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Bibliography of Criticism of Indian Literature in English (19701990)

This is a working document still not complete. It is offered as a research tool and corrections, additions etc. are welcome. Please contact the coordinator [email protected] Arranged by Writers' Names, then alphabetically by critics' names. Document one of two: writers A to Nan...

Compilers: Paul Sharrad Shyamala Narayan Marvin Gilman Kerry Lyon Richard Lever

Contact: A/Prof. Paul Sharrad English Studies, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, Australia 2522 Phone: (61-2) 42214 757

Fax: (61-2) 42214471 email: [email protected]

This is a project in process. It will be of use as a preliminary research tool. Feedback is welcome. Additional annotations can be submitted for inclusion (authors will be acknowledged at the end of entries).

INDIA Author to be clarified MUKHERJEE, SUJIT. "Man, Poet and Critic" Indian Literature 14.2(1971): 5-11. [who?] WALSH, W. "Two Indian Poets" The Literary Criterion 11.3 (1974):1-16. [who?]

KARVE, IRAWATI. "Karna's Search for Identity" Vagartha 5 (1974):22-37. (drama?: either Kailasam or S. Raman) MAJUMDAR, A.K. "Portrait of an Indian Intellectual" Quest 91 (1974):21-32. check who and whether in English MUKHERJEE, M. "Form in The Puppet's Tale" Literary Criterion 12.2-3 The Literary Criterion 22.1 (1987):76-8.?? review? CHANDRAN, RAMESH. "The Maverick Master" India Today (November 30, 1987):1749. [??who?] RAMACHANDRAIAH, P. "The Submerged Valley and Other Stories" The Literary Criterion 22.2 (1987):65-6. review? GOKAK, V.K. "Meet the Author I: Towards the Integrated Man as the Ideal" Indian Literature 31.1 (January February 1988):87-102. who? what? PARASURAM, LAXMI. "Mountain: A New Dimension of Feminine Self-Perception" Literary Criterion 16.3 (1981):58-64.[author? genre?]

Abbas, Khwaja Ahmad HASIB, AHMAD. The Novels of Khwaja Ahmad Abbas: A Study in His Art and Vision Delhi: Seema Publications, 1987, x + 159 pp. Aiyar, Rajam ASHOKAMITRAN. "B.R. Rajam Aiyar and His Kamalambal Charitrans" The Literary Criterion 21.1&2 (1986):86-92.[????] PARAMESWARAN, UMA. "Rajam Aiyar's Vasudeva Sastry" The Literary Endeavour 6.1 (1985):55-67. Alexander, Meena SRIVASTAVA, K.G. "Meena Alexander" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 175-81. Ali, Ahmed ALI, AHMED. "The Progressive Writer's Movement and Its historical Perspective" Journal of South Asian Literature 13.1-4 (1977-78):91-7.

Corrects and contests the statements of N. M. Rashed about the origins and motives of the Progressive Writers Movement. Exposes Rashed's lack of historical and literary validity and questions his purpose in distorting facts about the progressives. Establishes the nonMarxist practice and intention of the Angare writers group which preceded the PWA. COPPOLA, CARLO. "The Poetry of Ahmed Ali" JIWE 8.1-2 (1980):63-76. Reprinted in SINGH, KIRPAL ed. Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984: 87-105. Best known for his fiction, Ali "feels that he best expresses himself" though his poetry in English. Biographical survey noting his Urdu short stories and 1938 disillusionment with the prescriptive politicisation of the Progressive Writers Association and the impact on poetry of his trips to China (Purple Gold Mountain, 1960). Early work of "naked emotion" drew on Persian rubai but China and translation work gave the model for "impersonalising personal experience". Themes cover loss of friends, memories of love and youth, unfulfilled hopes, life's evanescence. Illustrative commentary focusing on imagery. Poems grouped as "Exile" divide into early political didacticism and later working of political and historical critique into allegorical reference and symbol. Takes "Having been attacked for speaking the truth..." as his finest poem of this type. Generally, his work blends English Romantic, Chinese lyric and Urdu traditions, the last most deeply influential and its derivative quality makes it less than his fictional achievement, but there are individual poetic successes. GOWDA, H.H. ANNIAH. "Ahmed Ali's Twilight in Delhi and Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart" The Literary Half-Yearly 21.1 (1980): 11-18. Comparison of two treatments of societies disappearing under colonial rule, both grounded in historical detail and locality (Delhi of 1900-1910 and Iboland 1850-1900) and embodying the respective cultures in a central hero (Mir Nihal and Okonkwo), following the Victorian "linear bourgeois familial novel". Ali alludes to "farangi" incursion but attributes change to fate, while Achebe shows socio-historical forces at work. Notes the escalating impact of missions probing the weak points of traditional African society. Both books show civilisations that "collapse from within and are overwhelmed from without, and what replaces them appears most opposite to themselves, being built on what they had overlooked". Lyric and humour apply to the "ceremonies of innocence" before the Yeatsian tragic collapse. The authors both step in to explicate material but avoid anthropologising by being part of what they observe and by concentrating on the human drama. KING, BRUCE. "From Twilight to Midnight" in HASHMI, ALAMGIR ed. Worlds of the Muslim Imagination details??? Reads Rushdie's Midnight's Children, Ali's Twilight in Delhi and Ocean of Night, Attia Hosain's Sunlight on a Broken Column and Zulfikar Ghose's The Murder of Aziz Khan as a collective history of Muslim society from the Moguls to colonial decadence and Partition; a story of loss, exile, displacement. Ali began with naturalistic Urdu stories moving to a combination of poetic evocation and social realism carrying an early modernist view of decadence awaiting cleansing but capitulating to Western ideas. Hosain focusses impressionistically on the intersections of personal, political and religious independence within a woman's love story. Ghose depicts the deleterious effects on Punjab peasantry of modernising muslim immigrants from Bombay after Partition. Ghose and Rushdie evince a more complete modernism, separation of heart and mind reflected in expatriation and Rushdie's carnivalistic metafictional allegory substituting for loss of faith.

NIVEN, ALISTAIR. "Historical Imagination in the Novels of Ahmed Ali" JIWE 8.1-2 (January-July 1980):3-13. Reprinted in SINGH, KIRPAL ed. Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984: 1-15. Unlike much Third World fiction recording the disappearing past, Ali's novels Twilight in Delhi and Ocean of Night are not rural, but celebrate two centres of urban civilisation: Delhi and Lucknow, fatalistically hymning the fading glories of indian islamic culture and the plight of individuals cut off from tradition. The novels were both written in the late thirties (though Ocean only appeared in 1964) still in an Indian context (notes metaphysical simliarities between Rao and Ali in Ocean and engagé echoes of Anand) . Later poetry conventionally reproduces a muslim theme of mortal transience and death. Images of darkness envelop the novels but are related to linked private and public events and reistered in Asghar's swings between fantasy, self-pity and nostalgia, and Mir Nihal's growing old. The mass of humanity lives on in unaltered rhythm of rise and fall, reflecting LAi's essentially classical outlook. Notes a "kinship of mood" to Eliot, especially in Ocean with its images of time as dance. Ali's writing in English threatens to become part of the cultural decline from Urdu classical culture into modernity, just as its prose can become slack and its elegiac tone bathetic. Ocean moves to symbolism and dreams but is not altogether the lesser work; both novels are saved by the affirmation of God's constancy and human nobility in endurance and the dignity of Biblical-Koranic cadence. SHANKAR, D.A. "Ahmed Ali's Twilight in Delhi" Literary Criterion 15.1 (1980):73-80. Descriptive appreciation of Ali's detailing of the texture of a lost way of life. A classic relies on provincial rootedness, grounding ideas in individual sensibility as well as collective social history. Details of pigeons show the personalities of people around them and the values of a class and period now crumbling under foreign intrusion. The novel remains a minor classic limited by its closeness to its central family: it needs irony, humour and "comprehensiveness of understanding". STILZ, GERHARD. "`Live in Fragments No Longer': A Conciliatory Analysis of Ahmed Ali's Twilight in Delhi" in DAVIS, GEOFFREY & MAES-JELINEK, HENA eds. Crisis and Creativity in the New Literatures in English Amsterdam'Atlanta: Rodopi, 1990: 369-387. Bio-bibliographic survey of contradictions in Ali's life (India/Pakistan, Urdu/English, politics/Art) including his espousing both modern change and nostalgia for romantic beauty. His twilight metaphor corresponds to an "existential ambivalence" that reconciles opposites Narrative modes derive from the psychological novel offset by repetetive emphasis of a message and swinging from realism to romantic pathos. Twilight shows "the decline of a world that places art above reality". Alkazi, Roshen DUBEY, SURESH CHANDRA. "Roshen Alkazi and Mamta Kalia" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary IndoEnglish Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 201-16. Amanuddin, [Syed? or Urdu? Pakistan?] AMANUDDIN, SYED. "The Image of Woman in My Poetry" SARev (July 1979): 36-42. DIESENDORF, MARGARET. "Early Love Poems of Amanuddin" Creative Moment 3.1 (1974):35-41.

DWIVEDI, A.N. "Re-creating 'The Living Scenes of Contemporary Life": The Poetry of Syed Amanuddin" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:349-68. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Poetry of Syed Amanuddin: A Study in Diction and Versification" Journal of Indian Writing in English 13.2 (1985):56-67. Amanuddim follows the Modernist (especially American) turning to anti-sentimentalist colloquial language, innovative coinings and abbreviations and free form, varying his output across a wide range of topics from love to science. His most figurative language accurs in poems of spiritual adventure likened to Browning's dramatic monologues and Pound's Cantos. DWIVEDI, A.N. Syed Amanuddin: His Mind and Art New Delhi: Sterling, 1988, 160 pp. Ameeruddin, Syed DWIVEDI, A.N. "Imagery in the Poetry of Syed Ameeruddin" in RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 136-48. YASEEN, MOHAMMED. "Syed Ameeruddin's Poetry: A Critical Appraisal" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:369-78.

Anand, Mulk Raj ABIDI, S.Z.H. 'Coolie': A Critical Study Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1978. Repeats the generalised opinion on Anand's fiction as based on his beliefs in humanism, socialism and bhakti-yoga. Covers all aspects of critical perspectives in an extensive appraisal of 'Coolie'.Confirms accepted analysis of Anand's work as social critique. AGNIHOTRI, H.L. "Gandhian Ethos in Mulk Raj Anand" Journal of Literature and Aesthetics 3.1 (1083):43-53. Interested in economic and material reforms, Anand was not inclined to Gandhi's spiritual and moral programme but could not be indifferent to him as a nationalist leader. Details the biographical connections between the two and surveys Untouchable(Gandhi's appeal is through human warmth and popular myth but Anand allows practical questioning of his ideals), Coolie (shows the effect of the Left on the Union movement to be better than that of Gandhi's following), Two Leaves and a Bud (Gandhi wallahs try to imporve conditions on tea estates) and The Sword and the Sickle (Gandhi warped by revolutionary assimilation of his reputation, and as someone demanding personal reverence despite ideological difference). The last work fails to integrate its material into its aartistic structure. ANAND, MULK RAJ. Author to Critic: The Letters of Mulk Raj Anand, with introduction and notes by S. Cowasjee. Calcutta: Writers Worshop, 1973, 125 pp. A self-confessed erratic editing of Anand's letters, useful for finding views of the writer's sense of his own commitment to causes, his critique of " Vedantist" obfuscation over Indian cultural identity and social change, his position within Indian politics. Expresses real sympathy for the Indian peasant without putting aside some rather unfavourable traits. Totally rejects any easy us/them, East/West oppositions in embracing wholehearted support for an unconquerable humanism still occupying the centre of his worldview. ANAND, MULK RAJ. "Roots and Flowers: Content and Form in Untouchable and Kanthapura" Littcrit 8.1 (1982):47-60. see under Rao, Raja ANAND, MULK RAJ. "The Sources of Protest in my Novels" The Literary Criterion 18.4 (1983):1-12. Argument: Expresses his concerns as a novelist based on commitment to the common folk and his writing as the articulation of holy anger against the dehumanization of lower class Indians by the powerful elite few. Critical Focus: Provides context to overall assessment by differentiating himself from western critical categorization in pleading for special treatment within an Indian perspective. Critical Mode: Sociological analysis of Indian society as a site of struggle between the traditional force of the powerful and the emergin groups seeking change and improvement for the masses. 4) Not Applicable! [MG>RL] ASNANI, SHYAM M. "Untouchability and Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable" Banasthali Patrika 6.16 (1971):31-6. Argues that untouchability is really not an honourable Hindu belief and its continuing hold on the religious impairs any attempt to eradicate the problem and its unjustifiable suffering. Thematic critique of Hinduism itself and the rigid intolerance that the higher castes continue to hold. Moral valuation based on Brahminical investigation of Hindu holy books denies traditional religious support to untouchability as a tenet of Hinduism.

ASNANI, SHYAM. "Socio-Political Concerns in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand" Triveni 45 .1 (1976):38-50. Praises Anand as a champion of the underprivileged lower castes of India but does not assert any political motivation for this stance. Thematic unity established in the so-called early trilogy, Untouchable, Coolie, and Two Leaves and a Bud. Attempts sociological analysis of the caste system and its effect on India's millions of underprivileged. ASNANI, S.M. "The Theme of East-West Encounter in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand" Littcrit 7 (1978):11-19. Reiterates previous commentary by Cowasjee, Naik and Sinha on the 1930s novels. `East-West encounter' is between culture of birth and culture of education operating at personal (social), racial (cultural) and philosophic (religious) levels. Anand espouses an Indian modernity but in revolting against negative aspects of tradition neglects nobler elements of Eastern heritage and favours Western materialism. Thematic criticism focussed on Coolie, Two leaves and a Bud and The Big Heart.. ASNANI, S.M. "A Critique of Mulk Raj Anand's Literary Creed" Commonwealth Quarterly 4.15 (1980):64-85. Assembles Anand's views on the novel to argue a "steadfast consistency" across his work. The artist is a heroic striver for all-encompassing comprehension of human experience within prohetic vision. The novel manages contrasts of inner emotion and outer reality, Western modern and Eastern traditional narrative forms, passion and reason, not as didactic moralising but as a dialectic tension introducing new areas of human experience to Indian writing in English. Notes Anand's oppositio to Rao's preachy abstraction, the modernist use of detached first-person veiwpoint and stream of consciousness. Basically a novelist of character, Anand mixes realism with dream and memory and creates his `Pigeon English' as a way of conveying localised speech and thinking. BALD, SURESH RENJEN. "Politics of a Revolutionary Elite: A Study of Mulk Raj Anand's Novels" Modern Asian Studies 8(1974):473-89. Offers incisive evidence of the basic conflicts debilitating the aggressive Marxist revolutionary position present in Anand's pre-1945 fiction. Focuses on the theme of revolution as the only way to real social change for the underprivileged Indian masses. Selects elitism, paternalism, industrialism and collectivism as the major components in the totality of Anand's revolutionary stance. Bald's critical perceptions are of primary importance in thorough analysis of Anand's politics. BANERJEE, SURABI. "Irony as a Stylistic Device: A Note on the Opening Chapter of Across the Black Waters" Journal of Literature and Aesthetics 2. 2&3 (1982):63-6. Criticism concentrates on Anand's social and historical, though he himself emphasises "how one says it". Study of the narrative stance of the opening of Across the Black Waters (1940) reveals shifts from omniscient narration to Lalu's thoughts to dialogue. These are echoed in the plotlessness and reflect ironically the general confusion in the uneducated Indian troops set down in Europe and in the war itself. BERRY, MARGARET. Mulk Raj Anand: The Man and the Novelist Amsterdam: Oriental Press, 1971, 114 pp. Probes the question of values in Anand himself and in his writing and seeks to determine whether they have been transmitted through his fiction. Examines the details of the

novels in pursuit of the messages of Anand's non-fictional views and theories. Finds Anand failed to achieve detachment, disinterestedness and freedom from commitment to causes. Universalist standards upheld as basis of critical assessments. CARTER, D. "Probing Identities: Untouchable, Things Fall Apart, and This Earth My Brother" The Literary Criterion 14.3 (1979):14-29. Correlates individual identity and national identity as primary concern for fictions from within the New Literatures in English. Focuses on individual's quest as a microcosm for the national identity under the stress of imperialism. Examines the similarities of sociological and psychological traits of African and Indian fictional representations. CHAUDHURY, JASBIR. "Images of Women in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand" PURBA 16.2 (October 1985):47-56. CHELLAPPAN, K. "The Child Archetype in the Commonwealth Short Stories: Katherine Mansfield, Janet Frame and Mulk Raj Anand" The Commonwealth Review 1.1 (1989): 6068. CHINESWARARAO, G.J. " Anand's Private Life and Malgonkar's Princes'Journal of Indian Writing in English 4.1 (1976): 15-20. Anand offers a study of lonely, troubles character; Malgonkar is distant from his more confident character, commenting on events of the time. COWASJEE, SAROS. "Mulk Raj Anand: The Early Struggles of a Novelist" The Journal of Commonwealth Literature 7.1(1972):49-56. Asserts commitment as primary motivation for Anand's writing. Presents background material on Anand's attempt to locate a publisher, especially for 'Untouchable', from factual evidence contained in letters by E.M. Forster, Bonamy Dobree and others. COWASJEE, SAROS. " Anand's Literary Creed" The Journal of Indian Writing in English 1.1(1973):66-70. Cowasjee claims no development in theory or attitude throughout Anand's writing. Anand's principles about fiction owe much to Flaubert and his readings of Marxist dialectics. Analysis centred on Anand as a committed political writer and his contribution to the evolving nationalism of India under the dominance of British colonialism. COWASJEE, SAROS. "Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable: An Appraisal" Literature East and West 17.2-4 (December 1973):199-211. Examines the three solutions proffered by Anand's text to the problem of the untouchable. Character study based on the situation of the untouchable and the choice of possibilities which may alleviate the problem. Includes an evaluation of Hindu morality with the Mahatma's teachings praised as offering guidelines to the eventual resolution of the untouchable situation. COWASJEE, SAROS. "Anand's Two Leaves and a Bud" Indian Literature 16.3&4(1973):134-47. A discussion of fiction as propaganda with a comparison to Orwell's 'Burmese Days' (1934) used as example. In vestigates Anand's writing style, especially his choice of language,

dismissing any criticism of it as "babu-like". Analyses the morality of British and Indian characters built upon biblical concepts of good and evil. COWASJEE, SAROS. " Mulk Raj Anand's Coolie: an Appraisal" Banasthali Patrika 8.19 (1972; pub. 1974):8-19. Cowasjee continues his assessment of Anand's fiction as propaganda with nationalistic overtones. Examines colonialism as a system of repression and exploitation. Offers sociological analysis of the effects of British rule on the caste system. COWASJEE, S. "Mulk Raj Anand's The Sword and the Sickle" in RAO, K.S. NARAYANA. ed. World Literature Written in English 14.2 (1975): 267-277. 1) Seeks to clarify earlier misreadings by insisting on the author's considerable achievement in using thoroughly accurate historical material to remarkable effect. 2) Perceives lalu, the main character, represents Anand's sounding board to test various revolutionary approaches to the Indian problem. 3) Focuses on the nationalist perspective by asserting the novel's factual correctness based on Nehru's "An Autobiography" (1936) and Svetlana (?) Alliluyeva's "Only One Year" (1969). COWASJEE, SAROS. "Mulk Raj Anand's The Big Heart: A New Perspective" ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series, No. 2 (1975):83-6. 1) Reiterates previous treatments of Anand's work as dominated by concern for the poor and underprivileged trapped by India's class and caste systems. 2) closely examines the character of Ananta and finds him a victim of rage and insanity, not of religious or political creed, and his sacrifice is the sacrifice of the unselfish man for humanity. 3) sociological analysis based on economic determinism as fundamental principle in a capitalist society. 4) See also Kakatiya Journal of English Studies volume 11 (II?) no.1 Spring 1977, 85-92. COWASJEE, S. Mulk Raj Anand, Coolie, An Assessment Delhi: OUP, 1976, 62 pp. (NB. annotation says An Appraisal, not `assessment']. Continuing assessment of Anand's fiction as propaganda with nationalistic overtones. 2) Examines colonization as a system of repression and exploitation. 3) Sociological analysis of the effects of British rule in the caste system. COWASJEE, S. So Many Freedoms: A Study of the Major Fiction of Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: OUP, 1977, x + 205 pp. Suggests the social impulse conditioned by Marxist dialectics occupies the centre of meaning in Anand's writing. Categorises Anand as a political novelist, connecting his fiction to the social, economic and political events of his time. Claims the author's extensive use of irony destroys the mythic romanticisation of India by Western writers. Follows no particular school of criticism by utilising many approaches in an eclectic mix of critical strategies. COWASJEE, S. "Mulk Raj Anand's Confession of a Lover" International Fiction Review 4 (1977):18-22. Contextualises autobiographical details in this third volume of Anand's mammoth project in seven volumes, Seven Ages of Man.Extremely detailed authorial examination of himself as debilitated by self-praise and self-deception. Psychological analysis of author's character hindered by simplistic interpretation. COWASJEE, SAROS. "Mulk Raj Anand: The Hard Road to Fiction": 82-96.

in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 DAS, G.K. "Between Two Heritages: A Note on Mulk Raj Anand's Confession of a Lover" The Indian Literary Review I.2 (1978):6-14. DHAR, T.N. "The Big Heart" The Indian Literary Review 5.3 (1987):33-8. DHAWAN, R.K. "Mulk Raj Anand: Coolie" in PRADHAN, N.S. ed. Major Indian Novels: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986: 1-21. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986. DOMMERGUES, A. "An Interpretation of Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable" Commonwealth 8.1 (1985):14-23. 1) Reiterates previously expressed opinions without offering any new considerations. 2) Discusses the character of Bakha (?) and the gradual shift in his perspective due to the experiences undergone during the time frame of the novel to a probable breakthrough based on shattering the codes of silence and submission surrounding untouchability. 3) Places great emphasis on language, especially the spoken word and its potentialities to liberate, as a vital component in coming to grips with the author's implied suggestion that education is the most powerful force available to counteract the vicious cycle of untouchability. FISHER, M. "Interview with Mulk Raj Anand" WLWE 13 (1974):109-22. Discusses Anand's ideas about literature as organicist and motivated by passion for writing and a commitment to life. Provides context by the author himself into various aspects of influence, politics and personalities which have played significant roles in shaping his writing career. FISHER, M. "The Shape of Lostness: Mulk Raj Anand's Short Stories" Journal of Indian Writing in English 2.2 (1974):1-11. Anand's short stories exhibit variety and control of form and tone. They reinterpret old myths by recreating new ones suitable to contemporary experience. The theme of inner lostness has genuinely universal significance. Close reading of selected short stories establishes comparative aspects relating to moral condition of fictive subjects. FISHER, MARLENE. The Wisdom of the Heart: A Study of the Works of Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: Sterling, 1985, xi + 207. 1) Again points to humanism as the driving force for Anand's work centred on the need for social justice. 2) An in-depth investigation based on expansive (?) personal interviews with the author. Devotes considerable attention to Anand's preoccupation with Indian art.3) Establishes interrelatedness of author's biodata with strategic developments in content and control of his works of fiction. FISHER, MARLENE. "Mulk Raj Anand: A Study in his Confessional Novels":97-106. in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 GUPTA, G.S. "Dr Mulk Raj Anand's Prose-poems" Contemporary Indian Literature 3 (1971):13-15.

GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. Mulk Raj Anand: A Study of his Fiction in Humanist Perspective Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1973, xi + 163 pp. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "Towards A Closer Understanding of Anand" in SHARMA, K.K. ed. Indo-English Literature: a Collection of Critical Essays, Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977: 113-20. 1) Claims "comprehensive historical humanism" has been the principle position behind his literary efforts. 2) Investigates the responses to questions put in correspondence with the author. 3) Reprinted from Sharma, K. K. ed. Indo-English Literature: A Collection of Critical Essays (Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977): 113-20. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable: The Dialectics of SelfAffirmation" in NAIK, M.K. Perspectives on Indian Fiction in English New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985: 13-20. HARREX, S.C. "Western Ideology and Eastern Forms of Fiction: The Case of Mulk Raj Anand" in AMIRTHANAYAGAM, GUY. ed. Asian and Western Writers in Dialogue: New Cultural Identities London: Macmillan, 1982: 142-58. Argues a correlation between Anand's quest for ideological structure and fictional form. Labelling his novels "socio-political messianic", Harrex finds Untouchable a successful expression of commitment that avoids diatribe arising from a combination of factors including Anand's "self-projection" whereby objective social realism includes subjective felt experience and the quest "to fuse Western realist tradition [with] the Indian tradition of the moral fable". Reads Apology for Heroism for details of the author's search for an adequate form to convey the life of common people. Anand rejects the `dead myth' of Vedantic Absolutism and turns to the Western novel, but increasingly attempts to assert an Indian modification of realism in a reflection of his own ambivalence about East and West, tradition and modernity. He moves to a more Romantic position in expounding his idea of "body-soul drama". Defends Anand against charges of communist propagandising. Charts Anand's struggle to shape novelistic amorphousness and autobiography into a moral fable of awakening consciousness in Untouchable, seeing its success in The Big Heart. Private Life of an Indian Prince changes the viewpoint to achieve more detachment. The `Lalu trilogy' comprehensively attempts an allegorical representation of "the meaning for India of the modern historical process." IYENGAR, K.R. SRINIVASA. "The Bubble: A Novel by Mulk Raj Anand" Commonwealth Quarterly 14.38 (1989): 57-62. 1) Claims impresive achievement for this fourth part of Anand's seven-part autobiographical novel. 2) Character's self-discovery as novel records coming of age in hothouse atmosphere of international artistic world. 3) Psychological analysis correlates the bubble of the title to individual's ego and its development and growth. 4) Doesn't break any new ground here. KAKATIYA Journal of English Studies 2.1 (1977) special issue. Ed Satyanarain Singh. See individual entries: Chatterjee, Fisher, Gupta, Afterword: "Why I Write" by Anand, chronology, bibliography.

BHATTACHARYA, B.K. "Two Leaves and a Bud: Truth and Fiction": 39-47. 1) Traces the purported real life incidents in Assam on which Anand probably based his fiction. 2) Expands on the white planters' methods of dealing with opposition to their exploitation. 3) Locates this novel within the nationalist phase dedicated to a political change for India. CHATTERJEE, D. "Gandhi's Influence on Anand and his Fiction":149-62. Anand's commitment is to `Man' as a humantist, though he refers to himself as a `pseudo-Gandhian'. He admired Gandhi because of his love for the underprivileged but departd from his Hindu orthodoxy. Gandhi's influence is most seen in Untouchable (1935) The Sword and the Sickle (1942) and the biographical Confession of Love (1976). COWASJEE, S. "The Big Heart: A New Perspective":85-92. Repeat of ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series No. 2 (1975): 83-6. See Cowasjee entry. COWASJEE, SAROS. "The Princes in Indian Fiction": 48-70. FISHER, M. "Confession of a Lover":107-18. The third book of the biographical "Seven Ages of Man' series, this looks at young Krishan Chander's rites of passage, experiencing different facets of love as spiritual education and experimenting with poetic images to find his voice. Each of the three novels ends with hopeful moving on to a new phase of life; this first-person narrative starts top blend the other voices of its forerunners. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "Anand in Letters":210-18. Assembles excerpts from correspondence 1968-73, showing the importance of `karuna' (compassion) to Anand's humanism and supporting the idea that he believed unsystematically in `the wisdom of the heart' rather than in Marxism. KOHLI, S. "The Road":232-4. a note. IYENGAR, K.R.SRINIVASA. "Morning Face":239-43. a note. LINDSAY, J. "Mulk Raj Anand":1-4. Seeks to provide a basis for Anand's place in world literature. Contextualises Anand within the 1930s group of writers who made up an international avant-garde concerned with protest against the debilitating effects of imperialism and fascism. Notes his vital connections to Rabindranath Tagore and the Indian working class milieu. MELWANI, M.D. "Approaches to Anand's Short Stories":119-24. 1) Provides an overview of various critical approaches utilized on Anand's short fiction. 2) Looks at critical practices and the differing conclusions they offer about his short stories. 3) Seeks to deconstruct any system of critical inquiry previously applied by pleading for an evaluative scheme based on an individuated study of each story. MURTHY, S. LAXMANA. "Bakha: An Existential Analysis" :163-75. 1) Perceives Anand is not a humanist or Marxist but closely involved with existentialism, especially in his portrayal of Bakha's alienation in Untouchable (1935). 2)

Character study of Bakha based on Camus's The Rebel (1950), although tradition prevents any actual rebellion. 3) Grapples with existentialist doctrine in trying to reveal another approach to Untouchable (1935). MURTI, K.V.SURYANARAYANA. "Seven Summers: Anand's Fictional Matrix" :71-84. Considers Seven Summers (1951) to be the prologue to Anand's oeuvre, containing all his themes and techniques, images and symbols as the microcosm of his fictional world, the seven volume series, Seven Ages of Man. 2) Offers the quest motif as the guiding form behind the novel's construction. 3) claims Anand has adopted Aldous huxley's theory of "musicalization of fiction" to his writing. NIVEN, A. "Myth into Moral: Mulk Raj Anand's The Old Woman and the Cow":93106. Repeat of ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series No. 3(1975):30-6. See Niven entry. NIVEN, A. "The 'Lalu' Trilogy of Mulk Raj Anand":17-38. Repeat of The Literary Half-Yearly 13.1 (1972):31-49. See Niven entry. RAMAKRISHNA, D. "Anand's Idea of the Novel":190-9. 1) Reveals Anand's regard for Proust's Remembrance of Things Past (19??) fostered his his utilization of stream of consciousness technique. 2) Finds Anand's novelistic form determined by his main character's evolution into an awakened consciousness. 3) Applies Northrop Frye's definition of form to Anand's case. Compares Anand's fictional aesthetics with Henry James' views in The Art of Fiction (1884). RAO, E. NAGESWARA. "Dialogue in Forster and Anand: A Contrastive Analysis":176-89. 1) Analyses discourse by pinpointing the problem of transcribing Indian speech paterns into English. 2) Contrastive analysis of dialogue in A Passage to India (1924) and Untouchable (1935) based on their similarity in linguistic, geographical and cultural backgrounds. 3) Linguistic structures are intensely examined. Finds Forster and Anand did not make attempts to alter English syntax and grammar by transferring the grammatical and syntactic deviations of Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi into English. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, D. "Death of a Hero":235-8. a note. ROBERTSON, R.T. "Untouchable as an Archetypal Novel":5-16. See also World Literature Written in English Vol. 14 No. 2 November 1975 The University of Texas,Arlington:339-346. [See Item, Robertson] SHARMA, A.R. "Folk Elements in Anand's Novels":200-9. 1) Considers the incorporation of Punjabi folklore within Anand's fiction, especially the Lalu trilogy. 2) Describes Punjabi folk motifs and Anand's utilization of them. This enables him to accurately represent the spirit of the peasant character. 3) Claims Anand unites the negative and positive aspects of the folk tradition in his imaginitive extension of folk heros into modern anti-heros. SINGH, SATYANARAIN. "Yoke of Pity: The Poet in Anand's Novels" :125-48.

1) Examines the poet figure as representative of Anand's spiritual vision of life in Untouchable (1935), Death of A Hero (1964), and Confession of a Lover (1976). 2) Character study of the poet figure as integrative force in Anand's fiction representing the `conscience' of the novel. 3) Applies Brahminical concept of Karuna or pity as the basic underpinning to Anand's work. KAUSHIK, R.K. "From potter's Wheel to Dragon's Teeth: Character Delineation in Mulk Raj Anand's Novels" Mahfil 6.4 (1970):17-31. Attacks Anand's characters for lack of sophisticated development as Anand's Marxist ideology overrode his authorial integrity. Makes an extensive investigation of characterisation considered as deliberately driven by ideological commitment. Capitalist/Marxist dichotomy explored as major premise. KAUSHIK, ASHA & IQBAL NARRAIN. "The Democratic Experiment and Social Change in India: Some Perceptions from Mulk Raj Anand" 61-77 in Narain, Iqbal & Lutze, Lothar, eds. Literature, Social Consciousness and Polity New Delhi: Manohar, 1987, xv + 131 pp. KAUSHIK, R.K. "Red, Brown and Gray: Ideological Commitment in Mulk Raj Anand's Novels" in SHARMA, K.K. ed. Indo-English Literature: a Collection of Critical Essays, Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977: 101-12. 1) Perceives Anand's prose (sp?) masquerades as ideological warfare and classifies it as fanatic dogmatism. 2) attacks his writing style saturated by pervasive pessimism but Kaushik's suggested alternative demands an acceptance og God on the writer's part. Reprinted from Sharma, K. K. ed Indo-English Literature: A Collection of Critical Essays (Ghaziabad: Vimal Prahashan, 1977): 101-12. KHER, INDER NATH. " Mulk Raj Anand: Encounter with Dark Passion" Journal of Indian Writing in English 11.2 (1983):3-8. Psychological analysis of Private Life of an Indian Prince (1953), concluding that the Mahararja's mind has totally disintegrated into madness because of his inability to contend with his uncontrolled sexuality. Acknowledges a major debt to Krishna Nandan Sinha (sp?) for this analysis. 2) A character study based on psychological guidelines. Comparison to Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby made. 3) Psycho-sexual analysis. 4) NA. KLAUS, GUSTAV, H. "Zum Beispiel Coolie" Germanisch-romanische Monatsschriften 28.4 (1978):453-67. KULSHRESTHA, CHIRANTAN. "The Hero as Survivor: Reflections on Anand's Untouchable" WLWE 19.1 (1980):84-91. By introducing the concept of the survivor, Kulshrestha extends existing claims that Anand's fiction has an overall aesthetic unity as well as notable political and sociological commentary. The image of the survivor studied in comparison to Solzhenitsyn's One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich and Malamud's The Fixer. Morally evaluates the image of the survivor as superior to the conventional tragic hero in respect to higher ethical principles and an unwavering sense of duty. MATHUR, O.P. "Two Modern Versions of the Sita Myth: Narayan and Anand" JCL 21.1 (1986):16-25. 1) Mathur establishes an Indain mythis basis for Narayan's and Anand's modern interpretations. 2) Mathur focuses on myth as structure which is received and reinterpreted on

the writer's `own terms'. 3) Comparative approach concerns issues of similarity and difference between mythic basis and individual talent's treatment of mythic structure on his `own terms'. 4) Nothing new here. MATHUR, O. P. " Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchables [sic] and Richard Wright's Bigger Thomas: A comparative Study in Social Protest and Affirmation." LHY 19.2 (1978). 115-28. 1) Identifies these fictions as examples of "revolutionary romanticism" motivated by the "socialist" humanism of their authors. Reiteration of Anand's socialist principles. 2) Distinguishes some notable differences between the black American and the untouchable Hindu, although both are marginalised by their societies as dispossed minorities. 3) Investigation of religious credos based on Gandhian Hinduism and renewed Christianity found to have similar solutions to societal problems. 4) Nothing new here. MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. "The Tractor and the Plough: The Contrasted Visions of Sudhin Ghose and Mulk Raj Anand" in MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. ed. Considerations: Twelve Studies of Indo-Anglian Writing New Delhi: Allied, 1977: 111-21. 1) Analyses four contrasts in the writing of Sudhin Ghose and Mulk Raj Anand: I) Realism and Myth ii) Reason and Faith iii) Attitude towards the Past iv) Concept of Art. Claims progress to be Anand's key belief in his fiction. Anand values dynamism and active participation in changing social conditions. 2) Investigates technical aspects dealing with resources used to generate material. 3) Contrasts formalism of Ghose with realism of Anand. 4) Critical mode to historical development: Nothing new here. MURTI, K.V. SURYANARAYANA. The Sword and the Sickle: A Study of Mulk Raj Anand's Novels Mysore: Geetha Book House, 1983, 162 pp. NAIK, M.K. Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1973, 199pp. Pursues the complex of issues arising from the clash between Indian tradition and Western modernity as it applies to Anand's writing. Opposes the openly positive assessments of the author by expressing agreement with highly critical comments by K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar. Adopts a formalist/sociological approach to Anand's oeuvre locating his best efforts as reliant upon traditional Hindu material enlightened by judicious use of Western modernist concepts. NAIK, M.K. "Introduction" Selected Short Stories of Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: ArnoldHeinemann. 1977: 9-31. Cites Anand's debt to Indian traditional tales and his mother's storytelling, to Tolstoy, Gorky, Turgenev and Powys. Notes his social satire, comic touches andpsychological perception. Divides the stories into `lyric awareness', animal fabels, the pathos of the oppressed and overt satire. Stories cover a wide range of settings and characters, all with a strong narrative drive, though occasionally with drawn-out beginnings and `poeticising'. They have the `galloping tempo' and `opulent' idiom of Indian speech. NAIK, M.K. "The Achievement of Mulk Raj Anand" Journal of Indian Writing in English 1.1 (1973):41-50. Naik argues that Anand is a committed writer attached to conscious humanist convictions and humanitarian compassion. A defence of formalist conventions as lacking in Anand's work. Lack of formalist orthodoxy evidenced in three distinct ways: a) character

development fixed by his social commitment, b) overstatement of commitment tends to produce melodrama or farce, c) intrusive authorial comment corrupts character delineation. NASIMI, REZA AHMAD. The Language of Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao and R.K. Narayan Delhi: Capital Publishing House, 1989, vi+88 pp. NIRANJAN, SHIVA. "The Nature and Extent of Gandhi's Impact on the Early Novels of Mulk Raj Anand and Raja Rao" Commonwealth Quarterly 3.11 (1979): 36-46. The Gandhian movement gave Indian English writers a way of connecting with Indian feeling and national commitment. Narayan's Waiting for the Mahatma is a controversial exception to fiction dealing with Gandhi. Anand, though personally affected by him, and allowing him as a character in Untouchable to move Bakha towards a hopeful future, does not give Gandhi a central or definitive role: emotional solace is not matched by practical outcomes. The Sword and the Sickle differentiates between Gandhi and his less pure followers. Lalu's respects Gandhi but his reservations about his ideas (on non-violence, for example) reflect Anand's own. Raja Rao makes a village's realisation of Gandhian thought a pervasive force in Kanthapura and Gandhi more a mythic, divine figure. He does not appear in the novel. Notes the disappearance of Gandhi novels after Independence. NIVEN, ALASTAIR. "The 'Lalu Trilogy' of Mulk Raj Anand" The Literary Half-Yearly 13.1 (1972):31-49. Offers support for Anand's central character as a microcosm of Indian peasantry in the crucial period of the First World War and its aftermath. Concentrates totally on character development and its wider implications. Sociological analysis founded on understanding conditions of poverty which exacerbate political issues and require political solutions. Niven introduces some concepts of Frantz Fanon's work into his conclusion but does not exploit Fanon's theories in detail. See also Kakatiya Journal of English Studies Vol. 11 No. 1 Spring 1977: 17-38. NIVEN, A. "Myth into Moral: Mulk Raj Anand's The Old Woman and the Cow" ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series, No. 3 (1975):30-36. Asserts that The Old Woman and The Cow(1960) surpasses Anand's other novels of the 1960s in quality and remains one of his strongest works, comparable to Untouchable(1935). Anand handles his first female protagonist with understanding and insight and places her story of domestic insignificance into a national and mythic context. Notes the overtly classical framework taken from The Ramayana. Offers the view that Anand has transformed this epic tale to express a basic tenet of his own beliefs: that men and women do not repeat the mistakes of their past but are saved from this repetition by cutting loose from tradition and grasping the new. See also Kakatiya Journal of English Studies Vol. 11 No. 1 Spring 1977:93-106. NIVEN, ALISTAIR. The Yoke of Pity: A Study of the Fictional Writings of Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980, 144pp. reissued 1984. NIVEN, ALASTAIR. The Yoke of Pity A Study in the Fictional Writings of Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 1978. Niven asserts that Anand seeks a regenerated social order for India rather than merely advocating a single political strategy for change. Recontextualises his fiction as important contributions to humanist themes common to many writers, such as D. H. Lawrence and

Chinua Achebe. The fundamental guideline to comprehending all his work is understanding the individual's freedom to act undergoes constant compromise by collective social forces. NIVEN, ALISTAIR. The Yoke of Pity: A Study of the Fictional Writings of Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980, 144pp. reissued 1984. [check year: 78?] Niven asserts that Anand seeks a regenerated social order for India rather than advocating a single political strategy for change. Recontextualises Anand's fiction as important contributions to humanist themes common to many writers, such as D. H. Lawrence and Chinua Achebe. Assesses the individual's freedom to act constantly compromised by collective social forces as the fundamental guideline to comprehending Anand's entire production. PACHORI, SATYA S. " Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable: A Study in Search of Selfhood" Commonwealth Novel In English 2.2 (July 1983):41-9. Aligns Anand with Modernist self-consciousness and close-up probing of inner life in realtion to society. bakha's sensory intuitive understanding follows Anand's study of Hume, Locke and Berkely (his feel of British clothes helps to shift his mind towards broader realisations manifested in the Brahmin-touching incident, and his withdrawal to sleep and sun figures a rebirth into new awareness). Anand finally rejects Hume's passive receptor model, but is caught in a Modernist focus on `heroism of consciousness' rather than definite social action. PACKHAM, GILLIAN. "Mulk Raj Anand's New Myth" New Literature Review 8 (1980):45-53. Locates a workable pattern operating beneath the surface of Anand's entire oeuvre. The pattern is as follows: the protagonist observes injustice and contradictions in society and is driven to reform it, in doing so he asserts his individuality and finds himself isolated from society. By searching for ways out of his isolation, he develops intellectually and morally until, by the close of the novel, he has achieved definite personal values. Claims that Anand calls this pattern which shows the individual struggling to understand his situation and to achieve new values based on love his "New Myth". Anand's "New Myth" is a conscious reinterpretation of traditional myths. A cornerstone of Anand's literary theory states that ancient literature always found man struggling against an all-powerful fate, but that the fate which is confronted in modern literature is the power for good and evil which lies within the individual. His "New Myth" is a myth of struggle for personal integration founded on the achievement of new values. Psychological probe of Anand's oeuvre discovers this recurring pattern in his work. Relates this pattern to Anand's own life and perceives it again in his autobiographical magnum opus, Seven Ages of Man, and for a third time in his fictional novels. PALLAN, RAJESH K. "Encounter with the Self: A Study of the Confessional Mode in Mulk Raj Anand's The Bubble" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 11-23. PAUL, PREMILA. "Anand's Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts: A Thematic Analysis" Journal of Indian Writing in English 6.2 (1978):70-77. PAUL, PREMILA. The Novels of Mulk Raj Anand: A Thematic Study New Delhi: Sterling, 1983, 183 pp.

1) Identifies Anand's pervasive themes as the caste system, the class structure, religion, education and the status of women. 2) Concentrates entirely on these five themes as they are expanded upon in most fictions. 3) Concerned with existentialist issues such as loss of identity, rootlessness and isolation and Anand's empirical approach to these social realities. PONTES, HILDA. "A Select Checklist of Critical Responses to Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable" Journal of Commonwealth Literature 23.1 (1988): 189-98. Brief introduction notes origins in the autobiographical 2000-page `confessional'; social radicalism presented through the "body-soul drama of Bakha", a blend of folk-tale fabulism and western realist short story plus Joycean stream of consciousness. Approximately 80 entries with rudimentary annotation. PONTES, HILDA. "The Education of a Rebel: Mulk Raj Anand" Literary Half-Yearly 27.2 (July 1986):105-22. 1) Suggests British imperialism forced English language education and values on Anand and his generation. 2) Biographical details concerning Anand's schooling and its ramifications on his personal educational attainments. 3) Sociological investigation of British influence and control on Indian educational system. PONTES, HILDA. "Untouchable: A Classic in Experimentation of Theme and Technique" in GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA., ed. Studies in Indian Fiction in English Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987: 128-41. PRASAD, R. NARENDA. "Pollution in Untouchable and Scavenger's Son" Littcrit 6.2 (1980):32-8. Compares Anand to Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai. Both focus on the idea of ritual pollution as the basis for untouchability, but Pillai broadens his scope, surveying three generations to show "the workers' fight against all exploitation". Anand individualises Bakha and moves him to a visionary promise, whereas Pillai's Chudalamuthu climbs materially to a better future and alienates himself from his fellows. Pillai wrote after Independence and the outlawing of untouchability in Kerala; for Anand the problem was still religious beliefs, hence Gandhi's importance. Bakha is a limited seeker after enlightenment rather than a workingclass hero, and yearns for human touch and the warmth of nature; Pillai's story is more external and melodramatic. RAJAN, P.K. "Conflict and Resolution in The Tractor and the Corn Goddess" Littcrit 9.2 (1983):15-19. This "satirical commentary on the social life of precapitalist India" expresses Anand's consistent theme of industrialised modernity contending with tradition. Ambivalent symbolism and resolution shows Anand's Gandhian ambivalence towards social issues. A village narrator `storytells' a modern short story in which the triumph of the tractor rests in its not affecting ancient beliefs, and the comic victory of the villagers is stage-managed by the landowning elite ushering in `progress'. RAJAN, P.K. Studies in Mulk Raj Anand New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1986, viii + 122pp. RAO, E. NAGESWARA. "The Dialogue Is the Thing: A Contrastive Analysis of Fictional Speech in Forster and Anand" 138-47 in Shahane, Vasant A., ed. Approaches to E.M.

Forster: A Centenary Volume New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1981; Atlanbtic Highlands: Humanities, 1981, 177pp. [See Rao entry under KAKATIYA] REDDY, K.V. " Mulk Raj Anand's Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts" Journal of Indian Writing in English 5.2 (1977):28-36. Questions rejection of this work by Naik and others. As character study and satire it arouses compassion and outrage. Focuses on the stress of an orphan's upbringing in the development of Nur's life. He fails to succeed because he lacks conventionally sedirable ethnic origin, parental occupation and connections to influential persons. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, D. "Mulk Raj Anand's Confession of a Lover" WLWE 16.1: 105-9; and Indian Author 2.1 (1977):73-6. Probes the interrelatedness of autobiographical details and fictitious renderings of authorial search for truth. Analyses the thematic cohesion of Indian writing in English centred upon a quest for identity. Grapples with the concept of alienation from traditional Hindu society and values as the fundamental motivation for Indian intellectual's pursuit of the meaning of self. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, D. "Saros Cowasjee's So Many Freedoms: A Study of the Major Fiction of Mulk Raj Anand" Journal of the School of Languages 7.1&2 (1978-9):150-5. Offers praise for Cowasjee's erudite and expansive treatment of Anand's oeuvre but admonishes him for not separating textual criticism from authorial intent. Cowasjee resources a range of critical approaches in an eclectic mix of criticism. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, DIETER. "Mulk Raj Anand: Coolie; The Old Woman and the Cow; Untouchable" Kindlers Neues Literatur-Lexicon Bd. 1 Munchen (1988):407-09, 410-11. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, DIETER. "The Function of Labour in Mulk Raj Anand's Novels" JSL 4.1 (1976):1-20. Assesses the problem of human labour as a probe into the ideological messages transmitted through his fiction. Employs the Marxist theory of labour as the principle guideline of his investigation. ROBERTSON, R.T. "Untouchable as an Archetypal Novel" World Literature Written in English (K.S. NARAYANA RAO ed.) Vol. 14 No. 2 November 1975:339-346. The University of Texas,Arlington. Perceives Untouchable(1935) deserves canonical status within the new literatures area as the archetype of the isolation of the individual expressed as the concept of "untouchability". Contextualises this novel as the archetypal presentation of the classic colonial situation and its resolution in a reharmonising of the rebellious individual into his own culture. Builds a structuralist perspective into Untouchable(1935) and applies it to the entire new literatures fictional field. Provides an extremely perceptive and far-ranging analysis that serves to open up the complexity of colonialism and its expression in fiction. See also Kakatiya Journal of English Studies Vol. 11 No. 1 Spring 1977: 5-15. SETHI, VIJAY MOHAN. Mulk Raj Anand: the Short Story Writer, New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1990, 114pp.

SHARMA, K.K. ed. Perspectives on Mulk Raj Anand. Vimal Prakashan Ghaziabad India, 1978, 188pp. 1) Reappraisal of thematic and technical aspects of Anand's fiction. Comprehension of Anand's stance demands close atention to the `thirties movement in England. 2) Contextualises all facets of Anand's work in a collection of major contributions, mostly sociological and universalist in approach. check gaps GUPTA, RAMESHWAR. "The Gandhi in Anand.": 77-83. Finds Untouchable (1935) reflects and echoes Gandhi. Claims Anand is a Gandhian because of his cleanliness, his concern with the dispossessed and the weak and for his humanism. HARREX, S. C. "Quest for Structures: Form, Fable and Technique in the Fiction of Mulk Raj Anand.": 153-168. Offers the theory that Anand's Marxist-Socialist quest for a humanist society and his fictional pursuit of an appropriate verbal structure are complementary components of his overall purpose. Labels his fiction the socio-political messianic novel and analyses his "poetic realism". Concludes that his fictional forms are allegorical representations of his soul theories and philosophic ideas. MATHUR, O.P. "An Approach to the Problem of National Integration in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand.": 64-76. Probes the main characters' rejection of outmoded beliefs, customs, and rituals. Interprets a call for national integration as the object of Anand's writing in its attempt to overcome the divisive force of religious intolerance. Mulk Raj Anand. "Why I Write?": 1-8. NAIK, M. K. "Infinite Variety: A Study of the Short Stories of Mulk Raj Anand.": 3951. Proclaims the quality of his short stories based on variety of theme, mood, tone, and technique. Demonstrates how Anand's best work reveals a thorough apprehension of what is enduring in the Indian folk tale tradition. NATH, SURESH. "The Element of Protest in Mulk Raj Anand's Fiction.":129-38. Considers this author's work as spontaneous expression of protest against the painful spectacle of human misery. Focuses on protest elements in Untouchable (1935) and Coolie (1936). RAIZADA, HARISH. "Ethics and Aesthetics of Mulk Raj Anand.": 115-28. Anand's ethics are founded on comprehensive historical humanism. Aesthetics are based on his innovative techniques of "poetic realism". RAM, ATMA. "Anand's Prose Style: An Analysis.": 169-76. Probes into his prose style on the basis of Anand's own comments. Traces his aggressive incorporation of Punjabi peasant idiom into English. SHEPHERD, RON. "Alienated Being: A Reappraisal of Anand's Alienated Hero.": 139-52.

Reveals the later and more complex heroe's struggle with past traditions while concerned with social change and its impact. Character study formulated around a crisis of identity. SHIVPURI, JAGDISH. "Tagore and Anand.": 84-93. Comments on Anand's lectures about Tagore. Discloses their common commitment to universal brotherhood. WALSH, WILLIAM. "Some Observations on Mulk Raj Anand's Fiction": 177-180. Anand's earliest works are his best: his socially engaged passion is his power and weakness (when the moral becomes separated from its imaginative embodiment). He belongs to a nineteenth-century tradtion of character, circumstance and the picaresque (Dickens, William Morris and the Russians). SHARMA, AMBUJ KUMAR. The Theme of Exploitation in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand, New Delhi: D.K. Publishers and Distributors, 1990, 162pp. Traces eight elements of Marxist theory in Anand's fiction: a) class in itself b) class for itself c) transformation of class in itself into class for itself d) class conflict involving violence e) religion as the opium of the masses f) economic factor as the root of exploitation g) exploitation as a worldwide phenomenon and h) contradictions in capitalism and its overthrow. Relies on the autobiographical novels of the Seven Ages of Man series and Apology for Heroism (1975) to support his argument concerning exploitation. Probes the social agencies responsible for aiding exploitation of the poor and underprivileged. A thematic approach links the centrality of exploitation to Anand's writing. SHARMA, GOVIND N. "Anand's Englishmen: The British Presence in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand" WLWE 21.2 (Summer 1982):336-41. Anand's youthful experience in the Punjab and hisn love of unmasking pretention result in a pervasive satirising of British claims to bring peace and justice to India. Outlines the exposé of exploitation in Two Leaves and a Bud. Anand also shows (in Untouchable's Bakha, and the Krishan of Seven Summers and Morning Face) the split in Indian consciousness between cultural rootedness and admiration for sahibs' modern efficiency. British in his work are catalysts for Indians' quest to recover their souls by sorting lifeaffirming values from life-denying ones. SHIVPURI, JAGDISH. "Mulk Raj Anand's The Road: An Interpretation" Littcrit 22&23, 12. 1&2 (1986):19-26. Diffuse descriptive commentary. SINGH, AMARJIT. "Why are Anand's later Novels Unsuccessful?" Commonwealth Quarterly 4.13 (1979): 60-67. Considers Untouchable, Seven Summers and Morning Face as examples of early, middle and late works to show increasing lack of attention to style (repetitious scenes, language unsuited to the narrator). SINGH, AMARJIT. "Private Life of an Indian Prince as a Novel of Protest" Commonwealth Quarterly 37 (1988):1-16. 1) Identifies Anand's real purpose in writing this fiction as pointing toward the necessary revolutionary struggle still to come in India to redress the people's oppression by

the disintegrating feudalism of the Maharajas and the bourgeois interests of the Praja Mandal (Congress Party in the Native States). 2) Concentrates on the theme of protest as unifying element in Anand's fictional treatment of political machinations in the rapidly changing India of 1947. 3) Ofers a Marxist approach centred on continuing class struggle as Anand's message conveyed through his fiction. 4) Marxist critique in 1988 seems hardly new in historical development of Indian English criticism. SINGH, SATYANARAIN ed. Kakatiya Journal of English Studies special issue 11.1 (1977) see KAKATIYA SINGH, SUNAINA. "Protest in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand" Osmania Journal of English Studies 17 (1981):123-33. SINHA, K.N. Mulk Raj Anand New York: Twayne, 1973, 154 pp. SIVADASAN, C.P. "Two Proletarian Novels: Similarities in Anand's Untouchable and Thakazhi's Thottiyude makan" Indian Literature 30.3 (May-June 1987):119-24. 1) Both novels concerned with the issue of discrimination and its consequences on the lower caste untouchables. 2) Articulates similarities in character, setting, narrative technique and social commitment between Anand's Untouchable (1935) and Thakazhi's The Scavenger's Son (1947). 3) Comparative approach links fictions by similarity and difference. 4) NA. SOOD. S.C. "The Return of the Prodigal: A Reading of Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable" Commonwealth Quarterly 14.39 (1989):34-49. Argument founded on Gandhian Hinduism and rejection of British influence as viable way forward for Indian untouchables. Extensive character study of Bakha and his dilemma. Sociological analysis of untouchability and its denial of humanity. STEINVORTH, KLAUS. "Mulk Raj Anand's Private Life of an Indian Prince and Manohar Malgonkar's The Princes" The Literary Half-Yearly 14.1 (1973):76-91. Offers the suggestion that the maharajas aligned themselves with the British establishment and thereby alienated themselves from the Indian nationalist and proindependence forces. Analyses the role of the maharaja as a pivotal character in Western conceptions of the Indian way of life. Sociological study of the relationship between the maharajas and their subjects. Concludes with superficial psychological assessment of the maharajas suffering from the Oedipal Complex. STILZ, GERHARD. "Indian Autobiographies in English: Nehru and Anand, for Instance" in MCDERMOTT, DOIREANN ed. Autobiographical and Biographical Writing in Commonwealth Literature Barcelona: Sabadell, 1984:209-213. Figures autobiography as an ellipse around locating the self and describing experience. Self is what resists absorption into description of the world, the private "changeability behind the continuity of imposed social roles". Nehru's Autobiography (1936) offers mostly external reflections, fleeting introspective moments explained away as his "inclination to escape into action". Anand's Apology for Heroism (1946) alludes to Gandhi but works with Hegelian/Marxist ideas. His concept of evolving belief/spiritual development allows an openended narration of self-correction.

SUDHAKAR, PREMILA PAUL. "Major Themes in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand" in NAIK, M.K. Perspectives on Indian Fiction in English New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985 1-12. THARU, SUSIE. "Reading against the Imperial Grain: Intertextuality, Narrative Structure and Liberal Humanism in Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable" Jadavpur Journal of Comparative Literature 24 (1986): 60-71. Works from Guha's inspection of "significatory apparatus" to critique the production of untouchability as `social problem' under colonialism, using his three-part model of counter insurgent history: actual record, British historiographic reatiling of it and indian nationalist absorbption of peasant rebellions into a continuous history of bourgeois freedom struggle. How does a nationalist social reformer like Anand "become accomplice to a programme in which the oppressed, waiting for civilization to be brought to them [as a water closet], continue to be a source of cheap, but proud labour?" Apparently breaking with the traditionalist revivialism of nationalism, and locating the question of untouchability in the common person rather than elite debate, Anand creates a Lukacs individualised-typical hero worthy of human consideration, but as a human defined by liberal values infused with imperialist ideology: he is instinctive and childlike and isolated from collective action as he approaches individualised consciousness. Bhaka's eye is really the narrating eye of the anthropological outsider objectifying and orientalising Indian society and its primitive subgroup. Close reading and deconstructive discoure analysis. VARALAKSHMI, P. "Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts: An Analysis" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.2 (1980):82-7. Mixes concepts of existentialism, Greek tragedy and the Miltonic hero. in a structural study. Exploits Aristotleian concepts as basic structures for Anand's writing scheme. VENUGOPAL, C.V. "Bakha's Deliverance: A Consideration of the Last Part of Untouchable" Journal of the Karnatak University: Humanities 21 (1977):106-110. VENUGOPAL, C.V. "Munoo and Mrs Mainwaring: A Note on the Last Chapter of Anand's Coolie" Journal of the Karnatak University: Humanities 19 (1975):110-16. WILLIAMS, HAYDN MOORE. Studies in Modern Indian Fiction in English 2 Vols. Calcutta: Writers' Workshop, 1973.

Anantanarayanan, M. RAMACHANDRA, R. "The Silver Pilgrimage: A Belated Response" The Literary Criterion 14.1 (1980):73-8. Arora, V.N. TRIKHA, M. "V.N. Arora's Sons and Fathers: A Brief Study" Journal of Indian Writing in English 13.1 (1985):59-63. Aurobindo, Sri BHATNAGAR, K.C. "Aurobindo's Savitri as 'The Future of Poetry'" PURBA 3.2 (1972):87-96. BHATTA, S. KRISHNA. "Sri Aurobindo's Vasavadutta." In Aspects of Indian Writing in English, edited by M. K. Naik, 248-61. New Delhi: Macmillan, 1979. Aurobindo often deviates from the original story in Kathasaritsagara which he mentions as his source. He highlights the romantic aspect, using the hero Vuthsa to symbolize the patriotic urges of a subjugated nation. Aurobindo casts a purely Indian legend into the Elizabethan five-act mould. The play would have been more effective and stageworthy if he had followed the rich dramatic tradition of India. CHATTERJEE, KALIKA RANJAN. "The Philosophical Themes in Sri Aurobindo's Perseus the Deliverer." in Indian Writing in English, edited by Krishna Nandan Sinha, 147-55. New Delhi: Heritage Publishers, 1979. Aurobindo wrote five verse plays during the Baroda period, when philosophical ideas were crystallising in his mind. The legend of Perseus takes on a universal character, and is used to express Aurobindo's view of life. By presenting the old god Poseidon as a foil to Athene, Aurobindo shows the evolution of the idea of God from a vindictive deity to a humane one. From the philosophic point of view, Perseus is the representative of the high god on earth; his mission is to save mankind. Perseus and Andromeda stand for the creative principle of life; they are associated with light, while animal imagery is used for Poseidon. The worship of Poseidon symbolizes the Asuric (dark and violent) life forces, which are mastered and transformed by the redeeming power of love, represented by Perseus and Andromeda. DESHPANDE, P.S. "Sri Aurobindo's Savitri: a Key to Integral Perfection" in AMUR, G.S., PRASAD, V.R.N., NEMADE, B.V. & NIHALANI, N.H., eds. Indian Readings in Commonwealth Literature New York: Apt; 1985: New Delhi: Sterling, 1985: 59-70. DESHPANDE, R.Y. "'Sathyavan Must Die': A Discourse apropos of a Phrase in Sri Aurobindo's Savithri" Mother India, no.? (1990): 413-415, 624-627, 682-686, 768-771, 813-816, DESHPANDE, R.Y. "Savitri's House of Meditation" Mother India 42.1 (1989): 61-7; 41.2 (1989): 135-41. DESHPANDE, R.Y. "The Message of Vyasa's Savitri" Mother India 42.3 (1989): 205-9; 42.4 (1989): 273-80.

DEVY, G.M. "Sri Aurobindo's 'Sources of Poetry' and Indian Poetry in English" The Literary Criterion 19.2 (1984):25-36. DWIVEDI, A.N. A Study of Sri Aurobindo's 'Savitri' and Other Select Poems Bareilly: Prakash, 1989. GHATAK, NIRMALYA. Sri Aurobindo: The Poet and Thinker Howrah: Privately published, 1898, 285pp. GHOSE, S.K. "Shelley and Sri Aurobindo: Two Poetics or One?' ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series 5 (1977):76-9. GHOSE, SISIR KUMAR. "Sri Aurobindo's Gita: A Short Survey" 174-80 in Sharma, T.R., ed. Influence of Bhagavadgita on Literature Written in English Meerut: Shalabh, 1988, xxxiv + 277 pp. GHOSE, SISIR KUMAR. "The Basic Poetry of Sri Aurobindo" in SHARMA, K.K. ed. Indo-English Literature: a Collection of Critical Essays, Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977: 47-59. HEEHS, PETER. Sri Aurobindo, A Brief Biography Delhi & New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, x+172pp. HICKS, RAND. A Savitri Dictionary Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1984, 55 pp. INDRA__, C.T. "The Use of the Andromeda Myth in Perseus the Deliverer." Journal of South Asian Literature. 24, no.1 (1989): 50-66. Aurobindo's literary works are so complex that no consensus of critical opinion is possible. Use of the Greek myth offers a complement as well as a contrast to Hopkins' sonnet "Andromeda". Indra considers structure, imagery, characterization, and language. Perseus and Andromeda are associated with light, while animal imagery expresses the regressive forces of the monster and Polydaon. Aurobindo's characterization is demonstrated with help of a chart; the principle of transformation is important. The character of Perissus the butcher provides comic relief. Aurobindo follows the conventional Elizabethan alteration of prose and verse in drama, and his language has vitality. IYENGAR, K.R. SRINIVASA. Dawn to Greater Dawn: Six Lectures on 'Savitri' (??) IYENGAR, K.R. SRINIVASA. "Sri Aurobindo's The Life Divine" in NAIK, M.K. ed. Perspectives on Indian Prose in English New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982: 104-23. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. JACOB, G. Guide to Sri Aurobindo's Epic, 'Savitri' Vol. 1, Pondicherry: Dipti Pblns, 1973. JIT, LILLE MADAN. " Aurobindo's Savitri--A Vista Beyond Faith" PURBA 17.2 Sri (1986):3-16. Surveys critical assessement of Aurobindo to show how it is warped by critics being mostly devotees who attribute ambiguity to spiritual profundity, Aurobindo having claimed transcendental inspiration for his verse. Savitri however, is not a traditional Indian epic, being

written in English and in a combination of epical form and intuitive gush. Images lack a material base with which to grip the reader and arguing that the text speaks to the soul without addressing the intellect is no defense, especially when the poem is replete with didactic philosophy. The syntax is artificial and the material unsuited to an epic drama, though occasionally we hear a personal anguish as the poet struggles to answer imponderable questions. KALAMANI, N. & RAMAMURTHY, K.S. "Sri Aurobindo's 'Songs to Myrtilla'" Commonwealth Quarterly 28 (1984):32-42. KALLURY, SYAMALA. Symbolism in the Poetry of Sri Aurobindo New Delhi: Abhinav PUblications, 1989, 122pp. KULKARNI, S.S. "The Plays of Sri Aurobindo." In Perspectives on Indian Drama in English edited by Naik, M.K. & S. Mokashi-Punekar, 1-15. Madras: OUP, 1977. Aurobindo's indifference to having his plays staged has led to their being treated as closet dramas. KULKARNI, S.S. The Plays of Sri Aurobindo: A Study. Goa: Rajhans Publishers, 1990, 146pp. After analysing the plays (mainly thematically and in terms of stagecraft), concludes that they are closet drama not because of lack of stageability but because of changed times and circumstances. Appendix (pp. 125-43) contains outlines of the plots of The Viziers of Bassora, Rodogune, Perseus the Deliverer, and Eric. KUMARI, SHYAM. "'Suddenness' in Savitri" Mother India 39.8 (1986):502-8. KUMARI, SHYAM. "Humour in the Plays of Aurobindo" Mother India 6.4 (1987):220-6 & 6.5 (1987):286-92; Mother India 40.7 (1987):433-8, 40.8 (1987):497-507, 40.9 (1987):582-7, 40.10 (1987):644-9, 40.11 (1987):718-24 & 40.12 (1987):810-14. KUMARI, SHYAM. "Humour in the Plays of Sri Aurobindo"; "Perseus the Deliverer" Mother India 41 (1988):45-51; 128-34; 183-9; "The Prince of Edur" Mother India 41 (1988):261-5; 411-16; 469-74. KUMARI, SHYAM. "Spirituality in the Early Poetry of Sri Aurobindo" Mother India 39.11 (1986):683-89 and 39.12 (1986):765-72. KUMARI, SHYAM. "The Spirit of Indian Nationalism in Sri Aurobindo's Earliest Poems" Mother India 39.6 (1986):354-63. KUMARI, SHYAM. "Two Short Poems of Sri Aurobindo: A Comparison" Mother India 39.4 (1986): 222-25. LALITHA, K.S. "Sri Aurobindo's Perseus the Deliverer: An Approach." Mother India 23, no.8 (1970): 427-31; no.9: 518-21; no.10: 694-96. Aurobindo widens the implications of the Greek myth to present an Indian insight into life. The characters are developed as individuals. Andromeda is not a helpless puppet, she is an awe-inspiring figure with a will of her own, reminding one of Indian heroines like Savitri.

Perseus is primarily an instrument of the gods, but he is motivated by love for his fellow human beings. The play can be seen as a romantic love story, as a tragedy of Polydaon the evil priest, or as a depiction of the struggle between good and evil. Aurobindo has woven the idea of the evolution of consciousness into the play. LALITHA, K.S. "Aurobindo's views on poetry" Journal of Indian Writing in English 1.1 (1973): 81-85. Summary of three elements of creativity (source of inspiration, force of beauty and transmitting agent) and three levels of creation (feeling, mind, soul). Art mediates between the concrete and the immaterial. The true critic must be fully attuned to the work through the `overmind' and mystic poetry is the highest achievement. MENON, K.P.K. A.S.P. Ayyar Madras: Macmillan, 1980, 30 pp. MISHRA, D.S. Poetry and Philosophy in Sri Aurobindo's 'Savitri' New Delhi: Harman Publishing House, 1989, 131pp. MISHRA, D.S. "Savitri as an Epic of the Soul" PURBA 15.2 (October 1984):13-23. MISHRA, NANDA KISHORE. "French Symbolist Aesthetics and SriAurobindo's Poetics" Mother India 41.12 (1988):842-8. NADKARNI, MANGESH. Savitri: A Brief Introduction Four Talks Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Society, 1985. NAIK, M.K. "Idylls of the Occult: The Short Stories of Aurobindo" the indian literary review 1.5-6 (1978): 17-25. Unlike other literary forms, the story in Aurobindo's output began with two in Bengali. Four in English (only one a fully-fledged short story) appeared attempting to use the occult in narrative. Summarises the stories, finding influences of Poe, Hawthorne and Conan Doyle and a control of suspense, atmospherics and swift pace leading to climax. Characters combine unusual sensitivity with scepticism. The stories are glimpses of "tantalising artistic possibilities" unrealised. NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. "Sri Aurobindo's Eric: A Dramatic Romance" Littcrit 3, 2.2 (1976):22-25. Aurobindo was influenced by Shakespearean verse drama, adding in his own vision of deliverance from conflict and ascent to higher consciousness. In a tale of warriors and revenge from Scandinavia, Eric sets up a struggle between love and hate, raw power and spiritual wisdom. Allegorical connections are drawn with the independence movement: freedom by the sword is not sufficient; moral liberation and persuasion will be more productive, reflectin Aurobindo's own shift from political to spiritual action. NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. "Perseus the Deliverer." in Perspectives on Indian Drama in English edited by Naik, M.K. & S. Mokashi-Punekar, 16-40. Madras: OUP, 1977. Sri Aurobindo wrote this play when caught up in the freedom movement. The appearance of a hero and the deliverance of a captive nation were recurrent subjects. This five-act play of absorbing dramatic interest projects Aurobindo's favourite theme of earth's evolutionary progress.

NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. A Comparative Study of The Divine Comedy and Savitri Madras: Affiliated East-West Press, 1981, 160 pp. NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. "Savitri and The Divine Comedy." The Humanties Review 3, no.2 (1981):24-5. NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. "Sri Aurobindo: The Prose Canon." In Perspectives on Indian Prose in English edited by M.K. Naik, 72-103. New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. Sri Aurobindo: A Critical Introduction New Delhi: Sterling, 1988, 128 pp. NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. "Sri Aurobindo as a Writer of English Prose" Journal of Indian Writing in English. 17, no.2 (1989): 1-7. NARASIMHAIAH, C.D. "Aurobindo: Inaugurator of Modern Indian Criticism" Literary Criterion 15.2 (1980):13-31. PANDIT, M.P. Essays on 'Savitri' 5 vols.[??] PANDIT, M.P. Introducing 'Savitri' Pondicherry: Dipti Publications, 1982, 79 pp. PANDIT, M.P. Readings in Savithri Part X Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1977, 741 pp. PANDIT, M.P. The Book of Beginnings: Talks on Sri Aurobindo's Savitri Book One Pondicherry: Dipti Publications, 1983. PHILLIPS, STEPHEN H. "The Central Argument of Aurobindo's The Life Divine" PE&W 35.3 (July 1985):271-84. PRASAD, S.K. The Literary Criticism of Sri Aurobindo with Special Reference to Poetry Patna, Bharati Bhavan, 1973, 487 pp. RAJNATH, "Sri Aurobindo and T.S. Eliot as Critics" ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series 5 (1977):52-7. RAM, ATMA & BINDRA, D. "Sri Aurobindo's Sonnets: A Thematic Study" Triveni 56.1 (1987):11-18. Most criticism deals with the epics; considers 58 dated sonnets of the collected 77, arguing that Aurobindo's intellectual and spiritual powers "crystallised" rather than declined. Some poems show the "struggle for release from... material bonds" while most "embody concrete experiences in the metaphysical plane", the soul suffused with blissful glimpses of divine harmony. Notes a humorous touch in "A Dream of Surreal Science" and contrasts Whitman's "adventures with the Self" to Aurobindo's more spiritual soul journey.

RAMAMURTI, K.S. & KAMALANI N. "Sri Aurobindo's `Songs to Myrtilla--A Note"Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 32-42. Early poems have a greater English and Greek classical flavour than later, more Indian verse and are more youthfully sensuous. Makes comparison to Milton's poetic development. RANCHAN, SOM P. "The Aesthetics of Aurobindo" in PRASAD, R.C. & SHARMA, R.K., eds. Modern Studies and Other Essays in Honour of Dr R.K. Sinha New Delhi: Vikas, 1987: 224-38. RANCHAN, SOM P. & BINDRA, DAVINDAR. "Savitri-Satyavan-Coniunctio on Sri Aurobindo's Savitri"Ken: a Journal of English Studies and Creative Writing 2. (1986):13-24. Concentrates on Books 4 and 5, offering descriptive commentary centred on the love theme and its translation of the physical-emotional to the spiritual-cosmic level. RAO, V. MADHUSUDAN. Savitri: Epic of the Eternal Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1984, 150 pp. ROARKE, JESSE. Sri Aurobindo Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1973, xv + 189 pp. SARMA, S. KRISHNA. Seeds of Grandeur: Commentary on Some Poems of Sri Aurobindo Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1982, 96 pp. SETHNA, K.D. Sri Aurobindo - The Poet SETHNA, K.D. "The Biggest Puzzle in the Text of Savithri" Mother India, 11, (1990): 74554. SINGH, R.K. "The Poet of Savitri: A Study in Romantic Strain" The Literary Endeavour 4.1&2 (1982):39-50. Plcaes Aurobindo as a Romantic visionary of sipritual fulfilment. His theory of the Imagination expresses kant's and Novalis's ideas on intuition in an indian context, where inner vision serves universal spiritual evolution as the soul is an aspect of cosmic reality. Compares Aurobindo's work to The Prelude, looking to archetypal patterns beneath perception to convey the spiritual significance of phenomena, and also to In Memoriam where the deeper transpersonal love of the conclusion is likened to the archetypal love of Savithri for Satyavan. Browning also dramatised "the quest for self knowledge" through symbols of inner experience but without Aurobindo's mythopoeic grounding. SINGH, R.K. "Emily Dickinson and Sri Aurobindo: An `Overhead' Confluence of Love, Life and Death" Littcrit 17, 9.2 (1983): 40-52. Reads Dickinson through Aurobindo's ideas about poetry and spiritual evolution, finding a mystic visionary core in Dickinson's "poetic sadhana" similar to his. Commentary on Savitri.

SINGH, R.K. Savitri: A Spiritual Epic Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984, iv + 164 pp. SINGH, R.K. Savitri: A Spritual Epic bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1989, 150pp.

SINGH, R.K. "Some Reflections on the Mythical Construction of Death in Sri Aurobindo's Savitri" Littcrit 7.2 (1981):27-35. SINGH, R.K. "Isis-Osiris: A Deconstruction in Savitri" Ken: a Journal of English Studies and Creative Writing 1. (1982-3):25-29. Puts Savitri in an archetypal context of muse-primal Mother whose task is to lead man to enlightenment. Satyavan's death and resurrection figures the shift from lower to higher spiritual states, and instead of living happily ever after, as in the traditional tale, he must help Savitri lead humanity towards the divine. The text is multiform, asking for active reader collaboration in porbing deeper levels of significiance. Draws a parallel with the Isis-Osiris myth. (Nothing to do with deconstruction). SINGH, SATYA PRAKASH. Sri Aurobindo and Jung Aligarh: Madhucchandas Publications, 1986, 239 pp. SINHA, A.K. The Dramatic Art of Sri Aurobindo. New Delhi: Chand, 1980. THARU, SUSIE J. "Savitri's Pedigree" New Quest 40 (1983):213-20. TYAGI, PREM. Sri Aurobindo: His Poetry and Poetic Theory Saharanpur: Ashir Prakashan, 1988, 214 pp. VAN DIJK, ALPHONS. European Influences on Sri Aurobindo's Thought The Indian P.E.N. 46.1&2 (1984):8-18. VARALAKSHMI, B. "Mothers in Sri Aurobindo's Plays and Savitri" Mother India 38.12 (1985):810-19.

Ayyar, A.S.P REDDY, P. BAYAPPA, "Drama with a Message: A.S.P. Ayyar's Sita's Choice" in Studies in Indian Writing in English with a Focus on Indian English Drama, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990:7-12. Aziz, Nasima ABIDI, S.Z.H. "Mary Ann Dasgupta and Nasima Aziz - Two Alien Voices" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985:164-73. DASGUPTA, MARY ANN. "Nasima Aziz" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 5356. Compares her directness to Kamala Das and looks for a shift from telling us what she thinks and does to communication what it means to the poet. Records her protests at the confined lives of women and praises her immediate and unusual images. Bandyopadhyaya, Pranab BANDYOPADYHAY,ARNAB.Pranab Bandyopadhyaya:Interpretations Calcutta: United Writers, 1980.

BHATNAGAR, O.P. "Urbanity and Ruralism in the Poetry of Pranab Bandyopadhyay" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986:134-45. CHOWDHURY, KABIR. "Pranab Bandyopadhyay" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:243-50. MACHWE, PRABHAKAR. "The Poetry of Pranab Bandyopadhyay" Commonwealth Quarterly 6 (1978):28-38. Basu, Romen KIRPAL, VINEY. "Harivansh Batra's Quest Beyond Matter: A Study of Sunrise in Fiji" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 45-55. RAO, D.S.. "Portrait on the Roof: A Novel by Romen Basu" Indian Literature 24.4 (JulyAugust 1981):156-62. Bharati NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. Bharati (Subramania or the Classical writer or the poet?) SATCHIDANANDAM, V. Whitman and Bharati (the poet? classical?) VIJAYA, BHARATI S. "The Other Harmony: A Study of Bharati's Prose Writings" [F 129] 2 (1972):116-21. [??] Bhatnagar, O.P. BAGHMAR, B.S., ed. The Vision and the Voice: Studies in the Poetry of O.P. Bhatnager Vol. I 183pp Vol II 161pp Vol III 98pp Nagpur: Vishwa Bharati Prakashan, 1987. BARCHE, G.D. "A Stylistic Analysis of O.P. Bhatnagar's Poem: 'Man is Lived'" in SINGH, R.K. ed. Indian English Writing 1981-1985: Experiments with Expression New Delhi: Bahri Publications, 1987: 126-32. CHAR, SHREE RAMA. "Symbols of Road and Journey in the Poetry of O.P. Bhatnagar" in RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 149-57. KASTURE, P.S. "Symbolism in O.P. Bhatnagar's Poetry" WLWE 27.1 (Spring 1987):13138. KASTURI, P.S. "O.P. Bhatnagar: The Poet of Integral Existence" Poetry 12 (1986):21-36. Loose discussion of Bhatnagar's links to existentialism, quoting his dicta on poetry, religion, the centrality of human experience. Bhatnagar writes of the suffering of disbelief but is not despairing, showing a "gaiety of anguish" and reconciling himself to fallen humanity.

MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. "O.P. Bhatnagar's Poetry: The Meaningful Glance" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:216-33. MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. "HERE AND NOW A Study in the Poetry of O.P. Bhatnagar" New Literary Horizons 3.1 (1988): 79-84. Bhatnagar insists on present reality while protesting its inequities and conflicts and human suffering. PATHAK, R.S. "The Nativization of English in India: O.P. Bhatnagar's Exploitation of Lexical Resources" in SINGH, R.K. ed. Indian English Writing 1981-1985: Experiments with Expression New Delhi: Bahri Publications, 1987: 99-124. SAHU, N.S. "Metaphor and Symbol in O.P. Bhatnagar's Poetry" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 111-23. SINGH, R.K. "O.P. Bhatnagar's Poetry: Average is Large" World Literature Today 59.1 (Winter 1985):44-6. Bhatt, Sujata EHLING, HOLGER G. "Autorinnenportrait: Sujata Bhatt (Indien)" Literaturnachrichten Afrika-Asien-Lateinamerika 23 (1989):14-16. lang? genre? Bhattacharya, Bhabani AMEERUDDIN, SYED. "Social Commitment in Bhattacharya's Novels" Littcrit 7 (1978):20-30. Perceives political protest against social evils afflicting India as the underlying message in the author's novels. Commitment to humanist values permeates these fictions. The author's work calls for a realignment of social forces as the only practical possibility for change in the country's future. ARULANDRAM, H.G.S. "Bhabani Bhattacharya's Novels" Triveni 46.3 (1980):68-73. Bhattacharya is a novelist concerned with changing social reality and ameliorating the conditions of the poor. Lists the various themes in his oeuvre. Advocates the responsibility of the artist to plead for a better world. ASNANI, SHYAM M. " Form, Technique and Style in Bhabani Bhattacharya's Novels" Littcrit 8, 5.1 (1979): 29-37. All his work uses social realist technique: omniscient narrator moving an ideal character through a socio-historical backdrop (Quit India, the Bengal famine, the Chinese invasion). Exposing social evils, Bhattacharya always shows the innate goodness of man. He has rounded characters but sometimes reverts to types in order to portray mass upheaval. Music for Mohini is less successful than the more concentrated So Many Hungers. He Who Rides a Tiger balances satire with entertainment. A Goddess Named Gold and Shadow from Ladakh lack intensity and depth. Charts the characteristic use of irony (both Socratic and dramatic) and notes the use of Indian proverbs, interrogative formations and composite adjectives, finding naturalness sacrificed to local colour. Portraying rural India is a strength.

BHATT, P.N. "The Impact of Gandhi on Bhabani Bhattacharya's Novels"Triveni 54.3 (1985): 83-85. Traces the author's commitment to Gandhi's beliefs and practices. Claims Shadow from Ladakh (1966) based on Gandhian philosophy and values. Character study of Satyajit. BHATTACHARYA, BHABANI. "Women in my Stories." Journal of Indian Writing in English 3.2 (1975): 1-6. Identifies "human richness" as the key factor in his women figures. Claims women have an innate capacity for value adaptation. Traces the importance of the images of the grandmother in the short story,"Steel Hawk", and the destitute girl in So Many Hungers (1947). Moral evaluation of women characters finds more depth in them than the male characters. CHANDRASEKHARAN, K. R. Bhabani Bhattacharya New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1974, 180pp. Perceives the author advocating a synthesis of Gandhi's asceticism and Tagore's aestheticism producing a philosophy of compromise and reconciliation. Examines the author's purpose in depicting truth as he see it. Focuses on the transformation of character operating within a formulation of synthesis which eventuates in equilibrium and harmony. DESAI, S.K. "Bhabani Bhattacharya: The Writer Who Rides a Tiger" in NAIK, M.K. Perspectives on Indian Fiction in English New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985: 119-34. DHAR, T.N. "Bhabani Bhattacharya's He Who Rides a Tiger: The Role-Playing Matrix" in GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA., ed. Studies in Indian Fiction in English Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987: 93-103. FISHER, MARLENE. "Personal and Social change in Bhattacharya's Novels" World Literature Written in English 12 (1973):288-96. Finds Bhattacharya's oeuvre implies that inner personal growth and outer social change are inextricably interrelated and must keep pace with one another. Reveals the central motifs in his work as 1) the need for reform, 2) reconciliation of the two conflicting means to improvement, 3) removal of British imperialism is connected to radically transforming native greed and selfishness into a better India for all. Traces universalist values in his work. FISHER, MARLENE. "The Women in Bhattacharya's Novels" World Literature Written in English 11.1 (1972):95-108. The author's representation of women stems from his linking them to the Hindu worship of the Sacred Cow, Gaumata, and to the Hindu concept of Shakti. Offers character studies of Chandra Lekha, Kajoli, Mohini, Meera and Suruchi as examples of Shakti in action. Finds his depiction of women sensitive, sympathetic and successful because they are able to take on a life of their own beyond the context of their novels. JAIN, JASBIR. "Coming to Terms with Gandhi: Shadow From Ladakh" Journal of Indian Writing in English 3.2 (1975):20-23. Considers Shadow From Ladakh (1966) as a probe of the validity and relevance of Gandian ethics to postindependence India. Perceives the character of Satyajit as the representative of the form and Bhaskar, the content, of Gandhi. Gandian moral evaluation differentiates between the form and content of the guru's message.

PANDIA, MAHENDRA N. "Relevance of Bhattacharya's Fiction" The Indian PEN 50.1012 (1989): 6-10. Sociological accuracy contributes social realistic impulse to the author's work. Notes Bhattacharya's sensitivity to humankind's mistreatment of their fellow human beings. RAMACHANDRA, P. "The Short Stories of Bhabani Bhattacharya" The Literary Endeavour 6.1-4 (1985): 68-82. Takes issue with Dorothy Blair Shimer over the status of the short stories. Bhattacharya creates spontaneously and destroys unsatisfactory work. The 15 stories available show a range of human experiences and "puncture... pomposities with a good-humoured sympathy". The occasional exaggerated situation is part of comic caricature and there is psychological insight into character. RAO, A.V. KRISHNA."Shadow from Ladakh: A Critical Viewpoint" The Literary Endeavour 1.2 (1979): 77-80. Distinguishes Bhattachaya's naturalism from Anand, Abbas, Premchand and Tagore. The Chinese invasion takes him away from Gandhian values into modern Realpolitik. In a framing drama of tradition versus modernity, economic determinism is the primary force for change. RAO, B. SYAMALA. Bhabani Bhattacharya Madras: Blackie & Son, 1988, 167 pp. RAO, B. SYAMALA. "Dr. Bhabani Bhattacharya as a Novelist" Triveni 40.1 (1971):35-40. Assesses Bhattacharya's writing as entirely socially purposeful. Focuses on the themes of poverty and hunger and their effect on human degradation. Seeks to confirm him as a social realist in the style of Mulk Raj Anand. SARMA, S. KRISHNA & RANGAN, V. "What is in Dream -- A Critical Appraisal of Bhabhabi Bhattacharya's A Dream in Hawaii" The Literary Endeavour 1.3 (1980): 85-96. The book fails to advance Bhattacharya's art, although it canvasses the themes of East-West encounter, the sickness of modern society and the the search for the self. Persuaded to renunciation by a beloved student Devjani, Prof Neeloy turns ascetic and is persuaded to teach vedanta in Hawaii by a Fulbright scholar Stella. Exploited and compromised by academics there, he returns to India, leaving a circle of characters variously affected: Jennifer, a rich widow finds solace; the opportunistic Dr Swift assumes a fake orientalism; Walt, Stella's estranged husband, loses some of his scepticism and hedonism; Devjani has developed her intellect and accepted physicality and sex in the West. Devjani's character is complex but not clearly delineated and her final confirmtion of Neeloy as Yogananda is not altogether convincing. Neeloy is also a person of dualities, an ordinary person pushed into a role that he both fails in and fulfils, but his growth occurs only in the final moments of the novel and there is no fabric of irony as there is in Narayan's The Guide (though the article cites several ironic reversals). Bhattacharya loads the dice against western decadence but fails to create a basis for a serious vedantic alternative. SHARMA, K.K. "Bhabani Bhattacharya's So Many Hungers! An Affirmative Vision of Life" in SHARMA, K.K. ed. Indo-English Literature: a Collection of Critical Essays, Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977: 201-14.

