ends free to rotate. This type span rarely occurs in normal installations, but is used as the most severe case when testing cable ladder to determine load capacity. * Continuous Beam­A series of spans connected together and continuous over several supports. This type span more closely approximates an actual installation. Determine the most economical support spacing by reviewing building structure and any existing support structures. In many cases, it can be less expensive to support a stronger ladder system over longer spans by reducing the number of supports. Cable ladder fittings should be supported in accordance with NEMA Standard VE 1, Part 6. In addition, supports should be located on each side, and in close proximity to, expansion splices and vertical and horizontal hinged splices. Support Types - The most common types of support are: - Trapeze hangers consisting of a support angle suspended by all-thread hanger rods; - Wall brackets anchored to walls or columns. NEMA Load Classes - NEMA Standard VE 1, Part 3 outlines load/span class designations to be utilized by the designer/user to specify a tray system to meet his/her structural needs. The designation is of the form 8A, 12A, 20C, etc. The numerical part refers to the support span, in feet. The alpha character in the designation refers to a load category. Current NEMA load/span designations are as follows.

Class Designation

Ladders

8A 8B 8C 12A 12B 12C 16A 16B 16C 20A 20B 20C

Support Span mtr. (ft) 2.4 (8) 2.4 (8) 2.4 (8) 3.6 (12) 3.6 (12) 3.6 (12) 4.8 (16) 4.8 (16) 4.8 (16) 6.0 (20) 6.0 (20) 6.0 (20)

Working (Allowable) Load Kg/m 72.95 109.42 145.90 72.95 109.42 145.90 72.95 109.42 145.90 72.95 109.42 145.90

Load capacities for ladders are determined by test standards outlined in NEMA VE 1, Part 4. Each ladder is supported on a simple beam span and is loaded uniformly to destruction. The total destruction load divided by a safety factor of 1.5 represents the working load of the ladder. Since cable ladder is rarely supported on simple beam spans, the actual installed safety factor of multiple spans is 20 to 60 percent higher (see beam diagrams for comparative bending moments). Deflection - Deflection is the vertical displacement from its original position of a cable ladder when loaded. In general, the maximum deflection occurs at midspan or midway between supports. Deflections shown on the selector chart are for simple beam spans. Deflections for multiple installations are 1/4 to 1/2 of those shown (see beam diagrams.) Beam Diagrams M = Bending Moment = Deflection Values shown for bending moments and deflections are expressed as fractions of simple beam span values (assuming equal uniform loads and span lengths).

= 1.00 M = 1.00 Simple Beam

= 0.40 M = 0.56

= 0.40 M = 0.56

M = 1.00 Two Span

= 0.52 M = 0.64

= 0.04 M = 0.20

= 0.52 M = 0.64

M = 0.80 M = 0.80 Three Span

= 0.50 M = 0.62

= 0.37 M = 0.27

= 0.26 M = 0.37

= 0.37 M = 0.27

= 0.50 M = 0.62

M = 0.84

M = 0.63 M = 0.63 Five Span

M = 0.84

19

Cable Ladders

Materials

MILD STEEL A. Hot Rolled Steel Coils and Plates / S235 JR, S355 JR

Sheets and Coils (Flat products of ordinary quality) Non alloy steels EN 10025-2: 2004 / S235 JR, S355 JR

Designations and comparisons between designations

Euro Norm

EN 10025-2 S 235 JR S 355 JR

Euro Norm

EN 10025:1990 + A1 : 1993 S 235 JR G2 S 355 JR

Euro Norm

EN 10025: 1990 Fe 360 B Fe 510 B

Germany

DIN 17100 : 1983 RST 37 - 2 St 52 -3

U.K.

BS 4360: 1996 40 (A) B 50 B

France

NF A 35-501 E24 -2 E36 - 2

USA

ASTM A283M (A633M) Grade C & D Gr. C & D

USA

ASTM A 1011 ­ 01a CS SS Grade 33 SS Grade 50

Japan

JIS 3101

Japan

JIS 3106

China

GB 700 (GB / T 1591)

INDIA

IS

International

ISO

SS 400 SS 490

SM 400 A SM 490 A

Q 235 B (Q 345 B)

IS 226 IS 961

E 235 B (E355C)

Mechanical properties

Name Grade Number Yield Stress Re N/mm2 Tensile Strength Rm N/mm2

Impact Strength KV J t oc

27 27 20 20

S 235 JR S 355 JR

1.0037 1.0045

235 355

360 - 510 510 - 680

Notes:

- S235 JR : S = Structural steel ; 235 = Minimum yield strength in N/ mm2 or MPa JR = Flat products; longitudinal charpy v-notch impact strength class 27 J @ 20 oC - BS 4360, is gradually being replaced by EN 10025 BS 1449 steel plates, sheets and strips. - Fittings are manufactured from steel meeting the minimum requirements of ASTM A907 SS, Grade 33. - ASTM A907 / A907M-96 withdrawn in 2001 and replaced by A 1018 / A1018M. Covers hot rolled heavy ­thickness carbon ­ steel sheet and strip of structural quality in coils beyond CS = Commercial Steel , SS = Structural Steel, DS = Drawing Steel, SQ = Structural Quality -ASTM A 1011 (formerly ASTM A570 and ASTM A572); SS Grade 33 : SS = Structural Steel, 33 = Minimum yield stress RP 0.2 = 33 ksi = 230 MPa = 230 N/ mm2 (To convert from ksi (kilo square inch) to MPa (Mega Pascal) or N/ mm2 or multiply by 6.97) - Temporary anti corrosion protection. (made by oiling) Slight oiling : 0.4 ­ 0.7 g/m2 on each side Medium oiling : 0.8 ­ 1.2 g/m2 on each side Heavy oiling : 1.3 ­ 2.0 g/m2 on each side (Oiling is done by: mineral oil, esters and additives) - Tolerances are set down in EN 10151:1992 - Standard for dimensions : EN 10162

