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Z O N E P R O F I L E S November 2010

Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program: Newton Zone Profile

URBAN INSTITUTE Justice Policy Center

research for safer communities

Copyright © November 2010. The Urban Institute. All rights reserved. Except for short quotes, no part of this report may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the Urban Institute. The Urban Institute is a nonprofit, nonpartisan policy research and educational organization that examines the social, economic, and governance problems facing the nation. The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders.

GRYD Y1 Evaluation Report

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Newton Zone Profile

Gang Reduction and Youth Development Y1 Evaluation Report: Newton Zone Profile

I II Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1 Zone Overview.................................................................................................................... 1 II.1 Location Characteristics.............................................................................................. 1 Boundaries .......................................................................................................................... 1 Area Type............................................................................................................................ 1 Landmarks and Resources .................................................................................................. 2 II.2 Demographics ............................................................................................................. 2 History of the Neighborhood .............................................................................................. 2 Age and Racial/Ethnic Composition of GRYD .................................................................. 2 Income and Employment .................................................................................................... 2 Family Structure.................................................................................................................. 3 II.3 Gang Context .............................................................................................................. 3 Prevalence ........................................................................................................................... 3 Gang Activity ...................................................................................................................... 4 III Prevention Services......................................................................................................... 4 III.1 Provider Background .................................................................................................. 4 III.2 Service Locations ........................................................................................................ 4 III.3 Evolution from Award Date to Present ....................................................................... 5 III.4 Current Structure and Implementation Approach ....................................................... 5 Outreach/Referrals .............................................................................................................. 5 Youth Services Eligibility Tool (YSET) and Youth Enrollment ........................................ 6 III.5 Data Management ....................................................................................................... 7 III.6 Prevention Program Design and Logic Model............................................................ 7 III.7 Prevention Activities, Inputs, and Outputs ................................................................. 7 III.8 Challenges and Successes for Prevention ................................................................... 9 Challenges ........................................................................................................................... 9 Successes........................................................................................................................... 10 IV Intervention Services ........................................................................................................ 10 IV.1 Provider Background ................................................................................................ 10 IV.2 Service Locations ...................................................................................................... 10 IV.3 Evolution from Award Date to Present ..................................................................... 10 IV.4 Current Structure and Implementation Approach ..................................................... 11 IV.5 Outreach Activities and Referrals ............................................................................. 11 Client Eligibility and Enrollment ...................................................................................... 11 Data Management ............................................................................................................. 11 Intervention Services Program Design and Logic Model ................................................. 12 Intervention Services Activities, Inputs, and Outputs ...................................................... 12 IV.6 Implementation Challenges and Successes ............................................................... 13 Challenges ......................................................................................................................... 13 Successes........................................................................................................................... 14 V Crisis Intervention............................................................................................................. 14

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Newton Zone Profile V.1 Evolution from Award Date to Present ..................................................................... 14 V.2 Current Structure and Implementation Approach ..................................................... 15 V.3 Crisis Intervention Program Design and Logic Model ............................................. 16 Crisis Intervention Activities, Inputs, and Outputs ........................................................... 16 V.4 Implementation Challenges and Successes ............................................................... 16 Challenges ......................................................................................................................... 16 Successes........................................................................................................................... 17 VI Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 17

Appendix A--Zone Map Appendix B--Zone Logic Models Appendix C--Implementation Milestones/Timeline

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Newton Zone Profile

I

Introduction

This profile documents activities undertaken by Gang Reduction and Youth Development (GRYD) service providers from the award date of the first service provider contracts in 2008/2009 to mid-2010. It complements the separate UI/Harder Year 1 Evaluation Report,1 which addresses the complete GRYD program over the same period. The information presented herein has primarily been drawn from monthly evaluation team on-site meetings with service providers, beginning in June 2009 and continuing through June 2010; regular contacts in the intervals between those meetings; zone-specific data collected by evaluation staff; and interviews with LAPD gang units operating in the zone. In addition, some background and zone history information has been derived from the City's Needs Assessment for the zone.2 Familiarity with both the Year 1 Evaluation Report and the Needs Assessment will facilitate understanding of this profile. The profile is organized as follows: Section II provides background information on relevant geographic features of the zone, presents information on zone demographics, and summarizes what is known about gang activity in the zone. Sections III-V report on the Prevention, Intervention, and Crisis Management components of GRYD, respectively. These sections draw primarily from interactions the evaluation team had with providers, proposals, progress reports, and supplemental docs. Appendixes present a zone map, logic models focusing on provider activities, and a timeline of significant events and actions after the GRYD program became operational.

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II.1

Zone Overview

Location Characteristics

Boundaries The Newton GRYD zone is an estimated 1.7 square mile area within the following street boundaries: 24th and 34th Streets (north), Slauson Avenue (south), Alameda Street (east), and Central Avenue (west). Within this GRYD zone is the LAPD Newton Division and eight police reporting districts (1345, 1346, 1347, 1364, 1365, 1367, 1375, and 1377). This zone is also part of LA City Council District 9, County Supervisor District 2, and County Service Planning Area 6 according to this zone's Needs Assessment. A zone map is attached in Appendix A. Area Type The majority of the GRYD zone area is residential, although the commercial traffic and industrial parts of the GRYD are a documented weakness of the area's appearance. The Needs Assessment report also noted that while there is only one major commercial center in the zone (the Alameda swap meet), there is also a variety of small, local businesses throughout the area.

Urban Institute/Harder+Company (July 2010), Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program: Y1 Report. 2 A significant number of Needs Assessments and other commentaries on the GRYD zones and on gang activity generally have been produced. Of note is the Advancement Project's Needs Assessment for this zone, some findings of which are summarized in the zone overview. They, along with additional sources, are listed individually in the bibliography appended to this profile.

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Newton Zone Profile Landmarks and Resources The only Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) high school in this zone is Jefferson High, which was a main site of race riots and violence between Latino and African American students in 2005. There are four elementary schools in this zone: Nevin, Ascot, Holmes, and Hooper. There are also two charter high schools located in the zone (Animo Justice and Animo Ralph Bunch), which are part of the Green Dot Public Schools system.3 In addition to schools, there are also several parks and recreation centers available to residents throughout the zone. The largest recreation area is the Ross Snyder Recreation Center in the northern part of the zone. Also in the top half of the zone (located near the western GRYD boundary) is Central Avenue Jazz Park. The Fred Roberts Recreation Center borders Long Beach Avenue and is located in the bottom half of the GRYD zone. Latham Park, Slauson Recreation Center, Pueblo del Rio Park, and Augustus F. Hawkins Natural Park are all located relatively close to one another in the bottom half of the GRYD zone.

II.2

Demographics

History of the Neighborhood A primarily African American community historically and a predominantly Latino community today, the Newton GRYD has experienced high unemployment rates since the 1970s; especially high levels of rioting, looting, and violence in 1992; and changes in the racial composition of Newton's residents, most notably in the late 1990s, according to the Needs Assessment. Also according to the Needs Assessment, milestones for this area include extending public housing to African Americans in 1948, the first Latino City Council member in 1949, an increase in African American residents (to 38 percent) when district lines were reconfigured in 1956, the first African American City Council member in 1963, and the introduction of the Black Panther party to this area in 1968. Age and Racial/Ethnic Composition of GRYD According to the Needs Assessment, the population of the Newton GRYD was slightly over 35,400 residents in 2007, with approximately 38 percent (n = 13,470) of the population under age 18 and only 7 percent of the population over age 60. It was also reported in the Needs Assessment that the race/ethnicity breakdown of residents in this zone was 89 percent Latino, 9 percent African American, 1 percent Asian, and the remaining 1 percent classified in an "other" category. The prevention provider for this zone observed that with the current high birth rate of Latino children, the transition from a primarily African American community to a predominantly Latino community will likely continue. Income and Employment The average income level for residents in this zone is low, and there is also a high unemployment rate. According to the Needs Assessment, almost three quarters of households in the zone earned under $50,000 and the unemployment rate was around 15 percent in 2007. With extremely low wages compared to other parts of the city, some Newton residents operate street vending services for income. The Needs Assessment reported that levels of high school completion are also low (75 percent) for residents over age 25 and almost 40 percent of families in the GRYD zone were at or below the poverty line in 2007. It was also noted that because of the high population of probationers and returning prisoners, employment is often a barrier for GRYD residents.

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More information on this Los Angeles initiative is available online: http://www.greendot.org/.

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Newton Zone Profile Family Structure The Needs Assessment estimated that 21 percent of households in the GRYD zone were single headed households in 2007, with around 85 percent of residents living in family households. The prevention provider also observed that a large number of grandparents are taking care of their grandchildren since some parents are absent from the household.

II.3

Gang Context

The following section summarizes the geographically specific gang context in the GRYD community, and identifies the gang issues confronting GRYD service providers. The information presented is derived from three sources: interviews with LAPD gang units in the zone; interviews with zone service providers, particularly intervention specialists; and earlier information developed for the GRYD Needs Assessments. Prevalence Local LAPD gang officers reported that over the past 10 years two gangs have been especially prominent in Newton. The 38th Street is a Hispanic gang and is the most active in homicides, extortions, and robberies. The Pueblo Bishops is an African American gang active in drugs and robberies. Estimates of gang membership for 38th Street have remained stable at around 400 members. Pueblo Bishops is also a multi-generational gang, and at 250 members it is the largest African American gang in the zone. The Needs Assessment estimated that there are 47 active gangs in the LAPD division of the GRYD (which is less than 10 square miles). Of these gangs, eight Latino gangs and six African American gangs claim territory within the GRYD zone. Condensed in the small area, racial tensions and gang conflicts are common. According to the intervention provider for this zone, the age of gang members ranges from 15 to 45. However, LAPD pointed out that several years ago the enforcement activities of a federal gang task force resulted in the incarceration of middle level members; therefore, those seen on the streets today are mostly young teenagers or older gang members. Other prominent gangs cited in the Needs Assessment include: Barrio Mojados (Latino), Eastside Four Trey Gangster Crips (Crips), Four Deuce Gangster Crips (Crips), All for Crime (Bloods), Florencia 13 (Latino), King Boulevard Stoners (Latino), Loco Park (Latino), 35th Street (Latino), Krazy Kats (Latino), and Rollin' 40's Piru (Bloods). There are also numerous smaller gangs reported in this area.4 According to the intervention provider, known gang territories for the dominant gangs include: 48th and Long Beach Boulevard (38th Street), 54th and Honduras (Pueblo Bishops), Central 56th Street (Bloodstone Villains), and Central and 42nd Street (Four Deuce Gangster Crips). The primary concerns about gangs in the Newton zone include gang "wars" over drugs, robberies, and homicides. These warring gangs currently include 38th Street and the Pueblo Bishops, Florencia 13 and East Coast Crips, and the Bloodstone Villains and Pueblo Bishops.

These gangs include the following: 43 Crips, Broadway Gangster Crips, Primera Flatts, 4-8 gangsters, BMS (territory by Compton/Hoover), 5-tray (Crips), 40 Avalon's (territory by King/Avalon and hotspots in Vernon), Slauson Villains, 4-tray (Crips), 30 Pirus (Bloods; territory and hotspot around King/Central), 20 Outlaws (territory and hotspot on Griffin/Jefferson), 53rd Avalon (territory on South Park/ 51st Avalon; hotspot on South Park/ Avalon), 13's, 21st, Playboys (Latino), 5B5 (Latino), HOB (Latino), 36th Street (Latino), 42nd Street (Latino), Awful Cry Branch (derived from 40 Piru), 48th Street Crip (territory and hotspot on Central and 48th St.), 41st Threce (territory and hotspot on San Pedro 41st St.), Hang Out boys (territory and hotspot on 42nd Broadway, Awful Cry (territory on Ascot 42nd; hotspot on Ascot), and 43 Trays (territories and hotspot: 43rd and McKinley). The intervention provider also reported that there are eight tagging groups in this zone.