SHARMA, K. K.Bhabani Bhattacharya: His Vision and Themes New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1979. Perceives two basic themes, hunger for food and political freedom, pervade this author's fiction. Reveals a synthesis of opposites as Bhattacharya's expression of the Indian ideal of unity in diversity. Focuses on the need for economic and social freedom in the aftermath of political sovereignty. SHARMA, K.K. "The Everlasting Yea: Bhabani Bhattacharya's View of Life": 191-212. in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 SHIMER, D.B. Bhabani Bhattacharya Boston: Twayne, 1975, 151 pp. Finds his fictions address the question of technological progress on a rural-based economy tied to ancient cultural values. Offers three basic components to his writing,1) expands social awareness and concern,2) confirms human commonality, 3) reflects a "dynamic equilibrium" in the social structure through a reconciliation of opposites. Adheres to universalist values. SHIMER, DOROTHY BLAIR."Bhabani Bhattacharya-Gandhi Biographer" Journal of Indian Writing in English Vol. 2 No. 2 (1974): 14-19. Assesses Gandhi the Writer: The Image As It Grew (1969) and its relevance to Bhattacharya's own work. Traces the impact on Gandhi of Romain Rolland and Leo Tolstoy. Notes the interrelatedness of various writers to Gandhi's philosophy of passive resistance. (Could be deleted, if necessary) SHIMER, DOROTHY BLAIR. "Gandhian Influence on the Writing of Bhabani Bhattacharya" SARev 5.2 (July 1981):74-81. SIRCAR, ARJYA. "Duplicity in Saffron Robes: Contrastive Study of The Guide, He Who Rides a Tiger and Putul Nacher Itikatha" New Quest 33 (1982):163-8. SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K. "Bhabani Bhattacharya: Shadow From Ladakh" in PRADHAN, N.S. ed. Major Indian Novels: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986:155-73. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986. SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K., ed. Perspectives on Bhabani Bhattacharya Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan (Indo-English Writers Series No. 4), 1982, xiv + 251 pp. TAMILARASAN, C. "Bhattacharya's Music for Mohini: A Study" The Literary Endeavour 2.2 (1982): 35-43. Likens Bhattacharya to Anand in his ideal of `social purpose' fiction, but his work lacks the amplitude and profundity of `the big three'. Music for Mohini contrasts urban and rural values, setting voiced ideals against behaviour and suggesting understanding, selflessness and adaption as ways to harmony. While approving of Mohini's accommodating to tradition, Bhattacharya also shows tradition's absurdities. TARINAYYA, M. "Two Novels" Indian Literature Vol 13 No. 1 Jan-Feb (1970) 113-121 Offers cursory readings of Khushwant Singh's Train to Pakistan (1956) and Bhattacharya's So Many Hungers (1947). Finds remarkable detachment in the former and deep sensitivity to peasant life in Bengal in the latter. Centres on tragedy of Indian experience Mainly plot summary with romantic overtones. [Worth keeping?]

Brata, Sasthi LAL, P. "Sexy Brata" Littcrit 5. 3.2 (1977): 31-34. Finds the sexual voraciousness a ridiculous "literary lust", slick in style with slapped-on existentialist philosophising and basically commercial porn.

Chatterjee, Bankim Chandra CHAKRAVORTY, DILIP K. "An Approach to Bankim Chandra's Novel Rajmohan's Wife" The Quest 1.1 (1987):1-6. MOHAN, DEVINDER. "Romanticism and the Woman: A Comparative View of Hawthorne's Hester Prynne, Hardy's Sue Bridehead, Chatterjee's Rohini and Hesse's Kamala" Literary Half-Yearly 27.1 (January 1986):78-88. check RAMAMURTI, K.S. "Bankim Chandra and The Indian Novel in English" Chandrabhaga 4 (1978):37-45. RAMAMURTI, K.S. "Bankim Chandra and the Indian Novel in English" Journal of Indian Writing in English 6.2 (1978):37-45. Chatterjee, Margaret DAS, BIJAY KUMAR. "The Poetry of Margaret Chatterjee" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 124-33. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Between Two Worlds: The Poetry of Margaret Chatterjee" Indian Literature 25.5 (September-October 1982):72-85. SAXENA, H.S. "Margaret Chatterjee" The Literary Endeavour 2.2 (1982): 45-51. Biographical notes on her interest in philosophy and music. Finds Indian women's poetry in english "decadently romantic", shockingly carnal or mechanically releasing the unconscious. Chatterjee shows greater control and balance of idea with concrete detail, plus a "rare sense of the significance of historical processes". Though British born, she conveys an Indian spirit in her work. SAXENA, H.S. "Margaret Chatterjee" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 157-63. Chatterjee, Upamanyu KUMAR, T. VIJAY. "I Can't Get No Satisfaction: Upamanyu Chatterjee's English, August" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 169-78. LAL, VINAY. "Enjoyable Reading" Indian Literature 137, (1990): 155-62. review? (English August)

Chattopadhyaya, Harindranath GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "Harindranath's Saint: A Farce." The Century 11, no.2 (1973): 11-12. Reprinted in Essays on Indian Writing in English (1975): 31-32. The Saint is quite different from Harindranath's earlier plays based on the life of the legendary Indian holy men. it is a short farce with a single scene, which satirizes the gullibility of the religious villagers who take a lean opium addict to be a saint emaciated because of austerities. The play shows Chattopadhyaya as a satirist. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "The Devotional Plays of Harindranath Chattopadhyaya." Journal of the Karnatak University: Humanities, 15 (1973): 116-26. Reprinted in Essays on Indian Writing in English (1975): 19-30. In the nineteen-twenties Chattopadhyaya wrote a dozen plays about the Indian saints. most of these verse plays are quite short, and it is the poetry, not the dramatic action, which predominates. Tukaram is the exception, with its stageability and humour; it has a tight structure, and the poetry is functional, not decorative. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "A Note on Siddhartha: Man of Peace." In Essays on Indian Writing in English, 1975: 33-37. Chattopadhyaya's most ambitious play, in eight acts, Siddartha is a straightforward enactment of the Buddha's life and message written with a foreign audience in mind. The language seldom glows with passion, and the dramatic structure is loose. The play is significant only in the context of the paucity of Indian drama in English. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "The Plays of Harindranath Chattopadhyaya." In Perspectives on Indian Drama in English, edited by M.K. Naik & S. Mokashi-Punekar, 115-23.(114-24) Madras: OUP, 1977. Chattopadhyaya wrote a variety of plays, in prose and in verse: devotional plays based on the lives of the Indian saints (of which Tukaram is the best), social plays, and historical plays (of which Siddhartha: Man of Peace, based on the life of the Buddha, is the most impressive). REDDY, K. VENKATA & SUNANDA, K. "Harindranath Chattopadhyaya's The Parrot." Journal of Indian Writing in English 11, no.2 (1983): 37-43. Expository analysis of The Parrot to show that it is too short to develop characters fully, though it is well structured. The parrot is a good symbol for the helpless bondage of women in India. REDDY, K. VENKATA. & SUNANDA, K. "Harindranath Chattopadhyaya's The Parrot: A Study" Journal of Indian Writing in English 11.2 (1984): 37-43. which year? YARAVINTHELIMATH, C.R. "Pundalik." In Perspectives on Indian Drama in English, edited by M.K. Naik & S. Mokashi-Punekar, 124-35. Madras: OUP, 1977. Chattopadhyaya's one-act-play in verse about a renowned sage makes effective use of symbols to present the Hindu glorification of parent-worship.

Chaudhuri, Nirad DEVI, P. LAKSHMI. "Adverse Awareness: A Study of Chaudhuri's The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian" Journal of Indian Writing in English 17.2 (1989): 55-59.

Considers The Autobiography's value lies in the rendering of a unique and unusual personality. Claims Chaudhuri's importance rests on his ability to test some comfortable illusions concerning Indian tradition. Psychological probing of Chaudhuri's autobiography lacks any psychoanalytical depth. JUMAR, S. Nirad C. Chaudhuri: The Man and Writer Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984, 84 pp. KARNANI, CHETAN. Nirad C. Chaudhuri New York: Twayne (World Authors Series), 1980, 140 pp. MISHRA, GANESWAR. see entry under Mohanti, Prafulla. MISHRA, SUDESH. "The Two Chaudhuris: Historical Witness and Pseudo-Historian" JCL 1 (1988):7-15. Confirms Chaudhuri's authenticity in passages "where social, political or religious dilemmas take precedence over personal traumas." His pseudo-historical side appears in sections full of gossip, name-calling and malice best described as imaginative history. Questions the veracity of Chaudhuri's claim to recording history as an objective, value-free, disinterested chronicler. Traces the twin pillars of Chaudhuri's thought to Darwinian evolution and Jungian collective unconscious. NAIK, M.K. "Nirad C. Chaudhuri's First Publication" Journal of Commonwealth Literature 19.1(1984):98-107. An introduction to "Defence of India or Nationalization of Indian Army" (1935), a seventy-three page essay. Finds the structure divided into four sections, 1) "The Problem Stated", 2) "Function", 3) "Man Power", 4) "Command and Control". Notes the perceptiveness of Chaudhuri's analysis and the strength of British imperialism under which the Indian army was subsumed. NAIK, M.K. "The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian: A Note" WLWE 21.1 (Spring 1982):160-6. "Unbridled egoism" gives Chaudhuri's autobiography a distinctive quality. Asserts the autobiography's value as an important social document. Compares Chaudhuri to Jawaharlal Nehru's Autobiography (1962) and reveals a "radical contrast" between them based on the issue of motivation for the writing itself, Nehru declaring his purpose to be knowledge of the self while Chaudhuri consciously set out to record a "national. . . history". NAIK, M.K. "Pride and Prejudice Unabated" Indian Literature, 135, (1990): 131-8. Discusses three basic elements in this second part of Chaudhuri's autobiography, a) the disclosure of the author's personality, b) the men he knew and observed, c) the political and cultural milieu of his time. Examines the details of Chaudhuri's purported factuality and finds some inconsistencies based on political opposition to his worldview. Specifically questions his portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. Claims Chaudhuri's interpretation of recent Indian history biased by anglophilia and Indian-baiting. NAIKAR, BASAVARAJ S. Critical Articles on Nirad C. Chaudhuri Dharwad: Sivaranjani Publications, 1986, viii + 115 pp.

An appreciative close reading arranged with separate but unconnected chapters for each work: Chap 1 perceives The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian (1972) as an exercise in descriptive ethnology. Chap 2 Reveals Hindu philosophic search for inner knowledge works against external worldly awareness practised by travel writing. Chap 3 designates The Continent of Circe (1974) as a descriptive-analytical, satirical work. Chap 4 finds bureaucratisation the defining factor in To Live or Not to Live (1970). Chap 5 offers the view that the Hindu pursuit of knowledge was never rational but rather supranational in The Intellectual in India (1967). Chap 6 refers to his work as an expository prose style based on: a) concreteness of diction b) realistic detail c) extensive use of non-English words d) encyclopaedic knowledge e) unhibited boldness f) personal anecdotes. Attends to structural concerns. Formalist analysis. C. D. NARASIMHAIAH. "Nirad C. Chaudhuri: The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian" The Indian Critical Scene: Controversial Essays 1990 Chap 8 85-95 Attacks Chaudhuri for his colonial cringe, egoism and pedantry. Compares Chaudhuri's work to Nehru's Autobiography (1962) and find the latter well-written and a rare achievement in the genre. Formalist analysis. NIVEN, Alastair. "Crossing the Black Waters: Nirad C. Chaudhuri's A Passage to England and V. S. Naipaul's An Area of Darkness" Ariel (Calgary, Canada) Vol. 9 July 1978 21-36 Compares Chaudhuri's and Naipaul's travel writing books and finds them exercises in self-discovery obsessed with the history of imperialism. Examines their colonised usage of the imposed English language and reveals it as the central concern of these writers. Traces the nexus of colonialism and imperialism and its consequences for Indian society. NIVEN, ALASTAIR. "Nirad Chaudhuri and Modern Indian Literature" in Individual and Community in Commonwealth Literature ed Daniel Massa, Malta: Old University Press, 1979: 196-201. Examines Chaudhuri's oeuvre and its encounter with the complexity of imperialism. Questions the differing reception of Chaudhuri's work in India, where few critics esteem him, and Britian, where his prose is highly praised. Analyses Chaudhuri's contention that the history of India has been a culture in decline brought about by the stultifying conservatism of Hindu ethics. NIVEN, ALASTAIR. :Contrasts in the Autobiography of Childhood: Nirad Chaudhuri, Janet Frame and Wole Soyinka" in MCDERMOTT, DOIREANN ed. Autobiographical and Biographical Writing in Commonwealth Literature Barcelona: Sabadell, 1984:175-180. Many auto/biographies rush through childhood, selecting only details indicating predestined adult greatness. Better works capture the present-tense fantasy of childhood. Chaudhuri differs from Frame and Soyinka in representing himself as an already adult infant. "Indian autobiographies ... have a public aspect and a sense of history" and Chaudhuri links

his story to India's emergence, detailing childhood only to document values eroded by modernity. Frame and Soyinka create children with vital lives less connected to future adulthood and differently linked to consciousness of an outside, historical world. PHILIP, DAVID SCOTT. Perceiving India Through the Works of Nirad C. Chaudhuri, R.K. Narayan and Ved Mehta New Delhi: Sterling, 1986, vi + 184 pp. SINHA, TARA. "A Stylistic Treatment of a Few Traits of Nirad C. Chaudhuri's Writings Along Modern Linguistic Lines" The Quest 1.2 (1988):38-50. SINHA, TARA. Nirad C. Chaudhuri: A Sociological and Stylistic Study of his Writings During the Period 1951-72 Patna: Prakashan, 1981, xii + 256 pp. SINHA, TARA. Nirad C. Chaudhuri: A Sociological Study of His Writings: 1951-72 (1981) VENUGOPAL, C.V. "Growing to Manhood: The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian" in NAIK, M.K. ed. Perspectives on Indian Prose in English New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982: 21331. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. VERGHESE, C. Paul. "Nirad C. Chauduri: An Assessment" Littcrit 6 (1978):4-14. VERGHESE, C.PAUL. "Nirad C. Chaudhuri: An Assessment" in NAIK, M.K. ed. Perspectives on Indian Prose in English New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982: 200-12. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. WALSH, W. "On Nirad Chaudhuri" in MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. ed. Considerations: Twelve Studies of Indo-Anglian Writing New Delhi: Allied, 1977: 132-6. WILLIAMS, HAYDN M. "The Insider and the Outsider: The India of V.S. Naipaul and Nirad Chaudhuri" in NANDAN, SATENDRA. ed. Language and Literature in Multicultural Contexts, Suva: University of the South Pacific, 1983: 353-361. Likens Naipaul's An Area of Darkness (1965) and Chaudhuri's The Continent of Circe (1965) to Old Testament prophecy: visionay criticism, moral dissection, expressions of anguished concern. Both honestly reveal their view of the damaging truth, though Naipaul has an air of Camus and Chaudhuri more of Spengler and Toynbee. Contrasts their styles and different presentations of self. WILLIAMS, HAYDN MOORE. "The Plight of the Aryans and the Nightmare of history: Nirad Chaudhuri's Alternative View" SPAN 24 (April 1987):190-207. Reveals Chaudhuri's major influence has been the Brahmoism or Brahmo Samjay of Rammohan Roy. Perceives Chaudhuri's theory of history based on three traumatic epochs of contact between the indigenous peoples and their successive waves of conquerors, the Aryans, the Moguls and the British and the aftermath. Idiosyncratic interpreation of history shaped by the confluence of Brahminical and nationalist perceptions, which challenge myths about the Raj perpetuated by E. M. Forster or Paul Scott and shatter illusions such as the Hindu tradition of pacifism.

Chinmoy, Sri BENNET, MEREDITH. "The Poet as Language-Maker: Sri Chinmoy" New Literature Review 10 (May 1982):61-6. BENNET, VIDAGDHA MEREDITH. "Forging a New Language: Sri Chinmoy's 'Ten Thousand Flower-Flames'" Westerly 28.4 (December 1983):81-6. Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. BALASUBRAHMANYA, N. "Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy -- A Centenary Tribute" Commonwealth Quarterly 1.1 (1976): 1-9. Biographical outline and tribute to his role as nationalist promoter of cultural pride. Admits he was "more doctrinaire and metaphysical in his criticism than aesthetic and technical" beceause of the spirit of the times. His view of good art as impersonal prevented him from appreciating post-Renaissance work and he disliked science for its anti-creative materialist aspects, looking for an organic relation between art and life. DESAI, S.K. "The Dance of Shiva" in NAIK, M.K. ed. Perspectives on Indian Prose in English New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982: 139-53. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. KAMALIAH, K.C. "Ananda K. Coomaraswamy's Universalism" Triveni 45.2 (1976):32-8. RAGANATHAN, A. "Coomaraswamy: A Tribute" Indian Horizons 26.1 (1977):11-15. RAGHAVAN, V. The Aesthetics of Ananda Coomaraswamy Bangalore: Indian Institute of World Culture, 1983, 6 pp. RANGANATHAN, A. "Ananda Coomaraswamy: Exponent of Perennial Philosophy" I&FR 14.22 (1977):17, 19. SASTRI, P.S. "Coomaraswamy and Indian Renaissance" in NAIK, M.K. ed. Perspectives on Indian Prose in English New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982: 124-38. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. Currimbhoy, Asif BANHAM, MARTIN. "Indian Theatrical Craftmanship." Journal of Commonwealth Literature 9, no.3 (1975): 86-87. Reviewing six plays of Currimbhoy, concludes that they are distinguished by careful craftsmanship. Considerable theatrical impact from the experience of contemporary political events in works like Inquilab and Sonar Bangla, though Sonar Bangla with its semidocumentary form needs a multi-media presentation. Goa is an allegory relating to the Indian takeover of the Portuguese enclave. In The Doldrummers, the characters are dropouts, the kind of people familiar in all cultures. BHATT, A.K. "A Theatre of Journalism.' The Indian P.E.N. 40, no.12 (1974): 1-4. Currimbhoy writes hurriedly about events which are in the news, so his language tends to be journalistic. After analysing the language, Bhatt concludes that Currimbhoy "does not seem ever to have cared to blot a single line."

NAIK, M. K. "Half-God's Plenty: The Drama of Asif Currimbhoy." In Studies in Indian Literature, 121-35. New Delhi: Sterling,1987. Naik analyses all the plays in terms of theme, characterisation, dialogue, and stagecraft, and concludes that though there are many scenes which show keen dramatic sense, and the dialogue too is lifted to a higher level, Currimbhoy fails to sustain a genuine drama. Many of his plays deal with recent historical and political events; plays like An Experiment with truth and Goa fail to transmute events into art. The same inability is evident in plays dealing with social concerns like The Doledrummers, where Currimbhoy lays stress on sex, drunkenness, and violence, not on the forces which have brought the characters to destitution. The Miracle Seed fails because the city-bred playwright knows nothing of the Indian village. Plays on East-West encounter such as The Tourist Mecca and The Hungry Ones lack clarity, while Darjeeling Tea? has too many themes. Plays of psychological portrayal, such as The Clock and The Dumb Dancer are more promising. Lack of live performance has had a bad effect on Currimbhoy's plays, and later works, such as Sonar Bangla are unstageable. NAZARETH, PETER. "Asif Currimbhoy: Dramatist of the Pulic Event." JIWE 4, no.2 (1976): 13-19. Currimbhoy needs a public event to catalyse his writings. His best plays are Goa (about the liberation of the Portuguese colony), Inquilab which deals with the Naxalite movement, and Sonar Bangla which describes events surrounding the birth of Bangladesh. Currimbhoy interweaves the public event with private, to create exciting drama which raises moral questions. PAN, DAPHNE. "Asif Currimbhoy's Goa: A Consideration." Journal of Indian Writing in English 8, nos. 1 & 2 (1980): 77-97. Reprinted in Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English, edited by Singh, Kirpal, 106-36. Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984. Currimbhoy's plays are meant for the stage, they are not mrely vehicles for expressing his thought. Goa is geographically a meeting place for different cultures, religions and attitudes, and the play displays continuous conflicts and contradictions. Pan examines different characters in the play and concludes that the play is capable of a variety of meanings. Goa is a finely balanced and structured play, with dialogues in the last act echoing earlier passages. The Appendix sets out the parallel passages in tabular form. REDDY, P. BAYAPPA. "Asif Currimbhoy's The Refugees: A Study." JIWE 10, nos. 1 & 2 (1982): 63-70. The play dramatises the exodus of ten million refugees from East Pakistan into India in 1971. Sengupta, himself a refugee who came over in 1947, helps Yassin, his childhood friend, a Muslim from East Pakistan. The well-knit play shows the conflict between ideas and actions. The dialogue is very effective: it furthers the plot, reveals character, and sometimes has ironic dimensions. REDDY, P. BAYAPPA. "Asif Currimbhoy's Goa: A Study." in Kher, Inder Nath and Christopher Wiseman eds. Ariel 14, no.4 (1983): 77-86.(1984: 77-85) Through the story of an Indian boy Krishna's love for a Goan girl, Currimbhoy highlights colonialism and colour prejudice in a light ironic vein. Goa has some of Currimbhoy's most psychologically complex characters, and his handling of the element of conflict is effective. It is a finely balanced and tautly knit play notable for its poetic value and demonstrates Currimbhoy's fine sense of theater.

REDDY, P. BAYAPPA. "Asif Currimbhoy's An Experiment with Truth: A Thematic Study." Littcrit 9, no.1 (1983): 25-30. Thematic study. The only other earlier plays to dramatise Gandhiji's life and ideals are Bharati Sarabhai's The Well of the People (1943) and K. S. Rangappa's Gandhiji's Sadhana (1969). In An Experiment with Truth, the internal conflict in Gandhiji regarding his sexual abstinence is more important than the external conflict between the Indians and the British. This three-act play is episodic in structure. The first act is set just before Mahatma Gandhi's assassination in 1948, the second shows the Salt March of 1931, while the third shows him being gunned down. The character of Vincent Sheean, the journalist, provides unity and choric commentary. There are historical as well as symbolic characters, and stagecraft is complex, with musical effects. REDDY, P. BAYAPPA. The Plays of Asif Currimbhoy. Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1986, 194pp. Reddy's approach is thematic and descriptive. He categorizes the plays into romantic, political, social, religious, etc. and proceeds to give summaries of the plays with brief critical comments. There is a useful introductory chapter on the origins and development of Indian theater. Has a comprehensive bibliography. REDDY, P. BAYAPPA, "Reflections on Asif Currimbhoy's Plays" and "The Clock Symbol in Asif Currimbhoy's The Clock." In Studies in Indian Writing in English with a Focus on Indian English Drama, 35-40; 41-43, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990. SAHA, SUBHAS. C. "Currimbhoy's Study of Love and Hate in Goa and Monsoon." The Literary Half-Yearly 15, no.2 (1974): 96-105. Currimbhoy combines the methods of realism, expressionism, and surrealism; conflict is shown on the physical plane to project the conflict within. Goa (1964) and Monsoon (1965) are his most intense plays because they have no light scenes. Goa shows the evil of possessive love through the lives of Krishnan, the young and innocent girl whom he loves but rapes, her promiscuous mother Miranda, and Alphonso who hankers after Portugal. The period is December 1961 when India invaded Goa, but the political symbolism is not very effective. Monsoon is not as brisk as Goa; the chief emotion is hate and the protagonist, Andrew, is a megalomaniac. The play is reminiscent of Jacobean drama, with its lurid atmosphere, ghosts, murder, and suicide. VENUGOPAL, C.V. "Asif Currimbhoy's The Doledrummers: A Glimpse into the Bombay Shacks." In Aspects of Indian Writing in English, edited by M. K. Naik, 262-67. New Delhi: Macmillan, 1979. Viewed as a whole, his achievement is impressive. The Doledrummers reveals the mature artist. The stagecraft is superb, and the dialogue, true to the shack, is raw and physical. The play is a sympathetic study of the shackdwellers, successfully portraying their basic humanity. Dalal, Nergis BHATNAGAR, O.P. "Playing the Role in The Guide and The Inner Door" Commonwealth Quarterly 4.13 (1979): 71-79.

Both works have individuals playing roles under pressure of collective expectation, but outcomes differ (Narayan's external forces mock the hero, but Dalal's hero mocks external forces) and the hero of the The Inner Door is not as introspective as Raju. BHATNAGAR, O.P. "A Study of Nergis Dalal as a Novelist" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 57-72. Dalal neither strains to be overtly Indian nor affects a Western style. Dalal avoids mass social movements in favour of individual emotions. Surveys Minari (1967), The Sisters (1973) and The Inner Door (1973). Dalal seems not to reward virtue and punish vice: withdrawal, substitutes or compromise are solutions offered to life's frustrations. Sensitive characters show the possible merging of sensuousness with spiritual wisdom, though they are not saintly renouncers of life and are victims to situational ironies. Briefly traces ironies through the short story collections. Compares Dalal to Anita Desai. SHARMA, D.R. "The Creative Art of Nergis Dalal" Journal of Indian Writing in English 5.1 (1977):17-23. Dalmiya, Rita SAHA, SUBHAS C. "Rita Dalmiya, Renu Roy and Zahida Zaidi" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 194-200. Daniels, Shouri DANIELS, SHOURI. "Daniels, Shouri: The Salt Doll" Osmania Journal of English Studies 17 (1981):135-7. [review?] KANTAMBLE, V.D. "The Salt Doll: An Experimentation with Existentialist Writing in IndoAnglian Fiction" Littcrit 9.2 (1983):32-39. Daruwalla, Keki N. CHAR, M. SREE RAMA. "Secularization of the Religious Concepts and Idiom in Keki N. Daruwalla's Bombay Prayer's" Poetry 12.1 (1987):19-31. CHAR, M. SREERAMA. Prayer Motif in Indian Poetry in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1988, 135 pp. Concentrates on A.K. Ramanujan, Arun Kolatkar, Nissim Ezekiel & Keki N. Daruwalla. DWIVEDI, A.N. "K.N. Daruwalla: The Painter of Rural Landscape" Rajasthan University Studies in English 16 (1984): 86-95. Descriptive survey of verse in first four volumes dealing with nature (especially rivers) and rural life, noting mythic and narrative elements in "Crossing of Rivers" and occasional lapses into rhetoric and sentimentality. DWIVEDI, A.N. "K.N. Daruwalla's Poetry: An Assessment" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:163-76.

INAMDAR, F.A. "K.N. Daruwalla's Poems: Individual Response" in RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 86-92. KING, BRUCE. "Daruwalla's Oxford Revisions" Littcrit 19, 10.2 (1984): 37-56. In contrast to earlier printings, the Oxford editions left-justify margins, italicise and footnote Indian terms and regulate usage of capitals and punctuation. Close reading of texts noting a general tightening of diction, less ambiguity, fewer excess similes, more regular linebreaks and a general shift to "vigorous realistic speech" , all as evidence of Daruwalla's continuing attention to poetic craft. KING, BRUCE. "Keki Daruwalla: Outsider, Skeptic and Poet" The Indian Literary Review 4.2 (1986):47-59. MOKASHI-PUNEKAR, SHANKAR. "????" [Daruwalla]Journal of Indian Writing in English 4.1 (1976): 24-?. Daruwalla as a police officer engages with real life and is naturally Indian in his "aliveness to the environment". Finds his debunking irony more amusing than Ezekiel's play with Indian English. Under Orion is more controlled than Apparitions in April. Contrasts to Santhi's verse and compares with Rajendranath Seal. MUKHERJEE, PRASENJIT. "Relating the Subjective: An Approach to the Recent Poetry of Keki N. Daruwalla" Chandrabhaga 4 (1980):51-8. NABAR, VRINDA. "Keki N. Daruwalla: Poetry and a National Culture" in SHAHANE, VASANT A. and SIVARAMKRISHNA, M. eds Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment Madras: Macmillan, 1980: 28-40. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. NAIK, M.K. "`Drama Talk': The Poetry of K. N. Daruwalla" in Naik Studies in Indian English Literature New Delhi: Sterling, 1987: 93-104. NAIK, M.K. "Landscapes and Inscapes" Kavya Bharati 1 (1988): 65-71. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "Keki N. Daruwalla: Poet as Critic of His Age" Literary HalfYearly 28.1 (January 1987):17-38. SREERMACHER, M. "The River's Argot in Three Indo-English Poets: A.K. Ramanujan, K.N. Daruwalla and Nissim Ezekiel" Poetry 10 (1986):11-13. SREERMACHER, M. "The River's Argot in Three Indo-English Poets: A.K. Ramanujan, K.N. Daruwalla and Nissim Ezekiel" Poetry 10 (1986):11-13. VENKATACHARI, K."The Idiom of Autochthon: A Note on the Poetry of Keki N. Daruwalla" in KHER, INDER NATH and CHRISTOPHER WISEMAN eds. Ariel 14.4 (1983): 72-76. Reprinted in Madhusudan Prasad (ed) Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling, 1989: 66-72. Without recourse to religion, Daruwalla's work patterns an "apprehension of man in relation to nature and his identity" as the fulfilment of historical development, and requires exploration of "the singular power of the place" (autocthon) which generates a distinctive life. Hence his `documentary' cataloguing of India's stark realities, the "dialectic of decadence and

regression" and the "re-enactment ... of the terms of the mind ... to awaken the Indian to the disgrace of his condition". Wanting to write "intensely personal poems", Daruwalla nonetheless downplays art in favour of experience. He uses open form with variable lines and employs laconic wit shocking in its frankness. Das, Deb Kumar BHATNAGAR, O.P. "The 'Candle that Discovered Darkness': The Poetry of Deb Kumar Das" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:62-71. Das, Gurcharan NAIK, M. K. "The Three Avatars of Henry Lawrence: A Study of Gurcharan Das's Larins Sahib." The Literary Criterion 12, nos.2 & 3 (1976): 29-36. Total artistic confusion vitiates the play, because Des allows his protagonist to enact three incompatible roles alternately: Lawrence the enlightened empire-builder who admires what is good in Indian life and character; Lawrence the "Lion of the Punjab" who unconsciously identifies himself with Ranjit Singh, the last Sikh king; and Lawrence the little cog in the wheels of the East India Company machine, who meekly accepts his transfer out of the Punjab. The play has many minor virtues--the speech of the Indian characters has a realistic regional flavour, and the minor characters are quite convincing. VENUGOPAL, C.V. "Larins Sahib." In Perspectives on Indian Drama in English, edited by Naik, M.K. & S. Mokashi-Punekar, 165-79. Madras: OUP, 1977. Gurcharan Das's first published play may not be a perfect drama, but it has elements which ensure stage success--a fine grip over dramatic technique, effective dialogue, exotic historical settings, and plenty of action. Das, J.P. SRIVASTAVA, K.G. "J.P. Das: An Appraisal" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:123-28. Das, Kamala AGRAWAL, ISHWAR NATH. "The Language and the Limits of the Self in the Poetry of Kamala Das" in SINHA, KRISHNA NANDAN Indian Writing in English 1979:138-146. xref Asks why we should respond to Das's isolated self "shouting in a hall of mirrors". Focuses on "the man-woman relationship" (best dealt with in The Old Playhouse) but is unsympathetic to "Women's lib crusaders" and sees `Das' and her lovers as "unable to rise above their ego". Whitmanesque technique lacks breadth of vision and fails to rise above prose. When they "escape from the surface-self" (as in "Lines addressed to a Devadasi"), poems are more successful. BREWSTER, ANNE. "The Freedom to Decompose: The Poetry of Kamala Das" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.1&2 (1980):98-107. Reprinted in SINGH, KIRPAL ed. Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984: 137-150. The poems of a woman defined in her personal relationships, sensitive to "inadequacy, mistrust or lack of communication" and expressed through "the tactile world of sense experience." They become, too, a vehicle for exploring "the interaction of consciousness with

the external world of phenomena" constellated in imagery of house and body. Traces moods from celebration of senses to existential angst, the house as positive tradition and prison, the image of spontaneous exposure to the cover of role-playing, sex as grotesque spectacle and vehicle for union, noting that static structures are oppressive while the dynamic changes of history reinvigorate moral and cultural tradition. Illustrative commentary on "Composition" in which emotional intensity counterpoints blunt description and paradoxes of flesh and spirit wherein "the strength of desire" provokes cruelty and exhaustion but also life-informing drives to resurrection of purified soul. DARUWALLA, K.N. "Confessional Poetry as Social Commentary: A View of English Poetry by Indian Women" in RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 13-20. DAS, BIJAY KUMAR. "Kamala Das and the Making of the Indian English Idiom" in SINGH, R.K. ed. Indian English Writing 1981-1985: Experiments with Expression New Delhi: Bahri Publications, 1987: 91-8. DE SOUZA, EUNICE. "Kamala Das" in SHAHANE, V.A. & M. SIVARAMAKRISHNA, eds. "Contemporary Indian Poetry in English Special Number" Osmania Journal of English Studies 13.1 (1977):19-27. DE SOUZA, EUNICE. "Kamala Das" in SHAHANE, VASANT A. and SIVARAMKRISHNA, M. eds Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment Madras: Macmillan, 1980: 41-7. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. DHAR, T.N. "Eros Denied: Love in the Poetry of Kamala Das" i RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 21-31. DWIVEDI, A.N. Kamala Das and Her Poetry Delhi: Doaba House, 1983, 148 pp. ELIAS, M. "Kamala Das and Nayar Heritage" Journal of Indian Writing in English 6.2 (1978):15-24. ELIAS, MOHAMED. "The Short Stories of Kamala Das" WLWE (Autumn 1985):307-12. ELIAS, MOHAMED. "Aubrey Menen and Kamala Das: Angli-Dravidian Revolt against Aryan Myths"Jadavpur Journal of Comparative Literature 24 (1986): 124-133.. Menen in his Rama Retold and Das in her My Story and verse recreate traditional Hindu myths to focus on outlaws and adultresses. Both South Indian (and related), they create a pure Dravidian space (crossed in Das with Whitman and western writing and in both cases by a sense of racial alienation) opposed to the corrupt urban North and its Aryan hierarchised aggression. Das's ambivalent relations with Krishna indicate both fear of male and Aryan domination and confidence that Dravidian/Nayar blood can contain their conquests. Biographical, cultural and thematic approach. GOWDA, H. H. ANNIAH. "Perfected Passions: The Love Poetry of Kamala Das and Judith Wright." Literary half-Yearly 20:1 (1979)

GREWAL, OMPRAKASH. "The Poetry of Kamala Das -- A Critical Assessment" in SINHA, KRISHNA NANDAN ed. Indian Writing in English 1979: 128-137. x ref Aligns Das with P. Lal's break from Romantic tradition.Social unconventionality and heightened self-awareness before a threatening world supposedly accompany clarity, intensity and subtlety. the brittle decay of the social scene expresses the poet's "restless turmoil". Rejects the `alien language/alien sensibility' claims against IWE but sees Das as a minor figure because she eschews public themes, providing only external superficial treatment of the poor etc. and much hollow bourgeois futility. JUSSAWALLA, FEROZA. "Kamala Das: The Evolution of the Self" Journal of Indian Writing In English 10.1&2 (1982):54-61. KOHLI, DEVENDRA. "Kamala Das" in KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980, 270 pp. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981: 187-200. Reissued, New Delhi: ArnoldHeinemann, 1982. KOHLI, DEVINDRA. Kamala Das New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1975, 128 pp. NARAYAN, SHYAMALA. "A Note on Kamala Das's My Story" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 148-153. Das writes her poetry in English and her stories in Malayalam (with the less successful exception of A Doll for the Chile Prostitute). My Story is the only work to appear in both languages, but disappoints in providing only surface events and inconsistencies rather than insights into the life and times or creative process of the writer. Written for serialisation to pay her hospital bills and offload personal burdens, the text needed extensive editing. O'SULLIVAN, VINCENT. "Whose Voice is Where? On Listening to Kamala Das" ACLALS Bulletin 7th series No. 2 (1985):51-66. RADHA, K. "Common Ground Between the Poems of Kamala Das and Her Other Works in English" ACLALS Bulletin 7th series No. 6 (1986):66-76; also in Littcrit 22 & 23, 12. 1&2 (1986):44-55. Traces the autobiographical material in the poetry back through My Story, noting the almost exact transfer of lines from prose to verse. RADHA, K. Kamala Das Madras: Macmillan India (Kerala Writers in English Series), 1987, 64pp. RAGHUNANDAN, LAKSHMI, Contemporary Indian Poetry in English: with Special Emphasis on Nissim Ezekiel, Kamala Das, R. Parthasarathy and A.K. Ramanujan, New Delhi: Reliance Publishing House, 1990, 295pp. RAHMAN, ANISUR. Expressive Form in the Poetry of Kamala Das New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1981, xii + 92 pp. RAMAKRISHNAN, E.V. "Kamala Das as a Confessional Poet" in KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-

Heinemann, 1980: 201-07. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981, 314pp. Reissued, New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1982. RAMAKRISHNAN, E.V. "Kamala Das as a Confessional Poet" Journal of Indian Writing in English 5.1 (1977):29-34. RAO, P. MALLIKARJUNA. "Love Poetry of Kamala Das." Triveni (sp.?) April-June, 1989, 51-56. Her love poems combine the indigenous traditions of Abhisarika and Sahaja and the confessional mode of the West. Divides her work into two phases, 1) obsessive concern with physical love, 2) focus on ideal love. Contrasts Das' treatment of the Krishna motif with that of Sarajini Naidu. RAO, VIMALA. "Kamala Das - The Limits of Over-Exposure" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 87-96. RAO, VIMALA. "The Poetry of Kamala Das: Limits to Overexposure" Commonwealth Quarterly 17 (1980):17-28. RAVINDRAN, SANKARAN. "National and Regional Elements in Poetic Structure: "The Dream Flower", "Old House" and Structuralism" Journal of Indian Writing in English 18.2 (1990):103-112. SHARMA, I.K. "Mary and Mira: A Study of Kamala Das" Commonwealth Quarterly 10 (1980):36-47. SHARMA, I.K. "The Irony of Sex: A Study of Kamala Das's Poetry" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 41-9. SHARMA, MOHAN LAL. "The Road to Brindaban: The Theme of Love in Kamala Das' Poetry" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 97-111. SINGH, KIRPAL. "Kamala Das and the Problem with 'Composition'" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.1 (1980):1-9. SYAL, PUSHPINDER. "The Poetry of Kamala Das" PURBA 8.1-2 (April-October 1977):61-73. VENUGOPAL, C.V. "Kamala Das: The Seeker After Truth" in PRASAD, MADHUSUDHAN ed. Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling (1989): 143-47. Stresses Das's blatant honesty and conversational intimacy. Her limited thematic range and stylistic flair are overshadowed by the shock value of refusing conventional attitudes to sex and gender. but there is a deeper questioning of unpalatable truths. Das, Manoj

RAJA, P. "Fusion of Vision and Technique in the Short Stories of Manoj Das" The Literary Endeavour 2. 2&3 (1981): 15-20. Descriptive appreciation of Das's blending of realism and the supernatural, satire and fantasy. RAJA, P. "The Short Stories of Manoj Das" Indian Literature 25.5 (September-October 1982):56-62. RAJA, P. "Indian Sensibility and the Fiction of Manoj Das" in SINGH, R.K. ed. Indian English Writing 1981-1985: Experiments with Expression New Delhi: Bahri Publications, 1987: 133-46. Dasgupta, Mary Ann ABIDI, S.Z.H. "Mary Ann Dasgupta and Nasima Aziz - Two Alien Voices" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985:164-73. Day RAMAMURTI, K.S. "Lal Behari Day: Govinda Samanta." The Literary Half-Yearly 15.1 (1974): 96-105. De, Ira JAIN, SUNITA. "Leela Dharmaraj, Ira De and Tapati Mookerji" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 132-40. Deb, Lakhan BHATNAGER, O.P. "Lakhan Deb's Murder at the Prayer Meeting and T.S. Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral : A Comparative Study in Human Values" MJCL&L 1.2 (October 1988):6374. Derozio, Henry JAIN, JASBIR. Powre Above Powres:6:The Colonial Encounter: Henry Derozio Mysore: The Centre of Commonwealth Literature and Research, 1981, 68 pp. MADGE, ELIOT WALTER. Henry Derozio: The Eurasian Poet and Reformer Calcutta: Naya Prakash, 1982. NAIR, K.R. RAMACHANDRAN. Three Indo-Anglian Poets: Henry Derozio, Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu New Delhi: Sterling, 1987, 122 pp. Desai, Anita ACHARYA, SHANTA. "Problems of the Self in the Novels of Anita Desai" in DHAWAN, R.K. ed. Explorations in Modern Indo-English Fiction Bahri Publishers,1982: ??.

AFZAL-KHAN, FAWZIA. "Genre and Ideology in the novels of Four contemporary IndoAnglian novelists: R.K. Narayan, Anita Desai, Kamala Markandaya and Salman Rushdie" DAI 47.4 (October 1986):1328A. AITHAL, S. KRISHNAMOORTHY. "Interracial and Intercultural Relationships in Anita Desai's Bye-Bye Blackbird" CNIE 3.1 (Spring-Summer 1984):101-08. ALCOCK, PETER. "Distancing the Maya of the West" in SINGH, KIRPAL ed. Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984: 255-69. includes some comments on Desai: see entry under SINGH in General section. ALCOCK, PETER. "Rope, Serpent, Fire: The Recent Fiction of Anita __Desai" Journal of Indian Writing in English 9.1 (1981):15-34. Reworked as "Rope, Serpent, Fire: Recent Fiction of Anita Desai" in NANDAN, SATENDRA. ed. Language and Literature in Multicultural Contexts, Suva: University of the South Pacific, 1983:11-22. (Proceedings of the 5th Triennial ACLALS Conference, Suva, January 1980.) Traces Shakespeare's The Tempest through Where Shall we go this Summer?(1975), Fire on the Mountain (1977) and Games at Twilight (1978). Finds continuing thematic dualities such as individual/group, art/life and illusion/reality. Grounds argument on Desai's interview with Atma Ram (WLWE 16.1, 1977:95-103). AMIN, AMINA. "Imagery as a Mode of Apprehension in Anita Desai's Novels" Littcrit 10.1 (1984):36-45. ASNANI, S.M. "Anita Desai: The Novelist with Unique Personal Vision" Contemporary Indian Thought 14.1 (Jan-March 1974):6-9, 16-21. ASNANI, SHYAM A. "Anita Desai's Fiction: A New Dimension" Indian Literature 24.2 (March-April 1981):44-54. ASNANI, SHYAM A. "The Theme of Withdrawal and Loneliness in Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain" Journal of Indian Writing in English 9.1 (1981):81-92. BANDE, USHA & RAM, ATMA. "Symbolism in Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain" WLWE 24.2 (Autumn 1984):422-27. BANDE, USHA. "Is Sita Mad?" Indian Literature, 139, 33.5 (1990): 179-84. While the "rhetoric" of Where Shall we go this Summer points to Sita's madness, its "mimesis" reveals oppressive domestic routine facing an educated Indian woman and producing discontent, identity crisis and revolt.Neither Raman nor Moses comprehend Sita's bitterness: that of the New Woman who can see social shortcomings but no way to overcome them, no self-affirmation save escape to recovery of childhood. It is more than the incompatibility of husband and wife personalities and less than a mythic allegory with triumphant heroine. Sita is an ordinary person combining modern traits with traditional respect for marriage and motherhood. Her achievement is her awakening; perhaps fulfilment will come for her daughter Menaka. BANDE, USHA. The Novels of Anita Desai: A Study in Character and conflict New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1988, 191 pp.

BANDE, USHA. "Baumgartner's Bombay--An Assessment" PURBA 20.2 (1989): 131134. Character study, noting the theme of "random evil" in post-war modernity. Desai's output moves from poetic style to stark realism. BELLIAPPA, MEENA. Anita Desai: A Study of Her Fiction Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1971, 165 pp. DHAWAN, R.K. ed. The Fiction of Anita Desai Delhi: Bahri Publications, 1989, 164pp. GANGULI, CHANDRA. "Fire on the Mountain: An Analysis" Commonwealth Quarterly 11.32 (1986):51-6. Descriptive commentary. GANGULI, CHANDRA. "Fire on the Mountain: An Analysis" Commonwealth Quarterly 21 (1981):40-4.[Repeated?] GOEL, KUNJ BALA. Language and Theme in Anita Desai's Fiction Jaipur: Classic Publishing House, 1989, iii+190pp. HASHMI, ALAMGIR. "A Reading of Anita Desai's Clear Light of Day" Explorations 8 & 9.3&4 (1981-82):72-9. HASHMI, ALAMGIR. "Clear Light of Day Between India and Pakistan" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 65-71. JAIN, JASBIR. "Airing the Family Ghosts: Anita Desai's Clear Light of Day" WLWE 24.2 (Autumn 1984):416-22. JAIN, JASBIR. "Anita Desai" in PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. ed. Indian English Novelists New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1982:23-50. JASBIR JAIN, "In Pursuit of Wholeness: Transcendence of the Self in the Novels of Anita Desai": 298-308. in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 JAIN, JASBIR. "Use of Fantasy in the Novels of Anita Desai" in DHAWAN, R.K. ed. Explorations in Modern Indo-English Fiction Bahri Publishers,1982: ?? JAIN, JASBIR. Stairs to the Attic: The Novels of Anita Desai Jaipur: Printwell Publishers, 1986, xii + 176 pp. JENA, SEEMA. Voice and Vision of Anita Desai New Delhi" Ashish Publishing House, 1989, ix+88pp. KANWAR, ASHA. Virginia Woolf and Anita Desai: A Contemporary Study New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1989, 75pp.

KIRPAL, VINEY. "An Image of India: A Study of Anita Desai's In Custody" Ariel 17.4 (1986):127-38. KNAPP, BETTINA L. "Anita Desai: Fire on the Mountain - A Rite of Exit" JEP 8.3-4 (August 1987):223-37. KNAPP, BETTINA. "Rite of Exit: A Jungian Approach to Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain" The Indian Literary Review VI.1-3 (1989): 27-34. KRISHNA, FRANCINE E. " Anita Desai: Fire on the Mountain" Indian Literature 25.5 (Sept-Oct. 1982): 58-69. KRISHNA, SHIV K. "The Fiction of Anita Desai: Another View" The Humanist Review (DATE?) 3.2:43-6. KUMAR, SHIV K. "Art and Experience: A Note on Anita Desai as Short-Story Writer" in RIZVI, S.N.A. ed. The Twofold Voice: Essays in Honor of Ramesh Mohan Salzburg: Inst. für Anglistik & Amerikanistik, University of Salzburg, 1982: 190-4. KUMAR, SHIV K. "The Fiction of Anita Desai: Another View" The Humanities Review 3.2 (1981):43-6. LAL, MALASHRI. "Anita Desai: Fire On the Mountain" in PRADHAN, N.S. ed. Major Indian Novels: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986: 242-62. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986. LAL, MALASHRI. "The Shift from female Centred to Male Centred Narrative in the Novels of the 1980s: A Study of Anita Desai and Nayantara Sahgal" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 279-86. LINDBLAD, ISHRAT. "Colour Symbolism and the Rebirth Archetype in Anita Desai's Clear Light of Day" 256-63 in Backman, Sven & Kjellmer, Goran, eds. Papers on Language and Literature: Presented to Alvar Ellegard and Erik Frykman Goteborg: ACTA University Gothoburgensis, 1985, viii + 399. MAINI, DARSIN SINGH. "The Achievement of Anita Desai" in SHARMA, K.K. ed. IndoEnglish Literature: a Collection of Critical Essays, Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977: 21530. MAINI, IRMA. "Anita Desai and the Feminine Sensibility" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 1-12. Splits the novel into two interlinked strands: `masculine' (ideas, action and choice) and `feminine' (feeling, intuition, epiphany). Desai belongs in the second grouping, exploring the nuances of a psyche under stress, exteme characters in stifling worlds of existential emotional struggles. Study of Maya in Cry the Peacock and "the poetry of disjointed emotions". Voices in the City expands its focus to include external social factors reflecting the states of mind of a range of characters, though depiction of inner life is less well orchestrated. Sides with Ramachandra Rao in finding Nirode not always convincing and his crises reported rather than

dramatised. Monisha's case is more akin to Maya's. Unlike Monisha, Sita in Where shall we go this Summer? rejects her meaningless life, but finds that escape carries dangers too. Her decision to return to Bombay is unconvincing.

NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. "Sombre the Shadows and Sudden the Lights: A Study of Anita Desai's Novels" in NAIK, M.K. Perspectives on Indian Fiction in English New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985: 174-99. NARASIMHAN, RAJI. "Desai versus Desani: Norms of Appreciation." Indian Literature 16. nos. 3&4 (1973): 180-4. Indo-English writing counters colonialist denigration of `the native', so Desani's verbose metaphysical intensities are valued for supporting the underdog, as is Desai's Bye Bye Blackbird. Voices in the City has a more "robust domestic relevance" but is overrated because it sets Western acculturation above local experience. Such a `nationalist' criticism allows disregard of Desani's hybridised binary of brown and white in which Hatterr experiences "rockbottom" vairagya that resists religiosity and despair alike. His language is lively and spontaneous, lying beyond the clichés of Indo-English writing. PANDEY, LAL UDAI BHAN. "Art and Vision of Anita Desai" The Quest, 4.2, (1990): 1828. PANDEY, LALU U.B. "Seething Cauldron of Existence: A Thematic Study of Anita Desai's `In Custody'" New Literary Horizons 3.1 (1988): 85-90. The novel depicts the bewildering fluctuations in life governed by time and change. Compares the work to Camus' Sisyphus and sees it as denying sublime ideals in the face of failure and frustration. PANIGRAHI, BIPIN B. & KIRPAL, VINEY. "The Dangling Man: Deven in Anita Desai's In Custody" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 271-8. PANIGRAHI, BIPIN B. "Self-Apprehension and Self-Identity in Clear Light of Day" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 73-81. PARASURAM, LAXMI. "Fire on the Mountain: A New Dimension of Feminine SelfPerception" The Literary Criterion 16.3 (1981):58-64. The criticism focuses on the growth of independence of Anita Desai's heroines. PATIL, UJWALA. "Sexual Violence and Death in Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain" in GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA., ed. Studies in Indian Fiction in English Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987: 61-7. PETERSEN, KIRSTEN HOLST. "Anita Desai" Kunapipi 6.3 (1984):83-5. interview? PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. Anita Desai the Novelist Allahabad: New Horizon, 1982, 148 pp.

PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "Anita Desai's Voices in the City: A Critical Study" Littcrit 2 (1981):46-58. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. Anita Desai: The Novelist Allahabad: Anil K. Srivastava, 1981. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "Imagery in the Novels of Anita Desai: A Critical Study" World Literature Today 58.3 (Summer 1984):363-9. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "Where Shall We Go This Summer? A Critical Study." Rajasthan Journal of English Studies 9.1 (January 1981):51-66. PRASAD, V.V.N. RAJENDRA, "Anita Desai and the wounded Self" in The Self, Family and Society in Five Indian Novelists, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990: 130-149. RAI, G. "The Soil and the Roots: A Study of the Novels of Anita Desai" in SINHA, R.K. & SINHA, RAVI NANDAN., eds. The Indian Novel in English: Essays in Criticism Ranchi: Ankit Publishers, 1987: 93-107. RAM, ATMA & USHA BANDE. "Symbolism in Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain" World Literature Written in English 24.2 (Autumn 1984):422-7. RAM, ATMA. "Anita Desai, the Novelist who Writes for Herself" Journal of Indian Writing in English 5.2 (1977): 39-42. Biographical. RAMAKRISHNAN, E.V. "The Politics of Language and the Language of Politics" Littcrit 16.1&2 (1990): 54-69. A study of In Custody with comparative recourse to Shashi Tharoor's The Great Indian Novel and O.V. Vijayan's The Saga of Dharmapuri to determine the ideology behind the Indian English novelist's ironic mode. RAO, A. RAMAKRISHNA. "Anita Desai's Modernist Novel"The Literary Endeavour 2.2&3 (1982): 11-14. In Voices in the City, Nirode's void, similar to Baudelaire's, is a personal wound relating to his mother. Camus and literary pretensions are thin bandages for it. Desai fails to prepare us for his change of attitude upon Monisha's suicide and for his seeing the Divine Mother in his own mother. The "exoskeletal structure" doesn't fit completely with the elements it holds; like other modernists, Desai is "hostile to the reality they represent".

RAO, B. RAMACHANDRA. Anita Desai: Themes and Variations in the Novels and Short Stories of Anita Desai" Journal of Literature and Aesthetics 2.2&3 (1982):74-9. RAO, B. RAMACHANDRA. The Novels of Mrs Anita Desai Delhi: Kalyani Publications, 1977. RAO, B. RAMACHANDRA. The Novels of Mrs Anita Desai [???]

RAO, VIMALA. "Anita Desai's Where shall we go this Summer?-- An Analysis" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 44-50. (removed) RAO, VIMLA. "Where Shall We Go This Summer? An Analysis." Commonwealth Quarterly 3.9(December 1978): RIEMENSCHNEIDER, DIETER. "History and the Individual in Anita Desai's Clear Light of Day and Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children" World Literature Written in English 23.1 (Winter 1984):196-207. Reprinted in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 187-99. SAMARTH, MANINI MAYAR. The Internalized Narrative: A Study of Lyricism and Irony in the Novels of Anita Desai and Anita Brookner" DAI 49.3 (September 1988):513A. SHARMA, ATMA RAM. "Anita Desai's Novels: An Exploration of Inner Sensibility" Perspective 1.12 (July 1978):64-83. SHARMA, R.S. "Alienation, Accommodation and Locale in Anita Desai's Bye-Bye Blackbird" Literary Criterion 14.4 (1979):31-49. SHARMA, R.S. Anita Desai New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 1981. SHARMA, R.S. Anita Desai New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980, 166 pp. SHARMA, R.S. "Mother and the City: Archetypes in Anita Desai's Voices in the City" Journal of Literary Studies 2.2 (December 1979):57-77. SHARMA, R.S. "Movement and Stillness in Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain" Littcrit 7 (1978):1-6. SHARMA, R.S. "Where Shall We Go This Summer: An Analysis" Commonwealth Quarterly 10 (1980):50-69. SHASTRI, N.R. "Where Shall We Go This Summer?: A Critical Study" Osmania Journal of Literary Studies 17 (1981):83-103. SINGH, BRIJRAJ. "The Fiction of Anita Desai" The Humanities Review 3.2 (1981):40-3. SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K, ed. Perspectives on Anita Desai Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1985. xlvii + 239pp. AITHAL, S. KRISHNAMOORTHY. "The Ballad of East and West Updated: Anita Desai's Bye Bye Blackbird": 156-61. ASNANI, SHYAM M. "Desai's Theory and Practice of the Novel": 5-16. AWASTHAI, KAMAL N. & SHARMA, SOM P. "Anita Desai's Cry, the Peacock: A Vindication of the Feminine": 138-49. DUDT, CHARMAZEL. "A Sense of Disappointment: A Journey to the Self in Where Shall We Go This Summer?": 179-84. GULATI, VINOD BHUSHAN. "Structure in the Novels of Anita Desai": 104-17. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "Anita Desai's Fire on the Mountain: A Fictional Metaphor of Existentialist Philosophy": 185-88. INAMDAR, F.A. "Anita Desai's Prose Style": 91-103.

KUMAR, SHIV K. "Desai's Games at Twilight: A View": 203-207. MAINI, DARSHAN SINGH. "Anita Desai's Novels: An Evaluation": 118-137. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "The Novels of Anita Desai: A Study in Imagery": 54-77. RAO, A.V. KRISHNA. "Voices in the City: A Study": 162-178. RAO, RAMACHANDRA B. "Technique in the Novels of Anita Desai": 78-90. SINGH, BRIJRAJ. "Desai's Clear Light of Day: A Study": 156-161. VARADY, EVELYN DAMASHEK. "The West Views Anita Desai: American and British Criticism of Games of Twilight and Other Stories": 194-202. WEIR, ANN LOWRY. "The Illusions of Maya: Feminine Consciousness in Anita Desai's Cry, the Peacock": 150-155. SIVARAMAKRISHNA, M. "From Alienation to Mythic Acceptance: The Ordeal of Consciousness in Anita Desai's Fiction": 17-30. SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K. "Anita Desai at Work: An Interview": 208-26 check pages TRIPATHI, J.P. The Mind and Art of Anita Desai Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1987, 162pp. UMA, ALLADI. "'I Have Had my Vision': Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse and Anita Desai's Where Shall We Go This Summer" The Literary Criterion 22.3 (1987):73-7. Examines the search for self realisation by the heroines of these two novels. Although written 50 years apart, their quests and resolutions are the same. VARADY, EVELYN. "American and British Responses to Anita Desai's Games at Twilight" Journal of Indian Writing in English 8.1&2 (1980):27-34. Reprinted in SINGH, KIRPAL ed. Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984: 34-45. Short stories do not get the critical attention given to novels. Desai is little known in the US and her stories less so. Offers a US response to Games at Twilight assessing mostly favourable British reviews. Notes repeat of material in :Private Tuition by Mr Bose" and "Sale". Suggests British resistance to and American lack of familiarity with Indian writing. Foreign critics can assess treatments of non-Indian characters, and Desai's American dialogue fails. Strong on "vivid backdrop" and sensory images, some stories "lacked unified structure or a well-developed conflict". "Games at Twilight", "Studies in the Park" and "Sale" are emotionally moving. Looks for work that bridges "the gap between Indianness and universality". WEIR, ANN LOWRY. "Anita Desai: Fire on the Mountain" WLWE 3.2 (November 1978):548-50. [review?] JAMKHANDI, S.R. ed. "Anita Desai: The Woman and the Novelist" Journal of Indian Writing in English 9.1 (January 1981). JAMKHANDI, S.R. "The Artistic Effects of the Shifts in Points of View in Anita Desai's Cry the Peacock":35-46. PRASAD, HARI MOHAN. "Sound or Sense: A Study in Anita Desai's Bye Bye Blackbird":58-66. RAM, ATMA. "A View of Where Shall We Go This Summer" :74-80. SHARMA, ATMA RAM. "A View of Where Shall We Go this Summer?":74-80. SRIVASTAVA, R.K. "Voices of Artists in the City": 47-57.

Desani, G.V. ARORA, SHANKAR MOAHN. "The Meaning Behind the 'Gesture': A Study of G.V. Desani's All About H. Hatterr" Journal of Indian Writing in English, 18.2, (1990): 19-30. Locates the book's meaning in two interrelated issues, 1) the business of living one's life, 2) the matter of intercultural identity. Perceives its primary message is the joy of family life unattained by Hatterr. Examines the basis for survival in this world contrasted by the continual struggle between good and evil. BARDOLPH, J. "Language Madness in Desani's All About H. Hatterr" Commonwealth 8.1 (1985):1-13. Analyses various modes of rhetorical formation and defines their function. Locates his melange of language in Indianisms, collage, code switching and orality. Asserts three purposes for Desani's unique language mix, 1)entertainment, 2) expresses the writer's voice, 3) self-referentiality. BURJOREE, D.M. "The Dialogue in G.V. Desani's All About H. Hatterr" WLWE 13 (1974):191-224. Identifies this work as a dialogue novel whose conversations are pivotal to its structural integrity. Observes that the problem of the Eurasian is primarily cultural, not biological. Offers the perspective that language can not perform its communicative function. DESANI, G.V. "Difficulties of Communicating an Oriental to a Western Audience" (REPRINTED IN Journal of Literature and Aesthetics 2.2&3 (1982):9-16.) in NARASIMHAIAH, C.D. ed. Awakened Conscience: Studies in Commonwealth Literature, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978 (also Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 1978): 401-407. HARREX, S.C. "The Novel as Gesture" in NARASIMHAIAH, C.D. ed. Awakened Conscience: Studies in Commonwealth Literature, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978 (also Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 1978): 73-85. MOORTHY, P. RAMA. "Culture as Tale: An Examination of Tangi and Hali " The Literary Criterion Vol. 14.1 (1980): 20-32. Contrasts the Western masculine interpretation of death with the Indian feminine sensibility of it. Indian concept of karuna compared to the Maori concept of aroha. Finds the thirty-three chapters of Witi Ihimaera's Tangi (1973) and the fifteen sections of Desani's Hali (1950) to be lamentations ending in a very similar state of aroha or karuna. NAIK, M.K. "Colonial Experience in All About H. Hatterr" The Humanities Review 2.3&4 (1980):41-5. Employing both realism and symbolism, this novel explores several aspects of colonialism. Beliram, Banerrji and Hatterr are only variations on the archetype of the colonial. Probes the personality patterns constructed by the complex psychological disruption of the colonial experience. NAIK, M.K. "Colonial Experience in All about H. Hatterr" Commonwealth Novel in English 1.1 (January 1982):37-49. CHECK NO & YEAR (1&2? 1984?) NAIK, M.K. "Form and Style in All About H. Hatterr" Karnatak University Journal: Humanities 29 (1985-86):1-17.

NAIK, M.K. "The Method in His Madness: A Thematic Analysis of All About H. Hatterr" Journal of Indian Writing in English 13.1 (1985):1-14. ALSO IN NAIK, M.K. Perspectives on Indian Fiction in English New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985:1-14 and NAIK,M.K. Studies in Indian English Literature New Delhi:: Sterling, 1987: 1-33. Asserts the central theme is the search for truth in this world. Correlates various themes and motifs. Finds a crazy, surrealistic narrative based on comedy and situation. NAIKAR, BASAVARAJ S. "All About H. Hatterr: A Philosophical Comedy" IN GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA., ed. Studies in Indian Fiction in English Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987: 25-35. NARASIMHAN, RAJI. "Desai versus Desani: Norms of Appreciation." Indian Literature 16. nos. 3&4 (1973): 180-4. Indo-English writing counters colonialist denigration of `the native', so Desani's verbose metaphysical intensities are valued for supporting the underdog, as is Desai's Bye Bye Blackbird. Voices in the City has a more "robust domestic relevance" but is overrated because it sets Western acculturation above local experience. Such a `nationalist' criticism allows disregard of Desani's hybridised binary of brown and white in which Hatterr experiences "rockbottom" vairagya that resists religiosity and despair alike. His language is lively and spontaneous, lying beyond the clichés of Indo-English writing. NARASIMHAN, R. "The Strangeness of G.V. Desani" in Meenakshi Mukherjee, ed. Considerations (1977): 102-10 and adapted from Narasimhan's Sensibility under Stress (1976). Interprets strangeness as enigma. Desani's utilisation of the mock-comic mode has not been appreciated by the modern Indian sensibility. Compares Hatterr to Ramaswamy as exact opposites in style and approach. The Indian sensibility finds it difficult to respond to Desani's irreverence. His linguistic virtuosity frightens because of its wild, darting quality and its profuse allusions to both Eastern and Western traditions. All About H. Hatterr covers the same metaphysical conundrums as Raja Rao's The Serpent and the Rope, but goes beyond the usual 'East-West encounter' novels, depicting unlettered racist whites and transcending nationalism. Desani anticipates the world of psychedelia. RAMAMOORTHY, P. "Culture as Tale: An Examination of Witi Ihimaera's Tangi and G.V. Desani's Hali." The Literary Criterion 14, no.1 (1980): 20-32. Compares Eastern and Western attitudes towards death. Western tragedy fights death bravely while Eastern sensibility yields to death and sorrow, and karuna (compassion, pathos) is the highest rasa. Eastern literature celebrates life by enduring sorrow. Tangi (meaning funeral), a pionering novel by Witi Ihimaera, a Maori writer, celebrates aroha, an inclusive love through uninhibited mourning. Hali, by G. V. Desani, a short poetic play, is highly symbolic, yet profoundly human in coming to terms with dukkha, cosmic sorrow. The thirtythree chapters of Tangi and the fifteen sections of Hali are lamentations, each repetitive lament a progressive discovery and realization of life. Both bend the English language to the native sensibility. RAMANUJAN, MOLLY. G.V. Desani: Writer and Worldview New Delhi: ArnoldHeinemann, 1980, 166 pp.; 1984, 172 pp. The only full-length study by someone who has met Desani a number of times over the years (the author of The Salt Doll as Shouri Daniels). Interesting biographical note, followed

by discussion of links between All About H. Hatterr (1948) and Forster, philsophy and the Absurd, Dostoevsky's Notes from the Underground, Camus, Sartre and Beckett. Concentrates on `The Song to Ganga' in Hatterr as crucial expression of visionary experience. Desani's minor works are dealt with in the chapters "Kipling's Mother and Hali's Women" and "Goan, meet a Samoan". Determines the writing to be entirely self-reflexive. Comprehensive bibliography. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, DIETER. "All About H. Hatterr and the Problem of Cultural Alienation" The Literary Criterion 20.2 (1985):23-35. The problem of alienation is intensified by the numerous expressions of a lack of communication in the text. Perceives the structure of the book coheres in translating "the message of the practical East" into a comprehensible statement. Claims an existential analysis answers the central quandary of the narrator's quest. SHARRAD, PAUL. "Musings on the Hats of Hatterr" ACLALS Bulletin 7th Series No. 4 (1986):79-87. Suggests two contexts for reading Desani's masterpiece: literature of Anglo-India, meaning both colonial and racially mixed; and literary "Indianness", grounded in classical Sanskrit literature. Compares All about H. Hatterr (1948) to Rudyard Kipling's Kim (1901) and to Dandin's Dasakumaracarita as an originary Sanskrit source. Desani simultaneously confirms and undermines the authority of both Christian and Hindu dogma. SRINATH, C.N. "G.V. Desani: All about H. Hatterr" Literary Criterion 9.3 (1970): 40-56. Reissued in The Literary Landscape Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1986: 12-30. Character study identifying the distinctive message of Hatterr in the description of a metaphysical attitude to life as leela or play. Hatterr shows both zest for life and passive acceptance of its contrasts. Makes comparison to Raja Rao's The Cat and Shakespeare and notes the importance of the `hymn' to Ganga section. Reveals the author's fusing of technique and tone to express Hatterr's attitude to life: a blend of the humourous, the grotesque and the serious. Deshpande, Gauri VERMA, MONIKA. "Gauri Deshpande" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 65-75. VARMA, MONIKA. "Gauri Deshpande" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 15-28. Between Births works in two styles: delicate lyricism and assertive sincerity. Praises restraint and attention to Indian reality, noting lapses into poeticising, dramatic excess, careless punctuation and "feminine mushiness". Evaluative critique favouring tight craft, "poetic seriousness", correspondence to reality, and repression of physical detail: generally wanting of women poets less of "sights and thighs". Deshpande, Shashi KING, ADELE. "Shashi Deshpande: Portraits of an Indian Woman" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 159-67. DeSouza, Eunice JUSSAWALLA, ADIL. "One Woman's Poetry" JSAL 18.1 (1983):88-90.

Response to de Souza's poetry fixates on Goa and the entertainment value of her satires on Catholicism and Hindu beliefs. A dynamic of rejecting and wanting to belong to her sociocultural community obscures the central issue of the gender struggle. The poems wage war with men to be accepted by them and also against the terms on which such acceptance would be accorded. Their success lies in creating a "near terrible poetic persona" with elements of the tragic stage, that wins respect if not liking. SHARMA, S.P. "Eunice de Souza's Satire" Journal of Indian Writing in English 10.1&2 (1982):17-20. Devi, Chitra "Introducing...Chitrita Devi" The Indian Pen 48.4-6 (1987):9-10. lang? genre? author? Dharmaraj, Lila JAIN, SUNITA. "Leela Dharmaraj, Ira De and Tapati Mookerji" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 132-40. Dutt, Michael Madhusudan BOSE, AMALENDU. Michael Madhusudan Dutt New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi,1982, 94 pp. Dutt, Toru BOSE, AMALENDU. "Evaluation of Toru Dutt: A Starting Point" Commonwealth Quarterly 3.12 (1979): 4-17. Assessment of Dutt cannot rely on biographical material, only the image of the poet from the poetry. Cites responses to P. Lal's questionnaire to show her decline in popularity. Suggests looking at her work in the frame of Taine's race, milieu, moment. Provides a bio-bibliography. Asks what experience Toru had of love and considers one poem and her reading of Meredith without arriving at any real conclusion. DWIVEDI, A.N. Toru Dutt New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1974. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Toru Dutt and Her Poetry" in RAO, K.S. NARAYANA. ed. World Literature Written in English 14.2 (1975):278-90. DWIVEDI, A.N. Toru Dutt New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 1977, 168 pp. [same as 1974? DWIVEDI, A.N. "Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu: A Comparative Approach" Commonwealth Quarterly 3.9 (1978): 82-94. Bio-bibliographic appreciation. Both are Romantic lyricists despite Naidu's later work being contemporary with Modernism. Notes dismissal of them by the Writers Workshop critics. Naidu's crafted "jewelled phrases" and Sapphic passion contrast with Dutt's simple style but remain limited and subordinate to her nationalist activity. Dutt had a wider range, including narrative skills, but "wooden" blank verse. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 82-94.

Bio-bibliographical outlines of each, locating Toru's strength in her ballads and Sarojini's in perfecting her narrow lyric range. Both romantics, Sarojini swung more towards the Decadent period. Toru showed promise of a wider talent. Looks at "Gold-mulched Hours" and "Green leaves are Gold" as evidence of striking imagery GOWDA, H.H.A. "Homage to Toru Dutt" The Indian P.E.N. 43. 9&10 (1977):6-10. IYER, UMA. "Toru Dutt: A Major Indo-Anglian Poet" Siddha 13 (1979):38-47. NAIR, K.R. RAMACHANDRAN. Three Indo-Anglian Poets: Henry Derozio, Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu New Delhi: Sterling, 1987, 122 pp. SETHNA, K.D. "A Word for Toru Dutt" Mother India 40.9 (1987):567-70. SHARMA, I.K. "The Lotus: Toru's Testament of Faith" Journal of Indian Writing in English 16.1 (1988):14-19. Ezekiel, Nissim BLACKWELL, FRITZ. "Four Plays of Nissim Ezekiel" Journal of South Asian Literature 11, no.3/4 (1976): 265-72. Attempts a critical appraisal of the plays, which compare favourably with other Indian plays available in English. Ezekiel's stylistic approach in Three Plays and Song of Deprivation frankly admits itself as theater. Each play is an effective exposé of the hollowness people contrive for themselves. Song of Deprivation is not as stageable as the earlier plays. Ezekiel's characters are ditinct types, not individuals; the situation is dominant. The Sleepwalkers is his best play; a ritualistic style is used to satirize the Indians who worship all things American. CHAR, M. SREERAMA. Prayer Motif in Indian Poetry in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1988, 135 pp. CHARI, JAGANMOHANA. "Poetics of the City: A Study of Nissim Ezekiel's Poetry" Osmania Journal of English Studies 17 (1981):105-21. CHINDHADE, SIRISH. "Rootedness in Ezekiel's Poetry: A Point of View" Poetry 12 (1986):37-54. COPPOLA, CARLO. "Nissim Ezekiel: The Most Recent Poems" The Commonwealth in Canada ed. Uma Parameswaran, Calcutta: The Writers Workshop, 1984, pp 158-73. DAS, BIJAY KUMAR. "Critical Perspectives on Relationship and Latter-Day Psalms" Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1987, vi + 55pp. check: ed? title? contents? DAS, BIJAY KUMAR. "The Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 28-40. DAS, BIJAY KUMAR. "The Search after Reality: A Study of Ezekiel's Poems" Journal of Indian Writing in English 10.1&2 (1982):10-14.

DWIVEDI, SURESH CHANDRA. ed. Perspectives on Nissim Ezekiel: Esays in Honour of Rosemary C. Wilkinson New Delhi: K.M. Agencies, 1989, 280pp. GARMAN, MICHAEL. "Nissim Ezekiel - Pilgrimage and Myth" Visvabharati Quarterly 38.1-2 (1972-3):93-111. GOWDA, H.H. ANNIAH. "Nissim Ezekiel's Plays." Literary Half-Yearly 14, no.1 (1973): 11-15. Ezekiel, primarily a poet, is a good dramatist as well, as is shown by Three Plays. Nalini is the best, distinguished by the intensity of the dialogue; the final act of this three-act play is in the nature of a choric commentary. The Sleepwalkers, though a farce, is tautly constructed, and criticises Indian and American society, while Mariage Poem, a tragi-comedy about marital breakdown, is true of a large number of families. [From Full Annots:A basic retelling (in fractured English) of the plot-line of Nalini: A Comedy, with short summations of Marriage Poem and The Sleepwalkers.

JOURNAL of Indian Writing in English 14.2 (1986) Special issue ACHARYA, N.P. "Achievement and Failure in Nissim Ezekiel's Poetry" :73-90. Acharya draws on previous critical works in his chronological analysis of the technique and styles to be found in Ezekiel's body of work. ANKLESARIA, HAVOVI. "On the Fringes of Journalism: The Prose of Nissim Ezekiel":101-8. This approving critique of a less well known aspect of Ezekiel's writing examines his literary and art reviews and concludes that Ezekiel displays a 'characteristic sense of balance' in prose which has no pretensions to research and is free of rationalization. ANKLESARIA, ZERIN. "Wit in the Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel":41-8. Anklesaria concentrates primarily on the structure of Ezekiel's 'Sixty Poems' with an examination of his use of metephor and analogy. [OK KJL] BHAGWAT, CHARU. "Poet-Rascal-Clown of Hymns in Darkness":91-100. A caustic critique of Hymns in Darkness which draws on English classicism in general and T. S. Eliot in particular in contrast to what Bhagwat sees as Ezeliel's lack sincerity and self-exploration as well as his inappropriate use of wit. CHACKO, P.M. "Ezekiel's Family Poems":24-40. Comments upon the confessional and intimate domestic nature of Ezekiel's family poems. Chacko also examines Ezekiels journey of self-discovery through his poetry. DAMODAR, G. "Search for Identity: An Estimate of Ezekiel's Poetry":58-64. In complete contrast to Naik's article, Damodar finds that Ezekiel's poetry reveals a theme of a deep and abiding commitment to both India and the city of Bombay. DANI, N.D. "An Interview with Nissim Ezekiel":117-21. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Modernity in Nissim Ezekiel's Poetry":65-72. A relatively unfocussed examination of the technique and motifs used in Ezekiel's poems as evidence of 'modernity'. GUHA, A.S. "Nissim Ezekiel's India":17-23. Guha's article looks at the theme of an Indian reality in Ezekiel's poems in the context of his awareness of both the human and social aspects of Indian society. NAIK, M.K. "Nissim Ezekiel and Alienation":49-57. A not completely convincing argument on the role of alienation in Ezekiel's poetry which seems to get caught up more in Ezekiel's use of irony than any evidence of the struggle which the author feels should be taking place. PATEL, TONI. "Is It Pleasant to Meet Mr. Ezekiel!":109-16. PRASAD, B. N. "Latter-Day Psalms": 131-136

Prasad looks with approval at the metrical and mythical patterns in Ezekiel's poetry. RAMAKRISHNA, D. "Ezekiel's Credo":1-16. Ramakrishna examines a number of Ezekiel's letters, critical essays and interviews to gain an insight into the creed behind his poetry. He concludes that Ezekiel's quest for the proper communication of the meaning of life is based on his convictions of the extrinsic and intrinsic aspects of literature. RODRIGUES, SANTAN. "The Plays of Nissim Ezekiel":122-30. Ezekiel is an excellent craftsman whose characters are caricatures. Description and direct quotes. Evaluate Three Plays and Song of Deprivation, written during Ezekiel's peak period as a poet. Ezekiel is a better poet than playwright; the plays depict only the banality of life, while the poems grapple with the its big questions. KARNANI, CHETAN. Nissim Ezekiel New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1973, 192 pp. KHER, INDER NATH. "'That Message From Another Shore': The Esthetic Vision of Nissim Ezekiel" Mahfil 8.4 (1972):17-28. KHER, INDER NATH. "'That Message from Another Shore': The Esthetic Vision of Nissim Ezekiel" in KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980: 150-64. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. KHER, INDER NATH. "A Time to Change: The Early Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel" South Asian Review 2 (1978):41-55. KHULLAR, AJIT. "Old Psalms for New Times" Indian Literature 27.5 (1984):219-27. KUMAR, SHIV K. "Poster Plays of Nissim Ezekiel" Journal of South Asian Literature 11.34 (1976):263-4. KUMAR, VINODA & SHIV KUMAR. "The Indianness of Ezekiel's 'Indian English Poems': An Analysis" Kunapipi 9.1 (1987):21-9. MEHTA, P.P. "Nissim Ezekiel" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary IndoEnglish Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984: 210-15. NABAR, VRINDA. "Domesticity and Drama: An Analysis of Nissim Ezekiel's MarriagePoem and Don't Call it Suicide." In Contemporary Indian Drama, edited by Pandey (1990), 75-81. Ezekiel's contribution to Indian English drama is modest. Marriage Poem, in the conventional theatriacl mode, with clear stage directions, is very stageable. The view of marriage is equally dismal in Don't Call it Suicide, which shows the sham security of middle class respectability. Nabar is unsatisfied with the dialogue, into which Indianisms intrude without any justification, and the women characters, uniformly drab, stereotyped, and unimaginative. NAIR, K. R. RAMACHANDRAN. "Nissim Ezekiel's `Bombay Poems'." Triveni 59, no.3 (1990):65-74.

Claims his poetry attempts to harmonise the diverse and contradictory images of contemporary urban culture. Lists the themes common to the Bombay poems. Reveals the poet on a perpetual quest for identity and commitment in an urbanised milieu characterised by dehumanisation and mass confusion. NARAYAN, SHYAMALA A. "Nissim Ezekiel's Latter Day Psalms: A Study" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: ??? reprint? NARAYAN, SHYAMALA A. "Nissim Ezekiel's Latter-Day Psalms" Journal of Indian Writing in English 13.1 (1985):31-38. Looks appreciatively at the techniques, structures and themes employed by Ezekiel in LatterDay Psalms. [Lever: The annotation is incomplete because the article is lacking - no argument, no claim, no nothing except Look at this poem: it uses such and such rhyme scheme; it conveys his idea of xyz; the next poem uses a completely different rhyme scheme.... Rhyme is the main technique the critic refers to. The critic says: "Nissim Ezekiel ceaselessly experiments with technique; `Latter-Day Psalms' is something new in his versification, as he has consciously modelled the movement of his verse on the biblical psalms." Uses irony in them. The poems in `Psalms' show: "Ezekiel advocates involement in life, with all its good and evil." Psalms "are representative examples of Ezekiel's art, with its wide-ranging experiments in form and technique." The `Psalms' show Ezekiel's attempts to come to terms with his complex heritage, born a Jew in india with its cultural variety." (statements with no expansion on them). NARAYAN, SYAMALA A. "Ezekiel as Book Reviewer" Journal of South Asian Literature 11.3-4 (1976):273-82. NARULA, S.C. "Negative Affirmation in Nissim Ezekiel's Hymns and Psalms" in KHER, INDER NATH and CHRISTOPHER WISEMAN eds. Ariel 14.4 (1983): 57-76. Follows Linda Hess and Inder Nath Kher in noting Ezekiel's attention to "the here and now", looking indirectly through the "`fever' of the mind caused by the outrage of the world" to "intimations of a vision of God" registered as existential quest and in terms of the paradox and irony of human limitation and endless striving to go beyond. Faith (leavening a basically humanist view) is approached out of unfaith, and the ego is propitiated and critiqued as both power and obstacle.Thematic commentary framed by Old Testament Psalms PAL, K.S. Ezekiel and Ramanujan: A Comparative Study Astha Prakashan, 1981. PARANJAPE, MAKARANDA. "Nissim Ezekiel as Mystical Poet" Commonwealth Quarterly 13.34 (1986-7) 1-6. While not overtly spiritual, Ezekiel expresses an underlying but unresolved spiritual quest in his work. Later work ironically exposes "the self-deceptions of a modern-day seeker"; early poems catalogue obstacles in the poet's way to self-realisation. "Declaration" and "Encounter" (A Time to Change and Other Poems) mark a transformation in understanding. PARTHASARATHY, R. "Foregrounding as an Interpretative Device in Nissim Ezekiel's 'Night of the Scorpion'" The Literary Criterion 11.3 (1974):38-44.

RAGHUNANDAN, LAKSHMI, Contemporary Indian Poetry in English: with Special Emphasis on Nissim Ezekiel, Kamala Das, R. Parthasarathy and A.K. Ramanujan, New Delhi: Reliance Publishing House, 1990, 295pp. RAHMAN, ANISUR. Form and Value in the Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1981, viii + 94 pp. RAIZADA, HARISH. "Nissim Ezekiel's Poetry of Love and Sex" in Madhusudan Prasad (ed) Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling, 1989: 73-106. Follows Iyengar in seeing Ezekiel as focussed on exploring all aspects of the bodymind exprience of sexuality. Both physical drive and sacramental celebration of beauty, sexual love is a bulwark against the existential void, though the poet resists commitments because of personal guilts or perceived insincerity in his lovers. Married love carries inherent limitations because of different expectations REDDY, P. BAYAPPA, Studies in Indian Writing in English with a Focus on Indian English Drama, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990, 94pp. "The Poet as Dramatist: Nissim Ezekiel Interviewed":13-19. "Minor Joys and Sorrows: Ezekiel's Marriage Poem": 20-27. RAO, R. RAJ. "Theme of Alienation in Nissim Ezekiel's Plays." In Contemporary Indian Drama, edited by Pandey (1990), 82-91. Alienation is a unifying theme running through all of Ezekiel's plays, whose intellectual content surpasses their dramatic value. Rao examines Three Plays and the unpublished Who Needs No Introduction and Song of Deprivation. Dress and language are recurring instruments of alienation. Something inherent in our natures culminates in alienation from society and each other. Ezekiel's characters are not round; they are types, who reveal why we fail. SAHA, SUBHAS CHANDRA. "The Indian Milieu and Ethos in Nissim Ezekiel's Poetry." Literary Half Yearly 29.1 (1988) 84-91 Focusses on the motif of what it means for Ezekiel to be Indian with the contrasting and conflicting realities which this encompasses. SHAHANE, V.A. The Religious-Philosophical Strain in Nissim Ezekiel's Poetry" Journal of South Asian Literature 11.3-4 (1976):253-61. SINGH, S. "Journey into Self: Nissim Ezekiel's Recent Poetry" in SHAHANE, V.A. & M. SIVARAMAKRISHNA, eds. "Contemporary Indian Poetry in English Special Number" Osmania Journal of English Studies 13.1 (1977):29-43. SINGH, SATYANARAIN. "Journey into Self: Nissim Ezekiel's Recent Poetry" in SHAHANE, VASANT A. and SIVARAMKRISHNA, M. eds Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment Madras: Macmillan, 1980: 48-60. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. SINGH, SATYANARAIN. "Ramanujan and Ezekiel" in KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: ArnoldHeinemann, 1980: 165-74. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981.

SREENIVASAN, S. "The Self and Its Enchanted Circle: A Perspective on the Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel" Littcrit 16.1&2 (1990): 81-87. SREERMACHER, M. "The River's Argot in Three Indo-English Poets: A.K. Ramanujan, K.N. Daruwalla and Nissim Ezekiel" Poetry 10 (1986):11-13. TARANATH, RAJEEV. "Ezekiel's Nalini." In Indian Drama edited by Gowda, (1974), 11726. A poet moving into playwriting is an interesting phenomenon, especially when he has to face the peculiar problems of Indian-English theater. His material is seriously attenuated, as he deals with English-speaking Indians, a very small class. Nalini is tightly knit. The two male characters, Bharat and Raj, reveal different kinds of alienation--Raj's alienation touches tragedy, while Bharat's is merely cerebral. Nalini is not an ordinary character, she is a dream and a reality, an agent of evaluation. Ezekiel makes clever use of the bell; at the end of the play, it acquires a kind of symbolism which is typical of the poet Ezekiel. VAIDYANATHAN, RAMA. "Nissim Ezekiel on Indo-Anglian Fiction" Journal of Literature and Aesthetics 2.2&3 (1982):17-19. VERGHESE, C. PAUL. "The Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel." Indian Literature 15, no.1 (1972):63-75. Close reading matching form and content ("Night of the Scorpion", Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher"). Primary concern is "man and his mind", the meditative quest for self-integration balanced by "sensory commitment to life", aphoristic bareness by modulations of tone and technical control. Probes illusion and desire for truth, aphoristic qualities moving to ironically juxtaposed images. Simpler, more terse than Moraes. WIELAND, JAMES. ""'Making Light of the Process': Nissim Ezekiel's Poetic Fictions" Kunapipi 2.2 (1980):91-103. WISEMAN, C. "The Development of Technique in the Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel: From Formality to Informality" in MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. ed. Considerations: Twelve Studies of Indo-Anglian Writing New Delhi: Allied, 1977: 137-50. Perceives The Exact Name (1965) is the key text in expanding his technical skills. Locates `In India' as the transitional poem and `Two Images' and `In Retrospect' as examples of his new free style form. The Exact Name (1965) records the revolutionary change in his formal expertise. WISEMAN, CHRISTOPHER. "The Development of Technique in the Poetry of Nissim Ezekiel" in KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980: 133-49. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981.Reprinted from MUKHERJEE,MEENAKSHI ed.Considerations: Twelve Stidies of Indo-Anglian Writing New Delhi: Allied, 1977: 137-50. Furtado, Joseph AMANUDDIN, SYED. "Social Realism in the Poetry of Joseph Furtado" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.2 (1978):46-9.

FURTADO, PHILLIP. "Poet Joseph Furtado" Journal of South Asian Literature 18.1 (1983):68-70. Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand CASAMADA, PILAR. "The Autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi" in MCDERMOTT, DOIREANN ed. Autobiographical and Biographical Writing in Commonwealth Literature Barcelona: Sabadell, 1984:45-48. Notes the Hindu emphasis on transcendental philosophy rather than history and Gandhi's reading of the Gita as outward figure for an inner duel, plus his attribution of autobiography to Western thought. Biographical survey, noting contradictory aspects of Gandhi's treatment of his family and Koestler's critique of satyagraha. GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "Gandhi, the Writer" in NAIK, M.K. ed. Perspectives on Indian Prose in English New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982: 51-60. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. RAO, K. RAGHAVENDRA. "Communication and Content in Gandhi's Hind Swaraj" in NAIK, M.K. ed. Perspectives on Indian Prose in English New Delhi: Abhinav, 1982: 61-71. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1982. SASTRY, L.S.R. "Gandhi as a Writer" Journal of Indian Writing in English 17.2 (1989): 3541. VENKATESWARULU, I. "Gandhi and the Indo-English Novel: A Study in Influence" in AMUR, G.S., PRASAD, V.R.N., NEMADE, B.V. & NIHALANI, N.H., eds. Indian Readings in Commonwealth Literature New York: Apt; 1985: New Delhi: Sterling, 1985:5256.

Ghose, Sudin N. KATAMBLE, V.D. "Village and City in the Balaram Tetralogy of Sudhin Ghose" The Literary Half-yearly 23, no.1 (1982): 128-38. Many Indian novels deal with the theme of village-city encounter; Ghose presents the most revealing picture of the seamy side of city life, especially in the last two novels of his tetralogy, where the narrator comes of age. The theme figures in the earlier novels, too. And Gazelles Leaping has the child studying in a kindergarten in a rural pocket near Calcutta, but the city intrudes in the shape of wounded refugees from the riots in Calcutta. In The Cradle of the Clouds, which has a rural setting, the scales are weighted in favour of the traditional Panditji as opposed to the modern city-dweller, though there are evil forces in the village too. Ghose tends to simplify the village-city encounter in terms of innocence versus experience or good versus evil.

MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. "The Tractor and the Plough: The Contrasted Visions of Sudhin Ghose and Mulk Raj Anand," Indian Literature 13, no.1 (1970): 88-101. Rept. in Indian Literature of the Past Fifty Years, edited by C. D. Narasimhaiah. 1970: 121-32. Details? Rept. in Considerations: Twelve Studies of Indo-Anglian Writing, edited by Meenakshi Mukherjee. New Delhi: Allied, 1977: 111-21. Compares Sudhin N. Ghose's tetralogy of novels about a Bengali orphan with Mulk Raj Anand's trilogy about Lalu, a Punjabi peasant boy. Analyses the novels in terms of language and structure. Both novelists deal with the theme of growth, but they represent two opposite poles of Indian English fiction in their technique, attitudes towards the past, and use of myth, and have diametrically opposed views of art. Ghose values tradition, myth and the past; he is sceptical about progress and scoffs at the idea of India rivalling America or Russia; Anand believes in progress with a capital `P'. Ghose builds his novels around myths, while Anand's use is confined to giving a new ending to the traditional story of Sita in Gauri. Ghose uses fantasy and elements of Sanskrit storytelling (like Raja Rao), while Anand is realistic.

MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. The Twice-Born Fiction: Themes and Techniques of the Indian Novel in English. New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 1971. pp? Ghose is one of the novelists analysed. [cross index]

NARAYAN, SHYAMALA A. Sudhin N. Ghose. "Indian Writers" Series, vol. 5. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1973, 156pp. First full-length study of Ghose, who used Indain methods of storytelling a decade before Raja Rao's The Serpent and the Rope. Ghose uses digressions, quotations from Sanskrit and other Indian languages, songs, folk tales and legends to enrich the texture of his fiction. Following an introductory, mainly biographical chapter, Narayan devotes a chapter each to the four novels, "Other Works" and "Ghose and Indian Storytelling". Contains a bibliography, which lists Ghose's unpublished works also. NARAYAN, SHYAMALA A. "Reality and Fantasy in the Novels of Sudhin N. ghose." In Aspects of Indian Writing in English, edited by M. K. Naik (1979): 162-71. Fantasy is an integral part of Ghose's fiction, giving rise to the impression that it is not realistic. By comparing his tetralogy with The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian by Nirad

C. Chaudhuri, Narayan shows that most of his descriptions of life in Calcutta are based on fact. Ghose's primary intention is not realistic, but his portrait of life in India is authentic. NARAYAN, SHYAMALA A. "Sudhin N. Ghose." In Perspectives on Indian Fiction in English, edited by M. K. Naik. (1985): pp? Ghose introduced the literary heritage of India into the Indian English novel a decade before Raja Rao. His tetralogy of novels employs traditional Indian methods of storytelling, replete with verse ranging from classical sanskrit poetry to folk songs and Tagore's lyrics. The primary expository essay pleads for greater attention being devoted to Ghose. NARAYAN, SHYAMALA A. Sudhin N. Ghose. Makers of Indian Literature. Series Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1989, 83pp. Study aimed at the general reader.

Ghosh, Amitav KAPADIA, NOVY. "Imagination and Politics in Amitav Ghosh's The Shadow Lines" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: ?. KAUL, A.N. "Who is Afraid of Shadow Lines?" Indian Literature, 139, (1990): 88-93. review? NARAYAN, SHYAMALA A. "The Structure of Amitav Ghosh's The Circle of Reason" Littcrit 614.1&2 (1989):43-54. PRASAD, G.J.V. "The Unfolding of a Raga: Narrative Structure in The Circle of Reason" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 101-07. Gokak, V.K. SAJJAN, G.B. "Prof. V.K. Gokak as a Poet: A Tentative Assessment" Commonwealth Quarterly 3.11 (1979):61-5. Gokhale, Namita MOHAN, DEVINDER. "Semiotics of Feminine Ideology and the Adaptation of Zola's Naturalism in Namita Gokhale's Paro" in KIRPAL, VINEY, ed. & introd. The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 80s New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990: 131-46. Gorwala, A. D. MELWANI, M.D. "A.D. Gorwala's Short Fiction" Journal of Indian Writing in English 2.2 (1974):62-7. Gupta, Rohini RAIZADA, HARISH. "Chitra Pershad, Rohini Gupta and Dorothy Sinha" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985:217-26. Honnalgere, Gopal SRIDHAR, S.N. "A Note on Honnalgere's Zen Tree and Wild Innocents" Journal of Indian Writing in English 3.2 (1975):32-4. Hossain, Attia ANAND, MULK RAJ. "Profile of Attia Hosain" Commonwealth Quarterly 3.9 (1978): 112. Personal account of her social background and literary formation with an appreciation of Sunlight on a Broken Column. Isvaran, Manjeri GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "A Note on Isvaran's No Anklet Bells for Her" Journal of the Karnatak University: Humanities, 18 (1974):111-14.

GUPTA, G.S.B. "Just a Pot of Ashes: A Note on Isvaran's Immersion" The Rajasthan Journal of English Studies: 1.1 (1975):29-32. GUPTA, G.S.B. "The Poetry of Manjeri S. Isvaran" Journal of the Karnatak University: Humanities 19 (1975):100-09. GUPTA, G.S.BALARAMA. "A Little Sheaf of Letters from Venkataramani to Isvaran" Littcrit 3.1 (1977):36-41. NAIK, M.K. "Finding `The Mind's Construction': The Short Stories of Manerji Isvaran" in NAIK, Studies in Indian English Literature New Delhi: Sterling, 1987: 55-67. PANIKER, K. AYYAPPA. Manjeri S. Isvaran Madras: Macmillan India (Kerala Writers in English Series), 1984. Iyengar, K.R. Srinivasa DWIVEDI, A.N. "Leaves From a Log: K.R. Srinivasa Iyengar" Indian Literature 24.1 (January-February 1981):133-5. KANTAK, V.Y. "A Sitayana for Today" Indian Literature 129 (1989): 101-27. poetry? Iyer, Rajam VISWANATHAN, S. "Rajam Iyer's Vasudeva Sastry or True Greatness: Apologue or Religious Novel?" Journal of Indian Writing in English 2.1: 49-53.[check year] Jain, Sunita JAIDKA, MANJU. "The Whimper and the Dream: The Poetry of Sunita Jain" Littcrit 14.1&2 (1989): 56-63. Also in Atma RAM ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 32-39. Jaggi, Satya Dev SHARMA, URMILA. "From Chimney to Sky: Satya Dev Jaggi's Poetry" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:289300.

Jhabvala, Ruth Prawer AGARWAL, R. "Forster, Jhabvala and Readers" Journal of Indian Writing in English 3.2 (1975):25-7. Argues that Jhabvala's fictional portrayal of India is superior to the much admired perspective displayed in Forster's 'A Passage to India'. Forster's Dr. Aziz lacks any familial connection and this distinction allows Jhabvala's totally "authentic picture" of Indian family life to produce a more discerning representation of India for her readers. Primarily concerned with upholding family life as key factor in sociological accuracy of fictional treatments of Indian life. AGARWAL, R. "Two Approaches to Jhabvala" Journal of Indian Writing in English 5.1 (1977):24-7. Seeks to bring into perspective the rift between Indian and Western critical perceptions of the value of Jhabvala's writing. Points to lack of discernment of author's purpose as possible underlying factor for Indian criticism having little regard for Jhabvala. Questions the noticeable difference in critical reception between Western and Indian reviewers and critics. AGARWAL, R.C. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: A Study of Her Fiction New Delhi: Sterling, 1990, 126pp. AGARWAL, R.G. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: A Study of her Fiction New Delhi: Sterling, 1989, 132pp. AGARWAL, RAMLAL. "A Critical Study of Heat and Dust" in GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA., ed. Studies in Indian Fiction in English Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987: 53-60. ALBERTAZZI, S. "R.P. Jhabvala's 'Mythology of Captivity'" Commonwealth 8.1 (1985):3144. AMUR, G.S. "Marriage as Symbolic Strategy in Seeta, Esmond in India and The Serpent and the Rope" Journal of Literature and Aesthetics 1.3 (1981):5- [who wrote Seeta?] ASNANI, S.M. "Jhabvala's Novels: A Thematic Study" Journal of Indian Writing in English 2.1 (1974):38-47. Asserts Jhabvala's early fictions contain acutely accurate insights into Indian life full of paradoxes and contradictions accelerated by East-West tension. Elaborates on family life as the central focus of Jhabvala's writing. Questions the effectiveness of sociological aspects of fictions in respect of certain character types, especially grandmotherly figures and servants. Often makes use of comparison to Jane Austen. BAWER, BRUCE. "Passage to India: The Career of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" NewC 6.4 (December 1987):5-19. BLACKWELL, F. "Perception of the Guru in the Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" Journal of Indian Writing in English 5.2 (1977):6-13. Traces the image of the guru through various treatments in several novels and short stories. Analyses the character of the guru as it is reflected in the Western students

encountering the Eastern holy man. Pays particular attention to the sexual patterns common to Jhabvala's fiction, characterised as skeptical and sardonic, about the swami figure. BRADBURY, NICOLA. "Filming James" Essays in Criticism 29.4 (October 1979):293-301. [Jhabvala?] CHADHA, RAMESH. Cross-Cultural Interaction in Indian English Fiction: An Analysis of the Novels of Ruth Jhabvala and Kamala Markandaya New Delhi: National Book Organisation, 1988, xii + 166 pp. CHADHA, RAMESH. "Heat and Dust and The Coffer Dams: A Comparative Study" Journal of Indian writing in English 10.1&2 (1982):24-30. Correlates many similarities in her examination of two novels by women writers based on the breakdown of Western marriages in India and the woman's subsequent relationship with an Indian male. Establishes the women characters as unfulfilled in conventional married life due to differing outlooks and lack of mutual understanding. Reads as proto-feminist criticism as yet not fully conversant with the theory and terminology now applied by that critical practice. CRANE, RALPH J. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: A Checklist of Primary and Secondary Sources" Journal of Commonwealth Literature 20.1 (1985):171-203. CRANE, RALPH S. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Sky: Escape from the Heat and Dust?" Span 24 (1987):178-89. CRONIN, RICHARD. "The Hill of Devi and Heat and Dust" EIC (April 1986):142-59. DAVE, JAGDISH V. "Ruth Jhabvala's Two-Stream Technique in `Heat and Dust ` " Triveni 57.2 (1988): 75-80. The two-stream technique combines the separate stories of Olivia and the narrator into a single narrative frame centred on place. Discusses the question of the correct approach to India by Europeans. Perceives Mrs. Jhabvala advocates a European love India from a distance to maintain its romance. DE SOUZA, EUNICE. "The Blinds Drawn and the Airconditioner On: The Novels of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" WLWE 17.1 (1978):219-24. Accuses Jhabvala of lack of development in her writing skills noting a sameness of style and stereotyping of characters. Asserts all Jhabvala's characters are reduced to onedimensionality without depth or objectivity in their depictions. Claims the author has evaded any attempt at analysis of East/West differences and conflicts in values, philosophy and life styles. Jhabvala's lack of sociological insight compared to more perceptive writing in Angus Wilson's As If By Magic and Jean Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea. DE SOUZA, EUNICE. "The Expatriate Experience" in NARASIMHAIAH, C.D. ed. Awakened Conscience: Studies in Commonwealth Literature, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978 (also Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 1978: 339-345

DUDT, CHARMAZEL. "Jhabvala's Fiction: The Passage From India" 159-64 in KesslerHarris, Alice & McBrien, William., eds Faith of a (Woman) Writer Westport CT: Greenwood, 1988, ix + 350 pp. EZEKIEL, NISSIM. "Cross-Cultural Encounter in Literature" Indian PEN 43.11-12 (1977):4-8. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "'Traditional' Elements in the fiction of Kamala Markandaya, R.K. Narayan and Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" WLWE 15.1 (April 1976):121-34. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "Irony as an Instrument of Social and Self-analysis in Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Heat and Dust" New Literature Review 4 (1978):41-50. Focuses on narrative strategy and questions whether the intense honesty and reliability of the narrator shifts into a growing psychological imbalance causing total disintegration of the personality in the novel's final pages. Examines the narrator's character concerned with psychological investigation as an exercise in self-analysis or, in another approach,forms the basis of an archetypal quest-figure. Deems this fiction entirely psychologically relevant to the author's own mental condition and completely unsatiric in intent. Finds "Heat and Dust" boldly self-reflexive and dominated by an ironic detachment. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "Ruth Jhabvala: Generating Heat and Light" Kunapipi 1 (1978): 115-29. Takes the Indian literary community to task for their refusal to grant Mrs. Jhabvala the serious critical treatment she deserves. The award of the Booker Prize in l975 has engendered resentment rather than opened up substantive critical assessment. Extends earlier considerations in thematic criticism by noting a deliberate change from early fiction based on social satire to a new concern with loneliness and isolation as expressed in Heat and Dust and the short story volume, How I Became a Holy Mother and Other Stories. Offers a humanistic universalist approach extending the author's focus on 'India' to a wider context beyond nationalism and regionalism. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "Film into Fiction: The Influence upon Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Fiction of Her Work for the Cinema, 1960-76" WLWE 18.2 (November 1979):368-86. Suggests an extremely close interaction between the author's writing in novels, short stories and film scripts during this decade and a half. Observes that Jhabvala's technical improvements in fiction writing correlate to learned cinematic techniques. Specifically applies the subjective camera technique to A New Dominion, especially its division into scenes rather than chapters. Details the strict control of flashbacks as integral to the portraits of Olivia and Ms. Rivers in Heat and Dust. Psychological critique centred on people's deliberate editing of historical fact in such a way as to present a finished fiction to themselves acceptable as sanctioned "historical truth". GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "Satirical Semi-Colon: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Screenplay for Bombay Talkie" Journal of Indian Writing 8.1&2 (1980):78-81. Reprinted in SINGH, KIRPAL ed. Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984: 248-254. Examines Jhabvala's scriptwriting abilities and locates her talent in proffering a selfreflexive analysis of the Bombay film industry. Contends that satire of the stock incidents of the popular film works as the author's operative principle in 'Bombay Talkie'. Notices

structural similarities in 'Bombay Talkie'(1970) and the fiction of 'A New Dominion'(1972). Also traces connections between Jane Austen's 'Northanger Abbey' and the 'Bombay Talkie' script. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "Literary Influences on the Writing of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" in NANDAN, SATENDRA. ed. Language and Literature in Multicultural Contexts, Suva: University of the South Pacific, 1983:141-168. Analyses the adaptation of eighteenth-century British literary modes to Jhabvala's style. Austen, Sheridan and Goldsmith are detected behind early work (Amrita or To Whom she Will, 1955; The Nature of Passion, 1956). Detailed character study of Amrita and Lalaji in The Nature of Passion. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "Contemporary India in the Writing of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" Westerly 28.4 (December 1983):73-80. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. Silence, Exile and Cunning: The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala London: Sangam Books, 1983, 325 pp. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "Apollo, Krishna, Superman: The Image of India in Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Ninth Novel" Ariel 15.2 (1984):109-117. Reasserts the primacy of the author's "three backgrounds" as the focus to interpreting the intent of In Search of Love and Beauty (1983). Connects the main character of Leo Kellerman to previous representatives of the guru figure. Adopts a number of "victim" positions for penetrating the psychological conditions of the major characters. HAYBALL, CONNIE. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's India" Journal of Indian Writing in English 9.2 (1981):42-54. Recapitulates earlier considerations of Jhabvala's fiction as offering satire of the Indian middle class family.Finds many stock figures such as the Westernised Indian woman, the idle, dilettantish artistic man and the swami common to much of Jhabvala's work. Contends Jhabvala's fiction advertises a modern style Indian capitalism as the only possibility offering change to the old India. JHA, REKHA. The Novels of Kamala Markandaya and Ruth Jhabvala: A Study in EastWest Encounter, New Delhi: Prestige Publishers, 1990, 176pp. JOSEPH, MARGARET, P. "Cinematic Technique in Heat and Dust" Journal of Literature and Aesthetics 2.2&3 (1982):88-93. KOHLI, D. "More Talking of Heat and Dust" The Indian Literary Review I.2 (1978):35-9. MENON, K.P.K. "Parallel Plots in Heat and Dust" Littcrit 10.1 (1984):46-51. MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. "Inside the Outsider" in NARASIMHAIAH, C.D. ed. Awakened Conscience: Studies in Commonwealth Literature, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978 (also Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 1978): 86-91.

MUKHERJEE, MEENAKSHI. "Journey's End for Jhabvala" in DHAWAN, R.K. ed. Explorations in Modern Indo-English Fiction ed. R.K. Dhawan, Bahri Publishers,1982: 20813. MUKHERJEE, NIRMAL. "Heat and Dust: A Tale of Two Women" Kakatiya Journal of English Studies 8.1 (1978):120-39. PRADHAN, N.S. "The Problem of Focus in Jhabvala's Heat and Dust" The Indian Literary Review I.1 (1978):15-20. RAGHAVAN, ELLEN WEAVER. "Irony in the Works of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" DAI 45.9 (March 1985):2871A. RANI, K.N. "A Note on Mrs. Jhabvala's Latest Novel Heat and Dust" Commonwealth Quarterly 1.4 (1977):34-41. ROY, EVANGELINE SHANTI. "The Nature of Passion as a Social Comedy" Littcrit 16.1&2 (1990): 70-80. RUBIN, DAVID. "Ruth Jhabvala in India" Modern Fiction Studies 30.4 (Winter 1984):66983. Disputes accepted opinions of Jhabvala as an Indian writer and a comic novelist of manners. Classifies her as a non-Indian writer in the mainstream of English novelists such as Paul Scott, John Masters and M. M. Kaye. Considers her a rather limited writer constrained by flatness of tone, cynicism and pervasive desolation. Isolates the centre of her work in her own status as a refugee based on the American title Travellers (1973), called A New Dominion in England. Debates the appropriateness of Jhabvala's status in the circumstances of her actual triple displacement, having been born in Germany (1927), then living in England (1939-51), India(1951-75) and now resident in the USA (1975- ). RUTHERFORD, A. & PETERSEN, K.H. "Heat and Dust: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Experience of India" WLWE 15.2 (November 1976):373-78. Repeats the standard critical commentary surrounding Jhabvala's fiction. Details technical aspects, especially lack of social concern, recurring character types and the use of a cut and splice technique borrowed from cinematic scriptwriting. Assesses structural forms and devices as the dominant factor in the author's work. RUTHERFORD, A. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Window on India" ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series, No. 2 (1975):27-9. Based on an interview with the author, recapitulates received opinion on Jhabvala's fiction. Considers that Jhabvala basically examines the dilemma of people caught between cultures,Westerners in India and Westernised Indians. Sociological analysis of women's position has the author declaring that bourgeois values are overwhelmingly supported by the majority of Indian women. SAINI, RUPINDERJIT. "Economic Entrapment: A Study of Jhabvala's Householder" Journal of Indian Writing in English 15.2 (1987):1-9.

SARMA, M.N. "Of Emigrants and Exiles: Changed Perspectives in Jhabvala's Fiction" Littcrit 3.2 (1977):36-41. SAXENA, O.P. & SOLANKI, RAJINI. Geography of Jhabvala's Novels New Delhi: Jainsons Publications, 1985, 165 pp. SHAHANE, V.A. "An Artist's Experience of India: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Fiction" The Literary Criterion 12.2-3 (1976):47-62. Reprinted in MANUEL, M. & PANIKER, AYYAPPA., eds. English and India: Essays Presented to Professor Samuel Mathai on his Seventieth Birthday. Madras: Macmillan, 1978: 1-15. SHAHANE, VASANT. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala and the Indian Scene" The Journal of Indian Writing in English 4.2 (1976) 21-4. Claims Jhabvala's intense perceptions of India superior to any other European perspective. Autobiographical details construct the author's awareness of India. Believes Jhabvala's literary power exists because of her love for India. SHAHANE, VASANT. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1976. SHAHANE, V.A. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's A New Dominion" JCL 12.1 (1977):45-55. Offers the view that Jhabvala is talented but limited and uses 'A New Dominion' to explicate his perspective on her work. The guru figure and its interaction with Western students emerges as the basis for coming to terms with the complexity of the East-West encounter. Asserts a radical change in technique apparent in 'A New Dominion' compared to earlier fictions based on a comedy of manners formula. Finds the author intent on the realism of contemporary India in its social, cultural, religious, political and spiritual contexts. V.A. SHAHANE, "An Artist's Experience of India: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's Fiction": 252268. Reprinted from The Literary Criterion in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 SINGH, BRIJRAJ. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: Heat and Dust" in PRADHAN, N.S. ed. Major Indian Novels: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986: 192-222. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986. SOHI, HARINDER. "Ruth Jhabvala's Passage to India" PURBA 16.1 (April 1985):3-15. STILES, PETER. "India and the Western Sensibility in the Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala", unpublished MA dissertation, Macquarie University, 1979. SUCHER, LAURA ELIZABETH. "Quest and Dis-Illusion: The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" DAI 46.6 (December 1985):1624A SUCHER, LAURIE. The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: The Politics of Passion London: Macmillan, 1989, 251pp. SUMMERFIELD, H. "Holy Women and Unholy Men: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala Confronts the Non-Rational" Ariel 17.3 (1986):85-101.

VARMA, P.N. "A Note on the Novels of R. Prawer Jhabvala" RUSEng 5 (1971):87-96. WILLIAMS, HAYDN M. "Mad Seekers, Doomed Lovers and Cemeteries in India: On R.P. Jhabvala's Heat and Dust and A New Dominion" New Literature Review 15 (1988):11-20. WILLIAMS, HAYDN MOORE. "R.K. Narayan and R. Prawer Jhabvala: Two Interpreters of Modern India" Literature East and West 16.4 (April 1975):1136-54. WILLIAMS, HAYDN. "Reactions to Entrapment in 'Backward Places' V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street and Ruth Jhabvala's A BAckward Place." In A Sense of Place in the New Literatures in English edited by Peggy Nightingale, 68-84. St Lucia: U Queensland, 1986 "Colonial history does not make for stability of residence." Comparision of two emigré writers, Naipaul 'returning' to his birthplace, Jhabvala 'adopting' a new country but depicting displaced characters seeking return to some elusive 'home'. Miguel Street can be read as a Joycean bildungsroman of escape (death and birth) and change (war and decolonization), a comic treatment of madness and violence not unlike Under Milkwood in which Hat serves as a Christ-like liberator for the disillusioned boy-writer. Jhabvala's figures escape to responsibilities (Judy and Sudhir) or remain trapped in a sterile retreat from life (Etta and Clarissa). The three women are seen as aspects of Jhabvala herself. Naipaul also charts the shift from colourful squalor to shabby trap, though Jhabvala remains ironic about her 'backward place'. Text-based argument, with recourse to autobiographical works by both writers. [From `Full Anotations: Assesses both works as preoccupied with exile and the psychological connections to images and perceptions of 'home'. Claims these fictions meet in a common theme of escape. Perceives textual meaning generated by the authors' focus on psychological self-reflexivity.] WILLIAMS, HAYDN MOORE. "Strangers in a Backward Place: Modern India in the Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" The Journal of Commonwealth Literature 6.1 (1971):53-64. Investigates Jhabvala's early fictions within the context of the Hindu concept of the four ashramas. Attempts to place the major characters of 'Get Ready for Battle', 'The Nature of Passion', 'The Householder', 'A Backward Place', within a particular phase of the ashramas. Brahminical moral evaluation serves as the testing material in the background of Jhabvala's realistic portrayals of the complexity and universality of the Indian urban family situation. WILLIAMS, HAYDN MOORE. The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala Calcutta: Writers' Workshop, 1973. WINEGARTEN, RENEE. "Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: A Jewish Passage to India" Midstream (March 1974):72-9. Reiterates previous treatments of Anand's work as dominated by concern for the poor and underprivileged trapped by India's class and caste systems. Closely examines the character of Ananta and finds him a victim of rage and insanity, not of religious or political creed, and his sacrifice is that of the unselfish man for humanity. Sociological analysis based on economic determinism as fundamental principle in a capitalist society. See also Kakatiya Journal of English Studues Vol. 11 No. 1 Spring 1977:85-92. WINTERBERG, INGE. "'An Experience of India': Zu den IndienRomanen von Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" Arcadia 17.2 (1982):171-94.

Arun Joshi (1939-1993) Most studies of Joshi's novels concentrate on his themes. Devinder Mohan is not far off the mark when he observes that The Foreigner, like the rest of Joshi's novels, suffers at the hands of critics from abstract generalisations of themes which have no bearing on the form of the novel, ... They talk about alienation, self-delusion, mode of anxiety, detachment solutions, the interior "I" and the reflective insiders." Devinder Mohar himself has written about Joshi's first four novels, but his criticism has too much of Foucalt and Said for comfort. Tina Shettigara's article on The Foreigner is one of the best studies of the novel, while A. Ramakrishna Rao and Ramesh Shrivastava have presented fine analyses of Joshi's fourth novel, The Last Labyrinth. BHATNAGAR, O. P. "Arun Joshi's The Foreigner: A Critique of East and West." WLWE 1, no.2 (1973): 9-14. The Foreigner presents a new way of looking at East-West confrontation.The working out of personal problems against the background of cultures follows the pattern of Henry James Born of a British mother and an Indian father, the orphaned Sindi, the hero, is brought up in Kenya, and does not belong to any culture So he has the ideal perspective to view problems from a human angle He presents a clear picture of the drawbacks of life in America, as also the evils in Indian soceity CHANDAR, K. M. "The Quest for Faith in Arun Joshi's The Last Labyrinth." In The Indian Novel in English: Essays in Criticism, edited by Ravi Nandan Sinha and R. K. Sinha (Ranchi: Ankit Publisher, 1987): 56-62. Thematic study. The quest for a definite meaning in life has been Joshi's primary preoccupation in all his novels. The protagonists of the first three novels attained some degree of success. Som Bhaskar in The Last Labyrinth realises the need for something more than material prosperity but completely fails to attain it. The novelist makes good symbolic use of Aftab's house, with its labyrinths. CHANDRA, SURESH. "The High Culture Fiction of Arun Joshi and Uma Vasudev," in Culture and Criticism (Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corporation, 1987): 99-109. Arun Joshi and Uma Vasudev deal with a class of people generally neglected by other Indian-English novelists: the privileged executives in independent India who are next only to the rulers and top industrialists. Suresh Chand makes no distinction between the characters of Joshi--Rat Rathor of The Apprentice, Khemka in The Foreigner, and Billy Biswas of The Strange Case of Billy Biswas, and the people depicted in Aruna Vasudev's The Song of Anasuya. They all believe in "enjoying" life, which means staying in five-star hotels, drinking expensive brands, and sleeping around. DHAWAN, R.K. The Fictional World of Arun Joshi New Delhi: Classical Publishing Co, 1986, 255 pp. DHAWAN, R. K. ed. The Fictional World of Arun Joshi. New Delhi: Classical Publishing Company, 1986, 247pp. Essays by 15 critics. Chapter 1 on "Writer and His Writing", Chapter 2 "Introduction", Chapters 3-7, "Themes and Techniques", and Chapters 8-15 on individual novels. Contents: (l) JOSHI, ARUN. "Towards Finding an Expression": 15-16. (2) DHAWAN, R. K. "The Fictional World of Arun Joshi": 17-48. Explicatory, with summaries of his novels and short stories. (3) BHATNAGAR, O. P. "The Art and Vision of Arun Joshi": 49-68. (4)

RAIZADA, HARISH. "Double Vision of Fantasy and Reality in Arun Joshi's Novels": 69103. (5) PATHAK, R. S. "Human Predicament and Meaninglessless in Arun Joshi's Novels": 104-142. Amplified version of "Arun Joshi's Novels: An Indeterminate Search for Meaning in Life," in Arun Joshi: A Study of His Fiction, edited by N. Radhakrishnan (Gandhigram,Tamilnadu: Gandhigram Rural Institute, 1984): 44-63 (6) MATHUR, O. P. and G. RAI, "Arun Joshi and the Labyrinth of Life": 143-54. (7) GURUPRASAD, THAKUR. "The Lost Lonely Questers of Arun Joshi's Fiction": 155-67. (8) JHA, MOHAN. "The Foreigner: A Study in Innocence and Experience": 168-75. (9) RADHA, K. "From Detachment to Involvement: The Case of Sindi Oberoi": 176-85. Reprinted as "From Detachment to Involvement: The Career of the Chief Protagonist of Arun Joshi's The Foreigner." In Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, edited by K. Ayyappa Paniker (Trivandrum: University of Kerala, 1987): 81-90. Traces the development in the character of Sindi, who begins with no attachment to parents or country. His relationship with June marks a breaking down of the barriers of detachment. It is the impassioned plea of Muthu, a poor man in Bombay, which makes Sindi give up his indifference. Briefly compares Sindi with the protagonists of The Outsider by Camus and Kamala Markandaya's The Nowhere Man. (10) PREMPATI, D. "The Strange Case of Billy Biswas: A Serious Response to a Big Challenge": 186-93. (ll) MOHAN, DEVINDER. "The Image of Fire in The Strange Case of Billy Biswas": 194-209. See MOHAN above. (12) ABRAHAM, JOY. "Vision and Technique in The Appprentice": 210-22. Novelists like Joshi and Anita Desai are trying new paths, testifying to the vitality of Indian English fiction. Abraham analyses the narrative pattern of The Aprentice in tabular form. (13) REDDY, V. GOPAL. "The Apprentice: An Existential Study": 223-30. Thematic approach. Ratan's alienation is two-fold; he is alienated from society, and later from his true self when he conforms to the false values of the marketplace. Opines that The Apprentice is influenced by Camus's The Fall. (14) PRASAD, HARI MOHAN. "The Crisis of Consciousness: The Last Labyrinth": 231-39. (15) SHARMA, SHAM SUNDER. "The Two Worlds in The Last Labyrinth": 240-48. A.N. DWIVEDI, "The Novels of Arun Joshi: A Critical Study": 309-318. in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 DUTTA, PADMA. "Problems of Individuation: A Critique of Arun Joshi's Use of Symbols and Archetypes in The Last Labyrinth" Journal of Indian Writing in English, 18.1, (1990): 3140. HEGDE, M.G. "Arun Joshi's Lala Shri Ram: A Study" Journal of Indian Writing in English 17.2 (1989): 18-22. IYENGAR, K.R.SRINIVASA. "The Fiction of Arun Joshi" The Humanities Review 3.2: (1981):39-40. JAIN, J. "Foreigners and Strangers: Arun Joshi's Heroes" Journal of Indian Writing in English 5.1 (1977):52-7. JAIN, JASBIR. "Foreigners and Strangers: Arun Joshi's Heroes." JIWE 5, no.1 (1977): 5357. Joshi's heroes are lonely men in search of a meaning in life. None of them is religious, but they are humble in learning the lessons life teaches them. Ratan Rathor, of The Apprentice,

embodies the world of material values which his predecessors Sindi Oberoi (The Foreigner) and Billy Biswas (The Strange Case of Billy Biswas) reject, but he is engaged in the same quest. JAMKHANDI, SUDHAKAR R. "Arun Joshi: An Emerging Voice in Indian English Literature" Literature East & West 6.1-4 (1985):36-44. JAMKHANDI, SUDHAKAR R. "Arun Joshi: An Emerging Voice in Indian English Literature" The Literary Endeavour 6.1-4 (1986):36-44. JAMKHANDI, SUDHAKAR R. "Arun Joshi: An Emerging Voice in Indian English Literature." The Literary Endeavour 6, no.1 (1986): 37-44. Brief survey of Joshi's four novels. All have well-educated, alienated heroes. The Foreigner is about involvement and detachment. The Stranee Case of Billy Biswas reads like a suspense novel, with Romesh Sahai tracing the whereabouts of Billy, who disappears, rejecting urban society. The Apprentice, a confessional novel, can be read as a bildungsroman. The Last Labyrinth is a love story, the labyrinth mirrors the hero's mental tribulations in his pursuit of Anuradha. MATHUR, O.P. and RAI, G. "The Existential Note in Arun Joshi's The Strange Case of Billy Biswas and The Apprentice" Commonwealth Quarterly 17 (1980):30-41. MATHUR, O.P. "From Existentialism to Karmayog: A Study of Arun Joshi's The Foreigner" in SRIVASTAVA, AVADESH K. ed. Alien Voice: Perspectives on Commonwealth Literature Lucknow: Print House, 1981: 107-15. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1982. MATHUR, O. P. and G. RAI. "The Existential Note in Arun Joshi's The Strange Case of Billy Biswas and The Apprentice." Commonwealth Quarterly no.17 (1980): 30-41. MATHUR, O. P. and G. RAI. "From Existentialism to Karmayog: A Study of Arun Joshi's The Foreigner." In Alien Voice (1981), edited by Srivastava: 107-115. Sindi Oberoi, the hero of The Foreigner, begins as an existentialist hero, in the tradition of Sartre. But later on, his experience of India changes him; he realises that his salvation lies in following the Bhagavad-Gita, the Hindu text advocating karmayoga, that is, disinterested action. The Foreigner is a study of a soul working towards liberation. MEITEI, MANI. "The Strange Case of Billy Biswas: Awareness of Worlds Within Worlds" New Quest, 2.2, (1990): 9-20. MEITEI, M. MANI. "The Strange Case of Billy Biswas: Awareness of Worlds within Worlds." The Quest 4, no.2 (1990): 9-20. Advocates an "archetypal criticism" to discover the underlying mythological patterns. Through the experiences of Billy, Joshi shows that there is something in the world beyond human knowledge.The ideas of Jung and Freud are employed to make Billy's psychology credible. The tribal girl Bilasia is the essence of the primitive force, and when Billy gives up his parents and wife to live with her in the forest, he is fulfilling his inner urge for the primitive life. Billy should not be seen as a Western alienated hero; he is in touch with the root of Indian culture.

MOHAN, DEVINDER. "Arun Joshi: The Foreigner" in PRADHAN, N.S. ed. Major Indian Novels: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986: 174-91. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986. MOHAN, DEVINDER. "The Language of the Splintered Mirror: The Fiction of Arun Joshi." Ariel 14, no.4 (1983): 20-33. Structuralist approach. Joshi's fictional voice maintains a dialogue betweeen what Edward Said calls "molestation and authority". Mohan invokes Foucalt to show that Joshi's language seeks the "extremity of silence, the silence of void, vacancy and death." Death and madness are recurring presentational images in his work. The narrator finds himself in the shattered mirror, looking deformed and distorted in each fragmented piece. MOHAN, DEVINDER. "Arun Joshi: The Foreigner." In Major Indian Novels, edited by N. S. Pradhan (New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann,1985): 174-91. Uses the critical formulations of Michel Foucalt in The Order of Things and The Archeologv of Knowledge to analyse The Foreigner. Joshi presents an image of Death by making it a fictional object as well as the manifestation of the presence which manipulates the events and the characters. The protagonist, Sindi Oberoi, is both the object and metaphor of man's unnameable madness, who maintains what Foucalt calls "finitude". He is also the signifier of the author's structural point of view. The novel starts with Babu Khemka's death, and Death as event is transformed as an aesthetic sign of its "presentational presence" (Susanne Langer's phrase). MOHAN, DEVINDER. "The Image of Fire in The Strange Case of Billy Biswas." In The Fictional World of Arun Joshie, edited by R. K. Dhawan (New Delhi: Classical Publishing Company,1986): 194-209. Structurali analysis. Joshi is concerned with creating an aesthetic sign of man' s search for a spiritual fulcrum. The image of the glow of fire on the top of a distant rock, Chandtola, becomes the central signifying sign of the network of various signifiers represented by the characters of binary nature and culture, tribal world and Western civilization, and the Jungian signifiers of anima and animus integrated within the Hindu taxonomy of rituals and rites. The narrator, Romesh Sahai, is like Melville's Ishmael in revealing the sustained balance of the fictional discourse by experiencing and interpreting it. MOHAN, DEVINDER."Beyond the Litany of Wants: Contexts of Arun Joshi's Fiction towards The Last Labyrinth." In The New Indian Novel in English, edited by Viney Kirpal (New Delhi:Allied Publishers, 1990): 83-90. Arun Joshi's fictional voice is the voice of the "molestation" (Edward Said's phrase) of the modern historical consciousness of Indianism. As in his other novels, Joshi presents an authentic vision of contemporary Indian man in a multicultural society, his economic needs clashing with traditional values. Som Bhaskar, the hero of The Last Labyrinth, cannot get out of the labyrinth of the self; even his love for Anuradha, who embodies the Jungian anima, fails to help him. NARASIMHAIAH, SANJAY. "Arun Joshi: The Last Labyrinth" The Literary Criterion 16.2 (1981):81-9.

NARASIMHAIAH, SANJAY. "Arun Joshi's The Last Labyrinth." The Literary Criterion 16, no.2 (1981): 81-89. Close reading of the novel, concentrating on the protagonist Som Bhaskar, a contemporary Western educated affluent Indian searching for meaning in life. Bhaskar does not fall into the conventional pattern of the hero, with different phases, one being an improvement on the other. The spirit of place is conspicuous by its absence. The symbolic dimension is responsible for the novel's success. PADMA. T. "Problems of Individuation: A Critique of Arun Joshi's Use of Symbols and Archetypes in The Last Labyrinth." JIWE 18, no.1 (1990): 31-39. Psychological approach. In Joshi's novels, incidents are gauged more as traumas in the psyche than as agents for social change. The protagonist Som Bhaskar's career in The Last labyrinth is a masterly blending of the Jungian concepts individuation, Shadow, Persona, and Anima. Archetypes (Anurad saving him from spiritual death, matched by Geeta's saving him from physical death, for intance) and symbols (the labyrinth) provide useful interpretative clues. PATNAIK, BIBUDHENDRA N. "What is Strange in The Strange Case of Billy Biswas." Graybook no.3 (1973): 17-24. Examines the character of Billy. The narrator, his friend Romi, introduces him as a "unique" man. Joshi prepares us for his abrupt disappearance from civilized urban life by recounting his earlier visions of a different lifestyle. When Billy is just fourteen, he watches a dance by tribals, and has a vision of a girl in his arms. This image, symbolic of the primal force, returns to him again and again, though he grows up to lead a conventional life as a professor of anthropology at Delhi. The break in his life comes when he visits an old temple dedicated to Fate. The novelist shows that this other world is not simply a hallucination of Billy's mind by making the narrator feel the "other presence" in the temple of Fate, as he sits talking to Billy, now living with the tribals in the forest. The novelist establishes a relationship between Billy, the legendary sculptor-king, the glowing of a mountain peak Chandtola and the "presence", to make Billy a credible but unusual character. PRASAD, H.M. Arun Joshi New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986, 118 pp. PRASAD, H. M. Arun Joshi. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986. Indian Writers Series. 118pp. Prasad's study of Joshi's novels (four had been published to date) reveals that the central experience of his fiction is crisis and quest his leit motif. All his heroes are picaroes and pilgrims. Prasad devotes a chapter to each novel: "From Alienation to Arrival: The Foreigner", "The Primitive Pilgrim: The Strange Case of Billy Biswas", "Innocence, Experience and Expiation: The Apprentice", and "The Pilgrim's Progress: The Last Labyrinth". PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "Arun Joshi: The Novelist." Indian Literature 24, no.4 (1981): 103-114. Reprinted "Arun Joshi," in Indian English Novelists, edited by Prasad (1982): 5161. The technically superb novels of Arun Joshi handle serious themes dexterously. Prasad's study is primarily thematic, with a few comments about language thrown in: The Foreigner reminds one of Camus's The Outsider, but thematically the two novels do not have anything in common; The Strange Case of Billv Biswas explores the significance of the

primitive life; and The Apprentice, inspired by Camus's novel The Fall, is a study of belief in karma and the purification of the soul. PRASAD, V. V. N. RAJENDRA. "Arun Joshi: Self as Labyrinth." The Self, the Family and Society in Five Indian Novelists (New Delh Prestige Books, 1990): 108-29. Prasad's analysis follows Rame K. Srivastava and A. Ramakrishna Rao's. The exploration of the self, likened to a labyrinth, is the main theme of Joshi's novels. The usual themes of Indian-English fiction, such as East-West encounter or rural India, do not appear. The word "labyrinth" and its analogues occur frequently in Joshi's texts. Reminiscence is the major fictional device. In The Foreigner, the word "foreign", and its substantive forms, provide an inclusive metaphor that governs the narrative. Joshi's novels present an authentic picture of life in India, and the crisis of character faced by modern man. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "Arun Joshi: The Novelist" Indian Literature 24.4 (July-August 1981):103-14. PRASAD, V.V.N. RAJENDRA, "Arun Joshi: Self as Labyrinth" in The Self, Family and Society in Five Indian Novelists, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990:108-129. RADHAKRISHNAN, N. ed. Arun Joshi: A Study of His Fiction Gandhigram: Gandhigram Royal Institute, 1984, 79 pp. RADHAKRISHNAN, N. ed. Arun Joshi: A Study of His Fiction. Gandhigram (Tamilnadu, India): Gandhigram Rural Institute, 1984. 79pp. First published as a special issue of Scholar Critic. Contents: (1) "T. S. Eliot's Shadow on The Foreigner," S. Rangachari: 1-8. (2) "Cornering Arun Joshi: A Critical Perspective on The Last Labyrinth," Madhusudan Prasad: 9-19. (3) "The Crisis of Conscience: A Thematic Analysis of The Last Labyrinth," Hari Mohan Prasad: 20-29. (4) "The Art and Vision of Arun Joshi," O. P. Bhatnagar: 30-43. (5) "Arun Joshi's Novels: An Indeterminate Search for Meaning Life," R. S. Pathak: 44-63. (6) "The Apprentice: An Overview," M. S. Prabhakaran: 64-67. (7) "The Short Stories of Arun Joshi," M. G. Gopalakrishnan: 68-73. (8) "The Women Characters of Arun Joshi," N. Radhakrishnan: 74-79. RAO, A. RAMAKRISHNA. "Arun Joshi's Voids and Labyrinths"The Literary Endeavour 2.2 (1982): 11-17. Joshi creates an aesthetic pattern of dreams and visions rather than working in realism. The Last Labyrinth continues the "great therapeutic process" of soul scraping/healing of earlier books. Short thematic reading. RAO, A.RAMAKRISHNA. "The Image of Labyrinth in Borges, Durrell and Joshi." Glimpses of Indo-English Fiction, edited by O. P .Saxena (1985) vol.3: 17-28. According to Gabriel Josipovici, "From the cunning passages, contrived corridors and issues of Gerontion, through the mazes of Kafka, Proust, Beckett, Borges and RobbeGrillet, the labyrinth has been the favourite image of modern literature." Rao points out that in Borges's Labyrinths and Lawrence Durrell's The Dark Labyrinth, labyrinths are voids emerging out of the human thirst to know and vindicate oneself. In Joshi's The Last Labyrinth, the image of labyrinth is juxtaposed with the image of void, and both images are used

frequently. The labyrinth is associated with the mysterious Anuradha, "a labyrinthine woman, at once young and old." ROSS, ROBERT. "The Clash of Opposites in Arun Joshi's The Last Labvrinth." The Literary Criterion 25.2 (1990): 1-9. In each of novels, Joshi creates an anti-hero who, like his Western counterpart, stands overlooking the abyss of his time and place. But his protagonists have to come to terms not only with the native heritage, but also the Western influence on it, the clash of opposing traditions. Joshi's achievement in The Last Labyrinth lies in bringing together the disparate parts of the hero's experiences. This clash of opposites finally imprisons Som Bhaskar in the labyrinth of his own mind. SHARMA, D.R. "Arun Joshi and his Reflective Insiders" Literature East and West 21.1-4 (1977):100-111. SHARMA, D.R. "The Fictional World of Arun Joshi" The Indian P.E.N. 43.9&10 (1977):15. SHARMA, D. R. "The Fictional World of Arun Joshi." The Indian P.E.N. 43, no.9/10 (September-October 1977): 1-5. It is not correct to treat Joshi's heroes as the Indian kinsmen of the Western existentialist "outsiders". In their persistent quest for decent alternatives in an amoral world, Joshi's protagonists are reflective insiders. Joshi resembles Manohar Malgonkar in his social satire and fictional technique, the major difference being that Malgonkar's action is "out there", while the action in Joshi is primarily in the psychic arena of his characters. Joshi's protagonists strive for an enduring dialogue with life. Sindi of The Foreigner realises that detachment "consisted in getting involved with the world." In The Strange Case of Billy Biswas, Billy opts out of the prevailing social order when he finds it impossible to change it. Joshi's third novel, The Apprentice, is a confessional novel, which explores the evil in the protagonist as well as the horror of an imperfect social order. SHARMA, D R. "Arun Joshi and His Reflective Insiders." Literature East and West no. 21 (1977): 100-109. Somewhat amplified version of "The Fictional World of Arun Joshi" (see item). SHETTIGARA, TINA. "Arun Joshi's The Foreigner: The Protagonist in Search of Meaning." In Cultural Reflections, edited by Paul Sharrad, Honolulu: East West Centre, 1981: pp.50-58. The central characters of Joshi's novels are all individuals in some way alienated from the world around them. The protagonist of The Strange Case of Billy Biswas is the most extraordinary of Joshi's heroes; Billy, an anthropologist, is overcome by his primordial urge to be free of the veneer of urban society, and disappears. Ratan Rathor, of The Apprentice, is "Mr Ordinary" who is corrupted by the material world. Som Bhaskar, a rich businessman, the protagonist of Joshi's fourth novel, The Last Labyrinth, is subject to the craving of a nameless desire. He is obsessed by Anuradha, a mysterious character in this novel of enigmas. The novel's structure is as labyrinthine as the processes of Som Bhaskar's mind. Though the treatment is growingly sophisticated, Joshi's interest has always been the alienated individual, present as Sindi Oberoi, the protagonist-narrator of his first novel, The Foreigner. The Foreigner is constructed on two cross-cutting time spans, in America and in New Delhi. Sindi observes with objectivity the culture of both societies, but the novel should not be treatbd as

one of "East West encounter"; Sindi's quest is for peace and the meaning of life, not for cultural roots. The thematic concerns of this novel indicate that Joshi is interested in more deeply universal human problems than the East-West theme, as his later novels show. SRINATH, C.N. "Crisis of Identity: Assertion and Withdrawal in Naipaul and Arun Joshi" The Literary Criterion 14.1 (1980):33-41. Reprinted in The Literary Landscape Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1986: 60-69. SRINATH, C. N. "The Fiction of Arun Joshi: The Novel of Interior Landscape." The Literary Criterion 12, nos.2-3 (1976): 115-33. Reprinted in The Literary Landscape (Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1986): 40-59. Leavisite. Presents evaluations of Joshi's first three novels in terms of theme and treatment. Srinath examines various aspects--characterization, structure, and language. The Foreigner shows a remarkable degree of maturity and technical competence in its original treatment of the theme of east-west encounter. The protagonist of The Strange Case of Billy Biswas, Joshi's second novel, is aware of a region beyond the frontiers of ordinary human consciousness. Joshi's craftsmanship is excellent. Billy realizes that the price of making the choice (he disappears from civilized urban society) is terrible, but the price of not making it is even more terrible. Ratan Rathor, in The Apprentice, shows the price paid for not choosing-moral corruption. Joshi's sense of the concrete, and his eye on situation a character, enable him to avoid the pitfalls of a thesis novel. Rathor is Everyman, and his story reveals the utter degeneration of modern Indian society. SRINATH, C. N. "Crisis of Identity: Assertion and Withdrawal in Naipaul and Arun Joshi." The Literary Criterion 14, no.1 (1980): 33-41. Reprinted in The Literarv Landscape (New Delhi: Mitt Publishers, 1986): 60-69. Compares V.S. Naipaul's A House for Mr Biswas and Arun Joshi's The Strange Case of Billy Biswas. The central theme of both novels is the crisis of identity; in Naipaul, the crisis is one of assertion, the supreme manifestation of which is Mr Biswas wanting to acquire a house. Naipaul successfully presents a protagonist who is detestable but dignified and gains our sympathy. In Joshi's novel, the crisis manifests itself in surrender to primitive forces. Billy Biswas, a Ph.D in anthropology from an American university, son of a Supreme Court judge, renounces his entire past, his parents, wife and child, to lead the life of a tribal in the forest. Joshi makes Billy's action credible by showing us his seemingly eccentric but inwardly rich life through his letters to his girl friend Tuula, and the way he argues with his father about judging people who act under extraordinary circumstances. Both novels are distinguished by the appropriateness of their styles that suit the nature of the tensions of their central characters. SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K. "The Theme of Alienation in Arun Joshi' Novels." Ken: Journal of English Studies and Creative Writing 1 (1982-3): 13-24. Reprinted in Six Indian Novelists in English (Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University, 1987): 311-25. Shows how Joshi's protagonists are alienated from society, family and self. Sindi Oberoi learns the need for right action as well as detachment through the deaths of his friends; Billy Biswas finds his true self in primitive nature; Ratan Rathor compromises with society and realises the futility of inauthentic life. Joshi uses animal images to show disaffected inner states. He is not necessarily detached from society, since his depiction of its evils is a sign of social concern.

SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K. "Intricate Alleys in Arun Joshi's The Last Labyrinth." The Indian Journal of English Studies no.28 (1989): 5-12. Srivastava analyses the various levels on which the title can be operative. On the surface, it alludes to the last of the labyrinths in Lal Haveli, a crumbling mansion in Benares. The sacred city of Benares itself is like a labyrinth, so is the protagonist Bhaskar's life. Srivastava shows that even the structure of the novel is labyrinthine, in his fine analysis of the connotations of "labyrinth" in this novel. Joshi has used the word metaphorically in earlier novels like The Foreigner and The Strange Case of Billy Biswas also. SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K. "Intricate Alleys in Arun Joshi's The Last Labyrinth" The Indian Journal of English Studies 27 (1989): 5-12. WALTER, INNA. "Arun Joshi's Vision of Life, Love, God and Death in The Last Labyrinth." Studies in Indian Fiction in English, edited by G. S. Balarama Gupta (Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987): 46-52. Joshi's fiction is concerned with deep philosophical questions. In The Last rabyrinth, Joshi uses the persona of Som Bhaskar, a thirty-five-year-old millionaire. Walters describes the various experiences of Bhaskar, and his attempts to comprehend love, religious belief, and death. WALTER, INNA. "Arun Joshi's Vision of Life, Love, God and Death in The Last Labyrinth" in SINHA, R.K. & SINHA, RAVI NANDAN., eds. The Indian Novel in English: Essays in Criticism Ranchi: Ankit Publishers, 1987: 56-62. Joshi, Shiv Kumar BHATTA, S.K. "Shiv Kumar Joshi's English Play He Never Slept So Long." Littcrit 3, no.2 (1977): 43-45. The play is like a pageant without much suspense or a climax. The main characters are imaginary--Jay and Vijay (doorkeepers of God Vishnu condemned to human birth) and Mahakal--Time. They witness various incidents from the life of Mahatma Gandhi. The third act is an imaginary trial of Gandhi; Jay and Vijay are told that they can be released from earthly existence if someone else is willing to take their place, and they appeal to Gandhiji and Martin Luther King. Bhatta feels that with its good English and modern theatrical techniques, the play can be a success on stage. Jussawalla, Adil AMUR, G.S. "The Poetry of Exile: An Introduction to Adil Jussawalla" Osmania Journal of English Studies 13 (1977) reprinted in SHAHANE, VASANT A. and SIVARAMKRISHNA, M. eds Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment Madras: Macmillan, 1980: 61-71. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. ANKLESARIA, HAVOVI. "Exile and Disintegration in the Poetry of Adil Jussawalla" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 91-101. RAO, N.M. "The Poetry of Adil Jussawalla" in PRASAD, MADHUSUDHAN ed. Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling, 1989: 148-62. Jussawalla concentrates on personal experience, drawing on education in both India and England. early work (Land's End, 1962) is imagist with ironic notes, introduces mythic

resonance into `still life' descriptions and deals anti-romantically, like the Movement poets, with the poor. "Land's End" presents the primeval power of the sea and the mystery of life. Surveys poems about cities and time, noting the despairing insignificance of of lovers before such immensities. Missing Person (1975) sketches an identity crisis of Kafkaesque quality with Confessional touches, echoes of a colonial problematic and the modern bourgeois dilemma set against a return to India. SHAHANE, VASANT A. "The Poetry of Adil Jussawala" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:23-28. Kailasam. T.P. BHATTA, S.K. "Kailasam's English Plays" in Perspectives on Indian Drama in English, edited by NAIK, M.K. & S. MOKASHI-PUNEKAR, 86-97. Madras: OUP, 1977. Kailasam's six published plays in English make an important contribution to Indian English drama, though this language is marred by excessive rhetoric and alliteration, and his blank verse is not consistently effective. MALAGI, R.A. "The Curse or Karna." In Perspectives on Indian Drama in English, edited by NAIK, M.K. & S. MOKASHI-PUNEKAR, 98-114. Madras: OUP, 1977. Almost all Kailasam's Kannada plays are social comedies, but his English plays are tragedies with mythological heroes. Kailasam wanders far from the Mahabharata in his best play, Karna, which reveals a supreme sense of dramatic form.

Kalia, Mamta DUBEY, SURESH CHANDRA. "Roshen Alkazi and Mamta Kalia" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary IndoEnglish Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 201-16. Kannan, Lakshmi RAY, LILA. "Lakshmi Kannan" Commonwealth Quarterly 13 (1980):89-97. RAY, LILA. "Lakshmi Kannan" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 112-19. Karnad, Girish GOWDA, H.H. ANNIAH. "Indian Plays and Poems in English: Karnad's Tughlaq and Ramanujan's Relations" Literary Half-Yearly 14.1 (1973):3-10. NAIK, M.K. "The Limits of Human Power: A Comparative Study of Tughlaq and Caligula" in Studies in Indian English Literature New Delhi: Sterling, 1987: 136-145. RAMAMURTI, K.S. "Indian Drama in English with Special Reference to Tughlaq" Littcrit 8 (1980):9-22. REDDY, P. BAYAPPA, "The Theatrical Representation of History: Girish Karnad's Tughlaq", Studies in Indian Writing in English with a Focus on Indian English Drama, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990: 44-51.

Katrak,K.D. RAIZADA, HARISH. "'Poetry for Itself': The Poetry of K.D. Katrak" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:35-44. Kolatkar, Arun AMIRTHANAYAGAM, GUY. "Kolatkar's Jejuri: A Pilgrimage into the Past and the Present" 177-85 in Amirthanayagam, Guy & Harrex, Syd C., eds. Only Connect: Literary Perspectives East & West Adelaide: Centre for Research in the New Literatures in English, 1981: Honolulu: East-West Center, 1981, xiii + 335. CHAR, M. SREERAMA. Prayer Motif in Indian Poetry in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1988, 135 pp. Concentrates on A.K. Ramanujan, Arun Kolatkar, Nissim Ezekiel & Keki N. Daruwalla. DESAI, S.K. "Arun Kolatkar's Jejuri: A House of God" LCrit 15.1 (1980):47-59. KANADEY, V.R. "Arun Kolatkar's Poetry: An Exile's Pilgrimage" in PRASAD, R.C. & SHARMA, R.K., eds. Modern Studies and Other Essays in Honour of Dr R.K. Sinha New Delhi: Vikas, 1987: 141-6. NABAR, V. "Kolatkar: A Bilingual Poet" ACLALS Bulletin 4th Series 5: 80-4. NAIK, M.K. "Arun Kolatkar and the Three Value Systems" Littcrit 7.1 (1981):31-9. NAIK, M.K. "Arun Kolatkar and the Three Value-Systems" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:35-44. NEMADE, BALCHANDRA. "Arun Kolatkar and Bilingual Poetry" in AMUR, G.S., PRASAD, V.R.N., NEMADE, B.V. & NIHALANI, N.H., eds. Indian Readings in Commonwealth Literature New York: Apt; 1985: New Delhi: Sterling, 1985: 71-86. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "Correspondence through Gestures: The Poetry of Arun Kolatkar" The Literary Half-Yearly 24.1 (1983):88-111. Reissued in WLWE 28.2 (Autumn 1988):134-44. Reprinted in PRASAD, Madhusudhan (ed.) Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling (1989): 119-42. Kolatkar's small output shows variety of tone, colloquial language and hard imagistic concision. "The Boatride", an early uncollected poem, is contrasted to Daruwalla's "Boat Ride along the Ganges". Sides with Naik's and Harrex's readings against criticism of "Jejuri", asserting its valid engagement with modern scepticism about jaded religious faith and "what is dead but yet alive in Indian society." Notes importance of the protagonist's ironically observing voice and acceptance of the banal thing for what it is free of idealisation. The desacralised temple visit contrasts to the sacralised railway station, suugesting the detached irreverence has, after all, been affected by the pilgrimage. RAMAKRISHNAN, E.V. "Jejuri: The Search For Place" Journal of Indian Writing in English 6.1 (1978):16-20.

SATYANARAYANA, M.R. "Jejuri: Arun Kolatkar's Waste Land" in SHAHANE, VASANT A. and SIVARAMKRISHNA, M. eds Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment Madras: Macmillan, 1980: 99-115. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. SINHA, PRASHANTA K. "A Vision of Disintegration: A Glance at Some of Kolatkar's Translations of His Poems" Poetry 12 (1986):16-20. SIVARAMAKRISHNA, M. "Arun Kolatkar's `Jejuri': An Appreciation" Triveni 48.1 (1979): 53-57. The poem, while base in material detail of Indian life, deals with the universal contemporary problem : "the decline of myth and the inevitable sterility of mond and spirit which is the immediate consequence". The secular attitude of the work sets up ironic tensions with the religious material, showing decadence in priests and harsh reality amongst the poor. Although debunking, it is not finally irreverent, balancing temple and station/ mythic and historical time. SMITH, KAREN. "A Study of Arun Kolatkar's Jejuri" Commonwealth Quarterly 3.12 (1979): 20-32. Close reading of the poem, considering the creative process from opening impersonality, drawing the reader into the poetic situation, generating a sense of movement and the quest motif, with quick cinematic fixes on images and a move into ambiguity mixing animate and inanimate, time and timelessness in playful ironies. The sceptic narrator is identified as Manohar and his failure to find answers in the `demonic' landscape/temple could also be his own failing as modern seeker. Sliding from the portentous mythic into fleeting moments of potential epiphany (the butterfly), the sequence move from dry stones to silent stone gods to stones as building blocks of happiness, and Chaitanya serves as a linking figure of enigmatic promise. Notes the pairing of temple and railway station "immersed in a stupour of timelessness" and the contrastive play of materialism and spirituality and a tendency to surreal images. Krishnamurti RAMAMOORTHY, P. "J. Krishnamurti's Commentaries on Living: The Classic as a Vision of Clarity" Literary Criterion 15.2 (1980):1-11. TARINAYYA, M. "Krishnamurti's Beyond Violence: A Utopian Dream Vision" in SRIVASTAVA, AVADESH K. ed. Alien Voice: Perspectives on Commonwealth Literature Lucknow: Print House, 1981: 116-27. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1982. Kumar, Shiv ASNANI, SHYAM. "The Poetry of Shiv Kumar: A Critical Study" in RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 64-78. BIRJE-PATIL, J. "Resonant Bones: The Poetry of Shiv K. Kumar" World Literature Today 51, no.4 (1977):543-48. Reprinted in Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation edited by Chirantan Kulshreshtha, 227-42. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Shiv K. Kumar's Poetry: A Thematic Study" Journal of English Studies 15.1 (1984): 6-12.

Critics praise Kumar's "finished form, the tense diction and the arresting imagery". While the sensuality may irritate some, the irony and wit is compelling, and head and heart are balanced in treating a limited range of themes: love, sex, marriage, family, death as an alternative to unfulfilled desire. Sex and religion seem to fuse as substitute for traditional religious morality. Kumar has a Western rationalist outlook reliant on contrast. MATHUR, O.P. "'The Same Route as My Ancestors Took': a Study of the Indian sensibility in Shiv K. Kumar's Works" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:35-44. PARANJAPE, MAKARAND. "Nude Before God" Journal of Indian Writing in English 15.2 (1987):49-51. review? RAO, G.J. CHINNESWARA. "The Poetry of Shiv K. Kumar: an Adventure in Irony." Chandrabhaga 2 (Winter 1979):44-50. Good poetry engages with both language and experience. Kumar's verse rises above Indian English poetic pastiche in its wit and irony, but lacks "moral awareness". Sharp naturalism is accepting rather than satiric of banality. Reviews Woodpeckers with reference to Subterfuges. RAO, K.R. "Masks and Subterfuges: A Study of Shiv K. Kumar's Poetry" Commonwealth Quarterly 21 (1981):47-51. SHARMA, K. GODABARI. "The Scholar as a Poet: Some Reflections on the Poetry of Shiv K. Kumar" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 50-56. SIVARAMAKRISHNA, M. "'Beyond the Empiric Point': The Poetry of Shiv K. Kumar" in RAO, K.S. NARAYANA. ed. World Literature Written in English 14.2 (1975):371-84. SRIVASTAVA, N. "Articulating the Silent: the Poetry of Shiv K. Kumar" Journal of Indian Writing in English 6.2 (1978):1-12. VAIDYANATHAN, T.G. "Between Kali and Cordelia: The Poetry of Shiv K. Kumar." In "Contemporary Indian Poetry in English Special Number" edited by V.A.Shahane & M. Sivaramakrishna, Osmania Journal of English Studies 13, no.1 (1977): 61-83. Reprinted in Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment, edited by V.A.Shahane & M. Sivaramakrishna, 99-115. Madras: Macmillan, 1980: Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. Kumar moves from early narcissism ("Suicide," "Nerves") to "troubled maturity" ("Lear to Cordelia", "An Indian Mango Vendor"), figuring a quest for fulfilling love faced by its death or perversion in modern life. Marriage and infidelity alike fail to provide the ideal. Despite their darkness, the poems echo Lowell more than Plath, with moments of Lawrentian sensuality set against "a deeply Indo-English religious nostalgia". Kumar's struggling fusion of cynicism and celebration, religion and sexuality (attaining atypical tranquility in "The Sun Temple at Konarak") is read against Fanon's view of the alienated 'native intellectual' and Larkin's "agnostic piety". Women are reduced to elemental sexuality and divinised, "abolishing the need for reciprocity in human relationships" and prompting then deadening sexual drive

(comparsion is made between "Kali" and K.D. Katrak's "The Kitchen Door"). Kumar is caught between cold Cordelia and distant Kali. VENKATACHARI, K. "Trapfalls in the Sky" Indian Literature 177 (1988): 91-9. Lakshmi, Vijay GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA. "Vijay Lakshmi's Distances: An Appreciatory Note" The Quest 1.1 (1987):66-9. genre? Lal, P. KUMAR, P. SHIV. "On the Verge of the Numinous: Some Notes of P.Lal's Poetry" in PRASAD, MADHUSUDHAN ed. Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling, 1989:107-118. Lal's poetry has been eclipsed by his critical and promotional work. It offers "a sense of the numinous, concretised through a sensuous apprehension of the physical surroundings". Criticises Lal for castigating early romantic writing while himself producing romantic lyricism, though his is different from Aurobindo's in seeking the moment of immediate passionate engagement with life, at which poetry takes on the aura of prayer. KWAN-TERRY, JOHN. "The Silence of Truth: The Poetry of P. Lal" Journal of Indian Writing in English 8.1&2 (1980):167-77. Reprinted in SINGH, KIRPAL ed. Through Different Eyes: Foreign Responses to Indian Writing in English Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984: 234-247. Explication of theme by close commentary. Love is "the definition of being" and the "com-passion" of love for God, nature or another person is Lal's source for poetry. Man's struggle against time and self via contact with other creatures gives limited satisfaction and intimation of higher solace. Though satirising modern man's imperfections, Lal is not cynical, showing tendencies to mysticism and a "cultivated toleration and detachment", perhaps because he does not suffer the pangs of his subjects, relying rather on a refined Eliotian poetic attitude. MURTHY, P.V.S.N. "Nature, Myth and Love in P. Lal's Poetry" Journal of Indian Writing in English 10. 1&2 (1982):1-6. NATH, SURESH. "P. Lal's Poetry: The Holy Trinity of Nature, Love and Man" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:234-42. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, DIETER. "Modern Indo-English Poetry and P; Lal's `Manifesto'" Commonwealth Quarterly 1.5 (1977): 3-16. Outlines the critical debate around Lal's declared break with romanticism and public preaching in verse and his favouring of concrete experience and a private lyric voice, modern but resisting mass popularity. Checks the validity of Lal's prescription with samples from Ezekiel, Das, Erulkar and Lal. Ezekiel uses familiar SHARMA, LALIT M. "The Man and the Metropolis: P. Lal's Calcutta" in RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 93-102.

SINGH, KIRPAL. "The Dialectics of Grace: Some Notes on the Poetry of P. Lal" in KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980: 243-9. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. Laxman, R.K. RAO, R. RAJ. "The Hotel Riviera: An Indian Novel" new Quest 74 (1989): 117-22. Madhaviah, A. PARAMESWARAN, UMA. "A. Madhaviah 1872-1925: An Assessment" JCL 21.1 (1986):222-39. Mahapatra, Jayanta ALEXANDER, MEENA. "Jayanta Mahapatra: A Poetry of Decreation" JCL 18.1 (1983):42-47. DAS, BIJAY KUMAR. "Critical Perspectives on Relationship and Latter-Day Psalms" Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1987, vi + 55pp. check: ed? title? contents? DAS, BIJOY KUMAR. "Journey Into the Unknown: Jayanta Mahapatra's Relationship" The Humanities Review 5.1&2 (1983):5-7. DEVY, G.N. "Rites and Signs: A Note on Jayanta Mahapatra's Poetic Sensibility" in Madhusudan Prasad (ed) Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling, 1989: 1-12. Mahapatra's copious work resisted critical response until relationship (1980). Critics still praise or deprecate his indefinable resonances/obscurity. Cites Devy's 1986 focus on decentred identity (in Prasad, below) and notes key motifs (nature, seasons, women, temples, myht, history, time, suffering) and a "sad, serene, wisely ironic" voice that emerges more clearly when speculation replaces narrative ("Hunger"). The ironic imagination alternates and blends with symbolic romanticism ("A Rain of Rites") suggesting both artistic elevation and the fragmentary limits of enunciation through an evocative "Poetry of communion" rather than of communication. Notes a tradition of IWE poems on parents and ancestors and Mahapatra's exploration of the theme of growing old. MISRA, SOUBHAGYA K. "The Largest Circle: A Reading of Jayanta Mahapatra's Relationship" The Literary Endeavour 9.1-4 (1987-8): 30-48. Notes lack of critical reponse to his difficult symbolist style "deriving unique effects from an almost dream-like association of images and motifs drawn from Indian history, myth and folklore". Relationship extends Mahapatra's work from individual human concerns to philosophising in "tragic somlemnity" on Time and Death, envisioning a possible transformation of life through love to build a new society. Compares the pilgrimage form to Whitman, Eliot's ` Four Quartets' and Neruda's epic. Traces the stages of the poem from facing the inevitability of `stony' death to finding more fluid ways of conceiving it. Sections 4, 5 and 6 explore entering dream to envision a beyond, while 7 looks towards ideal love through acceptance of bodily existence in time, the temple serving as an indicator of beatific vision. Textual commentary groujnded in theme and imagery. MOHAN, DEVINDER. Jayanta Mahapatra New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1987, 97 pp.

MOHANTY, NIRANJAN, "Patterns of Awareness: A Study in 'Relationship'," Littcrit, 15.1&2 (1989): 44-56. MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. "Patterns of Awareness: A Study of Jayanta Mahapatra's Relationships" Littcrit, 15.1, (1990): 44-56. MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. "Recollection as Redemption: The Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" Poetry 10 (1985):24-40. MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. "Relationship: A Study" Poetry 12.1 (1987):1-18. MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. "Sex, Power and Beyond: A Study in the Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" The Quest 1.1 (1987): 36-54. Values Mahapatra for taking sexuality beyond sex to "life giving force" via indirection authorised by Anandavardhana as auchitya (propriety) and obliqueness. Poems mix romantic redemption through recollection with modern awareness of death and inadequacy. Love entails abhiman, combining ecstasy of union with fear of separation and projecting a transcendant bliss. Passing reference to Sidney, Marvell and the saint-poets, Tagore and Jibananda Das and extended commentary on imagery. MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. "The Theme-Song of Life: The Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 64-86. PANIKER, K. AYAPPA. "The Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" in SHAHANE, VASANT A. and SIVARAMKRISHNA, M. eds Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment Madras: Macmillan, 1980, 184 pp. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981: 84-98. PANIKER, K. AYYAPPA. "The Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" in SHAHANE, V.A. & M. SIVARAMAKRISHNA, eds. "Contemporary Indian Poetry in English Special Number" Osmania Journal of English Studies 13.1 (1977):117-38 PERRY, JOHN OLIVER. "Neither Alien nor Postmodern; Jayanta Mahapatra's Poetry from India" KR 8.4 (Fall 1986):55-66. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN ed. The Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1986, viii + 303 pp. KING, BRUCE. SIMMS, NORMAN. PERRY, JOHN OLIVER. KENNEDY, ALAN. NAIK, M.K. DESAI, S.K. ALEXANDER, MEENA. DEVY, G.N. SUNDARI, G. RAMAMURTI, K.S. SHAHANE, VASANT A. CORSERI, GARY. KHULLAR, AJIT.

SYAL, PUSHPINDER. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. MOHANTY, NIRANJAN. DAVID, P.C. INAMDAR, F.A. SWAIN, RABINDRA K. DUTTA, UJJAL. Interview with Norman Simms. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "'Caught in the Currents of Time': A Study in the Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:89-122. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. '"Echoes of a Bruised Presence": Images of Women in the Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" WLWE 28.2 (Autumn 1988):367-78. PRASAD, S.M. "Quest for Roots in the Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" Journal of Indian Writing in English 17.1 (1989): 22-32. RAMAKRISHNAN, E.V. "Landscape as Destiny: Jayanta Mahapatra's Poetry" in DAS, BIJAY KUMAR ed. Contemporary Indo-English Poetry Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1986: 102-10. RAMAMURTI, K.S. & SUNDARI, G. "Song of the Past: An Interpretation of the Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" Littcrit 10.1 (1984):15-27. RAO, A.V. KRISHNA. "The Recent Poetry of Jayanta Mahpatra: An Assessment" ACLALS Bulletin 7th Series No. 2 (1986):67-76. STACHNIEWSKI, JOHN. "Life Signs in the Poetry of Jayanta Mahapatra" The Indian Literary Review 4.2 (1986):79-84. SWAIN, RABINDRA K. "Life Signs: An Essay-Review" The Literary Endeavour 6.1-4 (1986):133-42. (check date) TARINAYYA, M. "Jayanta Mahapatra's A Letter to Kazuko Shiraishi in Tokyo: An Analysis" The Literary Criterion 20.3 (1985): 60-69. Criticism should move toward the writer's "conscience" - "the honest desire to be true to one's experience of the complexities and challenges of life". Mahapatra's idea of the poem as "testament" has it "breaking forth an experience into a relationship with the reader". The reader has difficulty overcoming the initial impression of commonness and can find the language of subjective rendering hard too. The private colloquial voice of a letter is transformed by "deautomatizing" image links (rain-hunger) that move us from literal and social detail to symbolic or metaphysical levels of meaning. Spiralling moralising commentary starting in close reading, seeing the poem as reflecting on civilisation and religion in modern India (objectified through the eyes of the Tokyo addressee) and the poet's isolation and responsibility arising from the death by tetanus of Mahapatra's servant girl. Mahapatra, Laxmi Narayan.

RUSSELL, A. "Poetry is Experience Imaged: A Study of the Poetry of Laxmi Narayan Mahapatra" The Quest 1.2 (1988):51-60. SINGH, R.K. "L.N. Mahapatra: Attuned to a Different Interval", The Quest 1.1 (1987):30-5. Malgonkar, Manohar ABIDI, S.Z.H. Manohar Malgonkar's 'A Bend in the Ganges' Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984, 84 pp. ABIDI, S.Z.H. "Call of Blood: Theme of Revenge in Manohar Malgonkar's A BEND IN THE GANGES" PURBA 14.1 (1983):71-79. Counters G.S. Amur's claim that the revenge element is a failing in Bend, arguing its thematic and structural centrality. Analyses different kinds of revenge, showing how some serve to move the plot and others reveal character change and give unity to the whole. AITHAL, S. KRISHNAMOORTHY & RASMI AITHAL. "The British and Anglo-Indian Encounter in Malgonkar's Combat of Shadows" Italia Francescana 9.1 (Winter 1982):54-7. AMUR, G.S. "Manohar Malgonkar and the Problems of the Indian Novelist in English" in MOHAN, RAMESH, ed. Indian Writing in English Bombay: Orient Longman, 1978: 37-46. AMUR, G.S. Manohar Malgonkar New York: Humanities, 1973, 155 pp. ARULANDRAM, H.G.S. "A Bend in the Ganges: A Study in Violence" Rajasthan Journal of English Studies 6 (1977):12-16. ASNANI, S.M. "A Study of the Novels of Manohar Malgonkar" The Literary Half-yearly 16.2 (1975):71-89 P.D. CHATURVEDI, "Manohar Malgonkar: The Novelist and his Point of View": 279-297. in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 COWASJEE, S. "The Princes in Indian Fiction" Kakatiya Journal of English Studies 2.1 (1977):48-70. 1) Offers extensive political-historical documentation to the situation of the princely (sp?) ruling class and their states and traces their fictional literary history. 2) Compares the thematic concerns of Anand's Private Life of an Indian Prince (1953) with Malgonkar's The Princes (1963). Valorizes Anand's work as the finest achievement of his writing career and claims that "Malgonkar gives evidence of having been influenced by Anand". 3) Finds Anand's portrayal of princely character dominated by his emotional life allows the focus to fall upon the individual and the predicament whereas Malgonkar permits the historical to intrude upon the individual's fictional development. DAYANADA, JAMES Y. Manohar Malgonkar New York: Twayne, 1975. DAYANADA, JAMES Y. "The Image of Women in Manohar Malgonkar's Novels" Journal of South Asian Literature 12.3-4 (1977):109-13. DAYANANDA, J.Y. Manohar Malgonkar ?? (1974?)

DAYANANDA, Y.J. "Manohar Malgonkar on his Novel The Princes: An Interview" JCL 9.3 (1975):21-8. [interview?] DWIVEDI, A.N. The Historian as Novelist: Manohar Malgonkar" in NAIK, M.K. Perspectives on Indian Fiction in English New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985: 136-49. JAIN, JASBIR. "Vishnu and Shiva: Symbols of Dualtiy in A Bend in the Ganges" Journal of Indian Writing in English 3.1 (1975): 21-32. Substitution of Vishnu and Shiva as household gods indicates not only the father-son rift but the interpenetrating duality of human life. Hari (Vishnu) worships Shiva and is killed by Vishnudutt (though Shiva is `the destroyer'). Gandhi is presented as both saint and traitor. Traces other paradoxes. JANAKIRAM, ALUR. "Social Reality in the Short Stories of R.K.Narayan and Manohar Malgonkar" PURBA 19.2 (1988): 45-58. The IWE short story is mostly a post-Independence phenomenon. Considers Narayan's 35year output up to Malgudi Days (1982) and Malgonkar's more concentrated publications to Rumble Tumble (1977). Cite Narayan's view of stories as a diversion from the hard work of novels and arising our of characters undergoing a crisis of spirit, noting the variety of characters, ironic turns of events and ordinary everyday situations in which comedy arises from people being unable to adapt to social change, even though there is an underlying impression that traditional wisdom will continue to inform Indian life. Malgonkar deals in war, jungles and mining, using more dramatic action and opportunistic chicanery, cinematic montage and a sharper irony. JAYASHRI, I. "Women Versus Tradition in the Novels of Manohar Malgonkar" Triveni 45.2 (1976):73-80. JHA, MOHAN, "Malgonkar's Female Characters: A Study" The Quest 1.2 (1988): 6-22. JHA, MOHAN. "Malgonkar's Open Season: A Critique" in PRASAD, R.C. & SHARMA, R.K., eds. Modern Studies and Other Essays in Honour of Dr R.K. Sinha New Delhi: Vikas, 1987: 239-46. MATHUR, P.S. "A Touch of Tar: Anglo-Indian Encounter in Malgonkar's Combat of Shadows" The Indian Literary Review I.12 & II.1 (1980):22-9. PANDEYA, VIJAYANAND. "R.K. Narayan and Manohar Malgonkar: A Comparative Appraisal" The Quest 1.1 (1987):7-10. PARAMESWARAN, UMA. "Manohar Malgonkar as a Historical Novelist" in RAO, K.S. NARAYANA. ed. World Literature Written in English 14.2 (1975):329-38. PRADHAN, N.S. "Manohar Malgonkar: A Bend in the Ganges" in PRADHAN, N.S. ed. Major Indian Novels: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986: 135-54. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986. RAJAGOPALACHARY,M. "Malgonkar's Meditation on History: "The Devil's Wind" Triveni 55.2 (1986): 53-8. Claims The Devil's Wind (1972) reassesses the history of the

Sepoy Revolt of 1857 and the role of Nana Saheb. Probes the psychological state of Saheb. Compares it to John Masters' Nightrunners of Bengal (1969). RAJAGOPALACHARY, M. The Novels of Manohar Malgonkar: A Study in the Quest for Fulfilment New Delhi: Prestige, 1989, 102pp. RAO, D.S. "Open Season: Manohar Malgonkar" Indian Literature 24.1 (January February 1981):142-7. REDDY, P. BAYAPPA, "The Novelist as Short Story Writer: Manohar Malgonkar" in Studies in Indian Writing in English with a Focus on Indian English Drama, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990: 52-60. ROTHFORK, JOHN. "Gandhi and Non-Violence in Manohar Malgonkar's A Bend in the Ganges" Chandrabhaga 12 (1984):41-70. SIRCAR, ARJYA. "Symbolism in Manohar Malgonkar's The Princes" Commonwealth Quarterly 13.34 (1986-7) 40-45.. Claims Malgonkar's use of symbols is more integral than Anand's and others'. In The Princes symbolic moments of choice show the apparent separation of father and son to be illusory. The episodes concerning the maharani and Kamala are, however, not successful. STEINVORTH, KLAUS. "Mulk Raj Anand's Private Life of an Indian Prince and Manohar Malgonkar's The Princes" LHY 14.1 (1973):76-91. WILLIAMS, H.M. "Manohar Malgonkar's The Captains and the Kings'" Journal of Indian Writing in English 8.1&2 (1980):35-44. Malik, Keshav BANDOPADHYAY, M. "The Poetry of Keshav Malik" Journal of Indian Writing in English 2.1 (1974):58-60. IYENGAR, K.R.SRINIVASA. ""Vibrant Intensity" Indian Literature, 135, (1990): 161-64. On The Cut-off Point review? KANNAN, LAKSHMI. "Keshav Malik: The Total Poet" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:152-62. RAJA, P. "All Eyes, All Ears: The Poetry of Keshav Malik" The Literary Endeavour 4.1&2 (1982):51-57. Samples poems mostly from Rippled Shadow to assemble Malik's views of poetic art as a pessimistic but unavoidable struggle to find order and understanding in chaotic life. The suffering rationalist is accompanied by the activist and the ascetic for whom poetry is an individual, direct, unpolished free-verse response to life's variety. RAJA, P. "The Poetry of Keshav Malik" Triveni 52.1 (1983): 55-61. Quotes Malik's views on poetry, noting his variety of subjects and viewpoints and the poems' sincerity. His poetry is an agonistic, pessimistic struggle to make sense of life, accepting mortality and advocating activist resistance to social evils and freedom of artistic expression.

He uses a direct, natural voice and clinical imagery. Comparison to Subramanya Bharati and Tamil siddha poets. SRIVASTAVA, NARSINGH. "The Poetry of Keshav Malik: A Critical introduction" in PRASAD, MADHUSUDHAN ed. Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling, 1989: 241-49. Praised for his sense of sound and design, Malik is characterised by his concern for the inner self rather than society or nature. Surveys The Lake Surface and Other Poems (1961), noting influences from Shelley and Stephen Spender and the visionary search beyond surfaces. Rippled Shadow (1961) offers "mood pieces" tending to the cerebral but with compelling rhythms. Storm Warning ( takes up larger themes with ideas anchored in painterly shapes. Poems (1971) continues Malik's romantic strain (Rimbaud and Yeats) but often fails to strike a balance between objective control and subjective introspection. Marath, S. Menon ELIAS, MOHAMED. "Landscape of Nostalgia in Menon Marath's The Wound of Spring" The Indian Literary Review I.9 (1980):21-5. ELIAS, MOHAMMED. Menon Marath Madras: Macmillan (India) Kerala Writers in English Series, 1984. ONEMEM, SUSAN. "Janu: Marath's Rhetoric of Possibility" The Literary Criterion, 25.4, (1990): 22-30. Markandaya, Kamala (b.1924) Some good studies of Markandaya appeared even before 1970: Uma Parameswaran's "India for the Western Reader: A Study of Kamala Markandaya's Novels," The Texas Quarterly no.11 (1968): 231-47; Shiv K. Kumar's "Tradition and Change in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya," Books Abroad 43, no.4 (1969): 508-13, reprinted in Kakatiya Journal of English Studies 3, no.1 (1978): 85-96; K. R. Chandrasekharan's "East and West in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya," Critical Essays on Indian Writing in English, edited by M. K. Naik et al (Dharwar, 1968, second edition Madras Macmillan, 1977): 62-85; K. S. Narayana Rao has written extensively on the earlier novels of Markandaya; his doctoral thesis (Pennsylvania State University, 1968) was on "The New Harvest: Indian Novel in English in the Post-Independence Era, Woman at Work: Kamala Markandaya." There seems to be a consensus of critical opinion regarding the literary merit of her first novel, Nectar in A Sieve, regarded as her best. Her tenth novel, Pleasure City (1982), which reveals a new direction in theme and linguistic style, has received very little attention. Reactions to Two Virgins show the cultural divide in literary evaluation: non-Indian critics, like Alice Drum, Roberta Rubinst, and H M Williams (see below), value it highly, while Indian critics generally condemn it outright. Nissim Ezekiel's review labelled the characters "puppets, manufactured for those who know nothing about India", Uma Parameswaran declares, "It is not a convincing novel", Margaret P. Joseph finds it "a disappointing book", Srivastava finds the style uninteresting, while M. K. Naik feels that "the theme of the adolescent's loss of innocence could not perhaps be handled more crudely than here." Bibliography "Kamala Markandaya: A Bibliography," comp. SUSHEELA N. RAO World Literature Written in English 20, no.2 (Autumn lg81): 344-50.

Criticism ABIDI, S.Z.H. Kamala Markandaya's 'Nectar in a Sieve' Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1977, 127 pp. ADKINS, J.F. "Kamala Markandaya: Indo-Anglian Conflict as Unity" Journal of South Asian Literature 10.1 (1974):89-102. AFZAL-KHAN, FAWZIA. "Genre and Ideology in the novels of Four contemporary IndoAnglian novelists: R.K. Narayan, Anita Desai, Kamala Markandaya and Salman Rushdie" DAI 47.4 (October 1986):1328A. APPASWAMY, S. P. "The Golden Honeycomb: A Saga of Princely Life in India." JIWE 6,no.2 (1978): 56-63. Mainly descriptive, with a paragraph analysing the linguistic style. The novel presents a more truthful picture of the Raj's dealings with princely India than Anand's Private Life of an Indian Prince or Malgonkar's The Princes. Markandaya brings out the shrewdness of the British policy, which would give a prince the kind of education calculated to make him an English country gentleman, out of touch with the Indian reality. Events, such as the Delhi Durbar, are presented from a multiple point of view. Women did not have a place in public life, but their overpowering influence is presented well by Markandaya. ARGYLE, BARRY. "Kamala Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve." Ariel 4, no.1 (1973): 35-45. Reprinted in The Literarv Half-Yearly 15, no.1 (1974): 73-84. Reading Nectar in a Sieve as a sociological document diverts attention from its organisation as a novel, the sensibility that informs it, and the moral intelligence that controls the sensibility, aspects which are brought out well in Argyle's close reading of the text. The fact that life is circular, not linear, controls the organisation of this story of a simple woman. The novel begins with Rukmani, the narrator, an old woman recalling her experiences of the night. Eighteen of the novel's thirty chapters contain in their first sentence a reference to time; in the first sentence of the other twelve chapters, there is a reference to journeys, that is, movement in time. Argyle pays great attention to the words on the page, and demonstrates how carefully crafted the novel is. AITHAL, S KRISHNAMOORTHY and RASHMI AITHAL. "East-West Encounter in Four Indo-English Novels." In Alien Voice: Perspectives on Commonwealth Literature, edited by Avadhesh K. Srivastava (Lucknow: Print House, 1981): 84-100. ACLALS Bulletin Sixth Series, no.1 (1982): 1-16. Examines the variety of treatment of the theme in Kamala Markandaya's Some Inner Fury (1955), Manohar Malgonkar's Combat of Shadows (1962), Raja Rao's The Serpent and the Rope (1960) and Anita Desai's Bye-Bve Blackbird (1971). In Some Inner Furv, the encounter is between a Hindu girl Mira and an Englishman in the nineteen-forties. Despite wide differences in race and culture, they love each other deeply, but are wrenched apart by political forces. AITHAL, S. K. "Indo-British Encounter in Kamala Markandaya's Novels." Journal of South Asian Literature 22, no.2 (1987): 49-59. Thematic study. Markandaya examines Indo-British encounter through various characters, situations, settings and points of view, people face insurmountable difficulties in

mutual understanding and love. Aithal examines four novels: Some Inner Fury, set in preindependence India, Possession which shows that the Englishwoman Caroline Bell has not given up her possessive attitude towards India even after independence, The Coffer Dams where the contact is based on Indian importation of Western science and technology to build a huge dam, and The Nowhere Man which is set in England and shows the racial discrimination faced by an Indian immigrant there. ASNANI, SHYAM M. "Quest for Identity Theme in Three Commonwealth Novels." Alien Voice, edited by Srivastava (1981): 128-36. The three novels, Achebe's No Loneer at Ease, Naipaul's A House for Mr Biswas and Kamala Markandaya's The Nowhere Man depict the tragic world of the assimilé, and each of the three protagonists is equally helpless before the inexorable demands of the world around him, though the first two novels are set in the colonial world, while the eponymous hero of the third is an Indian emmigrant in England. ASNANI, S.M. "Character and Technique in Kamala Markandaya's Novels" RUSEng 11 (1978):66-74. BADAL, R.K. Kamala Markandaya (??) BALASWAMY, P. "The Distorted and Distortive Mirror of Kamala Markandaya" Criticle (October 1977):20-28. BANERJI, NIROJ. Kamala Markandaya: A Critical Study. Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1990, 168pp. Generally repeats received opinion, so most of the leading critics on Markandaya are quoted. Contains a bibliography of secondary sources, and a letter from Markandaya, where she states, "I do not think of myself as--I do not think I am--an expatriate writer." CHADHA, RAMESH. "Heat and Dust and The Coffer Dams: A Comparative Study." WLWE 10, no.1/2 (1982): 24-30. Jhabvala's and Markandaya's novels have similar stories, and deal with man-woman relationships. The heroes of both novels are work conscious; they take their wives for granted, and treat them as objects. In the beginning, both Olivia (Heat and Dust) and Helen Clinton (The Coffer Dams) are devoted wives. But they are non-conformists, and are attracted by India, and take Indian lovers. CHADHA, RAMESH. "Heat and Dust and The Coffer Dams: A Comparative Study" Journal of Indian writing in English 10.1&2 (1982):24-30. [check if same] CHADHA, RAMESH. Cross-Cultural Interaction in Indian English Fiction: An Analysis of the Novels of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala and Kamala Markandaya. New Delhi: National Book Organization, 1988, xii +166pp. Based on a doctoral thesis. Examines cross cultural interaction in the two novelists by comparing novels with similar themes. Thus the second chapter, "The Interplay" examines Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve and Some Inner Fury and Jhabvala's Esmond in India. Chapter 3, "Getting Ready for Battle", deals with Markandaya's The Coffer Dams and The Nowhere Man and Jhabvala's A Backward Place while the next chapter, "And Never the Twain Shall Meet" (Kipling misquoted) compares Jhabvala's New Dominion and Heat and

Dust with Markandaya's Possession. The bibliography lists critical articles on Jhabvala and Markandaya. CHADHA, RAMESH. "Cross-Cultural Interaction in Markandaya's Pleasure City." The New Indian Novel in Enelish, edited by Viney Kirpal (New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1990): 57-64. Cross-Cultural interaction is the major theme of the novel, and the novelist reveals her absolute integrity as an artist by not taking sides. Markandaya employs a new style and narrative technique, first used in The Coffer Dams, which also presented Indo-British encounter at a construction site. There are Forsterian echoes in Pleasure City in the picnic to the caves, but the conclusion is quite different. CHATTERJEE, ARUNDHATI. "Rukmani, The Mother Figure in Nectar in a Sieve." Studies in Indian Fiction in English, edited by G. S. Balarama Gupta (Gulbarga: JIWE Publication, 1987): 85-92. Rukmani is the axis around whom all the other characters revolve. She has transcended limited physical identities to represent the universal mother figure. Chatterjee presents a panegyric, she does not question the value of "the spirit of acceptance". CHAUHAN, P. S. "Kamala Markandaya: Sense and Sensibility." The Literary Criterion 12, no.2/3 (1976): 134-47. Chauhan feels that Markandaya suffers from critical apathy. (He does not seem to be aware of any criticism other than S. C. Harrex's study of the sense of identity in the novels of Markandaya, which, he feels, ignores the multiple variety of the life of her fiction.) Chauahan attempts a rapid survey of the eight novels published to date, and praises her creative moral vision. The chief appeal of Markandaya's fiction lies in its fable. She portrays man as a victim, but he is never an inconsequential person. She writes of modern India with a marvellous historical vision of the Western influences at work. Chauhan devotes much attention to The Coffer Dams, her "finest portrayal of cultural contrasts." DALE, JAMES. "Kamala Markandaya and the Outsider." In Individual and Community in Comnmonwealth Literature, edited by Daniel Massa (Malta:Old University Press, 1979): 188-95. The fundamental pattern in many of Markandaya's novels is that of conflict between England and India, studied in terms of human relationship. In Nectar in a Sieve, the alien figure is the white doctor, Kenny. In Some Inner Fury, the outsider is Roshan Merchant, a Parsee, who moves with equal ease in both East and West. Possession shows East-West encounter of a very unusual kind, and Anasuya, the detached narrator, is the "permanent outsider" as she calls herself. In The Coffer Dams, Helen Clinton is not like the other British wives; she identifies herself increasingly with the exploited tribals who have been thrust aside by both British and Indians in the name of the great dam. She is drawn into the action, and is not a mere observer. In The Nowhere Man, Srinivas stands and suffers alone, the quintessential outsider, despite the support of his friend Mrs Pickering. DALE, JAMES. "Sexual Politics in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya" WLWE 21.2 (Summer 1982):336-41. DRUM, ALICE. "Kamala Markandaya's Modern Quest Tale." WLWE 22, no.2 (1983): 323-32.

