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IUC Programme

Institutional University Cooperation

Final Evaluation of the IUC partnership with the University of Zambia (UNZA)

Paul de Nooijer Bornwell Siakanomba

Background and disclaimer

The VLIR-UOS Programme for Institutional University Cooperation (IUC), which started in 1997, is an inter-university cooperation programme of the Flemish universities1. Based on a system of programme funding provided by the Belgian Government, the Programme is directed at a limited number of carefully selected partner universities in the South. Each partnership, covering a maximum period of ten years, consists of a coherent set of interventions geared toward the development of the teaching, research, and service functions of the partner university, as well as its institutional management. Every three to five years, the cooperation with a partner is evaluated. All ongoing cooperation programmes are evaluated by an external, independent evaluation commission. The country visits of these commissions, usually composed of an international and a local expert, are preceded by an extensive self-assessment process. All evaluation commissions have produced an evaluation report that, in principle, is meant to be selfcontained, i.e. containing the essential factual information, as well as conclusions and recommendations. This report represents the views of the members of the commission that evaluated the IUC Programme with the University of Zambia (UNZA); it does not necessarily reflect the opinions of VLIR-UOS. The evaluation commission bears sole responsibility for the report in terms of its content, as well as its structure.

The Evaluation Commission

The external evaluation commission for the partnership programme with the University of Zambia was composed of two individuals with extensive experience with regard to higher education matters. Mr Paul G. de Nooijer, team leader, is senior education consultant with SPAN Consultants from the Netherlands. He has long-term experience in undertaking evaluation research, in particular in the field of higher education and inter-institutional cooperation programmes, including programmes that have similarities with the VLIR-UOS IUC Programme. Mr. Bornwell Siakanomba is managing consultant with SIBO Development Consultants, Lusaka, Zambia.

1

For more details on VLIR and the IUC Programme, please refer to Appendix 2.

Acronyms and abbreviations - see at the back of this page >

Acronyms and abbreviations

AP B.Sc. CAMAS CBU COMESA DDE ELISA EU GDP GIS HE HIV HR ICT INESOR ISP IT IUC JICA M.Sc MU NAC NGO Nuffic OECD PABX PC PCM Ph.D. SADC SDF ToR UK UNICEF UNISA UNZA USAID VLIR ZAMNET

Annual Programme Bachlor of Science Computers for Administration, Management and Academic Services Copperbelt University Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Directorate of Distance Education Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbant assay European Union Gross Domestic Product Geographical Information System Higher Education Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Resources Information and Communications Technology Institute for Economic and Social Research Internet Service Provider Information Technology Institutional University Co-operation (programme) Japan International Co-operation Agency Master of Science Mulungushi University National Aids Council Non Governmental Organisation Netherlands organisation for international cooperation in higher education Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Private Automatic Branch Exchange Personal Computer Project Cycle Management Doctor of Philosophy Southern African Development Community Staff Development Fellow Terms of Reference United Kingdom United Nations Children's Fund University of South Africa University of Zambia United States Agency for International Development Vlaamse Interuniversitaire Raad (Flemish Inter-university Council) Zambian Internet Service Provider

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Table of contents

Foreword THe eVALUATIoN eXerCISe Terms of Reference for the evaluation Evaluation approach and methodology Evaluation criteria and indicators Evaluation limitations ZAMBIAN SoCIo-eCoNoMIC ANd HIGHer edUCATIoN CoNTeXT Social - Political characteristics of the Economy Macro - Economic Framework Policy and Structure of Education System Higher education in Zambia IUC ProGrAMMe AT UNZA - GeNerAL THe UNZANeT ­ CoMPUTer CeNTre & LIBrArY ProJeCT Introduction Realisations: Computer Centre Realisations Library Assessment dISTANCe edUCATIoN ProJeCT Introduction Realisations Assessment CoMPUTer STUdIeS ProJeCT Introduction Realisations Assessment Food SCIeNCe ANd TeCHNoLoGY ProJeCT Introduction Realisations Assessment VeTerINArY MedICINe ProJeCT Introduction Realisations Assessment GeoLoGY ­ GeoLoGY ANd SoIL SCIeNCeS Introduction Realisations Assessment INTer-dISCIPLINArY reSeArCH Introduction Realisations Assessment ProGrAMMe MANAGeMeNT General Management ­ General Programme funding and financial management oVerALL ProGrAMMe ASSeSSMeNT Relative strengths Relative weaknesses General Recommendations APPeNdICeS Appendix I: Appendix II : Appendix III : Appendix IV : Appendix V :

3 5 5 6 7 7 9 9 9 10 12 15 19 19 20 23 24 27 27 27 31 35 35 36 39 41 41 41 45 49 49 50 51 55 55 56 59 63 63 64 65 67 67 67 69 73 73 74 74

77 Contents 78 Flemish Interuniversity Council 100 References 103 Overview of persons met 105 Overview of approved and implemented research projects (by programme year) - Multidisciplinary Research project 105 Appendix VI : Publications resulting from the VLIR-IUC Programme 108

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

Foreword

Effective final programme evaluation should yield valuable information that can be used by programme stakeholders and funding agencies about whether the programme has indeed realised what it set out to do in the beginning and about lessons learned that could be useful for the future. For such an evaluation to be successful, active participation of all key stakeholders is a sine qua non. In the case of the partnership with the University of Zambia (UNZA), the evaluation process was therefore designed to be iterative and participatory, involving three distinct opportunities for input from and involvement by the partners: during the self assessment, during the visit of the evaluation commission from 21 to 29 February 2008 and during the review of the draft final report of the evaluation commission in the course of early months of 2008. As indicated in the Terms of Reference (see Appendix 1 to this report), the focus of the final evaluation was as follows: the `global state of implementation of the programme', realisation of objectives the quality, efficiency, efficacy, impact, development relevance and sustainability of the programme and programme management the position of the IUC programme within the international cooperation activities of UNZA and `the added value of the IUC Programme ... in comparison to other ongoing donor cooperation programmes' the follow up plan of the programme as elaborated in the self assessment report The evaluation covered the entire IUC Programme, which consisted of two phases, i.e. from 1997 to 2001 and from 2002 to 2007. Based on these Terms of Reference, the structure of the report is as follows: Chapter 1 briefly describes the evaluation process, sources of information and indicators used during the process as well as the limitations of the evaluation conducted Chapter 2 provides some background on the context of the partnership, including some data on Zambia's socio-economic status and developments, the country's overall and higher education system as well as some general information on UNZA Chapter 3 provides a brief on the overall VLIR-UOS IUC Programme with UNZA, including elementary data on the projects that were undertaken in the two phases of the Programme. The chapters 4 to 10 subsequently provide detailed information on each of the projects that was financed. The presentation follows the sequencing of projects

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

in the Programme document for the 2nd phase, starts with the Computer Centre/Library (former UNZANET) project in chapter 4 and concludes in chapter 10 with a description of the Interdisciplinary Research project. Each chapter contains details on objectives and anticipated results and describes what has been achieved for key elements of the project concerned. Each chapter is concluded with a brief assessment in which attention is paid to relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability issues. Chapter 11 concerns issues of programme funding and financial management Chapter 12 finally provides a summary assessment of the VLIR-UOS IUC Programme with the University of Zambia as a whole.

The appendices to the report include the following: Appendix 1 ­ Mission Terms of Reference Appendix 2 ­ Information on VLIR-UOS and the IUC Programme Appendix 3 ­ Documentation used Appendix 4 ­ List of interviewees Appendix 5 ­ Overview of research projects funded and implemented under the Interdisciplinary Research project Appendix 6 ­ Overview of publications resulting from the Programme The evaluation commission would like to express its appreciation to all of the individuals we met in the course of the evaluation. The information, the dialogue, and the ideas shared with these individuals were instrumental in shaping our thinking. Last but not least, we want to thank everyone for their hospitality during visits to Brussels and Lusaka.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

1

The evaluation exercise

This chapter provides some information on the scope of the evaluation, the way in which the evaluation was conducted and evaluation criteria and indicators used as well as the limitations of the evaluation exercise.

Terms of reference for the evaluation

Terms of Reference (ToR) for the final evaluation of the partnership with UNZA were issued in June 2007 and are provided in Appendix 1 to this report. According to these ToR (page 9), issued for the three final evaluations simultaneously, the final evaluation was meant to generate conclusions that will allow: `the identification of strengths and weaknesses of each specific IUC collaboration with the three institutions in particular, and of the IUC programme in general; VLIR-UOS to identify departments and/or research groups that have received substantial support from the IUC programme in Phase II and thus can present proposals for the "IUC Research Initiative Projects" the formulation of recommendations to all stakeholders in terms of the follow up plan that has been elaborated by the Northern and Southern project leaders to identify and comment upon possible venues for the future of the involved projects in view of establishing sustainability' According to ToR (page 9-10), the scope of the evaluation was to be as follows: `the present implementation of the programme', focusing on the `global state of implementation of the programme', realisation of objectives of the various projects, as well as programme management in both Flanders and the Southern institution the nature of the programme, `evaluating the quality, efficiency, efficacy, impact, development relevance and sustainability of the programme in the light of the overall goal of the IUC Programme' and `the cooperation between all parties involved' the position of the IUC programme within the international cooperation activities of the partner university, which is about `the added value of the IUC Programme ... in comparison to other ongoing donor cooperation programmes' the follow up plan of the programme as elaborated in the self assessment report

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

evaluation approach and methodology

General

The methodology used for this final evaluation of the UNZA IUC Programme is based on the VLIR-UOS methodology for evaluation. Use has been made of: The selfassessment forms that were prepared by UNZA - IUC Programme participants (October-November 2007) Other documentation, including annual planning and progress reports and programme documents Meetings with VLIR-UOS (Brussels) Meetings with UNZA faculty who had been involved in the UNZA-IUC Programme Meetings with current and former project leaders, i.e. representatives of the Flemish universities participating in the UNZA-IUC Programme as well as On-site campus visits. A short debriefing session was held on 29 February 2008, which was attended by representatives from UNZA, the Flemish universities as well as VLIR-UOS.

Self assessment forms

The forms were prepared, sometimes in consultation between Flemish and Zambian partners, though not always, around October ­ November 2007, i.e. several months after the Programme has come to an end.

Document review

In preparation for the evaluation, the commission reviewed all available documentation (both paper documents and electronic documents). Information on Zambia's higher education sector as a whole was reviewed as well. In addition, financial data were reviewed. An overview of references used is provided in Appendix 3 to this report.

Interviews

At the University of Zambia, meetings were held with: The current and immediate former Vice Chancellor The current and former National Coordinator Current and former project leaders from UNZA and the Flemish universities The Programme Manager Former (Ph.D. and M.Sc.) trainees and one student of Computer Studies Flemish project coordinators and a member of the ICOS at Gent University In Brussels, the team leader held meetings with staff of VLIR-UOS. Appendix 4 provides information on the people with whom interviews were held. In the interviews a preprepared checklist of questions was utilised as well as openended questions, based on programme documents and internal assessment forms.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

evaluation criteria and indicators

In assessing the programme and its constituent projects, the following main criteria were used: Development relevance - i.e., as per the OECD Glossary: `(the) extent to which the objectives of a development intervention are consistent with beneficiaries' requirements, country needs, global priorities and partners' and donors' policies'2 Effectiveness ­ which, according to the OECD3, refers to `(the) extent to which the development intervention's objectives were achieved, or are expected to be achieved, taking into account their relative importance'. Efficiency ­ i.e. the relationship between the objectives and the means used to reach the objectives or, as per OECD, `(a) measure of how economically resources/inputs (funds, expertise, time, etc.) are converted to results'4. Impact ­ which, according to OECD refers to `(positive) and negative, primary and secondary longterm effects produced by a development intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended'5 Sustainability - or `(the) continuation of benefits from a development intervention after major development assistance has been completed'6 (financial and institutional sustainability) Quality was not treated as a separate criterion. Indicators used include the following: Relevance ­ extent to which the programme and the projects addressed real needs and issues outside the academic community; relationship with relevant development policies Effectiveness ­ formulation of objectives and results; outputs realised, and the quality thereof, and related activities Efficiency ­ funding of the collaboration activities; use made of the funding; costs and benefits of inputs; programme and project (financial) management Sustainability - co-funding by the partner university; availability of resources for continuation of operations and maintenance of physical infrastructure; capacity to attract new funds through consultancy and research; staff retention; commitment of Flemish universities to continue the collaboration; continuation perspectives of ongoing research projects; presence of quality follow-up plans Impact ­ (potential) impact at the level of the private sector farming communities; involvement in providing policy advice, university wide impact, i.e. outside the departments and centres in which the programme operated; possible new teaching styles; the extent to which academics, involved in the IUC programme, are called upon by the government for policy advice, etc.

evaluation limitations

An evaluation mission of 6 working days to assess a 10-year programme almost 1 year after it has come to an end is bound to be affected by lack of time to fully grasp the evolution of the programme and its constituent projects. Moreover, the fact that the evaluation took place almost one year after the programme has come to an end, made it difficult at times to determine whether certain accomplishments could be attributed to

2 3 4 5 6 Glossary Glossary Glossary Glossary Glossary of of of of of Key Key Key Key Key Terms Terms Terms Terms Terms in in in in in Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation and and and and and Results Results Results Results Results Based Based Based Based Based Management, Management, Management, Management, Management, 2002, 2002, 2002, 2002, 2002, page page page page page 32. 20. 21. 24. 36.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

the programme or whether these were due to subsequent interventions. This situation was further compounded by the following factors: The quality of the internal assessment forms proved to be variable; often they did not give a clear overview what was done and what was accomplished over the Programme's lifetime. Quality of reporting was affected by an unnecessary com-plex and not always consistent reporting format and the fact that additional forms were embedded in the forms ­ but often remained unused. The lack of information in the assessment forms required a more substantial use of other programme documentation, especially the annual progress reports. In certain instances, especially when report sections were merely copied from preceding reports, these reports were not very informative in terms of providing clear data on activities carried out and results achieved. Consistent and reliable data on programme funding were difficult to obtain and although an effort was made, the final picture on programme funding remains somewhat blurred. For several days, the mission coincided with the final meeting of the Zambian and Flemish Steering Committees. This limited the time that people could devote to the evaluation.

While the evaluation commission was also expected to review `the follow up plan of the programme as elaborated in the self assessment report', perusal of the available documentation indicated that there was no such plan, although some of the files contained a preliminary SWOT analysis. Hence, the evaluation commission is not in a position to express an opinion.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

2

Zambian socio-economic and higher education context

Social - Political characteristics of the economy

Zambia became an independent nation in 1964 with a multi-party democracy up to 1972 when it changed to a one-party system of governance. This lasted up to 1991 when the country reverted to a multi-party system of democratic governance. The country has an area of 752,614 km 2 and an estimated total population of 10 million (2000 Census). 40% of the population lives in urban areas, making Zambia one of the most urbanized countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The population in unevenly skewed with children in the age range of 0-14 making up 45% of the population; women account for 50.7% of the total population. The under-five mortality rate in 2000 was estimated at 202 per 1,000 live births while recent data show that approximately 60% of the children in Zambia are malnourished. Also, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has dealt a severe blow on the population. According to the National Aids Council Report, it is estimated that 20% of the population between 15 and 49 is infected, 35% of these are in urban areas (NAC Strategic Plan, 2002-2005). Life expectancy by 2000 was estimated to have dropped to below 40 years compared with 54 years at the end of the 1980s. Since the mid 1990s, poverty levels continued to increase for the most part. The official figures indicate a rise from 69.2% in 1996 to 72.9% in 1998 with only a modest drop to 67% by 2004. It is estimated that over 80% of Zambians currently live below the poverty line of US$1 a day. The statistics from the Living Conditions Monitoring Survey of 2006 further highlight that although overall poverty levels dropped to 64% in 2006, rural poverty increased from 78% to 80% while urban poverty dropped from 53% to 34%.

Macro - economic Framework

Zambian economy should be evaluated against the backdrop of economic performance from the 1990s. The Zambia Demographic Health Survey (1990 ­ 1999) indicates that the economy grew at 1%, which is the lowest among the SADC countries and also below the sub-Saharan Africa growth rate of 1.4%. However real GDP grew at the rate of 2.2% in 1999, 3.6% in 2000, and 4.9% in 2001, but declined to 3.0% in 2002 (Reduction Strategy Paper, 2002-2004). Between 2000 and 2004 the Zambian economy registered positive real growth at an average of 4.6%. The growth in real GDP in 2007 continued to be positive at a preliminary estimate of 6.2% against the targeted 7%. In contrast to the fluctuating growth pattern that characterized the 1990s, the economic growth has so far been sustained. The only set back is that it is partially being negated by the population growth rate, which currently stands at 2.7% hence achieving only a marginal growth in per capita income.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

An important feature of this growth is that the country has started to see some structural change as the economy begins to register growth in sectors other than mining. In particular, recent Government policies have fostered diversified growth in sectors such as agriculture, tourism and manufacturing which have recorded growth between 2002 and 2004 (2005: Economic Report 2004). In addition, during this period, the Government has continued to pursue stringent stabilization policy measures such as reduction in Government borrowing. These measures have resulted in stability in the macro environment. As at the end of December 2007 the annual inflation figure had drastically dropped to a single digit figure of 8.9%. Similarly, the Kwacha has remained stable over the past few years largely to the depreciation of the US Dollar, thereby aiding economic growth. Overall the performance of the Zambian economy has picked up momentum after 2001. Prospects for growth in the coming years look modest as the economy is projected to continue to grow. The public expenditure on education in general and higher education in the context of UNZA should be examined against this background.

Policy and Structure of education System

Zambia's formal education system currently consists of academic learning at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The primary level comprises lower and upper basic schools, high schools and tertiary education, which includes teacher training colleges and universities. This system is currently in transition, being moved from a 7-5-4 structure (7 years of primary, 5 of secondary and 4 years of university education) to a 9-3-4 structure (9 years of basic, 3 years of high school and 4 years of university education up to first degree). According to the Ministry of Education, the total number of educational institutions di-rectly under its auspices is 5,131 including 4,662 Basic Schools, 353 High Schools, 14 Teacher Training Colleges and 2 public Universities7. Recently, the Mulungushi University was established in Kabwe, Central Province. There are also a number of private educational institutions, though some of them could be operating without full compliance to the Ministry's regulatory directives. In addition, there are almost 1,900 Community Schools (which provide primary education) and about 500 Interactive Radio Initiative Centres that provide alternative basic education. The policy on higher education in Zambia is guided by the national policy on education as spelt out in the policy document entitled `Educating Our Future' (1996). This document refers inter alia to the importance of increasing access to education and life skills training, education management capacity building, policy coordination and the rationalisation of resource mobilisation and utilisation. The general principles of the current Government policy on education have their origins in an ever-deteriorating macroeconomic situation which Zambia experienced since the early 1980s. The decline in the economy affected all sectors ­ including education. To restore this situation the government had to resort to severe economic adjustment programmes. The early adjustment programmes failed to shield social sector expenditures and resulted in a sharp decline in funding for education and health. The fiscal pressure to curtail financial commitments was further compounded by the rapid population growth at the time.

7 Support to the Education Sector in Zambia, Phase II, 2005-07, Volume 1, page 15.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Public expenditure in education and health was drastically reduced to the extent that the Government turned more to the donors for foreign aid for general sector budgetary support. The community and the private sector were also brought on board to supplement government efforts on funding the sector. In 2002 the estimated allocation for the two public universities was only K6.5 billion (equivalent to 5% of the total education budget). The new government that came into power in 1991 realised the magnitude of the deplorable state of the infrastructure, particularly in the social sectors and initiated a Social Sector Rehabilitation and Maintenance Programme. This Programme aimed at promoting the development of sustainable social services delivery and accelerating efforts in social infrastructure rehabilitation and maintenance. To achieve the goal of increasing and promoting efficient use of resources, other measures introduced to revamp the education sector included the following: Improving the management of education and training; Promoting community involvement in education; Increasing the provision of resources for the rehabilitation of dilapidated infrastructure; Increasing the provision of furniture, text books and other educational materials; and Improving pre-service and in-service teacher training. The planning and implementation of the education sector is guided by medium term strategic plans. The last 5-year strategic plan for the period 2003-2007 focussed on: The achievement of Universal Basic Education and increased retentions and completion rates for Grades 1-9; Improvement in progression rates from Grades 7 to 8 and from Grades 9 to 10; Improved access to high school and tertiary education, particularly for the poor, girls and children with special needs; Adequate supplies of trained and motivated teachers and lecturers for all levels; Reform of the curriculum at all levels to provide relevant skills and know ledge; Sufficient learning/teaching materials for all levels; Effective decentralisation of education delivery; Management/mitigation of HIV/AIDS; and An increase in budgetary allocation to the education sector. Through this strategic framework, the Government planned to increase enrolments for Grades 1 to 7 by 20% i.e. from 1,9 million in 2002 to 2,3 million in 2007. The Upper Basic enrolment (grades 8 and 9) was also to be increased by 49% from the baseline of 219 thousand to 325.6 thousand in 2007. High School was to be increased by 53% from 135.9 thousand to 207.8 thousand and university enrolments increased by 35% percent from close to 9 thousand to over 12 thousand students over the same period. During the same period it was envisaged that the Government would continue to allocate a significant proportion of its capital budget to basic education for both new construction and rehabilitation. Slightly over half of the capital budgets were to be allocated to the lower and middle basic levels while upper basic was to get 8%. The share of the high schools was estimated at 28% and 2% to teacher education. Continuing education and university education were to get 2% and 6% respectively.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Higher education in Zambia

Higher education presently includes three public universities, i.e. UNZA in Lusaka, the Copperbelt University (CBU) in Kitwe and the Mulungushi University (MU) in Kabwe and 14 teacher training colleges under the authority of the Ministry of Education. CBU has four schools, i.e. Business Studies, Environmental Studies, Forestry & Wood Sciences and Technology and MU nine. There are approximately 150 other colleges providing post-secondary education and training8. Efforts are underway to convert some colleges into university colleges. The Government furthermore allowed private universities to open; one example is the Zambian Open University that was established in 2004 to allow for expansion of HE enrolment in view of increased demand among high school graduates. UNZA, established in 1966, is the biggest university in the country. UNZA has nine schools, i.e. Agricultural Sciences, Education, Engineering, Humanities & Social Sciences, Law, Medicine, Mines, Natural Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine and offers diploma and first degree as well as postgraduate programmes. The University derives a major share of its income from an annual government grant (some 2/3rd of total income) based on a formula that involves staff-student ratios, student fees, and incomegenerating undertakings. The University's first Strategic Plan, `Putting Quality First', was drawn up for the period 1994-1998, with the aim of reviewing the University's mission, refocusing its objectives, and setting new targets within the overall government policy on higher education. According to UNZA in this Strategic Plan, higher education should: `Provide learning by offering opportunities for advanced education to all suitably qualified persons without discrimination. Improve the quality of life of the people through relevant research in the identified areas of need. Explore a wide variety of higher education provisions for those willing and able to benefit, but unable to participate in regular full time programmes. Advance national development through the applications of learning and research in the professions, industry, agriculture, commerce and public life. Contribute to the socio-economic growth of the nation through the dissemination of relevant research findings and consultancy services. Foster a network of relationships with tertiary institutions in Zambia and elsewhere. Help promote the development of programmes of excellence in national institutions. Continue to press for adequate funding from government while striving to increase its income from other sources'9. UNZA embarked on a second five-year strategic plan entitled `Relevance, Excellence and Accountability' for the period 2002-2006. According to this strategic plan, `(the) experiences over the last decade have put great pressures on the operations of the University. Emanating from these pressures are several internal constraints, which have manifested themselves in such factors as: decline in the teaching and learning environment; reduced research activities; reductions in support to staff development programmes; and lack of capital development. Some of the consequences of the externally generated constraints have been staff exodus from the University for better job opportu8 Examples are: the National Resources Development College, National Institution for Public Administration (NIPA) and Agricultural Colleges. 9 Report of the Mid-Term Evaluation of the IUC programme at the University of Zambia ­ UNZA, 28 August ­ 6 September 2001, page 12.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

nities both within and outside the country; dilapidation in infrastructure; deterioration in the student welfare; reduction in the procurement of library books and periodicals and other education materials; significant reductions in the admission numbers of students; and the general decline in the morale of staff'10. In addition, the austerity measures associated with the economic structural adjustment programme for the country have created peculiar hardships for the University, and lecturers continue to resign in search of greener pastures elsewhere11. Unfortunately, this is happening at a time when the country needs high-level manpower to spearhead the efforts in economic recovery, growth and social development. Measures under the strategic plan include staff development and expansion of student and staff accommodation. The University intends also to embark on commercial ventures through some of the potential money-earning units to increase internal revenue generation. A UNZA building development project was prepared in 2005, i.e. the Building development and management through public-private partnership at UNZA Great East Road Campus, a conceptual paper of January 2005. UNZA receives considerable donor funding; the mission was not in a position to collect the necessary details but understands that this includes inter alia the Netherlands funded project `Triple S' project, working amongst others on UNZA's ICT infrastructure and the project `Strengthening HIV-related interventions in Zambia: co-operation in research and institution capacity building' funded by Norway.

10 Strategic Plan 2002-2006, page 4. 11 UNZA's Annual Work Programme document of December 2003 states (page 4), `as before, two of the main problems facing UNZA remain on one hand the insufficiency of the allocated budget from public funding, which barely covers salaries, and on the other hand the institution's accumulated debt to its retired staff and towards service providers for water, electricity and telephone. The maintenance of the university infrastructure has suffered severely from this situation, and the supply of consumables necessary for education, research and other academic activities is somewhat unreliable'. Though UNZA has seen `(an) increase in the enrolment of privately- or `self'-sponsored students has been adding a moderate source of complementary income to UNZA, and other sources of income generation are being explored through contracted public service, consultancy work and joint ventures. UNZA, however, still remains substantially dependent upon donor-funded projects'.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

3

Project UNZANET

IUC Programme at UNZA - General

The IUC Programme at UNZA, consisted of two phases, i.e. from 1997 to 2001 and from 2002 to 2006, and was coordinated by the Ghent University in Flanders. Nomination of UNZA at that time, did not follow the patterns used by VLIR-UOS at present; unlike today, neither the identification of the institution, nor the preparation of the programme and projects went through the rigorous stages, lasting a minimum of a year, that characterise the IUC Programme today. The 1st phase of the programme comprised the following projects:

UNZA department UNZA Computer Centre Flemish University University of Antwerp overall objective To improve the quality of education and research throughout the university Specific objective/purpose To make new information and communication technologies more widely available and accessible to academic staff, students and professional staff in all schools of the university and to establish decentralised management and administrative systems To build and strengthen the capacity of the Directorate of Distance Education to deliver its courses and support services to distance learners through the application of information and communication technologies. To establish a fully operational Department of Computer Studies within the School of Natural Sciences, which will offer programmes of study at BSc, Postgraduate Diploma and MSc levels, as well as research and consultancy services to industrial and administrative agencies To establish a Department of Food Science and Technology within the School of Agricultural Sciences offering a four-year training programme To improve the practical skills of vets qualifying from UNZA by means of practical and clinical training at the field station, and to increase knowledge of helminthology in Zambia

Distance Education

Department of Distance Education (DDE)

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

To improve the quality, socioeconomic relevance, scope and accessibility of distance education offered by UNZA

Computer studies

School of Natural Sciences

K.U. Leuven

To improve the performance of the Zambian economy in both the public and private sectors through the effective application of computer technology

Food Science and Technology

Food Science and Technology Department

University of Gent

To provide qualified human resources for the Zambian food industry and related institutions To contribute to increased livestock productivity and public health in Zambia.

Veterinary Medicine

School of Veterinary Medicine

University of Gent

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Project Geology

UNZA department School of Mines

Flemish University University of Gent

overall objective To improve the performance of the mining and environmental sectors through the provision of better educated Earth Science graduates, so that they will make an enhanced contribution to the Zambian economy Enhancement of research capacity at UNZA

Specific objective/purpose To improve the quality of educational, research and consultancy services offered by the School of Mines

Interdisciplinary Research12

Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies (DRGS)

University of Gent

To encourage young researchers at UNZA to carry out applied interdisciplinary research using the equipment provided by the IUC programme

The mid-term evaluation of the Programme in 2001 had raised some issues with respect to the 2nd phase of the programme. The evaluation called, among others, for a more institutional approach and a move towards local managerial ownership. In this regard also the idea to address the needs of the UNZA library was introduced. In the process of taking up these issues in the 2nd phase of the programme, various missions were undertaken in 2003, including a visit of the incoming rector of UNZA to Belgium. In view of constraints faced, and order to allow for an approval of the Annual Programme (AP) for 2003, a DGDC fact-finding mission with participation of VLIRUOS was undertaken in August 2003. Areas for immediate action were agreed upon, and the AP 2003 was approved while the formulation process of both the partner programme as a whole and AP 2004 was finalised. The 2nd phase of the programme comprises the following projects:

Project Computer Centre and Library

UNZA department Computer Centre; Library

Flemish University University of Antwerp

overall objective The quality of education, research and management at UNZA has improved The library becomes a National Resource Centre To improve the quality, socioeconomic relevance, scope and accessibility of distance education by UNZA Deficiency of computer experts on the labour market is reduced Develop basic and applied research relevant to the development of the food industry in Zambia, thus creating food security Productivity of livestock in Zambia has increased and public health is improved

Specific objective Efficient ICT services are provided in the University community The library acquires equipment for access as well as security and purchases books to meet the demand Build and strengthen the capacity of the directorate to deliver its courses and support the services to distance learners through the application of ICT The Department of Computer Studies us fully operational Contribute to food security by enhancing agro-processing and preservation methods in collaboration with local and international stakeholders Research capacity of veterinary school concerning relevant veterinary issues in Zambia is enhanced and appropriate information on important veterinary issues in Zambia is available to extension services

Distance Education

DDE

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Establishment of a programme in computer studies Establishment of a B.Sc. (M.Sc.) programme in Food Science and Technology Consolidation of activities in School of Veterinary Medicine

School of Natural Sciences Food Science and Technology Department

K.U. Leuven

Ghent University

School of Veterinary Medicine

Ghent University

12 This component also included funding for common services to the programme under the heading of `programme support' (such as costs related to the resident expatriate staff, forwarding and clearing costs of project equipment, insurance and security, etc.).

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Project Geology and Soil Science

UNZA department School of Mines and School of Agricultural Sciences,

Flemish University Ghent University

overall objective Contribution of small scale mining and agriculture industries to rural poverty alleviation and sustainable economic development of rural areas To strengthen the scientific renown of UNZA both in the international academic community and in the Zambian public and private sector

Specific objective/purpose Provision of sustainable quality human resources, technical and analytical services to small scale mining and agriculture people

Interdisciplinary Research

Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies (DRGS)

Ghent University

To successfully complete interdisciplinary research projects and to disseminate the results in international journals, conferences and workshops

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

4

The UNZANET - Computer Centre & Library project

Introduction

The original UNZANET project was an extension to the campus wide fibre optic network that had been set up with support from the Netherlands (i.e. the `Computers for Academics, Management and Administrative Support' (CAMAS) project) and CIDA and had been operational as of 1996. The UNZANET project was to support the new Computer Centre, tasked to provide hardware and software support services to the university community as well as consultancy services and training in IT, hardware, software, networks, systems development and communication for internal and external clients. The project was to `contribute towards the further development of an integrated computer network' of the University, which would, in turn, `contribute towards an effective improvement of the quality of education and research throughout the university'. `It will also lead to a decentralised management and administrative system for the institution..'13. Specific objectives of the 1st phase of the UNZANET project were as follows14: To develop an integrated internal computer network encompassing all faculties of the university. To establish a decentralised management and administration system for the university15. To improve the quality of education and research by making IT more widely available to academic staff and students. In order to allow more cooperation and interdisciplinary research among the different UNZA departments, and because of the mission shared with the Computer Centre of servicing the entire university community, it was agreed in 2001 to introduce a joint `Computer Centre and Library' project in the 2nd phase. Overall objective of this new project reads as `(the) quality of Education, Research and Management at UNZA is improved by making use of ICT' and its specific objective as `Efficient ICT services are provided to the University Community which includes Academics, Administrative staff and Students'16. Intermediate results for the second phase are formulated as follows17: (a) Through-put of the Network is increased; (b) Security on the Network has improved; (c) Competent and qualified computer staff is available at the Computer Centre; (d) Dissemination of Research results; (e) Formulation of sustainability mechanisms. As far as the library is concerned, the overall objective reads as `(the) quality of information service delivery to support teaching, research and public service is improved', its specific objective as `(efficient) library service responsive to specific needs of the user community (teaching/research staff and students of the University) is provided'. Intermediate results enumerated for the library component are: (a) Up-to date informa13 AP 2000, page 74. 14 According to the Phase II Partner Programme document, the specific objective reads as `Efficient ICT services are provided to the University community (academic and administrative staff and students' (page 28). 15 According to the mid-term evaluation report: `It is understood that the proposal to include the central management and administration of the university in this component was abandoned. It is therefore unclear whether or not it has been effective in decentralising these functions'. 16 On page 51 of the Phase II Programme document, overall objective and specific objective are formulated somewhat differently. 17 Phase II Programme document, page 45. Page 51 and 52 of this document do not include the last two intermediate results.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

tion resources needed for teaching, learning and research are provided; (b) Access to electronic publications is achieved; (c) Security of Information resources is enhanced; (d) Existing library management system is upgraded; (e) Staff capacity is built

realisations: Computer Centre

Computer infrastructure & bandwidth

Up to 2001, improvement of infrastructure financed under the project included the provision of IT hardware18 and software and literature. In subsequent years, project provisions included a new PABX, cabling of the engineering building, School of Medicine and INESOR, refurbishment of the library basement as a computer lab for students, installation of security bars and alarm systems, the provision of air conditioners for computer labs and a 4x4 vehicle. A mail server was furthermore procured in the course of AP-2004 and two more servers were procured under AP 2006. The mid-term evaluation of 2001 identified that UNZANET had a major problem with the bandwidth, the unreliability of the services furnished by the Internet Service Provider (ISP), i.e. ZAMNET, and with inter-campus connectivity. Moreover, at the time, access to Internet was limited by the lack of computers in the University. From AP-2002 onwards, project activities therefore focused on dealing with the bandwidth issue between ZAMNET, which is a private company fully owned by the University19, and UNZA. ZAMNET could not cope with the increase in Internet traffic both inside and outside the University; though negotiations were held, UNZA, being just one of ZAMNET's customers, was not given priority and the report on AP-2003 observed that while the `University had good equipment to cater for large bandwidth ... the ISP could not provide the required bandwidth' and access and reliability problems persisted. In the course of AP-2002, radios to improve bandwidth were received and installed, though with delays due to late delivery, the need to replace broken radios and the need to undertake additional civil works. The Computer Centre finally opted for a solution `where the University has direct links with a satellite for its downward requirement and goes through ZAMNET for its uplink connectivity'20. It was also agreed that payment for this set up would be on a cost sharing basis, with `VLIR paying the full amount for the first year and UNZA progressively meeting the cost on sharing basis with 25%, 50% and 75% of the amount being paid by UNZA'21. In 2003, the project met the costs of increased bandwidth by `reallocating some funds from the Library component', one reason being that library staff was slow in articulating its requirements. However, implementation (i.e. purchase and installation of a satellite dish, VSAT) met with considerable delays and was only realised in the 1st quarter of 200422. In 2004, only minor improvements were realised: the download speed increased from 128kbps to 512kbps, while for the uplink remained the same at 128kbps. While already in the course of AP-2004, it was recognised that bandwidth management tools were needed to monitor and manage this bandwidth, only during AP-2005 did `UNZA

18 I.e. 280 computers (of which 100 for students and 180 distributed across the schools), 25 printers, 10 copiers and 10 scanners for teaching and research, radio links for the School of Medicine and the Institute for Economic and Social Research (INESOR), 19 Interesting observations are made in the mid-term evaluation report on this: `UNZANET could, in theory, become a commercial venture if the need arose, but this would detract from the original philosophy for establishing it. It would force it to charge the university for every hour used on university services, including teaching, at a cost the university would not be able to afford'. 20 Annual report 2003, page 7. 21 Annual programme 2004, page 15. 22 According to the Kort verslag van de Vlaamse begeleidingscommissie UNZA, Gent of 24 September 2003, the project would pay for the installation of the satelite dish ( 10,000) and subscription costs (24.000) for 2003. Project contributions to the subscription costs would decline to 18,000, 12,000 and 6,000 for subsequent years.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

management (procure) a bandwidth management tool'23 ­ however this was not installed and according to the selfassessment report, there is still no bandwidth monitoring software in place. An additional problem was that many computers still had only a 10mbits network card installed. To further improve connectivity, it was decided to replace the hubs across the campus wide network and D-link switches. However, the router that was foreseen was not bought (or its delivery delayed) and while AP-2005 saw replacement of some hubs by switches, the router at the centre remained the same, operating at 10Mbits only, and network access speed problems persisted. Moreover, `(after) the installation of the VSAT it was discovered that the type of servers the Computer Centre had were of low capacity and could not handle the kind of internet traffic that was passing through the new VSAT whilst performing other services such as WEB services, PROXY, DNS, EMAIL DHCP etc.'24. The situation was further compounded by problems with the DNS server. Another issue concerned network safety and performance; according to the progress report on AP-2002, `(software) to monitor network performance was identified, and bought in Belgium but not installed'; the reasons for this are unknown. The situation remained unchanged in 2003 and only in 2004 was network safety addressed through installation of anti-SPAM and anti-virus software. In the course of AP-2006, activities focused on the replacement of the remaining hubs with D-link switches and the replacement of the router. During the same period UNZA initiated the Netherlands funded Triple "S" project25 (funded from the Netherlands NPT programme). To avoid duplication of efforts, it was agreed that `instead of purchasing D-link switches' the project would finance two `servers that host the administrative systems such as Students Records Systems and a DNS server, which had been giving problems during student registration and Internet access'26. Despite the efforts made, the network continued to be slow, though security had improved by the end of the project's lifetime. Since then, the situation seems to have improved further as indicated in the internal assessment report: `Down time: Currently System non-availability is approximately 10%; Response Time: Response time less than a second; Number of users: increase from approximately 900 to 1,800 users at present; Network through-put: increase from 512 Kbps (downlink) 28 Kpbs uplink to current 7MB downlink 1MB uplink; Network Security: Had approximately five intrusions in the system, reduced to zero with the installation of a Fire Wall'.Staff interviewed acknowledged that there had been improvements in the computer services and Internet availability but continued to express a lack in confidence in the system (an indicator being the continued use of yahoo and g-mail accounts rather than University e-mail accounts). Servicing of equipment is reported to have been an ongoing affair since 2002; in AP-2003, a number of spares were furthermore bought `to repair malfunctioning equipment in the basement as well as other areas within the University'.

23 Annual report 2005, page 8: 24 Annual programme 2005, page 9 25 Aim of this project is to improve the Management Information Systems of the University of Zambia. One of the components of the project to improve the ICT infrastructure and includes replacement of all hubs and D-link switches at the centre of the network would be replaced by the CISCO switches and router. 26 Annual report 2006, Page 10.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Capacity building - Competent and qualif ied ICT staff is available at the Computer Centre

Staff training activities have included the following: During phase 1, three engineers `attended network training in Antwerp and another attended a workshop in South Africa'. Training was also organised for the Director of the Computer Centre in management and leadership. During AP-2002, three staff were sponsored to attend to the CISCO programme at the Department of Computer Studies while two staff attended a course on the making and repair of Power Surge Protectors and UPSs During AP-2003, three staff were sponsored to attend the CISCO programme while two staff participated in training on 2003 server and windows XP. AP-2004 saw two staff trained in LINUX at Intoweb Training Centre in South Africa (March 2005) and three staff trained in a `LINUX tailored course suitable for the UNZA network solutions' that was offered by ZAMNET in January 2005. In addition, the Zambian Project leader attended two workshops on Open source and Internet security organised by INWENT for Information Technology in African Business, a SADAC ICT network ( Johannesburg (August - September, 2004) and Mozambique (November 2004)) During AP-2005, one staff was sent on a M.Sc. programme while another staff member went for a CISCO training locally. In 2006, since the Master student did not perform, and programme rules do not allow a student to repeat, a tailored programme in networking was arranged instead.

According to the selfassessment report, the Centre still does not have staff with expertise in certain ICT fields, particularly networking. Moreover, according to interviewees at the Computer Centre, some of the training received in Flanders may well have been too theoretical and has been difficult to use in practice. While a number of staff were trained in various ICT fields, insufficient attention has been paid to the issues of staff retention and motivation; two network engineers trained already obtained more lucrative employment outside UNZA. This issue was already highlighted in the mid-term evaluation report of 2001, which also stressed the importance of `constant training to keep up with new developments in the ICT world' and recommended that `(discussions) are held with the university administration with the aim of creating enhanced conditions of employment for specialist IT staff' to ensure that adequate staff to run the Computer Centre can be recruited and retained'. The remarks made in 2001 remain valid to date.

Research

While the intention was to `(carry) out research activities that will direct the University in the direction of e-learning to attract more students, this will be in collaboration with both Computer studies and Distance education' it is understood that some research on e-learning was undertaken by the then Project leader of the project and another staff member of the Computer Centre. However, the research findings were not presented during any of the two conferences on interdisciplinary research.

27 Annual report 2004, page 8

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

realisations Library

Procurement of books

Book purchases under AP-2002 were cancelled due to budget reductions ­ with more money going to the Computer Centre than originally planned 28. In 2003-2004, books were purchased for a limited amount ( 5,000). In 2005, books were purchased from Mallory International Limited (GBP 6,266.65) and Universal Education and Information Services (GBP 6,324.27). In 2006, though it was foreseen to purchase books from Mallory International Limited, due to problems, the books were never purchased.

Access to electronic publications

Over the lifetime of the project, the following investments were made in ICT: 4 Dell Dimension 8250 PCs, 5 ASUS PCs and 1 laptop; subscription to CD-ROM databases (AP-2002); devise Server, 19 PCs, 1 network copier/printer, 1 office printer, 19 computer tables and chairs as well as other items (Norton anti-virus software for single user, 3 (24-port) and 5 (8-port) network switches) (AP-2004); LCD projector, heavy duty colour printer and photocopier (AP-2005); additional server and a power generator (ZMK 67,773,000.00) (AP-2006).

Security

Procurement of an electronic book detection system was not undertaken in AP-2002 due to insufficient funds but an emergency lighting system was bought and installed, Security related activities in AP-2003 included maintenance of the surveillance system and construction of security grille fence around the CD-ROM area and of a burglar proof deck (February 2004). According to the 2002 Annual report, `(the) main activities in the Library Project .. have been the improvement of security provided by a local security firm... A major impact of this activity has resulted in "zero" break-ins'29. Contracting of the security company (Rapid Security Intervention System) continued up to 31 March 2006 when the university started paying for the service30.

Upgrading Library Management system

Funding was provided for an upgrade of the Dynix Software31 and for a Dynix oneyear maintenance renewal in AP-2004 since the system support maintenance had been put on `maintenance hold'. This had put the Library `in an awkward situation whereby the numerous system errors being experienced cannot be attended to'32.

Library staff training

The Dynix related training that was foreseen for AP-2002 did not take place due to `some uncertainty' regarding the future of Dynix. Again, in 2003, this training was not done ` because of the possibility of migrating to a windows based library system as

28 Annual report 2002, page 12: Owing to budget shifts for the Library Project (from 90,000 EUR to 62,500 EUR to 30,000 and finally ending at 21,000) it became virtually impossible for the Library to implement most of the activities planned for the year 2002. 29 Annual report 2002, Page 12. Despite the electronic surveillance contract with Pre-Secure Security Ltd ( 2,000), a pc and monitor were stolen in AP 2004. 30 2005 Annual report, page 11. 31 In 1995 the Library installed a good automated library management system called Dynix. Both the library software and hardware were paid for by FINNIDA. With FINIDA's support UNZA Library was also able to solicit and achieve complete retrospective record conversion of its entire manual card catalogue. Although the Library was able to pay for, and install, all the modules of the Dynix system (Cataloguing, Circulation, Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), Serials management, Short Loan Collection etc.), UNZA Library has not benefited from software upgrades due to our non-renewal of software maintenance licence. This will be achieved in AP2003. 32 Annual report 2004, page 12.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

recently advised by the Dynix software vendors'33. In AP-2005 it was planned to send a staff member for training to the UK; however the library was advised to send two staff for training at Universal Knowledge System (UKS) in South Africa. Training of one Ph.D. was originally foreseen; the Ph.D. scholarship was, however, cancelled during AP-2003, although some expenditure (travel of candidate to Belgium) had already been incurred. The staff member concerned managed, nevertheless, to complete his Ph.D., though without programme support, except for financing of travel and subsistence cost for his thesis defence in Belgium.

Assessment

Relevance

There is no doubt that in today's world, in order to be able to effectively and efficiently provide teaching, learning, research and services, and to communicate with the outside (academic) world, a university requires adequate, reliable and safe access to Internet as `the information highway'. Similarly, a proper functioning of the University library is a prerequisite for the academic community to undertake its tasks of teaching, research and community services. The project is hence extremely relevant.

Effectiveness

At the time of project closure (March 2007), the network was still unreliable and unable to cope with increased Internet traffic. The situation has improved considerably since then, not in the least, because of supplementary intervention of another donor (the Netherlands), which built on what was realised under the project. Though staff training was undertaken, it has been less than originally foreseen. Staff development falls still short in some key areas, particularly network management and further staff development will be needed to be able to keep the Centre operational. No research was undertaken as originally envisaged. Due to repeated cuts in the budget for the library component , the project has realised its original objectives only to a limited extent.

Eff iciency

Efficiency of project implementation was affected by slow decision-making on the side of University management on how the ICT system should be designed, coupled with uncertainties on the most appropriate (and affordable) technical approach to be followed and the technical choices to be made. According to the current director of the Computer Centre, efficiency was also affected by the fact that neither the Flemish nor the UNZA project leaders had a background in networking. The delivery of computers through the Close the Gap initiative met with considerable delays; moreover, UNZA was said to be `unlucky' as regards the quality of the computers provided. Instability in the Librarian's office also affected project implementation of the Project, with local leadership changing six times during the project's lifetime. Several exchange visits were made by the Zambian and Flemish project leaders; an ICT steering committee was set up at one point in time which was supposed to be an Advisory Unit on ICT matters at UNZA. However, the reports available shed no further light on this topic.

33 Annual report 2003, page 19. 34 The self-assessment of the library in this respect repors: `the twining of the Library and the Computer Centre under one project was not healthy for the Library. The Computer Centre had undue advantage as the former Computer Centre Director occupied a prominent role in the VLIR Project and influenced decisions to benefit his unit. Frequently some of the funds allocated to the Library were reallocated to the Computer Centre to meet the needs of the latter which were felt to be of the highest priority by the Vice Chancellor. This resulted into the Library failing to meet some of the objectives in the Project' (2008 Self-Assessment ­ project 1.2 Library).

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Impact

It is only recently that the network function at UNZA has improved and appreciated. However, the actual impact of fast and reliable access to Internet on the quality of the University's teaching and research provision remains to be seen. Facilities at the library have improved ­ though the building itself is urgently requiring rehabilitation; however, access to electronic databases was only improved after the computer network started to function properly.

Sustainability

The Computer Centre is currently seriously understaffed and receives minimal financial support (other than salaries) from central administration. The existing staff is currently 25 technical personnel, of whom 3 hold an M.Sc, 6 a B.Sc,, and 16 the equivalent of a diploma. Despite the available provision for 9 staff for network services and 14 for systems development, there are only 6 network engineers, including the Director of the Centre. With `greener pastures' outside the University, this implies a considerable risk. To enhance sustainability, more staff ought to have been trained than has been the case. The financial situation of the Computer Centre is compounded by the low student fees charged and the fact that income earning activities (e.g. training on LAN management, UNIX, Word Processing) are not yet sufficient developed to generate enough profit which can serve to recruit and retain enough qualified IT staff and to replace the available equipment. At the same time, and this is contrary to the past, it is understood that UNZA management now realises the importance of ICT and has increasingly embraced ICT as a major aspect of training and research at the institution and has taken over the financing of the increased bandwidth. Despite these more positive signs, the mission endorses the recommendation made in the mid-term evaluation report of 2001 that `(a) business unit is set up to record all the income and expenditure related to "commercial" IT services provided by the Computer Centre, to develop new services and to maximise the income from these ...'. It is hoped that the forthcoming ICT policy, which is in its final draft, together with a new proposal to restructure the Computer Centre, coupled with the proposed staff retention strategy, which is currently with UNZA management for decision making, will be able to address the above concerns. Issues observed with respect to sustainability of the library are: (a) the lack of senior library staff35 and (b) the state of the library building, facing considerable leakage during the rainy season which may well threaten both the equipment installed and the library's collection of books, journals and magazines. The Mission learnt furthermore that the library receives only ZMK 15 Million (the equivalent of 2,700) per month from Central Administration for its operations.

35 Only 71 positions out of 140 established positions are filled.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

5

Distance Education project

Introduction

For the 1st phase of the Programme, the project aimed to `improve the quality, socioeconomic relevance, scope and accessibility of distance education offered by UNZA'. The immediate objective mentioned in the interim-evaluation mission report reads as `(to) build and strengthen the capacity of the Directorate of Distance Education to deliver its courses and support services to distance learners through the application of information and communication technologies'. Intended outputs for this phase were (a) Improved infrastructure and systems for distance education; (b) Enhanced quality of distance education and (c) Increased number of courses and distance students. For the 2nd phase, the overall objective was `(to) improve the quality, socio-economic relevance, scope and accessibility of distance education offered by UNZA'. The specific objective reads as `(to) build and strengthen the capacity of the Directorate of Distance Education (DDE) to deliver high quality courses and support services to distance learners through the application of information and communication technologies'. The envisaged intermediate results for this phase were the following: Availability of trained and motivated staff for programme implementation A wider range of quality programmes and courses offered by distance learning Increased access to University programmes of study Improved quality of course materials Administrative/Management system automated and improved Improved student support system Infrastructure enhanced Operation of DDE sustainable at the end of the project

realisations

Capacity Building /staff development

During the 1st phase of the programme, the following training activities were undertaken: one staff member followed an M.Sc. in Educational Research in Belgium one staff registered on a Ph.D. programme at UNZA with joint supervision from the Belgian project leader two staff enrolled on postgraduate diploma courses in Distance Education at UNISA in South Africa Furthermore, 15 staff members were trained in computer skills and Instructional Design to produce course materials on computers, and computer training of UNZA Regional Officers.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

AP-2003 and AP-2004 saw some upsurge in training activities, including: workshops for lecturers in ICT, instructional design, student monitoring, and tutoring planned for 2002 but postponed to August 2003 due to unforeseen changes in the University of Zambia academic calendar as a result of closures Training of DDE staff in the use of ICT for distance education management Training of Resident Tutors and their Secretaries in computer usage, general principles of distance education, student support and use of the new system Training of lecturers in basic computer skills Training of one DDE staff in advanced computer usage and simple basic programme and hardware maintenance. Furthermore, in the course of AP-2003, one staff member completed the post graduate diploma in distance education with UNISA while another continued into 2004 but could not complete the training because UNISA discontinued the programme. Training undertaken in the last two years of the project included: One staff member participated in training in the Production of Audio Visual learning material at K.U. Leuven Two staff were trained in Basic Computer Repair and Maintenance (March 2005) a sensitisation workshop was held on the use of ICT in education for principal officers of UNZA (March 2006) A ToT workshop on the use of ICT in education was held in March 2006 Staff training in Information and Communications Technology (March 2007) A 2-day training workshop for resident tutors (March 2007) on PC and Internet basics. The Ph.D. candidate went through several supervisors and Ph.D. proposals, undertook a mission to Brussels in 2004 and 2005 and submitted his thesis during AP-2006. He was subsequently appointed as Director DDE and, more recently, as head of UNZA's library. A second Ph.D. training that was originally foreseen was not implemented; though training was considered important, it proved difficult to find the right people for this level of education.

A wider range of quality programmes and courses offered by distance learning

During the lifetime of the project, the number of distance education programmes offered increased from three to six, i.e. B.A. of Arts (B.A), B.A. of Arts with Education (B.A. Ed.); B.A. of primary education; B.A. of special education, and B.A. of Arts with Library and Information Studies. These remain, however, incomplete programmes as 3rd and 4th year courses (which were discontinued already in the early 1980s), which would have allowed for a fully parallel distance higher education programme, were not developed as originally intended. Some course materials were re-written in formats that were more appropriate for distance learning. The mission is not a position to judge the quality of the content of the learning materials and the quality of their delivery, which are the responsibility of academic staff outside DDE but are clearly fundamental to the effectiveness of any distance education programme.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Increased access to University programmes of study

The available data (see the table below) indicate that distance student enrolment increased from 386 in 1996/1997 to 1,606 by 2006/2007 and 1,743 in 2007/2008.

Year 1996/1997 1997/1998 1998/1999 1999/2000 2000/2001 2001/2002 enrolment 386 314 371 444 635 586 Year 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 enrolment 888 841 1,165 1,612 1,606 1,743

The project facilitated this increase by improvement of the student management systems; however, it seems to have done little in actually promoting this increase. Distance education students account for some 14-15% of total enrolment at UNZA; close to 50% of the distance education students are women. To ease access the payment plan system was modified to allow students to pay their fees in five instalments instead of three, which had proven difficult for many self-sponsored students.

Enhancement of infrastructure

Main activities during the 1st phase of the project were: the provision of hardware and software for the production of course materials and the administration of distance students improvements to DDE central and remote premises; this included the repartitioning of DDE offices, the provision of furniture, lighting and security systems and air conditioner for the computer room and of documentation and books. the provision of IT equipment for DDE central and remote premises. To enhance the available infrastructure, the 2nd phase included purchases of inter alia ICT equipment (laptop for Ph.D. candidate, flat screen PCs (AP-2005), memory sticks, etc.), reproduction facilities for provincial centres (such as computers, printers, scanners, etc), an electric stapler, video camera and accessories, LCD projector and consumables for heavy duty photocopier (drum units). During AP-2006, a Close the Gap (CTG) initiative proposal, initiated by DDE together with the Nkrumah Teachers' Training College, was approved by VLIR-UOS and 200 computers were provided. 25 PCs were reserved for DDE's Computer room, and the Registry and Course Materials sections and 27 were allocated to provincial centres36. Project funding was furthermore provided for the maintenance of three heavy-duty photocopiers from AP-2004 onwards. The project furthermore paid for the maintenance of computers and printers in both DDE and Provincial Centres. While some books were acquired in 2001, books and journals were not bought in 2002 and 2003, instead funds were used for buying stationary for the production of course materials. Books and journals on distance education were ordered in Belgium in the course of AP-2004.

36 Mansa (4); Kitwe (4); Livingstone (4); Chipata (3); Mongu (3); Kabwe (3); Solwezi (3); and Kasama (3). 10 computers were allocated to Choma Secondary School.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Improved course quality

Implementation of the project saw a gradual increase of the materials developed and typed on computer and `stored electronically', from 50% of the courses in AP-2002, to 60% in AP-2003, 80% in AP-2004 and 95% at present, a painstaking process because of the `high rate of staff turnover'. The write-up continued until the end of the project as new courses were being introduced. Support for the development of course materials was provided throughout the project's lifetime, amongst others through the provision of computers for lecturers in DDE's course materials section. According to the Annual report on 2006, `(an) e-learning environment (DOKEOS) was installed on the DDE Server and can be accessed... (to) register and create courses, enrol students etc. There is, however, need to organize a ToT workshop on how to use the learning environment. This could not be done during the reporting period'37. All in all, improved course quality is to be seen in terms of lay-out and use of house style and the availability of materials on computer.

Improved student support system

The intention was to connect eight (later nine) provincial centres to the UNZA computer network and that provincial staff and students would use these facilities to communicate with DDE. According to the report on AP-2001, seven provincial centres38 with computers had Internet connection39, with some doing better than others in terms of connectivity. By the end of AP-2003 all nine provincial centres40 with computers had Internet connectivity. However, the communication system did not work - both at the centres and at UNZA 41. As of AP-2002, the project therefore agreed to pay telephone and internet bills to allow provincial centres that were previously disconnected to be reconnected in the course of AP-2004. Payment of telephone and Internet bills continued into AP-2005 as well as AP-2006. However, in 2005, since the centres, because of poor telephone connectivity (dial-up), `made very little use of these services despite incurring monthly fixed charges... it was decided that ZAMNET temporarily disconnects the centres'42. As part of the efforts to enhance the student support system, the intention was to appoint student support officers who would be working under DDE in the provincial centres. These would be working in parallel with the `tutors' or `provincial resident lecturers' that are working in these centres - but come under the aegis of UNZA's adult education department. Up to AP-2003, the `(conditions) for Student Support Service Officers were not worked out because of the general university restructuring exercise' and recruitment and training of the officers did not take place as planned. The project had to wait till AP-2004 to learn that UNZA management `did not support the recruitment of these officers as it was considered a duplication. It was pointed out that the already established Resident Lecturers' offices in all the provinces could perform distance education activities and that Resident Lecturers would be given new job descriptions to incorporate the distance education component as part of their normal duties'43.

37 2006 Annual report, page 14. 38 I.e. Kitwe, Livingstone, Choma, Chipata, Mongu, Mansa and Kasama. 39 During AP-2001, PCs were installed for the Assistant Registrar of DDE, as well as 7 provincial centres and; the provincial centres were also connected to Internet 40 I.e. Kitwe, Livingstone, Choma, Chipata, Mongu, Mansa, Kasama, Kabwe and Solwezi. During AP-2003, two new computers installed at Kabwe and Solwezi centres. 41 The 2003 Annual Report observes in this respect: `The internet connectivity for all the provincial centres, which we had hoped would be achieved, was not done due to operational problems on the part of service providers. Incidentally, the same problem affects the intra-network services at the university' (Annual report 2003, page 17). 42 Annual report 2005, page 15. 43 2004 report, page 15

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Administrative/Management system automated and improved

A computerised management information system containing student records, details of courses, etc. was established during the 1st phase of the project. Intention was that, with this system in place, DDE would be able to cope with increased numbers of students and courses. In AP-2001, a prototype was tested, the student record management expanded and refined and a new version of student records developed. The development process continued into AP-2002 when some training was held for DDE staff in record management. AP-2003 saw the continuation of filling the system with data on students, lecturers, courses, etc.; this exercise continued also into AP-2004 and AP-2005. According to the 2006 Annual report, `(the) Student Management System is running .. There is a need to upgrade the system to allow importing from the Student Registration System (SRS). Furthermore, there is need for DOKEOS and the SRS to operate in an integrated manner'44. At the same time, the internal assessment report observes that a `(template) of the prototype (was) developed but not utilised as a separate system. DDE continued to rely on the UNZA system, which has some aspects of the prototype'. The Mission understands that there is an issue of lack of compatibility between the DDE system and the general student administration system.

Assessment

Relevance

Distance education - which is often second chance education with a large number of students being teachers going for a higher degree - allows the Zambian higher education system to expand enrolment, however without overburdening the rather limited higher education institutions. However, till now, it only covers, and only for some disciplines, the first two years of higher education, following which students have to continue their higher education as regular students at UNZA in Lusaka.

Effectiveness

The main purpose of the 1st phase was to build and strengthen the capacity of DDE to deliver its courses and support services to distance learners through the application of information and communication technologies. Also in the 2nd phase, the main emphasis was on the provision of distance education infrastructure and management tools, as well as staff development, mainly at `technical' level through training in the use of ICT. According to the interviewees, 25 out of the 100 teaching staff involved in distance education have started to use a different approach to distance education. The Ph.D. holder, who graduated in the field of distance education in Zambia, is at the same time no longer working in DDE. To a certain extent, the efforts made have `provided the requisite environment for the increase in the number of students pursuing their degree programmes through distance education'. There is also some evidence of improved management as a result of the development of new procedures and skills, and the introduction of a computerised management information system and staff capacity to manage a larger number of distance education students by making use of this system. There nevertheless remains need for `more systematic assessment, evaluation and monitoring'45.

44 Annual Report 2006, page 14. 45 Annual report 2001, page 9. Similar observations are made in the Annual report 2004: `However, to ascertain the overall performance of the programme, there will be need for more systematic assessment, evaluation and monitoring' (page 17).

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Other remaining key issues are the following: the quality of the contents of the distance education provision - which was not really tackled though the quality of course materials (in print) has improved in terms of layout following the introduction of a house style the fact that UNZA has no `institutional policy on distance education defining roles, responsibilities, priorities and accountabilities with regard to the governance structure, management, teaching, leaner support and staffing'.

Eff iciency

Relatively frequent missions were undertaken by the Flemish project leader (2003-2007), who played a key role in getting the ICT operational with return visits undertaken by the Zambian project leader in 2004 and 2005. The presence of the Flemish expert was essential to `get things done'. The mid-term evaluation mission furthermore reported on a `Senate Distance Learning subcommittee that provides policy advice to the university's management'; however, project progress reports do not shed light on the role and functioning of this committee. Management of the distance education provision was affected by the fact that staff of the provincial centres come under the University's department of adult education - and not DDE. This remains an issue to be addressed in future as the division of responsibility between DDE and adult education can lead to confusion and delays.

Impact

Different categories of staff have received training in computer skills, in management of distance education programmes, were motivated to use modern IT equipment, and were trained in basic computer repair and maintenance. This is expected to enhance DDE's capability to continue to implement its distance education programmes. Still, `there is .. more to be done before ICT could be fully utilised and hence obtain maximum benefits from the use of the same'46. At the same time, the improved communication infrastructure has created a basis for better and faster communication between distance education students and their tutors. The full benefits of this will only be known in the years to come. DDE is involved in a mathematics and science teacher training programme, financed by the African Development Bank, together with the African Virtual University; however, this programme is expected to take off only later in 2008.

Sustainability

Over the years, there has been considerable optimism as regards the sustainability of the distance education system. For example, the mid-term evaluation report observed: `DDE is increasingly becoming sustainable and income from distance education services allows for the financing of all the operational costs, except salaries... It is expected that DDE will be able to raise more revenue because of increases in the student enrolment figures and the prospect of selling surplus study materials to full-time, students and other interested parties'. Similar optimistic observations are made in the progress reports on AP-2001 and 2002. Again in 2006, it was stated that the current culture of continuing education in the country, `coupled with limited institutions that provide higher education in the country', it is expected to sustain the increase in student enrolment and fee income `for some years to come notwithstanding the inauguration of an Open University in the country'47.

46 Annual report 2006, page 16 47 Annual report 2006, page 15-16.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

There are at the same time issues, which could be a threat for the future of UNZA's distance education efforts and that are warranting attention. First of all, there is no distance education policy that the University would like to pursue and there seems to be no business plan for DDE. Secondly, although DDE raises income, and increasingly so because of increased enrolments, an important part of the running costs have been funded by the project over several years. It is not evident how these running costs will in future be absorbed by the University. Moreover, while `(academic) staff allowances increased substantially (and) (distance) teaching is considered for promotion as part of contribution to teaching in the university', it has been observed that fees paid to academic staff outside DDE, i.e. those responsible for the actual programmes, remain low, with `moon shining' as a result (e.g. at the Zambian Open University).

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

6

Computer Studies project

Introduction

The project for the Department of Computer Studies was initiated in response to the increased demand in Zambia for qualified IT staff and the absence of a computer studies programme in the country. The project also responded to the Government's National ICT policy, which identified the lack of ICT experts as one of the factors hampering effective utilisation of ICT in the country. The overall objective for the 1st phase of the project: was `to improve the performance of the Zambian economy in both the public and private sectors through the effective application of computer technology'. The objective reads as `(to) establish a fully operational Department of Computer Studies within the School of Natural Sciences, which will offer programmes of study at B.Sc., Postgraduate Diploma and M.Sc. levels, as well as research and consultancy services to industrial and administrative agencies'48. Intended outputs were the following: Department of Computer Studies established. B.Sc. programme in computer studies established. Postgraduate Diploma in Computer Studies established. Improved computer skills of UNZA students in various fields of study Overall objective for the 2nd phase reads as `Deficiency of computer experts on the labour market (both public and private sector) is reduced'. The specific objective is that `(the) Department of Computer Studies is fully operational within the School of Natural Sciences49'. The envisaged results for this phase were enumerated as follows: Complete B.Sc. Programme in CST is offered Participation in regional M.Sc. Programme in Computer Science One-year postgraduate diploma conversion course in CS is re-established Qualified academic staff is available for teaching and research Computer equipment is operational, maintained and upgraded Computer and other equipment is secured in the new premises Training professionals in collaboration with industry Income is generated for sustainability and programme expansion Research is carried out

48 According to the annual programme for 2000 (page 78), specific objectives were: (1) To contribute to a reduction of labour market deficiencies with regard to computer experts, both in the public and the private sector; (2) To set up undergraduate university education in computer science; (3) To improve computer skills of UNZA students in various branches of study. Or as it was worded in the Annual activity report 2002 (page 23), `(the) main objective of this project is to offer, through the newly established Department of Computer Studies, the last three years of a four-year BSc programme in Computer Studies, a one-year postgraduate diploma programme in Computer Studies, and with time MSc and PhD degrees. The new department is also expected to offer research and consultancy services to industrial and administrative agencies in the public and private sector in the country. Finally, within the School of Natural Sciences and the University at large, Computer Studies is expected to offer service courses to other departments and other units'. 49 Document for Phase II of the Programme, page 130. On page 117, the objective reads somewhat differently: `The Department of Computer Studies is fully operational within the School of Natural Sciences and is able to train sufficient numbers of computing experts which Zambia needs'.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

realisations

General

The Department was launched in 1999 with a 1-year postgraduate diploma programme, which produced two batches of graduates until it was suspended mid-200150 when the B.Sc. programme in Computer Studies entered into its second year51. In September 2000, the Department started with the 2nd year of the diploma programme; however, at the time the academic calendar suffered important delays (more than six months) as a result of strikes and closure of the University. Again in 2003, the start of the academic year was postponed from February to May; as a result both semesters were shortened by two weeks, and the mid-semester breaks were cancelled. In 2003, the first group of 17 B.Sc. students graduated.

Expansion of computer facilities: the investments in didactic and logistic equipment in the new premises for the Department are completed

In the 1st phase, the project completed a building extension consisting of 3 classrooms, 2 laboratories, 9 offices, a seminar room, small hardware laboratory, toilet facilities for staff and students, tea and store-rooms (commissioned on 4 September 2001). In addition, a store-room was converted into a classroom and some 41 PCs were purchased and installed. Other infrastructure support included the procurement of a server, network installations in the post-graduate laboratory and the server room, together with other IT equipment (printers, data projector and projection screen), alarm systems and air conditioners for the laboratories. Books and electronic journals were supplied as well. Purchases continued were delayed to March 2003 and included 21 PCs, one printer, an additional server, a data projector and 2 screens, a PABX and `small networking equipment'52. Main reasons for the delay were to the `late availability of AP-2002 funds in Zambia (August 2002), late availability of (of the) final budget (November 2002), and ... the slow proceeding of UNZA Tender Board Committee'53. Procurement continued into the 2nd phase, when the following equipment and materials were purchased: (a) several software packages together with additional equipment to improve performance of the network and 4 PCs for staff (AP-2003); (b) 3 laptops for three M.Sc. students to facilitate their training (AP-2004) and (c) a photocopier and additional software and books for databases, software, and programming According to the progress reports of 2003, 2004 and 2005, `a draft document on collaboration with the Computer Centre in Network management and security was written and awaits implementation'; however little seems to have come of this to date. In the period 2003-2005, project funding was also used to pay for the services of Pre-Secure Security (guards...).

50 The uptake of the Postgraduate Diploma programme was low and was suspended after two years of operation because of low staffing levels, even though it was initially hoped that this programme would provide candidates, after further training, for staff in the Department. 51 The 1st year of study, common to all students in the School of Natural Sciences, is offered outside the Department. At the time of the mid-term evaluation, 7 students had been trained at post-graduate diploma level, developed within the framework of the project. 52 Elsewhere in the 2002 Annual report (page 24): `In the final version of the DAP-2002 (Dec 2002), one network printer and one server have been budgeted (instead of 2 printers). They have been purchased in Zambia end March 2003'. 53 Annual report 2002, page 24.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Capacity building / staff development

At the time of the mid-term evaluation, there was an establishment of 12 staff54; with only 2 full-time staff in place, i.e. the Belgian permanent expert with a Ph.D. and one Zambian M.Sc. Furthermore, there were 2 part-time lecturers. The mid-term evaluation report furthermore observed that two persons, who had (almost) completed their Ph.D. studies in the UK, had not returned or were unlikely to return because of greener pastures in the UK. At the same time, one student had completed a M.Sc. programme in Belgium while the Head of the Department had been on a network administration course for 1 month in Belgium and participated in a USAID-sponsored CISCO training programme. A key problem identified in the mid-term evaluation report was that `(the) economic situation in the University, and in Zambia, make it difficult to offer attractive salaries to any new lecturer in the department'. The issue of `critical understaffing', resulting mainly from `the unattractive financial package offered by UNZA in comparison to alternative employment in the private sector'55, was again underlined in the 2002-Annual Report. To compensate for the scarcity of staff, the Department employed temporary staff. However, a part-time staff member employed in 2001 left to take up `more attractive employment in Botswana'; in the same year, a M.Sc. programme for one member of staff had to be cancelled for reasons of understaffing. Moreover, the selected candidate `failed to find a suitable study programme and a Project Leader'56. For similar reasons, training was deferred to the end of the 2003 academic year57 when the Department managed to recruit part-time lecturers from e.g. the Computer Centre and the Physics Department'. In AP-2004, when the Department continued facing a shortage of teaching staff, it managed to employ three part-time staff for the first semester and one for the second. One staff member subsequently attended a 1-month programme in Antwerp on Linux management ( January ­ February 2004). A candidate for the programmed Ph.D. training was identified; it was expected that the incumbent would take up the scholarship in 2004. However, the Sandwich Ph.D. programme did not materialise `due to many logistical problems'58. In February 2004, five so-called Staff Development Fellows (SDFs) were recruited from the first batch of graduates from the Department. Two of them left within the first few months because of `the lucrative conditions of service in the private sector particularly for IT specialists'59, the remaining three were sent to the universities of Zimbabwe and of the Western Cape in South Africa. Two trainees subsequently graduated in February 2006 and returned to the Department to teach, the third graduated in 2007. An additional SDF was recruited and sent for training at the University of Cape Town in South Africa.

54 See the Proposal for `the rehabilitation and possible extension of the existing building' to accommodate the Department of Computer Studies of 6 September 1999: `The establishment levels for the Department of Computer Studies as approved by the University Senate is as follows: 16 members of staff (12 academic and 4 support staff); from year 2001 (15 students for year 2000), an enrolment of 30 students for each of the years of the undergraduate programme is expected; at least 15 postgraduate students per year. Thus, approximately a total student enrolment of 110 per year is expected. These will require at least a combination of 4 classrooms and microcomputer laboratories for the programme to function'. 55 Annual Report 2002, page 26. 56 Annual Report 2002, page 27. 57 `The absence of any staff member during one or two semesters would have endangered the ongoing offering of the BSc programme to 2nd and 3rd year students' (Annual report 2003, page 22). 58 Annual report 2004, Page 22 and 21 59 Annual report 2004, page 21.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Re-establish the one-year diploma programme

Initiatives started in 2003 to re-establish the one-year diploma programme that had been suspended earlier. The idea was to introduce the programme as part of the evening class activities of the Department. It was hoped that by conducting such classes, it would attract fee paying trainees so that revenues generated could be used to offset the `extra workload of the teaching staff'. In 2003, due to staff shortages, the matter was deferred to AP-2004 and subsequent years. To date, the diploma programme never seems to have taken of again.

Participation in regional MSc programme in Computer Science

In 2002 plans were developed to offer also a M.Sc. programme in Computer Studies from 2004 onwards, `possibly integrated into a regional initiative'. In February 2003, the Department was involved in a SIDA funded consultative regional workshop (Kampala) to discuss the possibility of establishing a Regional Centre for Graduate Studies in Computer Science and setting up a Regional M.Sc. Degree Programme in Computer Science60. Another round of consultative talks was scheduled for June 2004, however the report on 2004 observes `No real information is available and the concept is not yet well articulated'. No further information is available.

Research

Throughout the project's lifetime, the Department did not undertake `meaningful' research, mainly because of staff shortages. This situation continued into the final year of the project when staff was still `invariably overwhelmed with heavy workloads making it difficult to undertake research'. In a more optimistic tone, the Annual report on AP-2006 anticipates that `(with) the return of some scholars ... the situation is gradually improving and the department has put research on the agenda'61. A proposal for a `webbased education management system' was prepared but not approved for funding from the Multidisciplinary Research Project.

Training professionals in collaboration with industry

As of the start of the new millennium, the Department established relationships with the CISCO Systems Company that had provided a computer network training laboratory (worth $ 100,000). Collaboration with USAID (which provided set-up and training costs and funding for a computer laboratory/classroom) and UNDP (UN Volunteer) to set up a CISCO training academy continued into 2002. The idea was that by undertaking CISCO-related classes, the Department would be able to generate income, which, amongst others, could be used for further staff development62. Companies were approached to send (fee-paying) students to the Academy. In order to enhance the capacity of the staff particularly in networking, a CISCO training programme was conducted in AP-2004 for 5 staff members to enable them `to offer practical networking skills in their lectures'. In August 2005, three members were trained to handle more advanced CISCO training in order to eventually include CISCO in the undergraduate programme in order to enhance the practical skills of the graduates.

60 Together with universities are from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Burkina-Faso, Zambia and Malawi. 61 Annual report 2006, page 20. Somewhat surprisingly, the Internal Assessment includes one article in an international peer reviewed journal and three conference proceedings of the current head of the Department. 62 Annual report 2006, page 19: `The academy also helps in raising funds that can enable the department sustain its operations at the end of the partnership programme. Most of the staff in the department have since been trained to the level where they are able to offer CISCO modules. This ultimately contributes towards staff retention in the department as it enables them earn some extra income after conducting the training'.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Unfortunately, the Regional Academy initiative was discontinued after a CISCO review. The main reasons for this decision were the lack of Internet connectivity and the shortage of trainers. Since April 2005 the Department therefore houses only a CISCO local Academy, though expectations were `to regain Regional Academy status when the main problems cited by CISCO will have been resolved'63. According to staff of the Department, it is, once more, expected to regain regional status by April 2008.

Curriculum development

The Computer Studies curriculum was completed in August-September 2002, with some revision taking place in 2003 and 2004 `according to market demands'. It is understood that the curriculum existing at K.U. Leuven served as a basis for the project's curriculum development activities. Further efforts were made in August 2006 and March 2007 to review the curriculum, when two retreats were held. By the end of the AP-2006, eighteen courses, i.e. 50% of the programme had been reviewed and `evaluated and changed according to market demands'. At the time of the mission 75% of the programme has been reviewed.

Assessment

Relevance

The Computer Science Department responds to the evolving needs of IT experts in the Zambian economy. The training provided graduates with IT skills that are in demand in various sectors of the economy and graduates are reported to find employment easily and are offered jobs even before graduating. Up to 2007/2008, when 30 new students were enrolled (of which 5 dropped out), annual intake was 17 students per year. In view of existing norms for student/teacher ratios and available infrastructure, this number could not be increased. The level of training is reported to be good; graduates that pursued their studies at M.Sc. level, e.g. in Zimbabwe, are reported to have done well because of the strong foundation provided during their undergraduate studies.

Effectiveness

The planned teaching and learning infrastructure have been realised and a B.Sc. programme in Computer Studies is now up and running. An increasing number of M.Sc. graduates has returned to the Department since 2005 to teach. While the 2005 Annual report recognised that `(there) is need to continuously monitor the staffing aspect of the Department'64, the 2006-AP mentions that `it is anticipated that staffing levels will be reasonable (taking into account current student enrolment in the Department)'65. The Department now has seven staff members trained by the project, which is just over half the 12 posts officially established. The one-year diploma programme was not reinstated while the regional M.Sc. never got off the ground. The anticipated review of the current B.Sc. programme needs to be continued to ensure programme relevance and quality.

Eff iciency

At the start of the project, there was no Zambian staff to run a computer studies course ­ hence the need to have an expatriate resident expert to develop and conduct the B.Sc. during the initial years. Obviously, such an expert is expensive; an expert in computer studies from the South would obviously have been cheaper. Since the

63 Annual report 2006, Page 19 64 Annual report 2005, page 22. 65 Annual report 2006, page 39.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

departure of the long-term expert, there have been two heads of department, with the current incumbent in place since January 2006. The project leader from Flanders visited the project each year, mainly for short periods during the academic holidays in Belgium; it is understood that he was never there to see actual teaching in the classroom. Communication between Lusaka and Flanders has not been optimal, with the Flemish project leader having little view (and influence) on project expenditures and the activities that were implemented.

Impact

The programme has so far benefited the School of Natural Sciences as a whole by allowing that other departments (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) use the computer laboratories established by the project for their supervised classes. The project has contributed to increased availability of qualified IT people that are in demand in the Zambian economy.

Sustainability

Lack of stringent business oriented measures to venture into income generation is likely to undermine the department's ability to support its operations. This is further threatened by a lack of sufficient number of qualified staff. However, the various capacity building efforts undertaken by the project seem to have improved the situation. Nevertheless, the number of academic staff continues to be limited and there continues to be a threat of staff retention. There is a need for UNZA management to engage itself in developing a strategy and concrete measures to keep staff on board in view of the existing `greener pastures' outside the University ­ to day too little is done in this respect 66. To ensure additional income for the Department, the progress reports on 2003, 2004, and 2005, mention that `(a) number of programmes (was) held in the department' and that `(b) income generating activities has gone into maintaining the infrastructure and meeting some of the operational costs'. The activities under the umbrella of the CISCO Academy are of particular importance in this respect and need to be revitalised and supplemented by other income generating activities.

66 Several suggestions were made to retain staff, such as for UNZA to improve `the financial package offered to academic staff and in particular to all staff involved with ICT-related units (Department of Computer Studies, Computer Centre, Directorate of Distance Education)' and `exploring possibilities for staff-exchange programmes with other African universities in the region' (Annual report 2002, page 29). The Annual report 2003 (page 23), suggests furthermore: `Inter-departmental collaboration between the ICT related function at UNZA must be encouraged and synergised. The draft document drafted by the project leaders has to be put into action'

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

7

Food Science and Technology project

Introduction

The Food Science and Technology (FST) Department in the School of Agricultural Sciences was introduced on the basis of a CIDA-financed feasibility study undertaken by the University of British Columbia in 1997. This study had identified that development of Zambia's food industry was affected by a lack of trained food scientists with only 4.7% of the employees in this sector having a B.Sc. degree and barely 1% an M.Sc., the remainder having no formal qualification for the type jobs for which they were employed. The establishment of an FST Programme at UNZA was recommended to address this deficiency, thereby ensuring that the food industry would `have sufficient manpower, which is technologically prepared to develop the food industry'. Overall objective of the 1st phase of the project was to `provide qualified human resources for the Zambian food industry and related institutions', the immediate objective was `(to) establish a Department of Food Science and Technology within the School of Agricultural Sciences offering a four-year training programme'. For the 2nd phase, the overall objective reads as `Employment and entrepreneurship opportunities for food science and technology graduates in Zambia'. The Programme document for the 2nd phase furthermore mentions an `academic overall objective' and a developmental overall objective' which reads as `(to) ensure that the functioning of the Department of Food Science and Technology has improved; (and) to transform the country from a recipient of finished goods and services from other countries to producer and exporter of finished products and services'67. Specific objectives of the 2nd phase were: (a) to make the Food Science and Technology Department functional for research and consultancy; (b) to strengthen the capacity of academic and technical staff; and (c) to deliver quality consultancy services to the government and the private sector. The Programme document furthermore specifies the following intermediate results: (a) laboratory is operational; (b) capacities of academic and technical staff are strengthened; and (c) quality consultancy services are delivered to the government and private sector.

realisations

Staff development

At the time of the mid-term evaluation, the new Department had only two staff members (out of an establishment of 12): the resident Belgian expert as Head of Department and one full time Zambian academic staff as `Acting Head of Department' who was on secondment from the Department of Animal Science. In terms of staff development, the mid-term evaluation mentions the following training initiatives:

67 Phase II Programme document, page 145.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

one staff member on a Ph.D. programme in Food Microbiology in the UK with a Commonwealth Scholarship one staff member pursuing an M.Sc. with project funding and another six first degree holders waiting for scholarships to register for an M.Sc. (however, with `no funding' confirmed and, though planned for AP-2001, no M.Sc. students went to Gent and Leuven) one staff member who had started in AP-2001 on a higher diploma but who had proceeded for higher studies and three technical staff who were given in-house orientation and went for train-ing to Gent, South Africa and Kenya.

The mid-term evaluation concluded that `continuing staffing problems seriously jeopardise the future delivery of the undergraduate programmes in the Department' and that it had been `unwise to launch an undergraduate programme in Food Science and Technology before there were adequate Zambian staff to teach it'. Staff development activities were subsequently stepped up and by AP-2002 four persons were pursuing a M.Sc. at the Universities of Gent and Leuven (two with a VLIR-UOS fellowship outside the project budget). A fifth student obtained an USAID scholarship to pursue her M.Sc. in Food Safety in the US. The Annual Programme 2003 nevertheless reported that the project continued to be `hard hit by a critical shortage of teaching staff'. In the course of AP-2003, two M.Sc. fellows graduated; one returned and took up her position in the Department, the other continued to study for a one year advanced Nutrition Diploma. An additional five part time lectures were recruited by the end of AP-2003. It was also hoped `that more visiting lectures from Gent will be sent for full semesters to strengthen the teaching staff, while the training of the departments' own staff is continuing' ­ however, this did not materialise. Five part-time lecturers were recruited during AP-2004 to teach nutrition, food toxicology and fermentation technology. On a special arrangement with UNZA, the former permanent Belgian Expert continued to lecture some courses as well. By the end of year, four academic staff who had completed their M.Sc. studies had returned to Zambia to teach; three others continued their studies, one in the UK and two at the University of Gent (one Ph.D. and one M.Sc. in Post Harvest Technology). By February 2005, there were 7 full-time staff at the Department; they have gradually taken over the teaching of courses that were previously handled by part-time lecturers of which there was only one in 2006 providing training in computers. By the end of AP-2006, the staff member who had completed a M.Sc. in Post Harvest Technology returned to UNZA and was appointed as a lecturer increasing the staff compliment in the department to eight. The Ph.D. candidate finalised his programme by the end of September 2007. Also the training of technicians has been undertaken, including: short courses organised by NUSESA in June and August 2003 a technician was trained at Gent University in AP-2004, but left the University. His replacement attended a USAID sponsored course on Laboratory techniques in Food fortification at the National Food and Drug Laboratories in Lusaka. two technicians were trained in laboratory techniques in AP-2005, and one went for training to Gent. Similarly, during AP-2006, three technicians were trained

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

in Vitamin A analysis. During AP-2006, the Department's technicians also attended a workshop on Cassava analysis that was organised by the University of Lund (Sweden) together with the Programme against Malnutrition and UNZA.

Curriculum and course development

By the time of the mid-term evaluation, the B.Sc. degree programme (27 courses) had been developed and approved by UNZA's Senate, with the Department offering 1 course in year 2, 8 courses in year 3, 10 in year 4 and 8 courses in year 5 of the programme conducted at the School of Agricultural Sciences.

Infrastructure and equipment

During the 1st phase of the project, infrastructure rehabilitation and equipment provision included: (a) refurbishment office of the Head of Department's office and of the Food Chemistry, Microbiology and Nutrition Laboratories; and (b) provision of equipment (including photocopier, 4 PCs and peripherals, as well as books) and laboratory equipment68 as well as a mini-bus for student trips (with 40% of the funding from the project and 60% from consultancy income). During AP-2003, 17,000 was set aside for the renovation of the FST laboratory. Renovation works were tendered locally and the selected company commenced in March 2003. Due the late arrival of the funds, renovations could not be done as planned and were only completed in September 2004. The move of equipment to the renovated laboratory took over a year while the move of `(some) of the equipment, which needed special rooms and conditions like the HPLC and the Atomic Absorption'69 took longer. While laboratory conditions were improved, the Mission was informed that the Department's offices remain scattered within the School of Agricultural Sciences. In the final years of the project, purchases of equipment and materials have continued, and included a project vehicle, shared between FST and the Geology and Soil sciences project after the theft of the first one. In the final project year, electrical power circuits and HPLC equipment were repaired; various laboratory consumables were also procured for the laboratory. The Department also received journals on FST from Belgium. Progress reports indicate that over the years, maintenance of equipment was done regularly using outside and interdepartmental services.

Accreditation

One of the aims of the project was to strengthen UNZA's capacity to generate income by providing services of attested quality to industry in a laboratory facility that will meet international standards of accreditation (ISO 4500 & ISO 7128). Efforts to accredit the food microbiology laboratory started already in the course of AP-2001 when some preliminary work was done (inventory of equipment, arrangements for equipment maintenance, start of write-up of procedures, etc.). However, the mid-term evaluation mission observed that `(although) the microbiology laboratory has applied for certification for a number of national and international analyses, it is considered too small to conform to international standards for some of these'. The need for a laboratory `housed in a dedicated space that is isolated from the routine teaching activities of the undergraduate programme in Food Science and Technology' was underlined and it was expected that UNZA would identify this space in `the first half of the AP-2003 programme'70.

68 Such as spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption equipment, fat and protein extraction equipment, HPLC and gas chromatography equipment, furnace and ovens, centrifuge, UV viewer, Prep room equipment, fridges, incubators, laminar flow cabinet, microscopes, a variety of reagents and test kits. 69 Annual report 2004, page 28. 70 Annual Programme 2003, page 46.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

In order to expedite the accreditation process, it was finally decided that space would be provided in an existing building of the School of Agricultural Sciences, to be shared with the Animal Science Department, which was subsequently refurbished with project funds (see above). To date, the Department continues to share the laboratory, which was renovated and equipped with project funding, with Animal sciences ­ and so far there has been no common policy on its use. In April 2005, all staff attended a Zambia Bureau of Standards organized workshop on ISO 900 and 2000 Quality Management Requirements as a prelude to the development of a quality certification manual and department procedures. Moreover, a qualified Lab manager was to have been recruited to `spearhead the accreditation and the Lab development to bring it to international standards'. To further address the issue, a Belgian accreditation expert visited the department in June 2006 and provided guidance on what tasks were required before proceeding to the audit stage. Bottlenecks were identified and an action plan developed. Support was also given by A.H Knight Laboratories on how to write quality manuals. However, little has happened since; according to the Annual Report 2006, in the end it was not possible to complete the accreditation process during the period of the project, `(however), the effort will continue using other sources of funding'71. According to the 2006 Annual Report, the lack of progress `is due to the fact that the amount of work required was underestimated'72. While this may be true, the Mission questions whether the issue of laboratory accreditation, which will be essential for future funding of the Department, has received enough priority and staff time.

Research

Research activities, funded from the Programme's Inter-disciplinary Research project, commenced in the course of AP-2003 and continued during AP-2004. Topics covered included the following: Microbiological processline evaluation of milk in Zambian milk processing firms Evaluation of packaging and storage of oilseeds of nutritional importance in rural Zambia: Safety and quality study of powdered groundnuts and The Department presented three papers73 at the Interdisciplinary Research conference of March; one paper was submitted to the International Journal of Food Microbiology. It also presented four papers and one poster at the Conference that was held under the aegis of the project in August 200574.

Consultancies

Several activities have been initiated by the Department (e.g. at agricultural and commercial Shows) to promote its services and facilities. As a result, a series of consultancies ­ mainly simple analysis using the Department's laboratories ­ have been carried out for local food industries (such as Amanita premium oils, Tiger animal feeds, Castor oil company of Zambia, Amanita milling, Jumbo drinks products, Agriflora, and Parmalat (Zambia) ltd.). The Department also provided some consultancy services to government related institutions (including Ministry of Health projects financed by UNICEF and USAID, the Ministry of Agriculture) and is working on the Standard Quality and Metrology Testing programme funded by the EU and COMESA.

71 Annual report 2006, page 26. 72 Annual report 2006, page 27. 73 Topics: Microbiological quality of raw and pasteurised milk in Zambia; The Effect of proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities on Cheddar cheese yield and Isolation and inhibitory effects of lactic acid bacteria from selected traditional fermented foods from rural Zambia on some food pathogens. 74 Topics: Qualitative Descriptive analysis of powdered Groundnuts; Microbial Quality Evaluation of Commercial Brands of Fresh pasteurized Milk marketed in Zambia; Kinetic Modelling Of Quality Deterioration and Shelf Life Prediction Of Roller-Meal Produced In Zambia During Storage; and Bacteriological Analysis of fresh produce sold in selected markets of Lusaka City.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

The proceeds from these engagements were directed towards enhancing the capacity of the laboratory75. In recent years, resources generated through these consultancies amount to some 40 million kwacha (less than 10,000) that were mainly used to buy consumables. The amounts generated do not yet compare favourably with the amounts spent on consumables during the project's lifetime. Moreover, in recent times, consultancy assignments have been more inclined towards smaller companies and food processing industries where the services provided are usually not on a full cost-recovery basis.

Networking

Quite some networking activities have been taken over the years. In terms of international networking, staff of the Department attended a food security conference in Kenya in 1999 as well as a conference organised by the Agricultural Laboratories Association of South Africa. A research cooperation arrangement was furthermore made with the University of Boston to study food composition in Zambia. There were also contacts with an EC financed Combination Drying project. In the 2nd phase of the project, staff participated in: meetings on combination drying in Ireland and Spain (May and November 2003) Combidry76 meeting in Goteborg Sweden in May 2004 and a Combidry meeting in Pretoria South Africa in November 2004; the AGRILASA annual general meeting (Pretoria (March 2005)), a six months programme on combination drying (Ireland and Spain ( January ­ June 2005)), a Food storage Workshop on Fusarium at Kansas State University (May June 2005), an AGRILASA meeting in Pretoria and a Combidry meeting in Livingstone, Zambia; participated during the annual Zambia Commercial and Agriculture show; a conference in Brazil (2006) and the August 2006 Zambia National Agriculture and Commercial in Lusaka; the Annual General meeting for AGRILASA in March 2007 and a workshop on international Sorghum and Millet research (South Africa in April 2007) By the end of AP-2006, the Department was reported to have collaborated with the Eastern Central Africa Proficiency testing in fortified food and to be a member of the following organisations/bodies: Zambia Standards Bureau; AGRILASA; International Institute of Food Technology (IFT); Nutrition Commission on Maize Fortification; Agriculture Association of Zambia; Meat processing and Technical Committee on Labelling and Daily Products Technical Committee.

Assessment

Relevance

The project can be considered relevant in that it responded to a scarcity of qualified food science and technology experts in the country. Relevance of the training programme was also ensured by involving `the World of Work' in curriculum development; moreover, links between the Department and this World of Work are enhanced through the in-company `projects' students have to undertake in local food industries in the 3rd and 4th year of the programme. Though no details on the absorption of graduates on the labour market was conducted, a key question is how many FST specialists can be

75 Purchases of inter alia: (2001) nitric Oxide burner for Atomic Absorption; chemicals for carrying out some analytical work; (2002); `some equipment', literature, and consumables for the Food Chemistry, Nutrition and Microbiology Laboratories. 76 According to the Annual Programme 2005, `the Department has recently attracted EU-funding for a joint project ("COMBIDRY") with three European and three other African universities, co-ordinated by SIK-Sweden. The participation of the UNZA Food Science and Technology Department in this project has been made possible as a result of the achievements made through the VLIR-funding' (page 6).

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

absorbed in the local economy and how many years the B.Sc. programme can run before the market is saturated. The 2005 Annual Report already indicates that there were 25 students who had registered for the programme and while this demonstrates that there is growing interest in this field, `(if ) this trend continues the manpower fulfilment in the sector will be done much faster'.

Effectiveness

The project has to a large extent realised its objectives. The B.Sc. programme is up and running with an increasing number of students. Department staff was trained, partly with project funding and the Department has now 7 academic staff (1 Ph.D., one candidate and five Masters); only one person did not return from his fellowship abroad. The first group of FST graduates completed its B.Sc. in food science and technology in December in 2003 after five years of study. The table below, based on the 2006 Annual Report, shows the evolution of the department in terms of student enrolment and graduation since 1998. Out of the 15 that graduated in 2004, 14 have since been employed by the different sectors of the food and other related industries. In total the department produced 41 graduates of which, according to interviewees at the Department, some 50% end up in Zambia's food industry, the other 50% `in Government'. The FST laboratories for food chemistry and food microbiology have enabled the Department to offer quality practical training to students. These facilities have also permitted other UNZA departments and other national and regional institutions to analyze samples and provide the requisite infrastructure for undertaking some simple research and feeearning consultancies. The sharing of the laboratory with Animal Sciences, the lack of a common policy on the use of the laboratories, and the lack of an own office building remain thorny issues.

Year Enrolment Graduation 1998 20 1999 7 2000 7 2001 3 2002 3 2003 7 15 2004 2 15 2005 25 9 2006 12 2

Eff iciency

Until 2003, the project had a resident Belgian expert; interviewees from both UNZA and the Flemish universities stressed the necessity of this expensive input in establishing the B.Sc. programme, setting up of the laboratories, start-up of the accreditation process, etc. With the exception of laboratory accreditation, most of the activities were implemented according to plan. For some time after retirement of the original Flemish project leader and withdrawal of the long-term expert, communication was not optimal until a new one was nominated.

Impact

Improved facilities and staffing have enabled the new FST Department to deliver graduates who have found employment in the food industry as well as Government institutions and to engage in (simple) consultancy work for local food industries. At one point in time, the laboratory was also a Government certified laboratory, however it is unclear whether it has been able to maintain this status.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Sustainability

With regards to sustainability, the project has built a good foundation on which other donor funding could be solicited. Currently the department has been able to obtain new projects under NUFU and a CATISA project funded by the Swedish government. There is also a project funded under the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) framework. Sustainability may be affected by competition from a research laboratory that was set up recently, the practice of not charging realistic costs and the lack of a business plan that could provide the basis for continued Government funding. A key concern remains the accreditation issue that is still not addressed and seems to get insufficient priority at the Department. As stipulated on page 28 of the Annual report 2005, `(the) aspect of servicing the food industry will ensure the Department's sustainability more when the lab renovations and accreditation activities are completed. This will mean that the Lab will become a recognized and active participant in quality determination both for local and international food products'. As is evident from the above, little seems to have been accomplished since the project has come to an end; failing to achieve accreditation may well threaten the Department's future as sustainability could be eroded away.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

8

Veterinary medicine project

Introduction

The project tallies well with the Government of Zambia policy at improving agriculture as a means to alleviating poverty and achieving food security. It was initiated for the following main reasons: `livestock diseases form a major problem for the community, not only via the effects of mortalities and reduced production on the availability of food, but also via the occurrence of zoonotic diseases (diseases which are transferable between animals and human), which may put public health at risk. The availability of skilled veterinarians as well as updated information on zoonotic and other diseases will improve the productivity of livestock, as well as safeguard public health'77. The overall objective of the 1st phase was `(to) contribute to increased livestock productivity and public health in Zambia'; the objective of the project was `(to) improve the practical skills of vets qualifying from UNZA by means of practical and clinical training at the field station, and to increase knowledge of helminthology in Zambia'78. Intended outputs of this phase were: (a) Postgraduate research facilities for helminthology at the field station and at UNZA; (b) Enhanced research capacity at UNZA; (c) `Consolidated' undergraduate clinical activities and (d) Research publications. The overall objective for the 2nd phase of the project reads as `enhancing locally oriented research with a view to improving the practical skills of veterinarians qualifying from University of Zambia (by means of applied research and postgraduate training)'. Its specific objective was formulated as follows: `Research capacity of veterinary school concerning relevant veterinary issues in Zambia is enhanced/appropriate information on important veterinary issues in Zambia is available to extension services'79. Its intermediate results were in brief as follows: (1) Staff of the veterinary school is developed; (2) Applied research is successfully carried out; (3) Maintenance and purchase of equipment and infrastructure; and (4) Visits and attending conferences80. Main focus of the project was to be on: Implementation of Ph.D. and M.Sc. programmes (capacity building) Training of support staff and technicians To increase income generating activities of the School of Veterinary Medicine (Laboratory diagnostic, consultancies) and to strengthen the Veterinary School's capacity to produce extension materials, especially for resource-poor farmers. To help to attract other external funding (in addition to scholarships supported from ENRECA Livestock Helminthes Project funded by DANIDA and Helminthology research for members of staff ) To establish a regional Parasitology immunodiagnostic reference laboratory in zoonotic Helminthology (Antibody and Antigen ELISA in cestodes and trematodes as routine diagnostic methods).

77 Veterinary Medicine Self-assessment form ­ Final IUC Evaluation. 78 In the 2000 Activity Report, the specific objectives read as: `(1) To improve the practical skills of qualified vets in accordance with the specific requirements of Zambian cattle farming; (2) To improve education and to enhance the extension activities of the Field Station; (3) To enhance UNZA's research and study capacity with regard to veterinary issues that are relevant to Zambia'. 79 Idem, page 165. 80 This is different from the formulation of the intermediate results on page 165 of the Partner Programme document which refers to `The staff of the Veterinary School is developed; Capacities for applied research are enhanced'.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

To ensure that the gathered information through research will be made available to extension services in Agriculture and Public Health and in international scientific journals.

realisations

Equipment and infrastructure improvement

During the 1st phase, considerable inputs were used for the improvement of the teaching and learning infrastructure, including the rehabilitation of the Shibuyunji field station. Project funds were also used for refurbishment of helminthological research and diagnostic laboratories, procurement of a 4x4 vehicle and rehabilitation of another car. Other purchases included nine PC and two laptops, a small number of reference books, microscopes, ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) equipment and other equipment and materials such as water bath, washing machine, fridge, freezer, air conditioner and bicycles. In the 2nd phase, the project continued to refurbish and equip the helminthology laboratories by purchasing laboratory consumables, software, antivirus software, and some IT equipment for staff and students (desktops, laptop, desktop LaserJet printer and `Western blot equipment'). Funding was also used for maintenance of equipment and vehicles, including a `school vehicle'.

Staff development

Project funding was used to finance two Ph.D. students: one Belgian, who was also the Belgian resident expert, who undertook thesis research on the "Influence of Schistosoma mattheei infection in cows on offspring infection and immunity" and one Zambian who was involved in a Ph.D. sandwich programme from 2002 to 2006 with as final thesis: `Epidemiology of livestock trypanosomiasis in an endemic area of Eastern Zambia'. Two other Ph.D. students have utilised the equipment and techniques developed or/and acquired and validated by the VLIR IUC veterinary project. Up to August-September 2001, two students had been admitted for M.Sc. studies. One student completed a M.Sc. in epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in 2001 while the other student dropped out of and did not return to Zambia. By the end of AP-2006, six M.Sc. students were fully funded by the project. Three of them utilised the equipment and techniques developed or acquired and validated by the project. In all, out of the seven, 5 students completed their M.Sc. programmes in the period 2002-March 2007; four of them were SDFs with the School of Veterinary Medicine. Technical staff training in the use of laboratory equipment was undertaken both at UNZA and in Belgium. More than 15 technical staff as well as some veterinary personnel of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives were trained in modern diagnostic techniques and sample handling since the start of the project.

Laboratory techniques transfer and improvement

According to the Annual reports on AP-2003, 2004, 2005 and 200681, `(the) laboratory techniques for applied Helminthology research and diagnostics are established. New immunodiagnostic techniques have continued to be established as need arises, thus fulfilling the project's aim of facilitating technology transfer from our counterparts in Flemish Universities and Research Institutions to the University of Zambia.'82.

81 Virtually identical texts can be found in Annual report 2003, Page 35, Annual report 2004, page 35, Annual report 2005, Page 31, as well as the Annual report 2006. 82 Annual report 2005, page 31. According to the report on 2006, in addition to applying routine parasitological techniques, `(the) laboratory can now run a Schistosoma mattheei and Fasciola species antibody-ELISA, a Theileriosis antibody ELISA, Taenia solium/cysticercosis antibody and antigen ELISA's, the TEC-LAB antigen ELISA for Cryptosporidium, a trichinellosis antibody-ELISA and an E. coli extract antibody ELISA. We have also establish during the project period a copro-antigen ELISA for Echinococcus in dogs. We are also able to extract DNA in our laboratories and have established antibody ELISA, PCR and PCR-ELISA techniques for Trypanosomiasis'.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

These diagnostics techniques are of major importance for further applied research and postgraduate training.

Applied research

Applied research was carried out within the framework of the project83. In undertaking such research, the School of Veterinary Medicine made good use of the opportunities offered by the Interdisciplinary Research project. The research has resulted in a considerable number of publications (see the Appendices) and provided the basis for attending conferences to present research results and funding was provided by the project for conference attendance. According to the self-assessment report, the project produced 38 articles in international peer reviewed journals, 42 conference proceedings (full papers), 42 conference abstracts and 11 posters. Research papers were presented at the confer-ences that were held in March 2004 and in August 2005.

Assessment

Relevance

The applied research activities that were conducted are considered relevant as they addressed key issues affecting animal and human productivity in Zambia. Relevance is also shown through the many publications in scientific journals that have come out of this project. