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TECHNOLOGIES IN MUNICIPAL WATER

© Confederation of Indian Industry

Drinking Water Supply in India

Sources of Raw Water

Ground water (direct through tube wells ­ supplied after minimum treatment) ­scenario is changing due to ground water pollution

Surface water ­through intake structure in rivers (Supplied after treatment in centralized water treatment plant)

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Technologies in Ground Water Treatment

Major contaminants ­ Fluoride , Nitrate, Arsenic, Salinity (TDS) , iron etc Present treatment technologies Boiling, filtration and chlorination for relatively good source Fluoride - Activated alumina treatment / Nalgonda treatment (Alum & lime) High salinity (TDS) - Reverse osmosis NITRATE - Resin based treatment ARSENIC - Activated alumina, oxidation with chlorine

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Technologies for Surface Water Treatment

Aeration in cascade aerators (to remove

iron/manganese)

Chemicals ­

Alum/lime/polyelectroly te followed by flocculation and coagulation

Clarifications/sedimentati on (Innovations possible in

clarifier design)

Filtration (Innovations

possible in filter bed composition)

Post Chlorination

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Innovative Technologies - High rate solids contact type Lamella clarifier

Typical applications:

Clarification, Lime Softening

Primary & Tertiary Clarification Carbonate removal, Metal Precipitation, Colour removal

Features:

Compact, Versatile & robust Inbuilt Thickener Very efficient High Quality Water Multiple applications © Confederation of Indian Industry

Innovative Technologies - Pulsating sludge blanket type clarifier

Typical applications :

Raw Water Clarification (River, Dam, Reservoir) Clarification of Water with Algae

Features:

· Modular & robust process

· Rectangular Flat Bottom RCC Tank · No underwater moving parts · Even water distribution over entire bottom · Even sludge withdrawal across the tank

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Roadmap for Water Treatment Technologies

Encouraging and adopting community based RO & Resin based treatment for tackling Nitrate/TDS/Fluoride in ground water Replacing space taking conventional clarifiers with ultra filtration membrane in proposed projects Refurbishment of existing clarifiers with lamella plates to increase efficiency Using multimedia structure in new and existing filter beds Installing PLC in existing and proposed water treatment plants for proper management

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Roadmap for Water Treatment Technologies

Encouraging application of high efficiency pumps and motors in water treatment plants and transmission system Latest lining technologies for transmission and distribution system Adopting latest metering appliances for establishing accountability

Use of quality pipes and accessories from supply lines to the individual house connections

Develop community based water connections

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Technologies for sewage generated

Classified under three categories based on performance parameters, land requirement, energy demand:

Category I: Good performance, Low energy requirement, low resource requirement and associated costs, High land requirement (BOD <30, SS < 30)

Category II: Good performance and high energy requirement , high resource requirement and other associated costs , moderately low land requirement (BOD <30, SS < 30) Category II (Improved version): Very Good performance and Very high energy requirement , very high resource requirement and associated costs, low land requirement (BOD <20, SS < 20) Category III: Moderate performance, moderate energy requirement, moderate resource requirement and associated costs, moderate low land requirement (BOD <30, SS < 30)

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STP Technologies under category I

Waste stabilization pond (WSP) Duckweed pond systems (DPS) Facultative aerated lagoons (FAL) Slow rate trickling filter (TF)

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STP Technologies under category II

Activated sludge process and its modifications (ASP) Up flow Anaerobic sludge blanket process (UASB) with facultative aerated lagoons (FAL) Up flow Anaerobic sludge blanket process (UASB) with ASP

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STP Technologies under category II continue

BIOFOR process Biofor F with multimedia Filter FAB (Fluidized Aerobic Bed MBBR (Moving bed bio reactor) SAFF (Submerged aerobic fixed film) SBR (Sequential Bio Reactor Process) MBR (Membrane bio reactor)

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STP Technologies under category III

Facultative aerated lagoons (FAL) followed by maturation pond

High rate trickling filter (TF) with both gravel and plastic media followed by maturation pond

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Few examples location wise in India

ASP UASB 60 MLD plant at Allahabad 78MLD with bio gas utilization in Agra / 20 MLD bio gas utilization in Faridabad