Markandaya uses the changing world of a modern Indian village to give fresh treatment to a familiar literary theme--coming of age. In its presentation of the initiation theme, Two Virgins follows the structural pattern of the quest tale with its three divisions: the going forth, the adventure, the return. The journey to the city, and the broadened perspective it provides on home and self enable the heroine Saroja to win her battle against fear and immaturity. Saroja has to face societal and personal problems. The distinction of Two Virgins lies in the author's use of language and the wit and humour with which she presents the characters and their society. The style is particularly suited to the young heroine. Markandaya's particular stress is on Saroja's developing awareness of sexuality, a theme that has rarely been treated with the understanding and sensitivity that Markandaya employs. EZEKIEL, NISSIM. "Two Virgins by Kamala Markandaya." Illustrated Weekly of India, 15 June, 1975. Reprinted NISSIM EZEKIEL, Selected Prose (Delhi: Oxford University Pres, 1992): 144-46. A book review, condemning it as "an Indian novel for non-Indian readers". The language is generally simple, but is "a starved, dessicated simplicity." Stereotypes of character and situation fill the novel. All the characters are "puppets manufactured for the entertainment of those who know nothing about India. A puppet show satisfies them. Particularly if a little bit of sex is thrown in from time to time." GEETHA, P. "Kamala Markandaya: An Interpretation." Commonwealth Quarterly no.9 (1978): 96-109. Markandaya's novels generally deal with the modernisation of India. Geetha briefly surveys the leading images in some of Markandaya's novels. The paddy fields and Rukmani's garden reflect the fluctuations of Rukmani's own life in Nectar in a Sieve. In A Handful of Rice,the city is referred to as a "black god" and Apu's house there becomes a symbol of town life. In The Coffer Dams, the conflict is between primitive man and the modern machine, and the dam has symbolic overtones. The image of a house is at the centre of the narrative pattern of The Nowhere Man. GOONERATNE, YASMINE. "'Traditional' Elements in the fiction of Kamala Markandaya, R.K. Narayan and Ruth Prawer Jhabvala" WLWE 15.1 (April 1976):121-34. HARREX, S. C. "A Sense of Identity: The Novels of Kamala Markandaya." Journal of Commonwealth Literature 6, no.1 (1971): 65-78. Reprinted as "A Sense of Identity: The Early Novels of Kamala Markandaya," in The Fire and the Offering: The EnElish-Language Novel of India, 1935-1970. (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1977) Vol.I, pp.245-261. Kamala Markandaya's first five novels deal with different predicaments of identity. Two main directions are discernible in the literary quest for identity, the philosophical (Raja Rao) and the sociological (Anand). In A Silence of Desire and Possession, the quest is in philosophical terms. An enigmatic swami symbolizes an alternative to the modern materialistic way of life. A Silence of Desire shows a marriage where the husband feels his identity threatened by his wife's devotion to a swami. Possession is an allegory of imperialism, where the frames of reference are traditional contemplative India and the active, possessive West. Markandaya's other three novels stress the social, economic, and political determinants of human identity. In Nectar in a Sieve, the identity of the peasant is threatened because of industrialization and the loss of his land. In A Handful of Rice, the quest for identity is seen in terms of urban poverty. In Some Inner Fury, the dilemma of identity is due to the political background, as the struggle for independence enters a violent phase. K A. Abbas explores

this theme skilfully in his short story,"The Man Who Did Not Want to Remember". The sense of identity in Markandaya's novels is more affirmative in the philosophical rather than the sociological context. JAIN, JASBIR "The Novels of Kamala Markandaya." Indian Literature 18, no.2 (1975): 3643. In the novels of Kamala Markandaya, two sets of values exist side by side. There are some characters who travel both worlds, absorbing the human and elemental in both. Valmiki in Possession is divided between two worlds: Caroline's material ome and the Swamy's spiritual one. By the end of the novel, he has become strong and independent, helped by the Swamy's visit to the West. Kenny in Nectar in a Sieve and Helen in The Coffer Dams are other characters who can go across the racial divide to the world of Indian labourers. In The Nowhere Man, there are two worlds, one of white superiority and racial hatred represented by Fred Fletcher, and the other of abject integration with British society represented by Laxman. But there is also a third world, inhabited by human beings, frail and fallible; Srinivas, his wife Vasantha and Mrs Pickering belong to this world. In Two Virgins, the two worlds of Lalitha and Saroja do not meet to give rise to a third world, it is Saroja's world which metamorphoses into a new force JAIN, N. K. "Kamala Markandaya: Nectar in a Sieve." Major Indian Novels, edited by N. S. Pradhan (New Delhi:Arnold-Heinemann, 1985):74-89. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986, xii + 266 Examines the narrative technique of the novel in relation to its theme and style. A large part of the success of the novel is due to the choice of Rukmani, a literate peasant woman, as protagonist and narrator. The simple, unadorned prose accords with the nature of the narrator. Nectar in a Sieve presents an authentic picture of village life in transition. Kenny, the white doctor, provides the spokesman for modernity. JAMEELA BEGUM, A. "Glimpses of Indian Women in Kamala Markadaya's Novels." Commonwealth Quarterly no.36 (1987): 17-23. In exploring the female consciousness of Indian women, Markandaya fuses her own imaginative conception of traditional images with the changing realities of existence. Begum declares that it is unfair to dismiss Markandaya as a writer "reacting not to a specific village in India but to the Western audience's image of an Indian village" (Shyamala Venkateswaran's words). Markandaya writes about rural women in Nectar in a Sieve and Two Virgins, and the economically independent urban woman in Some Inner Fury and Possession. Her spirituality is stressed in The Nowhere Man. JHA, RAMA. "Kamala Markandaya: An Overview" Perspectives of Indian Fiction in English, edited by M. K. Naik (1985): 161-73. Expository, tracing Markandaya's development as a novelist by analysing he novels chronologically. The novels focus on the changinging socio economic scene in India. Her characters are memorable, especially women like Rukmini and Sarojini, whose strength lies in acceptance. JHA, REKHA. The Novels of Kamala Markandaya and Ruth Jhabvala: A Study in EastWest Encounter, New Delhi: Prestige Publishers, 1990, 176pp.

JOSEPH, MARGARET P. Kamala Markandaya. Indian Writers Series. New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 1980, 224pp. Best book length study of various aspects of Kamala Markandaya's fictional art. After general evaluations of the novels (pp l5-106), Joseph examines Markandaya's art of characterization (pp.107-156), and her use of language (pp.157-210),with a fine analysis of Markandaya's imagery. She also examines Markandaya's attempts to write "the literature of concern". KATAMBLE, V. D. "Kamala Markandaya's The Coffer Dams: An Apology for Technoindustrialization of Rural India." Littcrit no.20/21 (1985): 54-62. [11.1&2 check] Thematic study. The Coffer Dams is a fine presentation of the theme of conflict and reconciliation between man and machine; East-West encounter is ancillary to the main theme. Building a huge dam entails displacing the simple tribals. The old tribal chief initially opposes the dam, for it means the loss of a traditional way of life. But the new generation represented by Bashiam, an educated tribal, welcomes technological progress. The novelist clearly shows the complexity of labour problems, and the ruthlessness of the powerful dam builders, but ends on a note of optimism. KRUPAKAR, B. "Race Relations and The Nowhere Man." The Literary Endeavour 2, no.2/3 (1981): 21-25. The novel is not a study of being rootless, it is the human drama of an individual shaped and identified within a community. Srinivas is not faced by the cultural or metaphysical problems experienced by Rama in the Serpent and the Rope. The aged Indian immigrant has no ties left in India, but British racists cannot accept his presence in England, which he has made his home for 50 years. The racism of Fred Fletcher is offset by the humane conduct of Mrs Pickering and Dr Radcliffe. KUMAR, PREM. "Conflict and Resolution in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya." World Literature Today 60, no.1 (1986): 22-27. The clash of values is a distinctive characteristic of Markandaya's novels. In her first novel, Nectar in a Sieve, it is rural-agricultural versus industrial-commercial. In Some Inner Fury the clash is political, imperialism versus self rule, rather than racial. In A Silence of Desire the clash between tradition and modernity takes the form of a conflict between spiritual faith and scientific reason. Possession presents the East-West conflict in an original way. In A Handful of Rice, the conflict is social and economic; Ravi finds it impossible to provide for his family by honorable means. In The Coffer Dams, the tension between traditional life and technological progress runs parallel to the theme of racial tension. In The Nowhere Man, Srinivas finds himself cut off from both cultures--British and Indian. In Two Virgins, the clash between traditional/rural and modern/urban values is part of young Saroja's maturation. The Golden Honeycomb shows East-west encounter during the Raj. In her latest novel Shalimar (published in Britain as Pleasure City) the collision between primitive innocence and technological progress has none of the racial tension of The Coffer Dams. KUMAR, PREM. "From Confrontation to Reconciliation: Kamala Markandaya's Evolution as a Novelist" IFR 14.2 (Summer 1987):84-8. KUMAR, S.K. "Tradition and Change in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya" Kakatiya Journal of English Studies 8.1 (1978):85-97.

MACDERMOTT, DOIREANN. "An Indian in England: Markandaya's The Nowhere Man," in A Passage to Nowhere, edited by Doireann MacDermott and Susan Ballyn (1986). MACDERMOTT, DOIREANN. "Variations on a Princely Theme: Kamala Markandaya's The Golden Honeycomb," in Crisis and Creativity in the New Literatures in English, edted by Geoffrey Davis and Hena Maes-Jelinek (1990). MARKANDAYA, KAMALA,"One Pair of Eyes: Some Random Reflections" IN NIVEN, ALASTAIR (ed) The Commonwealth Writer Overseas Brussels: Didier, 1976:23-32. MARKANDAYA, KAMALA. "Why Do We Write in English?" Adam 355-60 (1971):42-3. MENON, K. MADHAVI. "The Vision in Kamala Markandaya's The Nowhere Man." Commonwealth Quarterly no.34 (1986): 24-37. Markandaya's primary concern has been with the individual in the matrix of a given culture. The Nowhere Man reveals Markandaya's concern with cultural values in the context of racial hatred in Britain, after the fall of the empire. Markandaya highlights the strength of human commitment and love even in the midst of racial hatred. Menon briefly compares Srinivas, an expatriate, with Biswas (Naipaul's A House for Mr Biswas) and Cross Damon (Richard Wright's The Outsider). MUKHERJEE, DHURJATI. "Jibananda: A Wish, edited by K. Ayyappa Paniker (Trivandrum: University of Kerala, 1987): 76-80. Considers The Nowhere Man to be Markandaya's best novel. The hero, Srinivas, is capable of infinite adaptation. The "nowhere man" is also everyman, the aging loner. Markandaya makes Srinivas's battle with loneliness sufficiently dramatic without lapsing into surrealistic presentation, as in Samuel Beckett. Nandakumar feels that Willie and Winnie of Beckett's Happy Days are the distant inspiration for Srinivas and Mrs Pickering. The Nowhere Man has the same tinge of black humour as Beckett's play about age and loneliness. NANDAKUMAR, PREMA. "Swim Against the Tide: Srinivas in The Nowhere Man." Contemporary Indian Fiction in Engl (1976): 87-97. NEDELJKOVIC, MARYVONNE. "The Role of Women in Kamala Markandaya's Novel, Nectar in a Sieve." Commonwealth 8, no.1 (1985): 31-44. Kamala Markandaya's novels show that she would like Indian women to free themselves from oppressive tradition and acquire new dignity based on Indian culure. Rukmani, a poor though literate peasant woman, is the narrator and protagonist of Nectar in a Sieve. Though she believes in traditional values like Dativratya (devotion to husband) she wants society to change its treatment of women. Her relationship with Kenny, the English doctor, is complex; village gossip believes they are having an affair. Rukmani is not unfaithful, but she feels vaguely guilty; for her friendship with Kenny is only the manifestation of her craving for a change in the Indian woman's condition. PARAMESWARAN, UMA. "Native-Aliens and Expatriates--Kamala Markandaya and Balachandra Rajan." A Study of Representative Indo-English Novelists. (New Delhi: Vikas, 1976): 85-140. Parameswaran notes three stages in the growth of the Indian English novel. The third stage produced writers who are so anglicised in their outlook that they lose touch with their

roots. Both novelists have been overpraised by non-Indian critics and over-denounced by Indian critics. Parameswaran rigorously examines Markandaya's first eight novels with regard to structure, dialogue, sociological verity and use of symbols; this critic is particularly good at analysing characterisation. In terms of style, the first five novels are remarkable for their simple and effective language, while a note of experimentation with prose style is present in The Coffer Dams (1969) and later novels. Parameswaran discerns a pattern--as long as one has roots, one survives, and the delineation of the roots of different classes of society is Markandaya's continuing theme. The Coffer Dams and The Nowhere Man are powerful novels which deal with the problems of expatriation, in different contexts. POLLARD, ARTHUR. "Kamala Markandaya's The Golden Honeycomb." JIWE 8, no.1/2 (1980): 22-26. Reprinted in Through Different Eyes,edited by Kirpal Singh. (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984): 27-33. Markandaya's novel shows British-Indian relations from the Indian angle, just as Paul Scott's Raj Quartet presented it from the British angle. Another important theme is princely India. Markandaya brings a greater subtlety to this theme than Anand (Private Life of an Indian Prince) or Malgonkar (The Princes). A leading concern of the novel is with the failure to show understanding, and one of Markandaya's strengths is that she can create sympathy for characters like the Maharajah and Sir Arthur Copeland, while never concealing her real condemnation of them for lack of sensitivity. Markandaya is on the whole succcessful in presenting the richness and contrasts that are India. Though the novel is the tale of Bawajiraj and his son Rabi, it is dominated by women PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. ed. Perspectives on Kamala Markandaya. Ghaziabad:Vimal Prakashan, 1984, xxxiv-269pp. Contains eighteen essays on various aspects of Markandaya's work. 1. Introduction MADHUSUDAN PRASAD i-xxxiv. Detailed introduction to the first nine novels, taking due note of the comments of various critics. Examines Markandaya's tragic vision, her humanism and social concern, craftsmanship, plot structure, narrative technique, and prose style. Though she uses imagery and symbolism, she is not an imagist novelist like Anita Desai. Prasad praises her gift for characterization, and points out a weakness in her work--she is too conscious of a Western audience, and her detailed explanations and descriptions can be irritating for the Indian reader. 2. Continuity and Change in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya A.V. KRISHNA RAO. 127. See RAO, A.V KRISHNA above, p.l. 3. Victims and Virgins: Some Characters in Kamala Markandaya's Novels. HAYDN M WILLIAMS: 28-36. Reprinted in WILLIAMS, HAYDN MOORE, Galaxy of Indian Writing in English (Delhi: Akshat Publications, 1987):30-38. Williams analyses the first eight novels. The most memorable characters are victims. Markandaya takes her characters from a wide spectrum: Indian peasants, students, film producers, Indian emigrés in England, English engineers and their wives on contract service in India, English working class types from pubs. Her women are peculiarly memorable. There is little humour in Markandaya. Williams considers the movement from the tragic despair of Nectar in a Sieve to the angry satire of The Nowhere Man a decline. The Nowhere Man is a cry of protest against the inhumanity of racism, she does not attempt to analyse the causes of racial conflict. The portrayal of Srinivas, the protagonist, a victim, is quite successful, but all the other characters, including Mrs

Pickering, are two-dimensional. Williams reserves special praise for Two Virgins, and its heroine Saroja. 4. East-West Confrontation in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya. HARISH RAIZADA. 3770. 5. Kamala Markandaya's Style. RAMESH K.SRIVASTAVA. 71-92. See SRIVASTAVA, Six Indian Novelists. (1987) above. 6. The Mask That Does Not Hide: A Perspective on Nectar in a Sieve, P.SHIV KUMAR. 93-97. 7. The Fictional Epic on Indian Life: A Study in Theme and Technique of Nectar in a Sieve, HARI MOHAN PRASAD. 98-104. 8. Some Inner Fury: A Critical Perspective, S.KRISHNA SHARMA. 105-118. 9. A Silence of Desire: A Closer View. EDWIN THUMBOO. 119-149. See THUMBOO, "A Silence of Desire" JIWE no.8 (1980) above. 10. Possession: A Consideration, C. V. VENUGOPAL. 150-53. 11. A Tryst with Conscience: A Handful of Rice K.VENKATA REDDY. 154-62. See REDDY, Major Indian Novelists (1990) below. 12. The Coffer Dams: A Critical Study. K.MADHAVI MENON AND A.V.KRISHNA RAO. 163-85. 13. The Nowhere Man: An Analysis. V.RANGAN. 186-97. 14. Two Virgins: A Problem Novel. K. S. RAMAMURTI. 198-207. See RAMAMURTI, "Two Virgins" Littcrit 7, no.2 (1981) above. 15 The Golden Honeycomb: A Critcal Appraisal. A. N. DWIVEDI. 208-220. 16. Image and Symbol Pattern in Kamala Markandaya's Novels. F. A. INAMDAR. 221239. Inamdar discerns a common image pattern underlying all of Markandaya's novels: house imagery (which branches into images of the tannery in Nectar in a Sieve), city imagery, jungle imagery, imagery of animals and insects, and imagery of darkness and light which merges into colour imagery. Isolated images occur in later novels, like cycle imagery (A Handful of Rice), the mask (The Golden Honeycomb), and characters as images (The Nowhere Man). 17. Kamala Markandaya's Narrative Technique. S.Z.H.ABIDI. 240-47. Kamala Markandaya employs the first person narrative in Nectar in a Sieve and Some Inner Fury,with the central character as narrator. Possession, too, is in the first person, but the narrator Anasuya is only a minor participant in the action. The later six novels all employ the omniscient author techniaque, but differ in subtle manipulations of the point of view. Markandaya's novels generally follow a chronological narrative, though there are occasional flashbacks

18. Structure in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya. V. B. GUBATI. 248-62. Studies the structure of Markandaya's novels in terms of the motifs, dynamic and static, and the leitmotifs. The majority of the motifs in Nectar in a Sieve are static; the leitmotif "nothing" conveys the idea of the futility of the poor man's struggle, and links up with the title. In Some Inner Fury, the leitmotif is violence, "fury". A Silence of Desire has a well knit structure dominated by static motifs. The structure of Possession is weak because of the choice of narrator, though the leitmotif "possession" throws light on all relationships in the novel. Unity of structure is achieved in A Handful of Rice through the leitmotif "rice". Static motifs underlying the plot and characterisation make The Nowhere Man an organic whole. Gulati feels that the structure of the next three novels is loose. Bibliography. 263-66. PRASAD, HARI MOHAN. "The Quintessence of Kamala Markandaya's Art." Commonwealth Quarterlv no.9 (1978): 173-85. Overview of her novels, in terms of theme and language. Nectar in a Sieve presents a ruthlessly realistic picture of rural poverty. A Handful of Rice is another variant of this theme of hunger, in an urban setting. Two Virgins is about the growing up of Saroja. Possession, The Coffer Dams, and The Nowhere Man are explications of East-West encounter In narration or language, Markandaya has little proneness to experimentation. RAMAMURTI. K. S "Kamala MarkandayaJs Two Virgins: A Problem Novel." Litcrit 7, no.2 (1981): 36-45. Two Virgins does not live up to the standards set by Markandaya's earlier novels. It has no well-defined central theme, and the language is dull and monotonous. The action of this picaresque novel is linear, little dependent on character or environment. There is no sharp differentiation in character between the narrator Saroja and her elder sister Lalitha. The vagueness of the location and the strange names detract from the realism of the narrative. It reveals the author's excessive preoccupation with sex in its coarsest form. Two Virgins is an interesting study on the themes of escape and initiation. Another merit of the novel is its use of symbols. RAO, A V. KRISHNA. "Kamala Markandaya and the Novel of Sensibility." The IndoAnglian Novel and the Changing Tradition. (Mysore: Rao and Raghavan, 1972): 50-67. Rao presents an analysis of the way the first four novels of Kamala Markandaya reflect the consciousness of change, and the strange and inescapable ways it has come to shape the character of individuals. Markandaya has evolved a fictional technique which keeps in perfect balance the reality of the world outside and that of the individual within. Unlike Mulk Raj Anand, she lets her characters grow into society. She presents a complex pattern of interaction between the individual and the aggregate of humanity in terms of symbols, especially in A Silence of Desire and possession. RAO, A. V. KRISHNA. "Continuity and Change in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya." Perspectives on Kamala Markandava, edited by Madhusudhan Prasad (Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1984): 1-25. Primarily thematic study, though Rao pays attention to linguistic style and plot structure. Markandaya's accent is on the drama of life, not ideology. She explores the impact of change in terms of human psychology. Her fiction reveals cultural continuity in the midst of social, economic and political change in modern India. The first three novels are preoccupied with the national self-image in various foci. Possession, the fourth novel, probes an alien

onslaught on the autochthonic cultural matrix. The Nowhere Man (like The Coffer Dams) also deals with racial relations. Markandaya's narrative technigue in this novel set in England is much more impressive than in Some Inner Fury. Rao considers The Golden Honeycomb, her ninth novel, her best. It is a fine exploration of the "predicament of identity" (an aspect examined by S. C. HARREX (see item?)). RAO, A.V. KRISHNA. "The Novels of Kamala Markandaya: A Study": 213-251. in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 RAO, A V. KRISHNA. "The Golden Honeycomb: A Brief Study." Studies in Indian Fiction in English, edited by G. S. Balarama Gupta (Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987): 77-84. Feels that the lack of ideological commitment in Markandaya's fiction makes it more authentic as a mirror of society. Considers The Golden Honeycomb (1977) her magnum opus. Rao praises its structure (it has two subplots addition to the mainplot), its language, and the thorough research of history that has gone into this tale of princely India. RAO, K. S. NARAYANA. "Some Notes on the Plots of Kamala Markanday Novels." Indian Literature 13, no.1 (1970): 102-12. Rao draws up a chronological table of the first five novels, in the sequence of their actions (specific references to the time period can be found in all except Nectar in a Sieve) and the likely order of their writing (Nectar in a Sieve, the third novel she wrote, was the first to be published). Rao identifies some common characteristics of plot and character. All novels feature single stars, or, at the most, two leading characters. The central character is trapped in a situation. The ending is not conclusive and has a tantalizing quality. Each novel has at least one "alien" character, and, with the exception of Some Inner Furv, a "freak", such as an albino, a dwarf, or a cripple. RAO, K. S. NARAYANA. "The Novels of Kamala Markandaya: A Contemporary IndoAnglian Novelist." Literature East and West 15, no.2 (1971): 209-218. Survey of her first five novels , in terms of the themes, plot, and structure. East-West relations is a dominant theme, so is the conflict between the rich and the poor. Other important themes are those of love, marriage and sex, and the triumph of the spirit over suffering and death. The characters tend to be types rather than individuals, though they show a greater degree of individuality in her fifth novel, A Handful of Rice. The novels generally have a circular structure; Markandaya handles first person narration and the omniscient author technique with equal facility. RAO, K. S. NARAYANA. "Love, Sex, Marriage and Morality in Kamala Markandaya's Novels" Osmania Journal of English Studies no.10 (1973): 69-77. There is a steady increase of emphasis on love, marriage, and sex as we go from the first novel to the fifth. India is shown in a state of flux, and Markandaya's tone is never didactic. Nectar in a Sieve shows the love between the partners in an arranged marriage, while Some Inner Fury is a study of romantic passion. A Silence of Desire shows a stable marriage threatened by the lack of communication between Dandekar and his wife. Thoughts and metaphors of sex brood over Possession, a novel without marriage, or love. A Handful of Rice has many explicit passages, and libido is an active force in the story.

RAO, K. S. NARAYANA. "Religious Elements in Kamala Markandaya's Novels." Ariel 8, no.1 (1977): 35-43. Self-exiled writers like Raja Rao and Kamala Markandaya take great pride in India's spiritual heritage. Markandaya is basically a secular writer, but two of her novels contain the character of a Hindu holy man, symbolizing the ancient spiritual wisdom of India. A Silence of Desire is the story of Dandekar who puts his carnal pleasures and personal comforts above spiritual values; the tulasi plant is an apt symbol. Possession affirms the supremacy of spiritual powers over material forces. Valmiki, the hero, gives up his life of fame and money in the West and returns to the Swamy, his spiritual guru. Islam is mentioned only marginally in her novels. Some Inner Fury, A Handful of Rice, and Two Virgins deal briefly with Christians, but religion is not a major theme in these novels. RAO, SUSHEELA N. "A Bibliography of Kamala Markandaya" World Literature Written in English 20.2 (Autumn 1981):344-50. RAO, SUSHEELA N. "England in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya." JIWE 15, no.1 (1987): 1-10. Markandaya's portrayal of England is generally unfavourable. Rao looks at four later novels. In The Coffer Dams, the British, building a dam, are shown as unsympathetic and insensitive to Indians. The Nowhere Man shows that the British do not tolerate the cultural and religious heritage of the Indian immigrant in England. In Two Virgins, British influence is represented by two characters, the Christian headmistress of the missionary school, and the English-educated film maker Gupta, and both are instrumental in ruining Lalitha. The Golden Honeycomb goes back in time to reveal the political and economic exploitation of India during the Raj. REDDY, P. BAYAPPA, "Rural Life Shaken to its Roots: Kamala Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve"" IN Studies in Indian Writing in English with a Focus on Indian English Drama, New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990: 61-69. REDDY. K. VENKATA. "A Classic of the Hunger theme: Nectar in a Sieve." Major Indian Novelists: Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayan, Raja Rao, Bhabani Bhattacharva, Kamala Markandaya. (New Delhi: Prestige Books, 1990): 78-86. Thematic. Hunger is presented in its most gruesome form, it eats into the vitals of human moral values. Reddy states, without any sustained analysis, that Markandaya's portrayal is better than Bhattacharya's in So Many Hungers!. REDDY, K. VENKATA. "A Tryst with Conscience: A Handful of Rice." Major Indian Novelists (1990): 87-96. First published in Perspectives on Kamala Markandaya, edited by Madhusudan Prasad (Ghaziababd: Vimal Prakashan, 1984): 154-62. Thematic. A Handful of Rice is also concerned chiefly with hunger. Ravi, the protagonist, finds it difficult to earn a living by honest means. Markandaya's language in this novel has simplicity and precision, the word "rice" recurs like a motif throughout the novel. RUBENSTEIN, ROBERTA. "Kamala Markandaya's Two Virgins." WLWE no.13 (1974): 225-30. Analyses the novel in terms of theme, language, and structure, and values it very highly, "it satisfies one aesthetic, emotional and intellectual yearnings." Considers it an authentic picture of life in a traditional post-Gandhi Indian village, with the archetypal theme of the

journey from innocence to experience of not only the narrator Saroja, but also her old sister Lalitha. Praises Markandaya's "unfailing eye for detail both physical and psychological", and the remarkable quality of the tone of the novel, a gentle, compassionate irony. SARMA, S. KRISHNA. "Two Recent novels of Kamala Markandaya" Triveni 45.3 (1976):28-35. SHIMER,DOROTHY BLAIR."Sociological Imagery in the Novels of Kamala Markandaya." WLWE 14, no.2 (1975): 357-70. In a seminar paper, "On Images" (East-West Centre, Honolulu, August 1973), Markandaya talked about images in the sociological sense, the conceptions one class or culture has formed about the other, and called for the literature of concern to break down these distorted images. Shimer shows that the conscious use of sociological imagery increases as Markandaya's writing matures. The major emphases are on socio-economic (class/caste), East-West relations and concepts, and race and colour and sexual stereotypes. Markandaya utiizes imagery with mastery in both the sociological and literary sense; especialy in the later novels, imagery is used to attack social injustice. SRIVASTAVA, RAMESH K. Six Indian Novelists in English. Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University, 1987, 359pp. Essays, many of them first published in 1980, on Raja Rao, R. K. Narayan, Kamala Markandaya, Bhabani Bhattacharya, Anita Desai and Arun Joshi. The biggest section of the book is devoted to Kamala Markandaya, and Nectar in a Sieve receives a lot of attention, from various perspectives. "Significance of the Title: Nectar in a Sieve." Six Indian Novelists: 89-93. The title of the novel, taken from Coleridge, is significant because the protagonist Rukmani and her husband continue to work ceaselessly with alternating hope and fear. The title is suggestive of Western materialistic philosophy, where it is not possible to work without hope. But Rukmani is sustained by her faith; she is like a karmayogi, following the precepts of the Gita, living without "nectar", the hope of the fruit of action. "A Village in Transition in Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve": 94-110. First published in Punjab Journal of English Studies, (1986): 101-14. Nectar in a Sieve is a genuine novel of rural life delineating the miserable plight of the landless farmer. Some critics (Hari Mohan Prasad, N. K. Jain, Uma Parameswaran, and S. I. Hemenways) give it more praise than it deserves, while M. K. Naik feels convinced that "Rukmani's village exists only in the expatriate imagination of her creator". Srivastava examines various incidents and characters, and concludes that Markandaya's picture is comprehensive, though some details are inaccurate because of the city-bred novelist's poor knowledge of rural life. "Symbolism in Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve": 111-22. First published in Indian Scholar 2, no.1 (1980): 1-14. Symbolism in Markandaya is not something consciously superimposed, she handles it with great sophistication; words and images are transformed into symbols by a process of crystallization. Srivastava examines the various symbols (the light and the dark, the tannery, the rain, garden and snake, stone and the lingam, symbol of fertility) which build up the

dominant and antithetical concepts of "home and not home". Compares rain symbolism with Hemingway's, and light and dark with Hawthorne's in The Scarlet Letter. "The Pattern of Hope and Fear in Markandaya~s Nectar in a Sieve": 123-33. First published in Indian Journal of English Studies no.20 (1980): 125-32. Coleridge's quotation, from which the title is derived, points to a basic pattern of hope and fear which by its rhythmic movement unites all the incidents of the novel. The pattern begins with Rukmani's parental home, and is evident within chapters, and sometimes within the same paragraph. It is operative in Markandaya's depiction of nature, and also in characters. "Markandaya's Nectar in a Seive as a Tragedy": 134-44. First published in Indian Journal of English Studies, no. 23 (1983): 103-112. Nectar in a Sieve does not conform to the Aristotlean concept of tragedy. It is, in the words of Northrop Frye, "low-mimetic tragedy" or domestic tragedy, which evokes pathos, and has an elegiac mood. Nathan's endurance is not without dignity. Markandaya conveys the helpnessness of human beings before divine forces. "Limitations of Markandaya in Nectar in a Sieve": 145-54. Markandaya's depiction of rural life is, on the whole, impressive, though she has grossly mismanaged details at a number of places. Srivastava points out many instances of misrepresentation, such as her description of Diwali (which has many elements of the north Indian festival Holi), the village's easy acceptance of Ira's illegitimate baby, or the unrealistic description of Nathan breaking stones at the quarry. "Markandaya's A Handful of Rice: A Study": 155-80. Analyses various aspects of the novel--the theme and title, the structure,and the character of the protagonist Ravi. Srivastava takes cognizance of the views of earlier critics, like Margaret Joseph, A. V. Krishna Rao, Uma Parameswaran, and K. Venkata Reddy, though he does not always agree with them. "Symbolic Triumvirate: Bicycle Chain, Sari and Tin Trunk in Markandaya's A Handful of Rice": 180-94. When the protagonist Ravi breaks into Apu's house at the beginning of the novel, they fasten his anklen with a bicycle chain; his arms are bound in a woman's sari and tied to a tin trunk. These three symbolize the controlling factors of Ravi's life. The bicycle chain symbolizes the obstacles in Ravi's way, and is associated with images of the iron bars of Apu's house, the grilles of the rice godown, and the police whistle. The sari is associated with Nalini, symbolizing family and contentment. The tin trunk, the traditional repository of precious household possessions, suggests economic wellbeing, including rice, shortage of which is a potent symbol of poverty in the novel. "Markandaya's Style": 195-220. First published in Perspectives on Kamala Markandava, edited by Madhusudan Prasad (Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1984): 71-92. Srivastava presents a comprehensive analysis of Markandaya's style, with illustrations, most of them from the first six novels. Markandaya has a perfect command over English, and uses it with grace and pliability. She sometimes uses "the technigue of objective epitome" to convey the subjective condition of a character through a few objective details. She is good at descriptions, recreating not just the sights, but also the sounds and smells. Similes and metaphors abound in her work, with imagery drawn from various walks of life. Symbols are

widely used. Light humnour is almost nonexistent, but she makes good use of irony. Markandaya never uses Indian proverbs and idioms. Occasionally her style becomes bookish and mannered. Srivastava takes note of the changes in Markandaya's style from her first novel, Nectar in a Sieve (1954), to her ninth The Golden Honeycomb (1977) which reveals the maturity born of twenty years of writing. The Coffer Dams marks a major shift in her style (PARAMESWARAN has also commented on this, (see item?)). Srivastava finds the style of Two Virgins (1973) uninteresting, "sensationalism and sexual overtones do not add to the credit of the author". SINGH, R. S. "Soulful East and Ratiocinative West: Kamala Markandaya." Indian Novel in English: A Critical Study (1977): 136-48. Thematic study. Markandaya is above all concerned with the impact of the West. Three novels, Nectar in a Sieve, Some Inner Fury, and Possession have women narrators and circular plots. Singh discerns an autobiographical element in Possession and Some Inner Fury. Markandaya is a novelist of "average emotion" who avoids the depiction of violence. THUMBOO, EDWIN. "Kamala Markandaya's A Silence of Desire." JIWE 8, no.1/2 (1980): 108-36. Reprinted in Through Different Eves, edited by Kirpal Singh (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1984): 151-91. A Silence of Desire is built around issues relating to tradition and change, faith and a scepticism attached to a modern, Western-derived attitude. The theme is introduced as a domestic problem. The tension in A Silence of Desire is between the deeply held faith of Sarojini, and the rational explanation and behaviour of her husband Dandekar. Markandaya is too mature a novelist to offer a bald disquisition between "faith and reason". By the judicious employment of description, summary and scene--almost all of which involve Dandekar--she succeeds in translating the set of ideas into the action and consciousness of her characters. The novelist does not depict the pressures on Sarojini, Thumboo assumes that their nondramatisation accords with her image as a traditional wife. VARMA, R. M. "The Bi-Cultural World of Kamala Markandaya's Novels." Some Aspects of Indo-English Fiction (New Delhi: Jainsons Publishers, 1985): 32-66. Two cultural worlds, belonging to two distinct races, are set in opposition to each other. Varma describes various aspects (such as "overlordship and serfdom" "changing India", "the Indian in England") of this love-hate relationship delineated in the nine novels of Markandaya. VENKATESWARAN, SHYAMALA. "The Language of Kamala Markandaya's Novels." The Literary Criterion 9, no.3 (1970): 57-67. Novelists like Raja Rao, Anand, and Bhattacharya translate the idiom of Indian languages while depicting rural India. Markandaya makes no attempt to do so, probably because her Indian village is not particularised, her peasants do not speak any specific Indian language. The sophisticated English used by Rukmani, the village woman in Nectar in a Sieve, or by the poor Ravi in A Handful of Rice, cannot reflect their sensibility. Her descriptions betray Markandaya's ignorance of village India. She gets many details of village life wrong, suggesting that she is reacting not to a specific village in India but to the Western audience's image of an Indian village. WALI, S.K. Kamala Markandaya: 'Nectar in a Sieve', A Stylistic Study Jaipur: Printwell Publishers, 1987, x + 136 pp.

WEIR, ANN LOWRY. "Worlds Apart?--Feminine Consciousness in Markandaya's Nectar in a Sieve and The Coffer Dams." CIEFL Bulletin 13, no.2 (1977): 71-85. Analyses the characters of Rukmani and Helen to show how these two, so different from each other in terms of race and class, project the same feminine consciousness. Both realize that the incursion of technology (the tannery and the dam) will completely alter the local people's lives, and not necessarily for the better. Nectar in a Sieve, a chronicle of village life, revolves around the narrator Rukmani, a literate peasant woman; we get few insights into the mentalities of other characters. Markandaya often incorporates elements of her own thought and background into the village setting, and sometimes Rukmani's credibilty as a character is adversely affected. The centre of The Coffer Dams is the construction of the dam, and Helen is one of four leading characters. For the first time in her fiction, Markandaya attempts to give characterization of Westerners "from the inside". Both novels have a tragic tone: Rukmani suffers physically, from lack of food and shelter, while Helen, and her Indian lover Bashiam suffer emotionally and psychologically. WILLIAMS, HAYDN MOORE. Studies in Modern Indian Fiction in English 2 Vols. Calcutta: Writers' Workshop, 1973. Volume 2: Govind Desani and Others [ Markandaya, Malgonkar] Mehrotra, Arvind Krishna DA GAMA ROSE, R. "Inside the Enclosures of Arvind Krishna Mehrotra" Kavi 5 (1977):36-8. PADHI, BIBHU PRASAD. "Looking into the Poetry of Arvind Krishna Mehrotra" in PRASAD, MADHUSUDHAN. ed. Living Indian English Poets New Delhi: Sterling, 1989: 163-74. Even in their most fantastic moods, the poems are "an arranged set of gestures", precisely ordered. Intellect blends with playful riddles, pain with detachment. There is a general movement from "passionate metaphorising" to statement. Mehrotra is troubled by limitations of time and failure to invent strategies for forgetting or creating new possibilities; his experiment is a protest against the hallucinatory domination of facts/things that are his means of apprehending life. Notes the recurrent map images and charges his obscurity with overtaxing readers' intelligence and sympathy. Poems leap and run in a play of images rather than connecting into a sense of direction. PRASAD, MADHUSUDAN. "A Clearer Picture of Time: The Poetry of Arvind Krishna Mehrotra" Literary Half-Yearly 23.1(January 1982):17-35. RAMACHAR, M. "Arvind Krishna Mehrotra's `The Sale': Imagery and Movement" The Literary Endeavour 2.2 (1982): 27-33. The salesman's urgent monologue contains "sharply incoherent" images that cohere into a symbol of the world. Descriptive explication. SHASTRI, N.P. "Image as an Immoderate Drug: The Poetry of A.K. Mehrotra" Osmania Journal 13.1 (1977): 139-147 reprinted in SHAHANE, VASANT A. and SIVARAMKRISHNA, M. eds Indian Poetry in English: A Critical Assessment Madras: Macmillan, 1980, 184 pp. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981: 116-24.

Close readings from The Nine Enclosures (1976) noting ironic contrasts between commercialism and cultural decline, sterility and renewal as part of Mehrotra's quest for "a metaphor which embodies the contemporary predicament" of secularised society. Images of fragmentation surround a hint of mysticism (caves). The collection is uneven in tone and lapses into obscurity, a cataloguing of sensory impressions, "imagistic novelty" substituting for mythic or intellectual depth. Mehta, Ved PHILIP, DAVID SCOTT. Perceiving India Through the Works of Nirad C. Chaudhuri, R.K. Narayan and Ved Mehta New Delhi: Sterling, 1986, vi + 184 pp. PHILIP, DAVID SCOTT. Perceiving India Through the Works of Nirad C. Chaudhuri, R.K. Narayan and Ved Mehta New Delhi: Sterling, 1986, vi + 184 pp. SONTAG, FREDERICK. "The Self-Centered Author" New Quest 76 (1989): 29-33. A note on The Stolen Light by a teacher at Pomona College. Menen, Aubrey ELIAS, MOHAMED. "The Poetics of Aubrey Menen's Genesis" The Literary Criterion 20.3 (1985):17-25. ELIAS, MOHAMED. "Aubrey Menen and Kamala Das: Angli-Dravidian Revolt against Aryan Myths"Jadavpur Journal of Comparative Literature 24 (1986): 124-133.. Menen in his Rama Retold and Das in her My Story and verse recreate traditional Hindu myths to focus on outlaws and adultresses. Both South Indian (and related), they create a pure Dravidian space (crossed in Das with Whitman and western writing and in both cases by a sense of racial alienation) opposed to the corrupt urban North and its Aryan hierarchised aggression. Das's ambivalent relations with Krishna indicate both fear of male and Aryan domination and confidence that Dravidian/Nayar blood can contain their conquests. Biographical, cultural and thematic approach. Menezes, Armando BHASKER, W.W.S. "Armando Menezes the Writer" Journal of South Asian Literature 18.1 (1983):71-81. [BHASKER or BHASKAR?] Menon, R. Ravindranath SHARMA, G.V.L.N. "R. Ravindranath Menon's Poetry" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:275-88. Modayil, Anna Sujatha RAO, G. NAGESWARA. "Anna Sujatha Modayil" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 31-39. Mohanti, Prafulla MISHRA, GANESHWAR. "How does and Indian Village Speak: A Study of the Form of Prafulla Mohanti's My Village, My Life" in MCDERMOTT, DOIREANN ed.

Autobiographical and Biographical Writing in Commonwealth Literature Barcelona: Sabadell, 1984:157-162. Chaudhuri's autobiography is for a European audience and out of touch with village life (especially family relationships). Mohanti's translated conversations with Orissa villagers produce amore authentic picture echoing episodic and dialogue forms of puranic and folk traditions. Mohanty, Niranjan SHARMA, GHANSHIAM. "Niranjan Mohanty's Bloody Game: A Deconstructive Analysis" Poetry 13.1 (1988):33-48. Mokashi-Punekar, Shankar LAL, ANANDA. "Shankar Mokashi-Punekar: Some Notes on His Poetry" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:301-14. Mookerji, Tapati JAIN, SUNITA. "Leela Dharmaraj, Ira De and Tapati Mookerji" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1985: 132-40. Moraes, Dom DE SOUZA, EUNICE. "The Expatriate Experience" in NARASIMHAIAH, C.D. ed. Awakened Conscience: Studies in Commonwealth Literature, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978: 339-345 (also Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 1978). KHULLAR, AJIT. "Willed Alienation" Indian Literature 131 (1989): 137-45. MOLLINGER, ROBERT N. "Dom Moraes' Vision: From Dream to Nightmare" Creative Moment 3.2 (1974):5-11. MOLLINGER, ROBERT N. "Psychic Images and Poetic Technique in Dom Moraes' Poetry" in RAO, K.S. NARAYANA. ed. World Literature Written in English 14.2 (1975):322-8. RAO, R. RAJ. "Dom Moraes: A Craftsman to his Bones" New Quest, 83, (1990): 314-316. review? SAHA, SUBHAS. "Dom Moraes: A Re-Assessment of His Poetry" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:72-81. Mukherjee, Bharati PARAMESWARAN, UMA. "Foreignness of Spirit: The World of Bharati Mukherjee's Novels" Journal of Indian Writing in English 13.2 (1985):7-11. Murti, K.V.S.

RANI, K. NIRUPA. "Inflash and Orchestra: A Note on K.V.S. Murti's Muse" in DWIVEDI, A.N ed. Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984:191-209. Nagarajan, K. JAGADISAN, S. "Chidambaram: A Vision." JIWE 4, no.2 (1976): 29-31. Chidambaram: A Chronicle Play (1955) was written for the silver jubilee celebrations of the Annamalai University, and is ideally suited for the occasion. The play falls into fourteen episodes, each highlighting a significant event in the history of the town of Chidambaram. The time Spirit guides a modern student on a journey through the ages, and a host of characters, legendary and historical, put in brief appearances. There is no conflict or action in the usual sense of the term. The focal figure of Siva (Nataraja, the Cosmic Dancer) lends unity of tone and action to the play. KRISHNAMURTHI, M.G. "The Chronicles of Kedaram: A Question of Form"Indian Writing Today 4 (1970):27-31. MENON, K.P.K. Nagarajan's Writings: An Introduction Madras: Emerald Publishers, 1985, 52 pp. PARAMESWARAN, UMA. "K. Nagarajan's Athawar House: A Study" in GUPTA, G.S. BALARAMA., ed. Studies in Indian Fiction in English Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987: 142-51. RAMACHANDRAIAH, P. "The Uses of Chronicle: A Study of the Narrative Method of K. Nagarajan's Chronicles of Kedaram" The Literary Criterion 22.1 (1987):18-22 Nagpal B.R. NAIR N. RAMACHANDRAN. "Varied Textures" Littcrit 14.1&2 (1989): 84-7. review?

genre?

Nahal, Chaman BELLIAPPA, K.C. "The Elusive Classic: Khushwant Singh's Train to Pakistan and Chaman Nahal's Azadi," The Literary Criterion 15, no.2 (1980): 62-73. Modern writing tends to produce only minor classics by T.S. Eliot's definitions; we need Kermode's "plurality of interpretations" plus ideals of authoritative evocation of setting and comprehensiveness of vision as criteria. Train to Pakistan and Azadi are potential classics. The former, however, is a sociological period-piece with romantic interest in which only Iqbal is credibly portrayed. Sides with Kulshrestha in downgrading the novel. Nahal, however, achieves "comprehensiveness of vision" and dramatizes the meaning of azadi in complex and human terms (Lala Kanshi Ram provides the focus) that transcend journalistic documentary. The novel points the irony that azadi, though it produces heroism and kindness, results in anything but freedom for the suffering people. Nahal avoids simplistic bias, offering multiple perspectives lamenting the violence but noting a new national dignity. There are flaws in "loose" passages, unrealized structural potential and unconvincing scenes of intimacy, but the book meets the criteria of a regional classic. DEV, JAI. "Form in the Novels of Chaman Nahal" PURBA 16.1 (April 1985):25-9.

DHAWAN, R.K. ed. Three Contemporary Novelists: Khushwant Singh, Chaman Nahal , Salman Rushdie New Delhi: Classical Publishing Co, 1986, x + 230 pp. JHA, MOHAN. "Azadi: A Search for Identity": 117-127. KIRPAL, VINEY. "The Indian Exile and The English Queens": 139-47. RADHA, K. "The English in Azadi and The Crown and the Loincloth": 148-71. RAMAMURTI, K.S. "Azadi: Point of View as Technique": 128-38. GUPTA, SUBHADRA SEN. "Chaman Nahal: From Tragedy to Satire" IndH 29.2 (1980):19-24. IYENGAR, K.R. SRINIVASA. "The Crown and the Loincloth" The Literary Criterion 16.3 (1981):76-9. JHA, MOHAN. "Chaman Nahal's Azadi: A Search for Identity." in Studies in Indian Fiction in English edited by G.S. Balarama Gupta, 36-45. Gulbarga: JIWE, 1987. Appreciation of "this chronicle novel" whise "grisly macabre atmosphere...has its own sharp appeal." Outlines plot, characters and structure (dense blocks of detail and slow-paced moves between present and past sometimes disorient the reader), stressing its dramatic vigour and its vision of the "urge for survival", though Arun us found to withdraw into disillusionment and his father into frustrated anonymity, Despite lifes' bleak prospects, examples of kindness and tolerance and allusions to Kurukshtra and Tagore underline the worth of commitment to truth and reason and the ideal of freedom as a condition of human dignity. JHA, RAMA. "The Fiction of Chaman Nahal" The Humanities Review 3.2(1981):33-9. KIRPAL, VINEY. "The Uncommitted Indian Middle Classes: An Analysis of Nahal's The English Queen's" in PRASAD, R.C. & SHARMA, R.K., eds. Modern Studies and Other Essays in Honour of Dr R.K. Sinha New Delhi: Vikas, 1987: 247-51. MATHUR, O.P. "The Novels of Chaman Nahal: A Penultimate View": 319-333. in DWIVEDI, A.N. (ed) Studies in Contemporary Indian Fiction in English, Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1987, pp.358 Nahal repeatedly denied that a first-rate Indian work could be written in English but modified his claim over twenty years. Surveys output, from stories (The Weird Dance, 1965) to The Crown and the Loincloth 1981). Nahal is a consistent affirmer of human potential and is informed by the Gita. The satiric exception is The English Queens (1979) though this still favours authenticity over artificiality. In The Crown and the Loincloth Nahal attempts a panoramic treatment of Gandhi as both man and symbol but the focus slips across this wide cast of characters, some individually memorable. In his work "It is the individual's grasping for understanding and fulfilment that vivifies the social and political" RADHA, K. "The English in Chaman Nahal's Azadi." Littcrit 9, no.1 (1983):31-36. Nahal appears to make no direct comment on the British in India. He distances his characters from his own voice. Lala Kanshi Ram is ambivalent towards the Raj, admiring its impartial order but criticizing its abandonment of the people to Partition violence. Baljit Raizada is altogether hostile, and Sergeant Davidson criticizes both imperialism and its hasty withdrawal. The consistency of negative response implies authorial sanction.

RAO, PARVATI N. "Curate's Egg: Chaman Nahal's Azadi" Indian Literary Review VI.1-3 (1989): 48-51. SHARMA, D.R. "The Novels of Chaman Nahal" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.1 1979: 13-18. Also in The Indian P.E.N. 45.1&2: 1-5. Evaluative synopsis of My True Faces (1973), Azadi (1975) and Into Another Dawn (1977). The first contrives a happy ending to a 'Mahabharata' of marital conflict with a moral about abandoning tradition for rootless westernisation. The second is Nahal's magnum opus, its vision reaching further historically than other Partition novels, its humanism transcending sectarian views as the central character learns to see suffering in a wider perspective. The third work is flawed by a pontificating tone and overly neat contrasts of India and America. Nahal uses the Punjabi colloquialisms of Anand and Khushwant Singh and presents naturalistic details but also captures the rhythm of Indian life within affirmation of human freedoms. SINGH, LAKHMIR. "Chaman Nahal: Azadi" in PRADHAN, N.S. ed. Major Indian Novels: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1986: 223-41. Also Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities, 1986. Brief survey of writing in Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi and English demonstrating the lasting impact of Partition. Chaman Nahal's Azadi best approaches the epical scope of that time, blending historical events with a wide range of complex human perspectives on them. Outlines the plot and structure, its developing of tension ("The Lull") followed by violent relocation conflict ("The Storm") and the humiliations of resettlement ("The Aftermath"). Nahal does not romanticize communal brutality or bureaucratic indifference; naturalistic detail is impartially presented, including occasional humane gestures. Everyone is a victim of the upheavals of freedom (azadi). Young Arun's self-discovery through two romances doesn't sit well against the historical tragedy, which focusses overall on the breakup of composite Punjabi culture and identity. SRINATH, C.N. "The Writer as Historical Witness: Khushwant Singh's Train to Pakistan and Chaman Nahal's Azadi" The Literary Criterion, 25.2, (1990): 58-66. Historical reportage requires imaginative colouring in fiction. Singh's novel errs on the side of objective panorama and the rhetorical, whereas Azadi's focus on Lala Kanshi Ram connects character closely to place and humanises the suffering through sympathetic portrayal. Singh's train, as "time and consciousness" allows both sensationalism and the detachment necssary to comptemplate horror. Contrasts the tender and bestial love affairs between Hindu and Muslim in the two books, Juggat Singh's tough shallowness not preparing us for his selfsacrifice. Both works are free of political bias, but one looks at ghastly events and the other at emotional consequences of loss. TALTY, JACK. "Chaman Nahal's Azadi" 65-78 in Goodwin, K.L., ed. Commonwealth Literature in the Curriculum St Lucia: SPACLALS, 1980, 140 pp. Notes to guide classroom teaching of the text in an Australian setting: historical background, characterisation, relevance to contemporary migrations/wars etc. A key thread is locating the tone in relation to the complexities of character and survival. Naidu, Sarojini (1879-1949) Sarojini Naidu enjoyed a high poetic reputation in her lifetime, but seems to have fallen out of favour. Almost all the poets in Modern Indian Poetry in English: An Anthology and a Credo by P. Lal and Raghavendra Rao (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1969) condemn her. Some

good studies had appeared before 1970; these include P. E. Dustoor's Sarojini Naidu (Mysore: Rao and Raghavan, 1961,54pp.) which gives a balanced evalauation of her poetry ("Her talent was strictly limited and her output smnall") and a bibliography of more than a dozen books and articles on Naidu; C. D Narasimhaiah's The Swan and the Eagle: Essays on Indian English Literature (Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, 1969); and Sarojini Naidu: A Biography by Padmini Sengupta (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1966). ABBAS, K.A.Sarojini Naidu Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1980, 114 pp. ALEXANDER, MEENA. "Sarojini Naidu: Romanticism and Resistance." Ariel 17.4 (1986): 49-61. Dramatic staging of Naidu's life and work highlighting the "radical cleft" between the aristocratic Hyderabad she was born into and the colonial culture of British India, between Indian political activism and poetical passionate passivity picked up from turn-of-the-century English verse (Dowson, Symons). Notes images of confinement (childhood punishment, political imprisonment, poems of purdah). "Ode to India" reverses the patriarchal dualism of "suttee" by figuring India as Mother. Analyses "The Temple", a long sequence of masochistic eroticism sublimated as mysticism published in Naidu's last book of poems when she was 38. ANSARI, ASLOOB AHMAD. "The Poetry of Sarojini Naidu" in SHARMA, K.K. ed. Indo-English Literature: a Collection of Critical Essays, Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977: 71-86. ANSARI, ASLOOB AHMAD. "The Poetry of Sarojini Naidu." Indo-English Literature: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by K. K. Sharma (Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977): 71-86. Examines Sarojini Naidu's own evaluation of her poetry,"I am not a poet really. . . I sing just as the birds do, and my songs are as ephemeral." She was basically a lyric poet, and her poems have the light-hearted ease and gusto of birdsong. Her second collection, The Bird of Time is more sombre, has less vivacity than her first, The Golden Threshold. Patriotism is an important theme running through The Broken Wing (1917), which also contains some remarkable love poems; perhaps political activities dried up the Springs of her creative energy, for she wrote hardly any poetry after this. She is a flawless craftsman; a certain ornateness in her poetry is in conformity with the practice of Persian and Urdu poets. She successfully expresses the Indian sensibility in a foreign tongue. BAIG, TARA ALI. Sarojini Naidu. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt of India, 1974."Builders of Modern India" Series, concentrates on her public life, as a Gandhian freedom fighter and in the struggle for the rights of women. BLACKWELL, FRITZ. "Krishna Motifs in the Poetry of Sarojini Naidu and Kamala Das." Journal of South Asian Literature 13, no.1-4 (1977-78): 9-14.Compares Naidu's "Song of Radha the Milkmaid" and "The Fluteplayer of Brindavan" with two poems by Kamala Das, "The Maggots" and "Radha". The two poets, fifty years apart, use the favourite motif of the medieval bhakti poets of India with startlingly different attitudes and results. BOSE, AMALENDU. "Regal Ground: Sarojini Naidu's Poetry." The Other Harmony. (Calcutta: United Writers, 1977): 63-72.Bose begins with his personal experience of Naidu's oratory when he was a student of Dacca University. At the end of her speech on the glories of

poetry, "the audience, enveloped in the enchantment of her words, sat motionless, forgetting to clap." Bose praises the inspiring effectiveness, the imaginative sweep, the easeful and cadenced eloquence of her oratory which expressed her personality ever so more richly than her poetry, which is "competent and sometimes charming but of a very limited range and intensity." Bose speculates on the reasons for her giving up poetry, whether it was because of the artificiality of adopting English, rather than a native language like Bengali or Urdu, or because of Sarojini's consciousness of the inadequacy of her style shaped by the Rhymer's Club. There is a basic incompatibility between poetry and oratory, and her energies went into public speaking; the loser is posterity, for there is no adequate record of her wonderful speeches. BAIG, TARA ALI. Sarojini Naidu New Delhi: Ministry of Information, 1980. BOSE, AMALENDU, "Regal Ground: Sarojini Naidu's Poetry" in The Other Harmony, Calcutta: United Writers, 1977:??. CHAVAN,SUNANDA P. "The Romantics: Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naid," in The Fair Voice: A Study of Indian Women Poets in English (N Delhi: Sterling, 1984): 15-28. An overview. Toru Dutt and Saroji Naidu belonged to families which cherished the western ideal of free womanhood. Dutt was a faithful translator of the original text in the first stage of her poetic career; the translator grew into a creative one in poems like "Savitri", and finally matured into an original poet in "Jogadhya Uma" and "Sita". She wrote just eight original poems. Sarojini Naidu's poetry can be classified thematically into three main groups--poems of personal experience (love poems predominate), poems about Indian life, and nature poems devoted to the pleasant aspects of nature. Her poetry seldom expresses her social consciousness. She stopped writing poetry after she turned to nationalist activities; she may be supposed to have reached poetic maturity in her public speeches. DWIVEDI, A. N. "Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu." Commonwealth Quarterly no.9 (1978): 82-94. General introductions to the life and works of Dutt and Naidu. Compares and contrasts them. Both Indian women were encouraged by Edmund Gosse; they were influenced by the Romantic school of poetry, and wrote traditional verse. Sarojini had stopped writing poetry by the time the modernist movement started. Toru was something more than the instinctive lyricist Sarojini was, she was an impressive translator and novelist whose career was cut short by death. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu" Commonwealth Quarterly 9.28 (1984): 82-94. Bio-bibliographical outlines of each, locating Toru's strength in her ballads and Sarojini's in perfecting her narrow lyric range. Both romantics, Sarojini swung more towards the Decadent period. Toru showed promise of a wider talent. Looks at "Gold-mulched Hours" and "Green leaves are Gold" as evidence of striking imagery DWIVEDI, A. N. Sarojini Naidu and Her Poetry. Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1981, xii+164pp. Various aspects of her poetry discussed, generally following received opinion. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Sarojini the Poet." Indian literature 22, no.3 (1979): 115-26.

Notes Sarojini's English influences (the Rhymers' Club, Keats, Shelley) and praises her lyric celebration of life's variety. More `native' than Toru Dutt, her work shows empathy with nature, sympathy for the poor and understanding of Indian Muslims. Vivid description accompanies subjective emotion and intimations of spirituality. Nature poetry is more Tennysonian than Wordsworthian and love poetry echoes medieval devotional verse. Sexuality and the modern industrial world are absent. Lists critical reactions (ornateness, stridency, nostalgia) but is adulatory overall. DWIVEDI, A.N. Sarojini Naidu and Her Poetry Allahabad: Kitab Mahal, 1981, xii + 164 pp. DWIVEDI, A.N. "Sarojini Naidu's Poetic Technique" Poetry 12.1 (1987): 47-57. GHOSE, SISIRKUMAR. "Sarojini Naidu: Towards a Revaluation." Osmania Journal of English Studies 16, no.1 (1980): 23-36. Reprinted as "Salaam for Sarojini: Towards a Revaluation," Perspectives on Sarojini Naidu (Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1989): 206-217. The kind of romantic poetry Sarojini Naidu wrote is no longer in fashion. Ghose concentrates on her wit and humour (she referred to Mahatma Gandhi as "Mickey Mouse"), so obvious in her speeches and letters. Ghose feels that she is not rooted in her poems, the whole person is seldom involved, "the gulmohars, champaks, kokilas run riot in a touristy, picture postcard dreamland." The love poems are not deeply felt. She was the first to deal with humbler folk, like weavers and fishermen, but "it is all from the outside". She herself confessed "I am not a poet really", which explains her devoting herself totally to the freedom struggle, without giving up her sensitivity; she refused to follow Gandhiji in giving up good food or clothes, and persisted in wearing silk instead of handspun khadi. GUPTA, RAMESHWAR. "Sarojini Naidu: Her Poetic Achievement." The Rajasthan Journal of English Studies 1, no.1 (1974): 1-5. Critically evaluates her overall poetic achievement. Sarojini Naidu wrote 184 short poems, no epic, dramatic or narrative poetry. She is essentially a lyricist, without much growth. Her work is characterized by delicate fancy and haunting melody. There is no intellectual content in her poetry. Her canvas is limited, many of her poems are on romantic love. Nature poems deal mainly with Basant (spring). Her achievment lies in finding metrical rhythms for Indian folk tunes; she succeeded in recreating the colour and pageantry, the sensuous aspect, of Indian life, rather than the mystical or the spiritual. GUPTA, RAMESHWAR. "Sarojini Naidu: The Flouter of the Metaphysical Tradition." Osmania Journal of English Studies 16, no.1 (1980):37-49. Sarojini's creative years spanned the Hulme-Pound-Eliot period, and she would have known about the new trends in poetry. Gupta feels that she rejected it, just as she rejected Gandhian austere living. She remained steeped in Elizabethan romanticism, taking joy in colour and beauty. Gupta defends Sarojini's poetry against the strictures laid on it by modern poets in P. Lal and Raghavendra Rao's Modern Indo-Anglian Poetry (1959). He admits the charge of verbosity, but points out that there are many poems (such as the folk songs) in which every word is inevitable, and cannot be removed or changed without loss. She is said to ignore reality; Gupta observes that the pleasant aspects of life she writes about, spring and youth and love, are also part of life. As for being ephemeral, she herself was aware that her poetry was ephemeral. She was free and spontaneous and mellifluous like a bird in her lyrics. Modern poets cannot equal the melody of her diction.

GUPTA, R. Sarojini, the Poetess Delhi: Doaba House, 1975, vii + 142 pp. GUPTA, RAMESHWAR. "Sarojini Naidu: The Flouter of the Metaphysical Tradition." Osmania Journal of English Studies 16, no.1 (1980): 37-49.See GUPTA ~1974) above. GUPTA, RAMESHWAR. Sarojini: The Poetess. Delhi: Doaba House, 1975, vii+142pp. Critically evaluates her poetic achievement, taking note of the different periods of her poetic composition. KHAN, IZZAT YAR. Sarojini Naidur: The Poet. New Delhi: S.Chand, 1983, 276pp. Mainly explicatory; considers Sarojini Naidu's works in the order in which they were published, devoting a chapter to each volume of verse, including the final The Feather of the Dawn published posthumously in 1966. The appendix contains a useful note on the "lost" poems (juvenile work by "Miss S. Chattopadhyaya" and unpublished poems), a bibliography, and Sarojini's letters to Edmund Gosse and Arthur Symons. KHAN, IZZAT YAR. Sarojini Naidu: The Poet New Delhi: S. Chand, 1983, 276 pp. list contents MATHUR, B. S. "Sarojini Naidu: A Poet of Sweetness and Light." Indo-English Literature: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by K. K. Sharma (1977): 61-70. Naidu is a singer of beautiful songs which delight and instruct. Mathur analyses poems like "Palanquir Bearers", "Indian Weavers" and "Coromandal Fishers" to show that it is justified to call her poetry a "criticism of life." MIRZA, TAQI ALI. "The Poetry of Sarojini Naidu: An Apology." Osmania Journal of EnElish Studies 16, no.1 (1980):50-55. For Naidu, poetry was not an intellectual exercise, but a spontaneous response to a compulsive urge to sing. From the beginning, her poetry has Indian themes, and imagery drawn from the Indian landscape. Her poetry displays an amazing mastery of English prosody. Many of her poems, such as "Coromandal Fishers", show her skill in building medial rhyme into the texture of her verse, as a necessary concomitant of its movement. Some of her poems successfully convey the rhythms of Indian folk songs. MURTI, K. V. SURYANARAYANA. "Hyderabad in the Poetry of Sarojin Naidu." In Kohinoor in the Crown: Critical Studies in Indian-English Literature. (New Delhi: Sterling, 1987): 48-64. Murti feels that Hyderabad is the generative matrix of Saroiini Naidu's poetry. She was born and brought up in Hyderabad. After marrying D. Naidu, she moved into "The Golden Threshold" where she fulfilled herself in the triple role of "housewife and poetess and patriot." Murti catalogues the many poems she has written about the city, heaping praise on them. According to Murti, the influence of the city can be felt indirectly in most of her poems. There is little close reading of the text, Murti accepts the "warm tributes" paid by foreign critics like Edmund Gosse and Arthur Symons and Indian critics like Srinivasa Iyengar and C. D. Narasimhaiah. MATHUR, B.S. "Sarojini Naidu: A Poetess of Sweetness and Light" in SHARMA, K.K. ed. Indo-English Literature: a Collection of Critical Essays, Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan, 1977: 61-70.

NAGARAJAN, S. "Sarojini Naidu and the Dilemma of English in India" Kavya Bharati 1 (1988):23-43. NAIR, K.R. RAMACHANDRAN. Three Indo-Anglian Poets: Henry Derozio, Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu New Delhi: Sterling, 1987, 122 pp. NARAVANE, V.S. Sarojini Naidu: An Introduction to Her Life, Work and Poetry Madras: Orient Longman, 1981, 160 pp.

NAGARAJAN, S. "Sarojini Naidu and the Dilemma of English in India." Kavya Bharati no.1 (1988): 23-43. Naidu's verse lacks depth of thought but is melodious, though she fails to expoit Indian myth. Makes contrastive reference to Eliot and Yeats. Cites Rao's preface to Kanthapura to show Naidu not departing from standard English and thereby carrying over echoes of Shelley and Swinburne rather than generating an Indian rhythm, or a sense of local cultural problematic as in Ezekiel, Mahapatra or Ramanujan. Sarojini Naidu will be remembered as a great fighter for India's freedom and the rights of women. It is doubtful whether she herself considered her poetry the most important aspect of her achievement, she wrote hardly any in the last three decades of her life. Nevertheless, many of her poems continue to be read and enjoyed, and no anthology of Indian Enlish poetry is complete without a few of her poems, such as "Bangle-Sellers" or "Coromandal Fishers", notable for their rhythm, metrical dexterity, and exquisite phrasing. Sarojin Naidu's poems show no development. She did not take sufficient pains to exploit the thematic possibilities of her subjects as Nagarajan shows by comparing her poem on the Indian soldiers who __died in the First World War, "The Gift of India", with T. S. Eliot's "To the Indians Who Died in Africa". Naidu does not exploit the resources of Hindu myth and legend as fully as she could have. Nagarajan interprets the poetry of Naidu in terms of the distinction that T. S. Eliot draws between the early Yeats and the later Yeats, the early poems are pieces fit for an anthology, they give complete satisfaction and delight in themselves, the later poems carry the stamp of a unique personality. Sarojini's poems never reflect her public experiences; in her political speeches, she spoke out boldly for the need to make women equal partners of men in the national struggle, but in her poetry she presented women as "panting doves." Nagarajan considers the dilemma of English in India, quoting Raja Rao's preface to Kanthapura, where he stressed the necessity to forge a new idiom. Sarojini Naidu could not avoid the echoes of the rhythms of earlier English poetry. Nagarajan quotes poems by A. R Ramanujan and Jayanta Mahapatra, who have forged individual rhythms based on semantics, not English prosody. It was felt that English education was necessary for the progress of India, but it tended to create an elite, bringing about individual and social maladjustment. This dilemma, which is one of the major preoccupations of modern Indian English poets (Nagarajan quotes Ramanujan and R. Parthasarathy) did not concern Sarojini Naidu. The absence of this cultural dilemma as a theme, and the outdated poetic style, are responsible for making much of her poetry rather irrelevant today. NAIR, K. R. RAMACHANDRAN. Three Indo-Anglian Poets: Henry Derozio, Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu. New Delhi: Sterling, 1987, 122pp. See under DEROZIO above.

NARAVANE, VISHWANATH S. Sarojini Naidu: An Introduction to her Life, Work and Poetry. New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1981, 160pp. Naravane begins with "Recollections"; he first met Sarojini Devi (as she was commonly addressed in public life) in 1938 when he was an undergraduate student at the University of Allahabad. A. N. Jha, Vice Chancellor of Allahabad University, was one of Sarojini's earliest editors. Naravane (who rose to be Professor of Philosophy at the University of Poona) concentrates on the personality of Sarojini. There are chapters on "Background and Preparation", "Promise and Fulfilment", "Friendships: Gokhale, Gandhi, Nehru", "Vision of India", "Sarojini and the Women of India", and "Poetry of Nature". The "Assessment" (pp.128-53) presents a balanced evaluation of her poetry. Naravane's book is important for the first hand account of an unforgettable personality, whose most precious gift was humour. He observs that "there was absolutely nothing in common between her humour and her poetry." Her conversation was very witty, and she was always ready to poke fun at herself and others. Naravane presents a selection of such stories. Osmania Journal of English Studies 16.1 (1980).Special Naidu issue. GHOSE, SISIRKUMAR. "Sarojini Naidu: Towards a Revaluation":23-36. MIRZA, TAQI ALI. "The Poetry of Sarojini Naidu: An Apology":50-5.

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PRASAD, DEOBRATA. Sarojini Naidu and Her Art of Poetry 1988, xvi + 216 pp. publisher? PRASAD, DEOBRATA. Sarojini Naidu and Her Art of Poetry. Delhi Capital Publishing House, 1988, 216pp. Prasad has unreserve praise for Naidu as "a mature artist who can manipulat language". He considers the poems thematically, with chapters on "Nature's Ecstasy", "Indian Flavours" (covering poems like "Coromandal Fishers" and "Indian Weavers"), "Patriotic Urges", "Lyric Bloom", "Colour Values", and "Mystic Urge." PRASAD, VEENA RANI. "Sarojini Naidu's Lyrical Mode." Indian Writing in English, edited by Krishna Nandan Sinha (Delhi: Heritage Publishers, 1979): 99-108. Sarojini Naidu's sensibility is essentially Romantic. She is a lyricist, and many of her poems show her fascination with the beauty of nature. Like Emily Dickinson, she has a partiality for colour and perfume, and flowers, especially the lotus, have a symbolic value for her. She is good at recreating the rural scene. Prasad compares Sarojini's love poems with Emily Dickinson's. RAJYALAKSHMI, P. V. The Lyric Spring. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1977. 221pp. Based on a doctoral thesis submitted to Andhra University. Thematic study, which attempts to show that Naidu's poetry may be outmoded, but not outdated. Concluding chapter, "The Sceptred Flute" (pp. 179-221) contains a good survey of other critics' views on the poet. Has a comprehensive bibliography (pp 211-216). RANGAN, V. "Sarojini Naidu's 'Song of Radha, a Milkmaid'." The Literary Endeavour 2, no.1 (1981): 53-59.A short sloka (Sanskrit verse) by Lilasuka is wrought into a long lyric by Naidu. Radha's devotion to the lord is in the tradition of madhurabhakti. Rangan shows the influence of the azhwars (old Tamil mystic poets) on Naidu's presentation. The three stanzas of Naidu's poems descri Radha at the fair, then going to the river to get water, and finally at the temple; "fair" and "water" have their symbol value in Srivaishnava philosophy.

RAJYALAKSHMI, P.V. A Pilgrimage of Love: A Commentary on Sarojini Naidu's 'The Temple'" Guntur: Saradhi Publications, 1983, 61 pp. RAJYALAKSHMI, P.V. The Lyric Spring: A Study of the Poetry of Sarojini Naidu New Delhi: Abhinave Pblns., 1977, vi + 221 pp. RAMAKRISHNAN, E.V. "The Sacred and the Profane" Poetry Chronicle, 2.4&5, (1990): 126-34. RANGAN, V. "Saojini Naidu's `Song of Radha, a Milkmaid'"The Literary Endeavour 2.1 (1982):53-59 The poem works a sloka from Lilasuka's `Sri Krishnakarnamritam' into a lyric. Explicates bhakti worldly absent-mindedness and spritual single-mindedness. Sarojini adds a lilting descriptive setting, breaking the fragment into three parts of a narrative and moving from externals to inner state. SARMA, M.N. & SHAHANE, V.A. eds. The Flute and the Drum - Studies in Sarojini Naidu's Poetry and Politics Hyderabad: Osmania U, 1980, 104 pp. SAXENA, SANJAY. "The Poetry of Sarojini Naidu: A Revaluation" Poetry 10 (1985):1423. SHARMA, K. K. ed. Perspectives on Sarojini Naidu. Ghaziabad: Vimal Prakashan,1989, xv+222pp. Contents: "Introduction." K K.SHARMA 1-xv. "Sarojini Naidu: A Sketch" HARINDRANATH CHATTOPADHYAYA 1-4. By her younger brother, who is a poet and playwright. "Conversations with Sarojini Naidu" MULK RAJ ANAND 5-10. "Sarojini Naidu: An Estimate" P.P.SHARMA 11-15 "Sarojini Naidu: Formative Influences" A.N.GUPTA and SATISH GUPTA 1633. "Challenge to Fate in Sarojini Naidu's Poetry" K K SHARMA 34-42. "Sarojini Naidu's Love Poems" INDU GOEL 43-54 "Sarojini Naidu's Poetry" V.K.GOKAK 55-63. "Poet, Patriot and Champion--Sarojini's Three Incarnations" ELENA J.KALINNIKOVA 64-77. "Indian Ethos in Sarojini Naidu's Poetry" HARISH RAIZADA 78-113. "The Evolution of the Poetic Persona in Sarojini's Poetry" N.K.SHARMA 114128. "Death and the Poetry of Sarojini Naidu" O.P.BHATNAGAR 129-137. "Treatment of Nature in Sarojini Naidu's Poetry" S.P.CHATURVED 138-149. "Sarojini Naidu's 'Other Harmony' : A Study" G.S.BALARAMA GUPTA 150160 An analysis of her prose. "Art and Artifice: Notes on Mrs Naidu's Poetry" MOHAN JHA 161 172. "Sarojini's Poetic Technique" A.N DWIVEDI 173-181. "Is Sarojini Naidu Relevant Today?" URMILA VARMA 182-187 Feels that Sarojini's place in Indian English poetry is secure, because of the aptness of her imagery, and her skill in the management of melody without sacrificing sense. She has been able to recreate the feel of the surroundings through suitable comparisons, though she is evasive when it comes

to the real problems of life; in her personal life she was a rebel, but in poetry she calmly accepts the low place accorded to women in India. "The Immortal Bird" O P MATHUR 188-196 "Sarojini Naidu's Poetry: An Evaluation" D.C.AGRAWALA 197-205 Agrawala makes a distinction between true and great poetry; in great poetry, ideas are as important as words, and Sarojini' work does not belong to this category, as she has no view of life to present, and evades fundamental issues. However, she has written many beautiful lyrics, many of them using Indian rhythms "Salaam for Sarojini: Towards a Revaluation" SISRKUMAR GHOSE 206-216. See GHOSE above p.3. Select Bibliography 217-221. SAXENA, SANJAY. "The Poetry of Sarojini Naidu: A Revaluation." Poetry no.10 (1985): 14-23. The contemporary Indian reaction to the poetry of Naidu is unsympathetic. Saxena pleads for the evaluation of her work with reference to the times in which she lived and wrote. He follows received opinion of older critics in his evaluation--Naidu's genius was essentially lyrical, her verse gives the impression of unpremeditated art. SENGUPTA, PADMINI. Sarojini Naidu. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1974, 92pp. Reprinted 1981."Makers of Indian Literature" Series, meant for the general reader. SHAHANE, VASANT A. "Sarojini Naidu: The Rare Person." Osmania Journal of English Studies l6, no.1 (1980): 1-9. Shahane presents insights into her personality and family life as well as her poetry. Sarojini was a cosmopolitan person, free of casteism or regionalism, deeply influenced by Gokhale's liberalism, though she had no less attachment towards Mahatma Gandhi or Jawaharlal Nehru in the struggle against the British. She was friendly with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the aristocracy, and took no part in the struggle for freedom of the people of Hyderabad. Shahane presents a short evaluation of her as a writer of melodious metrical verse, a "surface-grace, lyrical poet." SHAHANE, VASANT A. and M. N. SARMA, eds. Osmania Journal of English Studies 16, no.1 (1980). A special issue devoted to Sarojini Naidu. It contains articles on the person ("Sarojini Naidu, The Rare Person" by VASANT A.SHAHANE, "Sarojini Naidu: A Political Profile" by RAM JOSHI, "Sarojini Naidu, the woman" by TARA ALI BAIG), three articles on her poetry, and a selection of her poems. Reprinted as The Flute and the Drum: Studies in Sarojini Naidu's Poetry and Politics, edited by M. N. Sarma and V. A. Shahane. Hyderabad: Osmania University, 1980, 104pp. Namjoshi, Suniti DWIVEDI, A.N. "Suniti Namjoshi - Art and Artifice in Her Work" in DWIVEDI, A.N. "Eves' Song: Contemporary English Verse by Indian Women" Studies in Contemporary IndoEnglish Verse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Vol. I Female Poets Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1984: 227-39. Poems (1967), Cyclone in Pakistan (1971) and More Poems (1971) show promise in their terse suggestive debunking wit and lyrical alliterated cadence, but decline unevenly into limited flat literary affectation and cynical parading of life's cruelty. Moves from descriptive commentary following Monika Varma's review to moral and formalist condemnation.

Nandy, Pritish AGRAWAL, I.N. "Tonight This Savage Rite: A Perspective of Pritish Nandy's Love Poems" Studies in Contemporary Indo-English Verse (1984):252-58. DASGUPTA, SUBHORANJAN. "Politics and the Poetry of Pritish Nandy" in KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980: 215-26. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981. DASGUPTA, SUBHORANJAN. Pritish Nandy (1976) (??) SAHA, SUBHAS CHANDRA. "The Love Poetry of Pritish Nandy" in Korld of New Sensibility" Indian Literature 20.5 (1978):97-100.[english? probably Das/Bengali] VARMA, URMILA. "Modernity in Theme and Technique in Pritish Nandy" in RAM, ATMA. ed. Contemporary Indian-English Poetry Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1989: 79-85. Modern Indian poetry in English follows a nineteenth-century and classical tradition of love lyrics while breaking with the mellifluous romanticism of the past. Nandy's verse differs again from his contemporaries in its extreme passion. Examples are cited from Riding the Midnight River. The poet, using free verse and colloquial bluntness, quests after objects of desire and passionate release figured as dramatic physical action and inexhaustible natural energy.

CHECK!!! HARREX, S.C. "Some Miscellaneous Writings" JCL 8.1 (1979):65-76.

{Narayan??}

RAJ, KRISHNA. "Stray Notes on the East-West Syndrome in Maitraye Devi's It Does Not Die" Commonwealth Quarterly 4.13 (1979):99-105. [english?] ASNANI, S.M. "Prison and Chocolate Cake: A Study" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.1 (1979):47-60. [nehru??] MEHTA, P.P. "The Devil's Wind: The First Great Indo-Anglian Historical Novel" __Triveni 48.2 (1980):72-9.who? DAS, B.K. "The Pattern of Thought in 'Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher'" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.2 (1980):46-9. [who?] KUNDARGI, DILIP. "Ash Flowers: Reflections of a Poet" Commonwealth Quarterly 13 (1980):106-12.[???] JOSHI, NAVIN CHANDRA. "A Historical Novel" I&FR 19.7 (January 15-31, 1982):23. [???] GANGULI, CHANDRA. & JAIN, SUNITA. "A World Crumbles: The Song of Anasuya" Journal of Indian Writing in English 10.1&2 (1982): 34-8. [check]

JUSSAWALLA, ADIL. "One Woman's Poetry" Journal of South Asian Literature 18.1 (1983):88-90. [who? review?] KRISHNANKUTTY, GITA. "From Indulekha to Shanta: A Lineage of Coconuts" The Literary Criterion 20.4 (1985):62-68. [??] SAJJAN, G.B. "Envisioning the Cosmic Scheme" Indian Literature 118 (1987):151-4. who?/what? RAMACHANDRA, RAGINI. "Cyclones" The Literary Criterion 22.2 (1987): 67-9. who?/what? SHAHANE, VASANT A. "I Shall Not Hear the Nightingale" The Indian Literary Review 5.3 (1987):47-51. what? BOSE, MEERA. "The Outcast" seen best in his first collection, in poems such as "Something to Pursue", "Declaration", and "Encounter" - three poems discussed by Paranjape. "In later poems, the spiritual theme persists, resurfacing every now and then." "...the impression with Ezekiel is of a serious though wavering commitment [to self-realization], which is not yet fully realised." His understanding of the universe: "The key seems to be in ever-moving, flowing with life, taking refuge only in `living images', not clingling to dead or fossilized ideas of yesterday." Critic says three times that Ezekiel has looked upon the face of the absolute, but does not expand beyond the foregoing statement of the `key'. INDIA Author to be clarified MUKHERJEE, SUJIT. "Man, Poet and Critic" Indian Literature 14.2(1971): 5-11. [who?] WALSH, W. "Two Indian Poets" The Literary Criterion 11.3 (1974):1-16. [who?]

KARVE, IRAWATI. "Karna's Search for Identity" Vagartha 5 (1974):22-37. (drama?: either Kailasam or S. Raman) MAJUMDAR, A.K. "Portrait of an Indian Intellectual" Quest 91 (1974):21-32. check who and whether in English MUKHERJEE, M. "Form in The Puppet's Tale" Literary Criterion 12.2-3 (1976): 87-97. [who?] RATH, S.N. "The East and West in Radhanath Rav's Kedara-Gauri" Indian PEN 41.9-10 (1975):1-5. [genre/language?] YARAVANTHELIMATH, C.R. "Pundalik" in NAIK, M.K. & S. MOKASHI-PUNEKAR, eds. Perspectives on Indian Drama in English Madras: OUP, 1977 124-35.[who?] BHATT, S. "The Lost Child" Kakatiya Journal of English Studies 2.1 (1977):219-22. [???]

DASGUPTA, Mary Ann. "Tribute to Nobokissen Ghose" The Indian P.E.N. 44.5&6 (1978):10-12. [english?] MUKHERJEE, DHURJATI. "Jibananda: A World of New Sensibility" Indian Literature 20.5 (1978):97-100.[english? probably Das/Bengali] HARREX, S.C. "Some Miscellaneous Writings" JCL 8.1 (1979):65-76. {Narayan??}

RAJ, KRISHNA. "Stray Notes on the East-West Syndrome in Maitraye Devi's It Does Not Die" Commonwealth Quarterly 4.13 (1979):99-105. [english?] ASNANI, S.M. "Prison and Chocolate Cake: A Study" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.1 (1979):47-60. [nehru??] MEHTA, P.P. "The Devil's Wind: The First Great Indo-Anglian Historical Novel" Triveni 48.2 (1980):72-9.who? DAS, B.K. "The Pattern of Thought in 'Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher'" Journal of Indian Writing in English 7.2 (1980):46-9. [who?] KUNDARGI, DILIP. "Ash Flowers: Reflections of a Poet" Commonwealth Quarterly 13 (1980):106-12.[???] JOSHI, NAVIN CHANDRA. "A Historical Novel" I&FR 19.7 (January 15-31, 1982):23. [???] GANGULI, CHANDRA. & JAIN, SUNITA. "A World Crumbles: The Song of Anasuya" Journal of Indian Writing in English 10.1&2 (1982): 34-8. [check] JUSSAWALLA, ADIL. "One Woman's Poetry" Journal of South Asian Literature 18.1 (1983):88-90. [who? review?] KRISHNANKUTTY, GITA. "From Indulekha to Shanta: A Lineage of Coconuts" The Literary Criterion 20.4 (1985):62-68. [??] SAJJAN, G.B. "Envisioning the Cosmic Scheme" Indian Literature 118 (1987):151-4. who?/what? RAMACHANDRA, RAGINI. "Cyclones" The Literary Criterion 22.2 (1987): 67-9. who?/what? SHAHANE, VASANT A. "I Shall Not Hear the Nightingale" The Indian Literary Review 5.3 (1987):47-51. what? BOSE, MEERA. "The Outcast"KULSHRESHTHA, CHIRANTAN., ed Contemporary Indian-English Verse: An Evaluation New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1980: 208-14. rpt 1982. Also Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981.

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