20

Cable Ladders

B. Cold Rolled Steel / DC01

Mild unalloyed steel grades for cold forming

Designations and comparisons between designations

Euro Norm EN 10130

DC01

Germany DIN 1623, Part 2

St12 (Fe P01)

U.K. BS 1449: Part 1

CR4

France N FA 36-401

F12

Italy UNI 5866

Fe P01

USA ASTM A366

(SAE 1010)

Japan JIS G 3141

SPCC

India 513/94

O

China GB699 - 88

Gr. 08/08F

DIN, BS, NFA & UNI are replaced by Euro Norm

Mechanical properties

Name

DC 01

Grade Number

1.0330

Yield Stress Re N/ mm2

140 - 280

Tensile Strength N/mm2

270 - 410

Rm

Fracture Elongation A 80 %

28

Surface Quality

Euro Norm EN 10130 A B Germany DIN 1623, Part 2 3 5 U.K. BS 1449: Part 1 GR ( General Purpose) FF ( Full Finish) France N FA 36-401 X Z Italy UNI 5866 MA MB USA ASTM A366 CLASS 2 CLASS 1

A = normal surface quality. B = best surface quality.

-

Surface treatment

P PC PO C CO O U Phosphated Phosphated & Chemically Passivated Phosphated & Oiled Chemically Passivated Chemically Passivated & Oiled Oiled Untreated

Notes :

- Tolerances to DIN EN 10131, ASTM A568. - Commercial quality by steel (CS), ASTM A366 and ASTM A1008 CS type B.

21

Cable Ladders

GALVANIZED STEEL

Steel Sheets, Strips and Coils for Cold forming(Forming & Drawing Quality) (Lock Forming Quality LFQ)

C. Continuously Pre-Galvanized Hot­Dip Zinc Coated / DX51D + Z

Euro Norm

EN 10327 (EN DIN / EN BS) DX 51 D + Z

Designations and comparisons between designations

Germany

DIN 17162 /1 St 02 Z (Fe P02 G) Z

U.K.

BS 2989

France

NFA 36- 421

Italy

UNI 5753

USA

ASTM (old) A 527 M

USA

ASTM (amendment)

Japan

JIS G 3302

India

IS

Z2

GC

Fe P02 G

A 653 - LFQ

SG CD1

D

Mechanical properties

Steel Grade DX51 D + Z Grade Number 1.0226 0.2 % - Proof Stress RP 0.2 N/mm2 140 Tensile Strength Rm N/mm2 270 - 500 Fracture Elongation A 80 % 22

Euro Norm EN 10142 /147

NA MA MB MC

Germany DIN 17162/1

NA MA B C

U.K. BS 2989

Spangle N Minimum Spangle M Smooth Extra Smooth XS

France NFA 36-421

NA MA B C

Italy UNI 5753

Regular Spangle Minimized Spangle Skin passed -

USA ASTM A146

Regular Spangle Minimized Spangle -

Japan JIS G 3302

Regular Spangle Minimized Spangle Skin passed -

Appearance

N M Normal rose pattern Reduced (minimized) rose pattern

Normal or regular spangle This finish is obtained during normal solidification of a hot-dip zinc coating on steel, and results in the formation of a coating which exhibits either no spangle or zinc crystals of different sizes and brightness. However, the zinc appearance has no effect on either the quality or corrosion resistance of the coating. Flattened minimized spangle This zinc coating finish is obtained by restricting the normal zinc crystal growth followed by the application of a skin pass process. This finish is recommended for applications where a high gloss paint finish is required. It is available for zinc coatings mass up to Z275, and a maximum material thickness of 1.20 mm if passsivation is required, or a maximum thickness of 1.60 mm if passivation is not required.

Quality

Normal surface. Errors on surface can occur Improved surface. Small errors are allowed (Skin passing) Best surface. One error free side (Skin passing)

22

Cable Ladders

Coating thickness

Euro Norm

Z100 Z120 Z140 Z200 Z225 Z275 Z350

Germany

100 200 275 350

U.K.

G100 (100 g/sqm) G200 (200 g/sqm) G275 (275 g/sqm) G350 (350 g/sqm)

France

Z100 Z200 Z275 Z350

Italy

Z100 Z200 Z275 Z350

USA

G40 G60 G90 -

Japan

Z 12 (120 g/sqm)

Z 18 (180 g/sqm)

Z 27 (270 g/sqm) Z 35 (350 g/sqm)

(G60 means 0.6 oz/ft2 coating thickness) (to convert from oz/ft2 to g/m2 multiply by 306)

Zink layer

Coating designation Minimum coating mass g/m2 Triple spot test

Z100 Z120 Z140 Z200 Z225 Z275 Z350

2

Surface treatment

Single spot test

85 90 120 170 195 235 300

Coating thickness µm

7 8 10 14 16 20 25

C O CO U

Chemical passivation Oil Chemical passivation and Oil Unoiled and unpassivated

100 120 140 200 225 275 350

-The coating weight of an area of 1 m including both surfaces -Coating thickness (µm) is calculated from triple spot test values, and is for one side only

Notes:

- Hot ­ dip galvanized steel is produced on continuous zinc coating lines from either cold rolled (thickness range 0.27 to 2.0 mm) or hot rolled (thickness range 2.01 to 3.0 mm) steel substrate; it is produced to the requirements of EN 10327, EN 10326, EN 10142, EN 10143, ASTM A 653M (Grade 33) - EN 10327 supersedes EN 10142 - Hot rolled substrate Due to the nature of the hot rolling process, surface blemishes such as surface scratches and coil breaks which may be high functionality of the materials. - Wet storage corrosion "white rust" Normally light white staining on galvanized steel is not a reason for concern. It is a precipitation of basic salts of zinc Zn (OH)2 that combines with CO2 to form a protective layer called Zinc Hydroxycarbonate.