UASB + ASP

UASB + FAL +FAU BIOFOR F

43 MLD in Vadodara

172 MLD in Hyderabad 182 MLD STP in Delhi

FAB / SAFF

SBR C tech MBR

3 MLD plant in Delhi / 42 MLD Lucknow

100 MLD in Nerul/12.5 MLD at Panjim 1 MLD at Tidel park Chennai

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Assessment of technologies

source -NRCD

Waste stabilisation pond system

Land ­ 0.8 -2.3 hectares/MLD

Energy - Negligible

CAPEX: Rs1.5-4.5 million per MLD capacity O&M: Rs0.06-0.1 million/year/MLD

Duckweed Pond System

Land ­ 2 - 6 hectares/MLD

Energy - Negligible CAPEX: Rs1.5-4.5 million per MLD capacity O&M: Rs0.18 million/year/MLD Land ­ 0.27-0.4 hectares/MLD (higher than ASP) Energy ­ 18KWh/ML treated (much lower than ASP) CAPEX: Rs2.2 ­ 2.9 million per MLD capacity O&M: Rs0.15 -0.2 million/year/MLD

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Facultative Aerated lagoon

Assessment of technologies

Trickling Filter

Land ­ 0.25 -0.65 hectares/MLD Energy ­ 180KWh/ML treated CAPEX: Lower than ASP O&M: Lower than ASP Land ­ 0.15 -0.25 hectares/MLD

Activated sludge process

Energy ­ 180-225 KWh/ML treated

CAPEX: Rs 2 - 4 million per MLD capacity (Around 55% is civil cost) O&M: Rs0.3-0.5 million/year/MLD Land ­ 0.04 hectares/MLD Energy ­ 220-335 KWh/ML treated CAPEX: Rs6.5-8.1 million per MLD capacity O&M: 0.86 million/year/MLD

Biofor

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Assessment of technologies

High rate activated sludge Biofor F Technology

Land ­ 0.08 hectares/MLD (Much lower than ASP) Energy ­ 180KWh/ML treated (85% met through power from biogas) CAPEX: Rs 5.2 million per MLD capacity Rs 5.2 million per MLD capacity O&M: Rs 0.18 million per MLD capacity Land ­ 0.06 hectares/MLD

Fluidized Aerated Bed (FAB)

Energy ­ 99-170 KWh/ML treated

CAPEX: Rs 3-5 million per MLD capacity (30% is plastic media cost) O&M: Rs0.6-0.75 million/year/MLD (50% higher than ASP) Land ­ 0.05 hectares/MLD Energy ­ 390 KWh/ML treated CAPEX: Rs7 million per MLD capacity O&M: 1.14 million/year/MLD

Submerged Aeration Fixed Film (SAFF) technology

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Assessment of technologies

Cyclic Activated Sludge Process

Land ­ 0.1 -0.15 hectares/MLD Energy ­ 150-200 KWh/ML treated CAPEX: O&M: Higher than ASP

Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) process

Land ­ 0.2-0.3 hectares/MLD Energy ­ 10-15 KWh/ML treated CAPEX: Rs 2.5 ­ 3.6 million per MLD capacity O&M: Rs0.08 ­ 0.17 million/year/MLD

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Roadmap in Wastewater Treatment

Activated sludge process with 24 x 7 committed power supply should be adopted with mandatory provision for installing gas engine to partially offset the energy requirement. Treated wastewater should be linked to irrigation.

Polishing units (Such as - Pressure sand filters, Activated carbon filter & chlorination unit) should be added after ASP for utilizing the treated water for landscaping, gardening. (Thus conserving fresh water)

Suitable sludge treatment technology should be adopted in all STPs, to be linked up with Bio fertilizer market

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Roadmap in Wastewater Treatment

Sequential Batch Reactor / Membrane Bio Reactor is advisable for projects linking industrial requirement of treated wastewater from the municipals. Decentralization of sewage treatment units across the city should be encouraged rather than putting all the sewage of the city at one place. This would allow flexibility in choosing technology options.

Compact localized treatment like Rotating biological contactor, Moving Bed Bio Reactor, root zone treatment should be adopted for on site treatment in large institutions, offices and hotels

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THANK YOU

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