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Newton Zone Profile Gang Activity A disproportionate amount of crime in the Newton GRYD zone is reported to be gang related. The Needs Assessment found that 12 out of 13 homicides were gang-related, almost half of the 344 gang-related crimes were violent, and residents under age 25 are the most victimized individuals in the zone in 2007.5 However, police detectives reported that homicides have remained fairly stable over the past few years and violent crimes overall decreased an estimated two percent in the past year. Intervention providers also reported that the recruitment process for gangs in Newton tends to target teenagers (12­18 years old), although community members reported younger ages to the some being recruited as young as ten. Residents believe that some gang-involved youth pressure younger kids into joining a gang through harassment tactics or young women join gangs because they are dating someone linked to a gang, according to the Needs Assessment. Intervention workers also observed that some youth actively try to be recruited by "making a name for themselves" through tagging activities (such as tagging the freeway).

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III.1

Prevention Services

Provider Background

People Coordinated Services (PCS) is the lead agency for prevention services in the Newton GRYD zone. Their first year contract began September 1, 2008 and ended June 30, 2009. Their second year contract began July 1, 2009 and expired in June 2010. Six subcontractors were initially included as prevention partners in PCS' proposal submission, although only half of them actually provided subcontracted services in the Newton GRYD zone during Y1. The three active subcontractors were: All Peoples Christian Center, National Family Life and Education Center (NFLEC), and Community Build. People Coordinated Services (PCS) provides services to low income residents in South Los Angeles. PCS has provided programs that focus on the prevention of gangs, delinquency, and substance abuse for 40 years. Included among these past programs was LA Bridges, which PCS ran from 1998 to 2008. While an LA Bridges provider, PCS served over 400 youth per year who attended the LA Academy Middle School (located in the Newton GRYD zone). The GRYD program is part of PCS's Youth and Family Division. All Peoples Christian Center was also a Bridges provider and currently provides parenting classes and anger management workshops as a subcontractor in the 77th II GRYD zone as well as the Newton GRYD zone. NFLEC provides the Rites of Passage Program and Community Build provides the Safe Passage program for the Newton zone.

III.2

Service Locations

PCS and all three subcontractors delivered services from Monday through Friday at Carver Middle School. Avalon Carver Community Center, LA Academy Middle School, and 49th Street Elementary School were originally proposed as service sites, but they were not utilized during Y1 due to a lack of sufficient personnel to staff these locations. Although Carver Middle School is not located inside the GRYD (there are no middle schools located within the GRYD), it is one

Six of the 13 homicides in 2007 involved residents between ages 18­25, and although violent crime decreased by 8 percent between 2005 and 2007, young residents (those under age 24) were the victims of almost half of all violent crimes in the zone in 2007.

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Newton Zone Profile of two middle schools that serve students from the GRYD zone. The school has three classrooms and one basement room located under the auditorium. One classroom, referred to as the "GRYD Center," is where the provider has computer workstations for GRYD youth. In the GRYD Center there is also a large table and chairs in the center of the room for classes and after school programs. The basement has three rooms and is shared with Woodcraft Rangers (an after school program offered at Carver Middle School). It is fairly small, with chairs and a television for video games. Because the room is located underneath an auditorium, the level of noise during programs and activities is sometimes problematic. The gymnasium is also used by the GRYD program for GRYD sports activities, such as basketball. Staff has mentioned the possibility of providing services in the nearby housing development, Pueblo del Rio, or other schools within the GRYD zone in the future.

III.3

Evolution from Award Date to Present

Two Case Managers were the first to be hired (January 2009), and two Youth Counselors joined the staff shortly afterwards. The Program Coordinator, previously the Program Coordinator for PCS's Multicultural Youth Empowerment Program, was assigned to the GRYD program in May 2009. A Program Director (outside of PCS) was hired in February 2010, along with an additional Youth Counselor. In addition to the prevention program's staff changes, a new GRYD office Program Manager was assigned to the Newton zone in July 2009. The GRYD office Policy Analyst for this zone similarly was replaced in July 2009. Finally, a new principal was assigned to Carver Middle School in July 2009.

III.4

Current Structure and Implementation Approach

As of March 2010, there was one full-time Program Director, one full-time Program Coordinator, two full-time Case Managers, three Youth Counselors (two full-time and one parttime), and one part-time Tutor. The Program Director supervises the Program Coordinator, ensures contractual obligations are met, and acts as a liaison to subcontractors and other collaborating agencies. The Program Director's role includes supervising daily program operations, ensuring the organization meets the program goals and objectives, and supervising and training staff. Case Managers are primarily responsible for coordinating services for youth and families, administration of the Youth Services Eligibility Tool (YSET), developing case plans, and conducting weekly meetings with participants. Youth Counselors are responsible for providing counseling services, supervising youth in group settings, accompanying youth on recreational activities and field trips, and working closely with Case Managers to design plans. Staff stated that because there are only two Case Managers to serve a large number of youth, Youth Counselors (and other staff members occasionally) have been instrumental in supporting Case Managers and taking on some of the case management responsibilities. The Administrative Assistant's main role is to provide clerical support to the GRYD team, maintain client files, perform data entry, and assist staff with scheduling and reporting to the GRYD office. Outreach/Referrals The referral form used in this zone is the standard form provided by the GRYD office. The referral form is not used as a determinant for eligibility; all youth complete the YSET interview for this purpose.