Performance in dry atmosphere

crack

Zn (anode) Fe (cathode) Formation of Zinc Hydroxide which fills in the crack. Zn (anode) Fe (cathode) Zn (anode) Fe (cathode) Zn (anode)

Zinc Salt

Coastal surfaces 275 350 2-5 2-5

Industrial and Urban 2-5 2-5

Suburban and Rural 5-10 5-10

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Cable Ladders

D. Electro Galvanized Steel (Electrolytic Coating) / DC01 + ZE

Designations and comparisons between designations

Euro Norm

EN 10152 DC 01 + ZE

The base material for electrolyticaly coated steel is cold-rolled, annealed, lightly temper ­ rolled strip

Euro Norm

EN 10152 - 92 Fe P01 ZE

Germany

DIN 17163-88 St 12 ZE

U.K.

BS 1449 /1 CR 4

France

NF 36-401 C

Italy

UNI 5866 Fe P01

USA

ASTM A146 A591 - CQ

Japan

JIS G 3313 SECC

Japan

JIS G 3141 SPCC

Mechanical properties

Name DC 01 + ZE Grade Number 1.0330 Yield Stress Re N/mm

2

Tensile Strength Rm N/mm 270 - 410

2

Elongation A80 % 28

140 - 280

Coating thickness (EG)

Coating Designation* Nominal Zinc coating values for each surface Thickness Mass µm ZE 25 / 25 ZE 30 / 30 ZE 50 / 50 ZE 100 / 100 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 18 36 54 72 µm 1.7 4.1 6.6 9.1 12 29 47 65 E16 ZE 25/25 E24 ZE 50/50 E40 ZE 75/75 ZE 100/100 Minimum Zinc coating values for each surface Thickness Mass Marking

(to convert from g /m2 to oz / ft2 multiply by 0.00327) *After BSEN 10152:1994

Surface treatment

m = normal r = rough

P PC PO C CO O U Phosphated Phosphated & Chemically Passivated Phosphated & Oiled Chemically Passivated Chemically Passivated & Oiled Oiled Untreated

Surface quality

A = normal quality / standard Notes :

- Tolerances : on dimensions and shape to DIN EN 10131 - ZE = Pure Zinc electrolytic coating

ALUZINK STEEL E. Aluzink Steel / DX51D + AZ

Steel for forming

Euro Norm

EN 10215 / 10143 DX 51D + AZ

Germany

DIN 55928/8

USA

ASTM A792

Surface

C O S CO M

Oil

Treatment

Chemical passivation

Aluzink layer

Weight class

AZ 100 AZ 150 AZ 165 AZ 185 AZ 200

Aluzink weight g / m2 , sum of both sides

Triple spot test 100 150 165 185 200 Single spot test 85 130 150 160 170

Antifinger print (ALC ­ Surface) Chemical passivatin and Oil

Appearance

Normal rose pattern

Quality

A- Normal surface. Errors on surface can occur B- Improved surface. Small errors are allowed

24

Cable Ladders

STAINLESS STEEL F. Austenitic Stainless Steels /AISI 304 & 316

EN 10088-2/ ASTM A240/ ASTM A480 / ASTM A666

Designations and comparisons between designations

USA

ASTM A240 AISI 304 * 304 L 316 * 316 L

Euro Norm

Steel name EN 10088-2 X5 CrNi 18 - 10 X2 CrNi 19 ­ 11 X5 CrNi MO 17 ­ 12 ­ 2 X2 CrNi MO 17 ­ 12 - 2

Germany

DIN Steel number 17440 1.4301 1.4306 1.4401 1.4404

UK

BS 1449: Part 2 304S15 304S11 316S31 316S11

France

AFNOR

Italy

EN 10088-2

Japan

JIS G 4304 SUS304 SUS304L (SUS316) SUS316L

Z6CN 18.09 Z2CN 18.10 Z6CND 17.11 Z2CND 17.12

X5 CrNi 18 - 10 X2 CrNi 18 ­ 11 X5 CrNi MO 17 ­ 12 X2 CrNi MO 17 ­ 17 - 12

Mechanical Properties

AISI 304 304 L 316 316 L Minimum 0.2 % Proof Stress Rp (N/mm2) 210 185 220 200 Ultimate Tensile Strength Rm (N/mm2) 520 ­ 720 485 ­ 650 520 ­ 670 500 - 670

Working Stress

Tension / Compression (N/mm2) 140 133 146 146 Shear (N/mm2) 93 89 97

Stress

Typical Stress/Strain Curve for Stainless Steel

0.2% Proof Stress (Rp)

97

Stress-Strain Curve

(Stainless steels differ from mild steels in that these stainless steels do not exhibit a well defined yield point when exposed to tensile load)

Strain 0.2% Plastic Strain

ASTM No. 1 2B No. 4

EN 10088 ­ 2 1D 2B 2J

Thickness

(mm)

Description Hot rolled, annealed and pickled Heat treatment, annealed and pickled after cold rolling skin - passed Polished with abrasive mesh of 150 - 180 grain

3.0-5.0 0.3-6.0 0.4-3.0

Notes :

-Type 304 ­ the most common grade; the classic 18/8 stainless steel. Also referred to as "A2" in accordance with ISO 3506. -Type 304 L ­ the 304 grade but specially modified for welding -Type 316 ­ the second most common grade (after 304), alloy addition of molybdenum prevents specific forms of corrosion. also referred to as "A4" in accordance with ISO 3506. -Type 316L ­ the 316 grade but specially modified for welding. -Modulus of Elasticity 193,000 (N/mm2) -Density 7.92 to 7.94 g/cm3 -EN 10088-2 replaces BS 1449- part2 -EN 10028-7 replaces BS 1501- part3

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

Elongation

2

Ultimate Tensile Strength Elongation % 0.2% Proof Strength

Strength N/m m

60 40 20 0 60

The working of austenitic stainless steel significantly increases the Proof Strength. Localized cold working arises during the forming of angle and channel sections. The benefits of this cold working are not taken into account in SFSP's designs, but provide additional reserves of strength.

0

20

40

Effect of cold working in grade 304 Stainless Steel

25

Cable Ladders

F.1 Stainless Steel Fasteners

Stainless steel fasteners are specified to BS EN ISO 3506. Part 1 covers bolts, screws and studs. Part 2 covers nuts. These specifications now replace BS 6105. Grade A2 = 304 Grade A4 = 316

Mechanical Properties

Property Class Bolts, screws and studs 0.2% Proof Stress RP 0.2 (N/ mm )

2

Nuts Tensile Strength Rm (N/ mm2) 500 700 Proof Load Strength Sp (N/mm2) 500 700

Shear Strength of bolts in clearance holes Psb (N/ mm2) 311 384

50 70

210 450

Designation:

A2 70 Austenitic Stainless Steel Notes: Tensile 1/10 of 700 MPa Type

-Property class 50 represents the steel in the annealed condition -Property class 70 represents a "cold drawn" for the bar stock from which the fasteners are made. -All tensile stress values are calculated and reported in terms of the nominal tensile stress area of the thread.

F.2 Austenitic Stainless Steel Wire

BS 1554 : 1991 min 18/8 , ASTM A276

Bi ­ Metallic Contact

When two dissimilar metals are in contact in the presence of an electrolyte, bi-metallic corrosion may occur, this may result in the corrosion of the base metal while the `noble' metal is protected. The table indicates which metals may, in certain circumstances, be used together.

Stainless Steel

Aluminium Bronze

Cast Iron

Copper

Stainless Steel Mild Steel Aluminum Bronze Phosphor Bronze Copper Cast Iron Aluminum Zinc

X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

Can be used in contact under all conditions Can be used in contact under dry conditions (within a cavity above d.p.c. level except where the cavity is used for free drainage) X Should not be used in contact

Zinc X X X X X

M etals

Aluminium

Mild Steel

Phosphor Bronze

26

Cable Ladders

ALUMINIUM G- Aluminium 5052 & 6063

Aluminium is one of the most abundant metals and therefore cost ­ efficient. High strength ­ to ­ weight ratio combined with extraordinary corrosion resistance and flexibility make aluminium a desirable solution to product design.

Aluminium Extrusions vs. Roll Formed Steel

Aluminium Extrusions

Strength (Tensile) Density Strength-to-Weight Ratio Corrosion Resistance Very good mechanical properties Light weight: about 1/3 that of copper or steel Very Good Excellent it can be further increased. Along with enhanced appearance. Through anodizing or other coatings. Easily formable and extruded in a wide variety of complex shapes including multi-void hollows. Formable to net shapes, and extrusions provide for the placement of metal where it's needed. Finishing Recyclability High scrap value; routinely reprocessed to generate new extrusions. Low scrap value.

Roll Formed Steel

Very high mechanical properties High density; high grams per cubic centimeter. Good Fair, usually requires protective coatings for corrosion service.

Formability

Readily formable; thinner cross-sections than aluminium extrusions; metal cannot always be located where best used in design.

Pure aluminium, has little strength, but possesses high electrical conductivity, reflectivity, and corrosion resistance. For this reason, a wide variety of aluminium alloys have been developed.

Some Aluminium Alloys:

5052 Aluminium 6063 Aluminium

G.1- 5052 Aluminium

5052 is the alloy most suited to forming operations, with good workability and higher strength than that of the 1100 or 3003 alloys that are commercially available. 5052 has very good corrosion resistance, and can be easily welded. 5052 is not a good choice for extensive machining operations, as it has only a fair machinability rating.

Grade Designation:

Aluminium 5052; UNS A95052; ISO AlMg 2.5

5052 ­ H32 Aluminium

Minimum Properties Chemistry Ultimate Tensile Strength , N/mm2 Yield Strength, N/mm Aluminium (AL)

2

230 195 95.7 ­ 97.7 %

27

Cable Ladders

G.2-6063 Aluminium

6063 is often called architectural aluminium for two reasons ­ first, it has a surface finish that is far smoother than the other commercially available alloys, and second, its strength is significantly less (roughly half the strength of 6061), making it suited for applications where strength is not the foremost consideration. 6063 is rated "Good" for forming and cold working operations, "Excellent" for anodizing, and "Fair" for machining.

Grade Designation:

- Aluminium 6063-T6; UNS A96063; ISO AlMg 0.5Si; Also corresponds to the following standard designations and specifications:

AA6063 GS10 A-GS ASTM B210 ASTM B241 United Kingdom Germany ASTM ASTM MIL MIL QQ B361 B483 G ­ 18014 P ­ 25995 A ­ 200 / 9 BS H19; DTD 372B DIN AlMg Si 0.5

Mechanical Properties

Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Modulus of Elasticity Elongation at Break Fatigue Strength Machinability Shear Modulus Shear Strength Density Aluminium (Al) Content N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 % N/mm2 % N/mm2 N/mm2 g/cm3 %

6063 ­ T6 240 215 68,900 12 68.9 50 25,800 150 2.7 97.5

6063 ­ T52 185 145 68,900 12 68.9 ------------2.7 97.5

Conversion

From MPa GPa N/mm GPa MPa ksi lb/in

3 2

To N/mm2 N/mm2 psi ksi psi psi g/cm

3

Multiply by 1 1000 145 145 145 1000 27.7

Surface Finish

Natural metallic finish

28

Cable Ladders

FINISHES

1-Hot dip galvanization (H.D.G) After Fabrication

ISO 1461 / ASTM A 123

H.D.G process consists of dipping steel in melted zinc at 450° Celsius temperature at which iron and zinc share great affinity, and allowing an alloy to form where pure zinc prevails to the outside. Due to the difference of electrochemical potential between zinc and steel (cathodic protection), a zinc coating can protect steel in such a way that vigorous forces, such as cutting, scratching or piercing, are equally protected against corrosion. What considerably affects the appearance and gauge of galvanization is the contents of alloyable elements that are generally present in steel: Carbon, magnesium, and silicon. If the contents of these elements increase, the coating gauge also increases and it becomes matte grey. The greatest effect is produced by silicon in concentrations higher than 0.12%. ISO 1459 withdrown

Zinc-iron alloys

Steel Section:through galvanized coating on silicon containing steel; Coating is zinciron alloy which appears gray. Pure zinc Zinc-iron alloys Steel

Hot dip galvanization Process

Standard Products to be Galvanized Nature International Standard ISO 1461 Steel Thickness (mm) e<1 1e<3 3e<5 e5 0.76e<1.6 1.6e<3.2 3.2e<6.4 e6.4 1e<2 2e<5 e5 e<1 1e<3 3e<6 e6 e<1.5 1.5e<3 3e<6 e6 e<1 1e<3 3e<5 e5 1e<3 3e<6 e6

Minimum zinc weight / Comparison on various standards

Minimum Zinc Weight On each Specimen Thickness (µm) 250 325 395 505 259 381 549 610 325 360 430 540 250 325 395 505 300 350 400 450 360 470 540 35 45 55 70 37 54 77 86 45 50 60 75 35 45 55 70 42 49 56 63 50 65 75

Section:through galvanized coating showing pure metal zinc and zinc-iron alloy layers which are the normal coating developments on rimmed or aluminium killed steel.

Hot - Dip Galvanizing at SFSP

Calvanizing ice preparation Inspection

United States ASTM A-123

Steel

Causticing Cleansing

Cooling and Molten Flux Rinising Solution Zinc Bath cleaning Pickling

United Kingdom BS 729 Germany DIN 50976

Steel

Steel

European Standard CEN

Steel

France NFA 91-121

Steel

Italy UNI 5744

Steel

ASTM A 123 / A 123 M Requirements

-Coating Thickness / Weight ­ dependent upon material category and steel thickness -Finish ­ continuous, smooth, uniform -Appearance ­ free from uncoated areas, blisters, flux deposits and gross dross inclusions as well as having no heavy zinc deposits that interfere with intended use -Adherence ­ the entire coating should have a strong adherence throughout the service life of galvanizedsteel

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Table.1 Minimum Average Coating Thickness Grade by Material Category

All Specimen Test Steel Thickness Range (Measured), in (mm) Material Category Structural Shapes and plate Strip and Bar Pipe and Tubing Wire

<1.6 mm 45 45 45 35

1.6 to < 3.2 mm 65 65 45 50

3.2 to 4.8 mm 75 75 75 60

>4.8 to < 6.4 mm 85 85 75 65

6.4 mm 100 100 75 80

Table.2 Coating Thickness Grade

Coating Grade mils 1.4 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.9 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.3 µm 35 45 50 55 60 65 75 80 85 100 245 320 355 390 425 450 530 566 600 705

Table.2 Coating Thickness Grade

The values in micrometer (µm) are based on the Coating Grade. The other values are based on conversions using the following formulas: mils = µm x 0.03937; oz / ft² = µm x 0.02316; g/m² = µm x 7.067; oz / ft² = g/m² x 0.00327 1 mil = 0.001 inch, 1µm = 0.001 mm = 0.00003937 inches

35 45 50 55 60 65 75 80 85 100

Comparison between ISO 1461 & ASTM A 123

International Standards Organization (ISO) 1461, titled "Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings on Fabricated Iron and Steel Articles-Specifications and Test Methods," is a general galvanizing specification. This specification is essentially equivalent to the "American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) A123 and A153"

Table.1 ISO 1461 vs. ASTM A 123/A 153 Coating Thickness Comparison

ISO steel thickness 6 mm (~ ¼) ISO minimum average coating thickness 3.3 mils (85 µm) local ­ steel 3.1 mils (80 µm) ­ castings 1.8 mils (45 µm) ­ castings (if centrifuged) ASTM average minimum coating thickness 3.0 mils (76 µm) ­ pipe & tubing 3.1 mils (79 µm) ­ wire 3.3 mils (85 µm) ­ castings (ASTM A 153) 3.9 mils (99 µm) ­ structurals , strip & bar 2.4-2.6 mils (61-65 µm) ­ wire 3.0 mils (76 µm) - pipe & tubing 3.0-3.3 mils (76-85 µm) ­ structurals, strip & bar 3.3 mils (85 µm) ­ castings (ASTM A 153) 1.8 mils (46 µm) ­ pipe & tubing 2.0 mils (51 µm) ­ wire 2.6 mils (65 µm) - structurals, strip & bar 3.3 mils (85 µm) ­ castings (ASTM A 153) 1.4 mils (36 µm) ­ wire 1.8 mils (46 µm) ­ pipe & tubing 1.8 mils (46 µm) - structurals, strip & bar 3.3 mils (85 µm) ­ castings (ASTM A 153)

2.8 mils (70 µm) ­ steel & castings 1.8 mils (45 µm) ­ castings (if centrifuged)

1

/16)

2.8 mils (70 µm) ­ castings 2.2 mils (55 µm) ­ steel 1.4 mils (35 µm) - casting (if centrifuged) 2.8 mils (70 µm) ­ castings 1.8 mils (45 µm) ­ steel 1.4 mils (35 µm) - castings (if centrifuged)

< 1.5mm (~1/16)

ISO 1461 vs. ASTM A 153 Coating Thickness Comparison ­ Fasteners only

ISO steel diameter 20 mm (~¾) < 20 mm (~¾) & 6 mm (~¼) < 6 mm (~¼) ISO minimum average coating thickness 1.8 mils (45 µm) 1.4 mils (35 µm) ­ w/ threads 1.8 mils ­ w/o threads 0.8 mils (20 µm) 1.8 mils (45 µm)­w/o threads over 3 mm diameter 1.4 mils (35 µm)­w/o threads under 3 mm diameter ASTM average minimum coating thickness 2.1 mils (54 µm) 2.1 mils (54 µm) ­ over diameter 1.7 mils (43 µm) ­ under diameter 1.7 mils (43 µm)

In comparing the two standards, ISO 1461 and ASTM A123 and ASTM A153, there are no major differences. mils = µm x 0.03937

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Table.2

ISO 1461 Includes mention of Wet Storage ­ Not a Basis for rejection Doesn't distinguish steel into material categories (i.e. pipe, strip, wire) Bath composition ­ 98.5% Zn minimum / 1.5% additives by weight No adhesion testing suggested except visual inspection Mean coating ­ average value on 1 large article or on all the articles in the control sample...5 test readings per ref area (1,000 mm2/min) No thickness coating grade Designates coating thickness for castings Renovation Uncovered areas by galvanizer shall not exceed 0.5% Each area shall not exceed 10 cm Min 12 mil (30µm) more than that required by coating requirements Reference Area SA > 2 m2 (large articles) at least 3 ref areas on each article in the control sample 10,000 mm2 (SA) on each article in the control sample, one (at least) reference area. 1,000 mm2 ­ 10,000 mm2 (SA) requires one +eference area. < 1,000 mm2, group enough articles to form at least 1,000 mm2 surface area for an individual reference area. Table 1. Testing Methods: Microscopic Method,Calculation and Magnetic Method Renovation Methods: Shall be by zinc thermal spaying or by a suitable zinc rich paint. Use of zinc alloy stick is possible. Dispute: Mean masses of HDG coating per unit area using gravimetric method and nominal density of the coating (7.2 g/ cm2) No Wet Storage stain mentioned Ash not form of rejection Does categorize material by pipe, strip, and wire Bath Composition ­ 98% Zn by weight Adhesion testing ­ stout knife testing suggested The average of three specimen coating thickness. Has coating grade No coating designation Renovation Shall be 1 in (25 mm) or less in its narrowest dimension < ½ of 1% of the surface area or 36 m2 (900 m2 ) per ton of piece of weight, whichever is less 50% higher than table 1, no more than 4.0 units. Reference Area SA > 160 m2 (100,000 mm2 ) (multi specimen) the average of the 3 specimen coating thickness grades comprising each test article is the average coating thickness for that test article. SA 160 m2 (single specimen), average of all specimens coating thickness grades is the average coating thickness for the sample. Threaded components, the thickness of coating shall be made on a portion of the article that doesn't include any threads. Testing Methods: Magnetic Method,Stripping Method,Weighing before/after galvanizing Microscopy Renovation Methods: Thermal zinc spraying zinc rich paints and zinc alloy stick. Dispute: New sample taken randomly from the lot, which has twice the % of the test articles, Magnetic thickness test the sample. ASTM A 123

Service duration chart for Hot-Dip Galvanized coatings

10

Service duration* (years)

Castings

Service duration chart for Hot-Dip Galvanized coatings In an industrial environment

Service duration* (years)

< 1 16'' Diameter wire

/

> 3 8'' Diameter fastener

/

> 1 4'' Thick pipe or tube

/

> 1 4'' Structural shapes and plates

/

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Average Thickness of zinc (mils) *Service duration is defined as the time to 5% rusting steel surface

Key

Rura Suburban Temperare Marine Tropical Marine Industrial ASTM Minimun Coating Thickness

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

B2 A2

A1

4.0

4.5

B1

5.0

5.5

6.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Average Thickness of zinc (mils) *Service duration is defined as the time to 5% rusting steel surface

1 mil=24.7µm /oz/ft2 = 175g/m2

1 mil=24.7µm /oz/ft2 = 175g/m2

Notes:

A1: 1/4-inch thick steel has at least 3.9 mils (99 microns) of zinc coating, per ASTM A 123. A2: 1/4-inch thick steel will be protected for approximately 72 years in an industrial environment before any touch-up or repair will be required to extend the life of the steel in use. B1 and B2 : 1/2-inch thick steel often has a zinc coating of four mils or more, resulting in a maintenance-free performance for approximately 85 years. Cost: The initial cost of hot-dip galvanized steel is equal to the final cost,thus there are no maintenance costs from year 0 to year 72.

Details:

Steel chemistry and surface condition determine the metallurgical reaction between zinc and iron (steel), therefor generating a range of zinc coating thicknesses. Steel containing elevated amounts of silicon and phosphorus tend to exhibit thicker coatings. It is recommended that steels have a slilicon content below 0.04% or between 0.15 % anc 0.22%, as well as a phosphorus level less thsn 0.04%.

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2-Zinc Electroplating after fabrication /ASTM B633

In the electroplating process, the part to be zinc coated is immersed in a solution of zinc ions. An electric current causes the zinc to be deposited on the part. Zinc plated parts typically have a zinc coating of 0.2 to 0.5 mil (5µm to 25 µm) and are recommended for dry indoor use.

Thickness classes for Coatings for Zinc Plating Service Condition** Fe / Zn 5 Fe / Zn 8 Fe / Zn 12 Fe / Zn 25 SC1 (mild) SC2 (moderate) SC3 (severe) SC4 (very severe) Thickness Minimum µm (inch) 5 (0.0002) 8 (0.0003) 12(0.0005) 25(0.001) Zinc plated products have an attractive appearance when new as the zinc coating is bright and smooth, where a hot-dip galvanized coating has a duller and less smooth surface. There is typically about 10 times as much as zinc applied to small parts in the hot-dip galvanizing process as with zinc plating. But zinc plating will not provide adequate corrosion resistance and will rarely provide more than 12 months protection in most of the coastal population centers.

* Iron or steel with zinc electroplate. Numerical thickness in micrometers * * Where service conditions are valid only for coatings with chromate conversion coating. Type II for SC4 and SC3 and type III for SC2 and SC1.

Standard

BS EN 12329:2000

Notes

number e.g. ZN5 = 5 µm minimum thickness of zinc,and the pas sivate type or an supplementary treatment is called up by using the appropriate code. Typical thickness codes:ZN5,ZN8, ZN12, ZN25 Passivate codes: A = clear passivate, B = Bleached pas sivate, C = Colour passivate, D = Olive drab passivate, F = Black passivate Supplementary treatment codes: T1 = Application of paints, varnishes, powder coatings or similar coatings materials. T2 = Application of organic or inorganic sealants T3 = Dyeing T4 = Application of grease or oil or other lubricants T5 = Application of wax Zinc plate to BS EN 12329:2000 FE//ZN8//A Which means; FE = ferrous substrate, ZN = Zinc coat ing 8 = 8 µm min deposit and A = Clear passivate.

Comments

Superseded BS 1706:1990

BS 7371-12:2008

Standard for imperial fasteners, thickness is depandent or service conditions, upon screw thread dia and passivation called up by the ZN5 = 5 µm appropriate code: Screw thread dia Batch av thk (µm) 0.060'' to 0.125'' 3.8 to 51 µm 0.126'' to 0.250'' 5.1 to 6.4 µm 0.250'' to 0.500'' 6.4 to 7.6 µm 0.500'' to 0.750'' 7.6 to 8.9 µm >0.75'' See BS EN 12329 Passivate codes: A = Clear, B = Bleachd C= Colour,D = Olive drab BK = Black Standard for fasteners, p;ating thickness is dependent up on thread dia and passivation is called up by the appropriate code. Screw thread dia Batch av thk (µm) 1.0 to 2.0 mm 3 2.5 to 8.0 mm 5 10 to 16 mm 8 18 to 22 mm 10 Passivate codes: Class 1: A = Clear, B = Bleached Class 2 : C = Colour, D = Olive drab BK = Black

Superseded BS 3385 Part 2

BS EN ISO4042:2000

Replaces BS73713:1993

Standards BS EN 12329:2000 FE / ZN SA BS EN 12329:2000 FE / ZN 12A & 12/C BS 1706 FE ZN 8c2c BS 1706 FE ZN 5c2c BS 3382 parts 1&2 1961

Thickness 5 µm 12 µm 8 µm 5 µm 10 µm

Related Standards:

ISO 2081-NEQ, NF A91-052, DIN 50961 ASTM B633

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3-Powder Coating

. . .

Epoxy Coating powder types (EP) Polyester coating powder (SP) Polyester / Epoxy coating powder (SP / EP)

Epoxy coating powder types (EP) (5-15 µm) / Internal

EP coating powders possess very good chemical resistance and excellent mechanical values such as high elasticity or impact resistance. Epoxy powders are used for corrosion ­ resistant applications. They have no physiologically negative characteristics. One disadvantage is their tendency to " go chalky" and turn yellow under external factors

Polyester coating powder (SP) (25 µm) / External

Polyester coating powders are weather proof and do not "go chalky" so they can be used , out ­ doors. They have good mechanical properties such as blow and impact resistance and good adherence, which means that such later processes as sawing, drilling, or machining are also possible.

Polyester / Epoxy coating powder (SP / EP) / Internal & External

The mixing ratio between epoxy resin and polyester resin varies between 60 / 40 and 10 / 90. The resultant powder films are far more resistant to yellowing and less liable to " go chalky" and also have excellent mechanical qualities. , The range of colours includes the whole of the standard RAL pallet and many others. -Specific Gravity: 1.20 ­ 1.90 g/cm3 depending on colour and type.

Technical Properties

Item ISO

Adhesion (Cross Cut) Pencil Hardness Impact Test Erichsen Test Flexibility ISO 2409 ASTM D3363 ISO 6272 ISO 1520 ISO 1519

Test Standard UK

BS 3900 : Part E6 ------BS 3900 : Part E4 BS 3900 : Part E1

Test Index China

GB/T9286-1998 GB/T6739 -1996 GB/T1732 -1993 GB/T9753 -1988 GB/T6742 - 1986 1 H ­ 3H 10 ­ 60 kg cm 5 ­ 10 mm Depending on colour and type 0.5 ­ 2 mm

Chemical Resistance

Excellent resistance against: -Sea water -Tap water -Sulphuric acid, 20 % -Phosphoric acid, 30 % -Sodium hydroxide, 30 % -Acetic acid, 20 % -High alcohols Limited resistance against -Hydrochloric acid Concentration -Nitric acid 30 % -Petrol -Aromatic solvents

RAL Colors

RAL 1013 RAL 1003 RAL 3020 RAL 8014

BEIGE

RAL 9003

YELLOW

RAL 7004

RED

RAL 5015

BROWN

RAL 6005

GREY WHITE

BLUE

GREEN

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To Convert From

Length

inch (in) foot (ft) inch (in) foot (ft) inch (in) foot (ft) meter (m) meter (m) micrometer (µm) micrometer (µm) mil millimeter Inch yard meter = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

To

meter (m) meter (m) centimeter (cm) centimeter (cm) micrometer (µm) micrometer (µm) foot (ft) inch (in) foot (ft) inch (in) millimeter mil millimeter meter yard square square square square square square meter (m ) meter (m2) centimeter (cm2) centimeter (cm2) micrometer (µm2) micrometer (µm2)

2

Multiply By

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 2.540000 x 10 -1 3.048000 x 10 2.540000 +1 3.048000 x 10 +4 2.540000 x 10 +1 3.048000 x 10 3.280840 +1 3.937008 x 10 3.937008 x 10-5 3.280840 x 10-6 0.0254 39.37 25.4 0.9144 1.0936 6.451600 x 10 -2 9.290304 x 10 6.451600 +2 9.290304 x 10 +8 6.451600 x 10 +10 9.290304 x 10 +1 1.0764 x 10 +3 1.550003 x 10 -3 1.0764 x 10 -1 1.550003 x 10 -9 1.0764 x 10 -7 1.550003 x 10 654.16 0.0016 1.638706 x 10 -2 2.831685 x 10 1.638706 x 10+1 +4 2.831685 x 10 1.638706 x 10 +13 2.831685 x 10 +16 3.5315 x 10 +1 6.01024 x 10+4 3.5315 x 10 -5 -2 6.01024 x 10 29.5735 0.0338 0.061 3.785412 x 10

-3 -5 -4 -2

Abbreviations

Defl. S.F. ft. Pre-galv. O.C. PVC In. psi = Deflection = Safety Factor = Feet = Pre-galvanized Steel = On Center = Poly Vinyl Chloride = Inch = Pound per Square Inch

rea A

inch (in2) foot (ft2) inch (in2) foot (ft2) inch (in2) foot (ft2) square meter (m2) square meter (m2) sq. centimeter (cm2) sq. centimeter (cm2) sq.micrometer (µm2) sq.micrometer (µm2) inch 2 millimeter 2

m

Metric symbols

= Meter = Centimeter = Millimeter = Micrometer = Kilogram = pound = foot = Newton = Kilonewton = Pascal = Megapascal cm mm µm kg lb ft N kn Pa MPa

square foot (ft2) square inch (in2) square foot (ft2) square inch (in2) square foot (ft2) square inch (in2) millimeter 2 inch 2 cubic meter (m3) cubic meter (m3) cubic centimeter (cm3) cubic centimeter (cm3) cubic micrometer (µm3) cubic micrometer (µm3) cubic foot ( ft3) cubic inch (in 3) cubic foot (ft3) cubic inch (in3) centimeter 3 fluid ounce inch 3 cubic meter(m3) kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) ounce pound gram ounce (advp.) kilogram per meter (kg/m) kilogram per meter (kg/m) pound per foot (lb/ft) pound per inch (lb/in)

Volume

inch (in3) foot (ft3) inch (in3) foot (ft3) inch (in3) foot (ft3) cubic meter (m3) cubic meter (m3) cubic centimeter (cm3) cubic centimeter (cm3) fluid ounce centimeter 3 centimeter 3 gallon (U.S. liquid)

Mass

ounce pound kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) ounce (advp.) gram 2.834952 x 10 -1 4.535924 x 10 +1 3.527396 x 10 2.204622 28.3495 0.03527 1.488164 +1 1.785797 x 10 -1 6.719689 x 10 -1 5.599741 x 10

-2

Mass Per Unit Length

lb/ft lb/in kg/m kg/m

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To Convert From To

kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) pound per cubic foot (lb/ft3) pound per cubic inch (lb/inch3) pound per cubic inch (lb/inch3) x x x x x

Mass Per Unit Volume

lb/ft3 lb/in3 kg/m3 kg/m3 lbs/ft3

Multiply By

1.601846 2.767990 6.242797 3.612730 1.728000 x x x x x 10 +4 10 -2 10 -5 10 +3 10

+1

Abbreviations

Defl. S.F. Ft. Pre-galv. o.c. PVC In. psi = Deflection = Safety Factor = Feet = Pre-galvanized Steel = On Center = Poly Vinyl Chloride = Inch = Pound per Square Inch

Force

pounds-force (lbf) newtons (N)

newtons (N) pounds-force (lbf) degree Celsius degree Fahrenheit S (m3) I (m4) E (Pa) 3 S (in ) 3 I (in ) E (psi) newton meter (N.m) newton meter (N.m) lbf.ft lbf.in

x x

4.448222 x 10° 0.225 t°C = (t°F-32)1.8 t°F = 1.8 t°C+32

Temperature

degree Fahrenheit degree Celsius

Section Properties

section modulus S (in3) moment of inertia I(in4) modulus of elasticity E (psi) section modulus S (m3) moment of inertia I (m4) modulus of elasticity E (Pa)

Bending Moment or Torque

lbf.ft lbf.in N.m N.m

x x x x x x x x x x x

1.638706 4.162314 6.894757 6.102374 2.402510 1.450377

x x x x x x

10 -7 10 +3 10 +4 10 +6 10 -4 10

-5

Metric symbols

m cm mm µm kg lb ft N kn Pa MPa = Meter = Centimeter = Millimeter = Micrometer = Kilogram = pound = foot = Newton = Kilonewton = Pascal = Megapascal

1.355818 1.129848 x 10-1 -1 7.375621 x 10 8.850748

Mass Per Unit Area

lb/ft2 kg/m2 kilogram per square meter (kg/m2) pound per square foot (lb/ft2) x x 4.882428 -1 2.048161 x 10

Pressure or Stress

lbf/in2 (psi) kip/in2 (ksi) lbf/in2 (psi) tress pascal (Pa) pascal (Pa) megapascal (MPa) psi kPa MPa pascal (Pa) pascal (Pa) megapascal (MPa) pound-force per square inch (psi) kp per square inch (psi) lbf/in2 (psi) kPa psi psi x x x x x x x x x 6.894757 6.894757 6.894757 1.450377 1.450377 1.450377 6.8948 0.145 145 x x x x x x 10 +6 10 -3 10 -4 10 -7 10 +2 10

+3

Energy & Power

kW metric horsepower Btu J metric horsepower kW J Btu x x x x 1.3596 0.7355 1055.1 0.00095

Information

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