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Newton Zone Profile Most of the outreach efforts have been conducted at Carver Middle School, where Case Managers have made presentations to students about the GRYD program to encourage selfreferrals. Staff members open their office during nutrition class and lunch at Carver, where students can come in and play games as part of their outreach strategy. Staff members have also attended open houses, and Case Managers talk to school counselors, deans, principals, and other school staff to increase the numbers of student referrals. In addition to working with Carver Middle School, staff has built relationships with Ascot and Arroyo Elementary Schools. Staff has also worked with local high schools by attending "tardy" sweeps (also referred to as truancy sweeps) at Jefferson and Santee High Schools. This provides staff an opportunity to talk with youth, informally assess their eligibility for the GRYD program, and recruit potential clients. Staff has attended community events at parks to promote the program and recruit youth. Events have included Summer Night Lights (SNL), LAPD events, and the All People's Christian Center health fair. LAURA (Life After Uncivil Ruthless Acts) also holds a weekly meeting at Fred Roberts Park that staff members attend. In addition, staff has been in contact with LAPD, probation, and the School Attendance Review Board for GRYD referrals during Y1. PCS reported that most of the youth participating in the program are self-referrals or referrals from school staff. Youth Services Eligibility Tool (YSET) and Youth Enrollment Case Managers use referrals as a reference sheet for at-risk determination. For example, if the Youth Services Eligibility Tool (YSET) asks, "Have you used drugs?" and the youth responds "No," but the referral form says that the youth was caught with drugs, then staff interpret the youth as not being truthful in the YSET interview. In these situations staff will discuss the question with the youth to make sure that they understand what is being asked. For example, staff ask youth if they know why they were referred to the program and discuss the reason for their referral and how it related to the question. Staff stated that in January 2009 they began implementing a pre-screening, or an intake interview, with students to gather information and discuss the reason for the referral to help build rapport with students before the administration of the YSET. Program services are provided after school hours. There is a standard case plan form that is used, which the Case Manager, Program Coordinator, and parent(s)/guardian(s) all sign off on. Usually just the Case Manager, youth, and parent(s)/guardian(s) are a part of the case planning process. If the parent(s)/guardian(s) are not involved in the case management planning, Case Managers develop an "unofficial case plan" based on factors such as the referral source, youth's personality, youth's friends, and other considerations. Once services begin for a client, there is a daily schedule of activities. Every youth is provided the same type of services; the only variation in case plans is in the amount of service or dosage that clients receive. For example, all youth are required to participate in tutoring before they can participate in other activities, but if the Case Manager looks at a client's report card and sees that he or she is struggling in classes, then that client may be assigned two hours of tutoring rather than the standard one hour. Nonetheless, PCS staff members reported that their services all correspond with and target YSET risk factors. Therefore, PCS described the overall process for youth who are eligible and enroll as follows: (1) The referral is made; (2) parental/guardian consent and student assent is obtained; (3) YSET 1 is administered; (4) if the youth is eligible, he or she is automatically enrolled in the program; (5) the parent is contacted to complete an application; and (6) the YSET 2 is UI/Harder+Company 6

Newton Zone Profile administered two to three weeks later. If YSET determines that a youth is ineligible, he or she is referred to other programs on the Carver Middle Schools campus, such as Woodcraft Rangers.6

III.5

Data Management

Case Managers monitor client progress through a daily activity sheet where they describe the purpose of the activity and what the youth learned from the Case Manager. The Case Manager then has the youth sign the form. The daily activity sheet is kept in a daily activity booklet along with any educational materials provided during the course. Progress is also monitored through a tracking log which lists all services, with Case Managers indicating the amount of time spent in each service in half hour increments. All services and activities are also documented in client progress notes. Case Managers go over case plans on a weekly basis and re-evaluate students, changing the dosage of activities as needed.

III.6

Prevention Program Design and Logic Model

In addition to the YSET interviews, there were three core programs proposed for prevention services in the Newton GRYD zone, with corresponding risk factors that these services would address. Case management was the first proposed activity, which was intended to address early childhood aggression, delinquent beliefs, negative life events, peers/friends involved in delinquent/deviant behavior, and commitment to street-oriented peers. Case Managers intended to meet with clients in person at least three times per week, with at least 15 minutes of contact per visit. Individual group therapy and family counseling, administered by licensed therapists, was intended to address poor parental supervision, early childhood aggression, delinquent beliefs, negative life events, peers/friends involved with delinquent/deviant behavior, and commitment to street-oriented peers. Substance abuse prevention seminars, which were to be offered in eight-week sessions, were intended to address the same six risk factors that therapy and counseling offer. A prevention logic model is attached in Appendix B. It summarizes key inputs (provider agencies, staffing, outreach/referral sources) and program outputs (activities, youth served) designed to result in the intermediate outcome of improved risk factors and longer term impacts on gang joining and criminal behavior. More specifics on the activities associated with these program outputs are described in the next section.

III.7

Prevention Activities, Inputs, and Outputs

Parenting classes are provided by All People's Christian Center and are conducted every Monday between the hours of 4:00 and 6:30 p.m. Topics discussed include better parenting, discipline, the court system, child abuse, and domestic violence. On average there are about five to nine parents who participate in classes, with up to 15 participants in some classes. After completing 12 sessions parents receive a certificate of completion. Participation is tracked using sign-in sheets. Anger management classes are led by All People's Christian Center and cover how to recognize emotions, resolve situations, and act out situations through role playing. Impact classes cover a variety of topics, including substance abuse, conflict resolution, and life skills (such as balancing a checkbook, being responsible, etc.) These impact courses are taught by All People's Christian Center or Case Managers.

This program has an emphasis on afterschool programs and camping trips for at-risk youth in the Los Angeles area. For more information, see: http://www.woodcraftrangers.org/

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Newton Zone Profile In the Safe Passages program, Community Build staff patrol the interior and exterior of the school campus as well as hot spot areas (such as the local donut shop and Jack in the Box restaurant). Rites of Passage was previously provided by NFLEC and is now led by GRYD staff once a week. The program is intended to help youth transition into adulthood and covers 10 domains: personal, spiritual, economic, political, social, emotional, mental, physical, historical, and cultural development. Staff reported that the program also addresses several risk factors, including early childhood aggression, delinquent beliefs, negative life events, friends with delinquent behaviors and commitment to street-oriented peers. Recreational activities are provided by GRYD staff, with outings such as Raging Waters (a water park). Other activities in this category include basketball, video games, and intramural softball. Tutoring activities are led by PCS's youth counselors. Tutoring is not one-on-one; instead, a youth counselor goes over concepts (e.g., adding and subtracting fractions) with all youth in a classroom setting. Youth counselors use a whiteboard to engage students in problem solving. There is currently no licensed Therapist on staff, so individual counseling was unavailable in the Spring of 2010. Case Managers provide family counseling to some families either by phone (when the parent is updated on progress) or in person (when there is an issue to resolve). Family counseling is documented in progress notes. Since receiving the GRYD contract, PCS reported receiving 534 referrals, submitting 501 YSET forms to USC,7 having 134 youth confirmed as eligible (according to YSET results), and enrolling 134 youth as of March 2010. According to PCS, none of their clients have exited the program. The chart below describes the youth characteristics in this GRYD zone.

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406 of these were Screen 1 forms, 95 were Screen 2 forms, and combined (new) YSET submissions were not mentioned in the March 2010 monthly report.

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Newton Zone Profile Client Demographics

Number Gender (n = 134) Male Female Age (n = 134) 10 11 12 13 14 15 Race/Ethnicity (n = 134) African American Latino/Hispanic White Asian/Pacific Islander Other 17 116 0 0 1 13 87 0 0 <1 1 26 32 39 27 9 <1 19 24 29 20 7 88 46 66 34 Percent

Source: GRYD Prevention Monthly Program and Progress Report, March 2010

III.8

Challenges and Successes for Prevention

PCS reported several challenges, including YSET enrollment, service location restrictions, and unusual school schedules interfering with services. However, two main successes were also indicated to evaluation staff: an increase in eligible and enrolled youth (due to recruitment efforts) and positive youth changes due to the program. Challenges One challenge PCS reported was that the number of referrals for YSET has been high, but the number of eligible youth has been lower than expected. PCS reported difficulty with getting its number of eligible youth up to GRYD office expectations. PCS also reported a delay in the enrollment process because the turnaround time for USC to provide YSET results was several weeks.8 However, this problem appeared to have been resolved by the Spring 2010. A second challenge was the addition of a new principal to the middle school in July 2009. This was problematic because the prior principal agreed that youth not enrolled in the school would be permitted to come on campus to participate in GRYD services, but the new principal was not receptive to this arrangement. This barrier, however, was alleviated when PCS and the

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These variations in USC response times may be due in part to the contractual issues the YSET team faced between the university and the GRYD office. See the Y1 report for more information.

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Newton Zone Profile principal reached a new agreement that allowed youth who did not attend the school to participate in program services as long as they had a GRYD program ID and were not beyond the ninth grade. A related challenge involved technical difficulties at the school. For example, there were ongoing problems with obtaining Internet access and phone service, making it difficult for school personnel to get in touch with program staff. A third reported challenge was that the middle school is on the "track system" and many students who are "off-track" do not attend programming. Staff stated that this may be because parents need the students at home (e.g., to watch siblings) or because either the parents or students do not feel comfortable with the child walking to school in the evenings when they are "off-track." Staff stated that the school will be transitioning to a traditional schedule in the new school year, which should alleviate this barrier. Successes Staff increased their outreach and recruitment efforts due to their low enrollment numbers. As a result, the percentage of GRYD eligible youth has progressively increased along with the number of youth enrolled in the program. PCS indicated that this is because of successful outreach strategies. In monthly reports to the GRYD office, staff reported that there have been changes in youth as a result of program participation. For example, staff explained that a student who was going to be transferred to another school due to behavioral issues was referred to the GRYD program. Since being referred, this student's attitude has improved and the student has expressed a desire to improve his grades. This student has conveyed to program staff that he enjoys coming to GRYD services and talking with staff members.

IV

Intervention Services

IV.1 Provider Background

Soledad Enrichment Action, Inc. (SEA) submitted a proposal to the Mayor's office on December 5, 2008 and was awarded a six month contract (April 1, 2009, through September 30, 2009). This contract was renewed, with the second period occurring from October 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. There were no subcontractors for case management intervention. SEA is the lead agency and has been providing intervention services for 12 years. SEA has primarily worked with youth of color from East Los Angeles to Central Los Angeles. At the time of the proposal, SEA had held 17 contracts to provide a variety of services to at-risk youth and their families. These included contracts with probation, the City of Los Angeles (through LA Bridges), and the California Department of Health Services.

IV.2 Service Locations

SEA's office is located outside of the GRYD zone boundaries (1100 W. Manchester). Case Managers reported meeting clients in the home or wherever clients feel comfortable (such as a coffee shop).

IV.3 Evolution from Award Date to Present

SEA hired a GRYD Director during this reporting period who was based out of the Manchester office and allocated 25 percent of his time to the Newton GRYD zone (SEA has a total of four GRYD zones, and the Director divides his time between these zones). SEA was assigned a new

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Newton Zone Profile Program Manager and a new Policy Analyst in July 2009 (after the departure of the previous Program Manager and Policy Analyst). One Case Manager left the program in January 2010 and the position was vacant through March 2010. There was one Case Manager providing case management services during this three month time frame.

IV.4 Current Structure and Implementation Approach

Intervention case management staff in the Newton zone includes the Director, Data Collection Coordinator, Case Management Supervisor, and two Case Managers. The Case Management Supervisor, who is a licensed psychologist, reported managing day to day activities of the program, supervising all Case Managers and providing therapy to some GRYD clients. Case Managers help to provide outreach and work closely with Intervention Workers to provide wraparound services as well as conduct assessments, referrals, and provide ongoing case management and support to clients served. SEA reported that staff members do not overlap with intervention and crisis intervention services; Case Managers are provided by SEA, and Intervention Workers are provided by Going Beyond Boundaries. Although all staff members are full-time, the Director, Data Collection Coordinator, and Case Management Supervisor divide their time between SEA's four GRYD contracts (Newton, Florence-Graham, Boyle Heights, and Ramona Gardens). Roughly 25 percent of their time is allocated to each zone.

IV.5 Outreach Activities and Referrals

Client Eligibility and Enrollment The majority of intervention case management referrals are received from Intervention Workers, although some are also received from probation, LAPD, the school district (Santee and Jefferson High Schools), Parks and Recreation, and local housing developments such as Rio del Pueblo. Once the consent and initial intake are completed, the Case Manager administers an assessment. The assessment was created in-house to assist Case Managers in developing a case plan rather than for use as an eligibility tool. The following criteria are used to enroll youth: gang involvement, the desire to change, court mandates, age (clients must be between 14 and 24), location (clients must live or spend time in GRYD), reentry (an automatic qualification), and crisis situations (if a youth conveys that help is needed immediately to avoid jail/prison). Case Managers determine a youth is gang involved by self-admitted gang involvement; tattoos; determinations from gang Intervention Workers, peer associations, or parents; the youth's attire; and the youth's refusal to go into certain neighborhoods. Data Management Sign-in sheets (which report the time of the activity), case notes, log books of referrals, and daily logs completed by staff are used to document case management work. The only electronic component of SEA reporting is the monthly report. The data collector has been compiling these monthly reports from each of SEA's four GRYD sites and organizing them. The information collected is not in an electronic format, although SEA is in the process of looking for funds to acquire electronic system to document these data.

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Newton Zone Profile Intervention Services Program Design and Logic Model SEA has the primary objective of reducing gang crime, increasing peace and safety, and reducing community fear and victimization of gangs. SEA reported having experienced GIS who have done similar intervention work with gang-involved youth under the LA Bridges contract. SEA also indicated a commitment to providing services to all youth who are in need. Case Managers and GIS meet on a weekly basis to discuss field work and individual clients. Once a month, Case Managers from across all four of SEA's GRYD zone meet to discuss best practices. Also, once a month Case Managers and GIS across all the zones meet for staff training. An intervention logic model is attached in Appendix B. Intervention Services Activities, Inputs, and Outputs SEA reported providing the following ten services to clients: · Case management/wraparound services · Anger management · Mentoring · Recreational activities · Individual counseling · Violence prevention workshops · Group counseling · New skills development · Family counseling · Parenting classes In addition to direct services, SEA collaborates with several organizations in the community to provide comprehensive services that meet client needs. SEA has informal agreements and/or MOUs (but not subcontracts) with numerous agencies to provide comprehensive services to clients, including: · · · · · · · · WorkSource o Provides job training and placement and allocates 25 slots for GRYD clients Pacific Clinics o Provides mental health services Atlantic Recoveries o Provides substance abuse services SEA charter schools o Provides tutoring services and parenting classes Jefferson High School o Provides tutoring and psychotherapy Carver Middle School o Provides tutoring Cry No More o Provides grief and bereavement counseling Homeboy Industries o Provides tattoo removal

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Newton Zone Profile As of March 31, 2010, there were 48 clients enrolled in intervention case management services in the Newton GRYD zone, all of whom were considered active clients. Of these clients, 34 were placed into education and/or training programs and 109 referrals were made to OneSource or WorkSource centers. A total of 44 clients have reportedly exited the program at some point. Client demographics for intervention services are as follows: Client Demographics

Number Gender (n = 78) Male Female Age (n = 78) 14­17 18­25 Race/Ethnicity (n = 78) African American Latino/Hispanic White Asian/Pacific Islander Other 9 69 0 0 0 12 88 0 0 33 45 42 58 69 9 88 12 Percent

0 Source: GRYD Intervention Monthly Program and Progress Report, March 2010. Note: Client demographics for 78 clients were consistently reported, although it is unclear if this is a combination of enrolled youth and exited youth.

IV.6 Implementation Challenges and Successes

The main intervention challenges reported in the Newton zone include resources (especially transportation), other organizations' resistance to serving clients, engaging the clients and family in the program, and client arrests. The primary success that SEA reported was building relationships with local organizations, LAPD, and the prevention program in Newton. Challenges One of the major reported challenges for case management was the lack of resources in the area, making it difficult for individuals to obtain the services they need. Since the majority of services are located outside of the GRYD zone, clients have a difficult time getting to services or may lack the motivation to travel to obtain needed services. Although Case Managers are willing to accompany clients to appointments, they are not able to transport clients. Instead, they offer bus tokens. Case Managers indicated that access to services continues to be a problem, particularly for older clients (since many younger clients have access to transportation through their parents). Case Managers reported having to do a lot of negotiating to get services since organizations will sometimes refuse to serve individuals from the GRYD zone. Case Managers UI/Harder+Company 13

Newton Zone Profile indicated that they had an even tougher time obtaining services for GRYD-eligible individuals who did not live within the zone boundaries. For example, Case Managers reported that WorkSource, which has designated a number of slots for GRYD clients, would not serve clients who did not reside in the GRYD zone. However, the GRYD office has stepped in and helped to communicate program eligibility requirements and stabilize relationships between organizations. Another challenge that Case Managers reported facing is that some parents and clients are difficult to engage. Adults mainly want employment and are not always open to other services. Case Managers stated that minors are more open to change and although they may be resistant initially, they really "just need that extra attention." Additionally, sometimes clients drop out of services/programs because they are bored or the length of the class/program is too long. Another issue is related to client arrests. Staff indicated that although clients may have a desire to change, they live in an environment that exposes them to certain situations that increase the likelihood of being arrested. Staff estimated that there have been approximately five or six clients that have been arrested since enrolling in the GRYD program. Although SEA has not reported immigration status to be a serious problem, staff commented that when it does arise it can present service access problems for clients. Successes Staff observed that they have been able to build relationships with local organizations such as schools and LAPD and are receiving referrals from these sources. Staff expressed that their relationship with LAPD has improved over time due to regular meetings, and they have direct access to police captains. Staff members have also been able to build relationships with the prevention program in the GRYD zone and the two organizations have referred clients to one another.

V

Crisis Intervention

SEA was also the primary contracting agency for crisis intervention services in the Newton GRYD zone. Unity Two was the initial subcontractor for crisis intervention services. Unity Two was initially chosen because of its history of providing intervention services for eight years to African American youth (primarily through the LA Bridges program), which complemented SEA's experience. However, its contract was terminated in August 2009. It was replaced by Going Beyond Boundaries (GBB) in September 2009. GBB has been serving youth in South Los Angeles since 2001. SEA explained that GBB was chosen because of its ability to serve both African American and Latino clients. Additionally, GBB was the only organization recommended by other agencies and stakeholders in the community that could provide intervention services in the zone and they had previously provided intervention services for the City during Summer Night Lights (during the summer of 2009). GBB also has an office within the GRYD zone.

V.1

Evolution from Award Date to Present

As noted above, SEA's subcontract with Unity Two for crisis intervention services was terminated in August 2009 and they initiated a new a subcontract with Going Beyond Boundaries (GBB) in September 2009. In the absence of Unity Two, SEA hired two temporary Intervention Specialists until GBB joined as a program partner in September. As of March 2010, there were six Crisis Intervention Workers, all of whom were provided by GBB.

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Newton Zone Profile The GRYD office began distributing Real-time Analysis and Critical Response (RACR) devices in December 2009 and staff began receiving notification through the system in late January/early February 2010. Prior to the RACR devices, staff received notification primarily through GRYD Managers, LAPD, and the community (see the Current Structure and Implementation Approach section for more information). With the implementation of the RACR system, response times to crisis incidents have decreased over time. SEA reported that its response time to an incident initially took approximately one hour, and has since decreased to about 15 to 20 minutes. The intervention team received communication from the GRYD office in March to respond to incidents outside the GRYD as well as inside. However, incidents occurring inside the zone still took precedence over those outside of the zone boundaries, according to the intervention staff in Newton.

V.2

Current Structure and Implementation Approach

There are six Intervention Workers in the Newton Zone, all provided by GBB. The Intervention Workers receive notification about incidents from several sources: (1) the LAPD division Sergeant may call the GRYD Program Manager, who will then contact the crisis response team; (2) the Sergeant may call the crisis response team directly; or (3) the crisis response team may come across an incident. The crisis response team receives, on average, 15 to 20 calls per month. The crisis response team also receives notifications through the RACR system. According to the provider, the RACR system is a system inside LAPD that notifies stakeholders of significant events within the Los Angeles area. For GRYD purposes, the system was designed specifically for gang incidents and Intervention Workers began receiving Blackberry devices for RACR in December 2009. Staff reported beginning to receive notifications through the system in late January/early February 2010. RACR notifications provide staff with a report of the incident, including the location and descriptions of parties involved. However, staff reported that the system does not always work and they sometimes receive notifications hours after the incident has occurred. A minimum of four Intervention Workers respond to an incident, and depending on where the incident is located, Case Managers may be included as well. One team of two Intervention Workers responds to the scene of the incident and the other team of two Intervention Workers goes to the hospital to address victim and family needs. Depending on which gang is involved in the crime, staff will send the appropriate team member who has a "license to operate" for (or ability to communicate and work with) the gang in that area. Information gathered is simultaneously sent to the GRYD office and LAPD. The crisis response team has 72 hours to prepare and submit an incident report after they respond to a scene and two weeks to provide a follow up report documenting the incident and outcomes. Intervention staff members also have weekly debriefing meetings. SEA plans for Y1 included two hours of outreach every weekday in six locations: Ross Snyders Park, Vernon/Long Beach/Metro Station, the Probation/Parole office in Newton, the South Park Recreation Center, and Carver Middle School. SEA also planned to speak with youth at local "hot spots," network with influential gang members for potential peace-keeping activities, work with the reentry population, and conduct outreach at prison/jail facilities. Outreach is conducted by Case Managers and Intervention Workers. Outreach has been conducted at Jefferson High School, Summer Night Lights, Los Padrinos Juvenile Hall, East Lake Juvenile Court, and probation camps (Miller and Kirkpatrick). In addition to conducting presentations and creating awareness of services at the juvenile halls and camps, Case Managers

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Newton Zone Profile try to stay in contact with clients that have been locked up since enrolling in GRYD and continue to provide wrap-around services to the families of these clients.

V.3

Crisis Intervention Program Design and Logic Model

SEA and GBB approach gang intervention in similar ways, by first recognizing the unique issues and histories of the gangs and their members. These providers reported that they do not challenge gang membership, since they recognize that there are few alternative social structures available to youth in this community. Both agencies focus on eliminating the violence that stems from gang activities. Crisis Intervention Activities, Inputs, and Outputs SEA participates in CeaseFire meetings with other intervention agencies in South Los Angeles and Intervention Workers work in the community to maintain cease fire agreements or "understandings." Crisis Intervention Workers also provide victim assistance, provide leadership classes, assist with Safe Passages, and attend meetings in the community. Additionally, intervention has hosted community events, such as dances, as part of their peace efforts. For example, Halloween and Valentine's Day dances were held at local parks in the community where staff was able to provide snacks and information for the community. Intervention helped plan a health fair in the community, conducted outreach and provided Safe Passage for the fair, and staffed a booth at the fair. Activities outside of crisis incidents are documented in crisis intervention logs, which are submitted to SEA. The crisis intervention provider reported responding to a total of 60 gang violence incidents within the GRYD zone as of March 2010, 13 of which resulted in a homicide.

V.4

Implementation Challenges and Successes

Unity TWO's primary challenge in providing crisis intervention services was meeting GRYD requirements. GBB also reported initial difficulties with LAPD and finding appropriate Intervention Workers. Crisis intervention successes in the Newton zone center on building relationships and partnerships. Challenges The challenges the original subcontractor (Unity TWO) reportedly faced eventually led to SEA's termination of their subcontract. In order to provide effective services SEA sought to contract with an agency that could handle the intensity of the contractual requirements and would be open to a partnership with LAPD. Working with LAPD was cited as a major challenge for the initial subcontractor. However, the new subcontractor, GBB, has been open to working with LAPD, and a good working relationship between the crisis intervention team and LAPD has reportedly developed. Another challenge has been finding appropriate Intervention Workers for the GRYD zone as applicants sometimes fail background checks or have a negative relationship with LAPD. This is especially problematic for African American Intervention Workers. Staff stated that there has been a push for more African American Intervention Workers (there are currently four Latino and two African American Intervention Workers on GBB's staff). However, Latino Intervention Workers can also be sent in to work with an African American gang when they have a license to operate.

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Newton Zone Profile Successes According to providers, the intervention program in the Newton zone has been successful at building relationships in the community and establishing partnerships with other organizations in order to provide comprehensive services for their clients. Staff has also recognized the importance of reentry, working with courts and local juvenile facilities to build awareness of the GRYD program, and continuing relationships with clients who have been arrested. Because of this emphasis on relationships and collaboration with agencies in the community, the provider reported that the program has impacted both individuals and families. For example, staff successfully facilitated the relocation of victims of crime that need to be moved due to safety reasons because of strong relationships. Staff stated that they are present at every incident, and due to established protocols and regular meetings, they have good communication at every level. According to LAPD Compstat reports, crime is down in the GRYD zone. Staff members meet weekly with LAPD to review crime statistics and reported that most of the issues are taking place outside the zone.

VI

Bibliography

Advancement Project. (2008). Gang Reduction and Youth Development: Newton GRYD Needs Assessment Final Report. Prepared for City of Los Angeles, Mayor Antonio R. Villaraigosa, Office of Gang Reduction and Youth Development. Dunworth, T., Hayeslip, D., Lyons, M., & Denver, M. (2010). Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program: Y1 Report. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

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Appendix A: Zone Map

Appendix B: Zone Logic Models

GRYD Model ­ Newton (Prevention)

Key Inputs Primary agency People Coordinated Services of Southern California Subcontractors National Family Life and Education Center (left the program in early 2010) All People's Christian Center Community Build Staffing (as of Spring 2010) 1 Program Director 1 Program Coordinator 2 Case Managers 3 Youth Counselors (one is part-time) 1 tutor (part-time) Outreach/referral sources1 Schools (staff referrals; presentations in classrooms to encourage self-referrals; offer games during lunch to recruit youth; staff attend open houses) Community Events (such as Summer Night Lights, LAPD events, weekly meetings at a local park, and health fairs) School Attendance Review Board Probation officers LAPD Key Outputs Services Case management Multicultural Rites of Passage (promotes cultural understanding and transition to adulthood) Individual, group, and family counseling Social/recreational activities for youth and families Parent education Anger Management Safe Passage Tutoring Target age range: 10-15. Average age of enrolled youth is 12½ years old. Number of youth: 2 134 youth were enrolled as of March 2010 Intermediate outcomes Reduced risk factors for clients3 Long-term outcome Prevent youth from joining a gang

Proposed referral sources in 2008: schools, probation, LAPD, Parks and Recreation, faith-based and community-based organizations, the Department of Children and Family Services, and foster family agencies. 2 The minimum number of prevention youth for each zone, as specified by the GRYD office and acknowledged by providers in proposals, was 200. 3 The targeted risk factor changes altered for the prevention providers, as the number of risk factors increased from 5 (original RFP) to 10 (due to questions asked on the Youth Services Eligibility Tool).

1

GRYD Model ­ Newton (Intervention)

Key Inputs Primary agency - Soledad Enrichment Action, Inc. (SEA) Subcontractors - N/A Staffing (as of Spring 2010)1 - 1 Director of Gang Intervention - 1 Data Collection Coordinator - 1 Case Management Supervisor - 2 Case Managers Outreach/referral sources2 - Intervention Workers - Probation - LAPD - Schools (Santee and Jefferson High Schools) - Parks and Recreation - Local housing developments such as Rio del Pueblo Key Outputs Services - Case Management/Wrap Around Services - Anger management - Mentoring - Recreational Activities - Individual Counseling - Violence Prevention Workshops - Group Counseling - New Skills Development - Family Counseling - Parenting classes (This only includes direct services; see zone profile for referred services) Target age range 14-25 Number of youth 3 48 youth were enrolled as of March 2010; 44 have exited the program Intermediate outcomes For clients to pursue education or work opportunities, adopt a more structured lifestyle, and not be arrested/convicted while they are in the program Long-term outcome Reduced involvement in gangs

1

2

Six Intervention Workers, who were part of the crisis intervention component, also provided support to the intervention team. Proposed referral sources in 2008: Intervention Workers, LAUSD, community organizations, LAPD, and probation. 3 The minimum number of required intervention clients for each zone was 50.

Appendix C: Milestones and Implementation Timeline

2 CMs and 2 Youth Counselors are hired (prevention)

Milestones for the GRYD Program, 2009-2010* Newton

Crisis Intervention Workers receive Blackberries Unity TWO's subcontract is terminated (intervention); 2 temporary crisis intervention workers are hired

A new GRYD PM is assigned and the GRYD Policy Analyst is replaced A new principal is hired at a partnering school

Jan 2009

Feb 2009

March April 2009 2009

May 2009

Jun 2009

Jul 2009

Aug 2009

Sep 2009

Oct 2009

Nov 2009

Dec 2009

Summer Night Lights SEA begins intervention services Evaluation site visits begin Going Beyond Borders begins an intervention subcontract

A program coordinator assigned to Newton (prevention) Evaluation Provider Forums held

A PD and Youth Counselor are hired (prevention)

Enrollment totals as of 3/2010: Prevention: 134 Intervention: 35 # Gang violence incidents responded to (crisis intervention): 60

An intervention CM's position becomes vacant (and is for 3 months); SEA only has one CM providing case management Crisis intervention workers begin receiving Blackberry messages

Jan 2010

Feb 2010

Mar 2010

Apr 2010

May 2010

June 2010

*Note: The GRYD prevention contract was formally awarded in the Fall of 2008. No other milestones occurred in 2008.

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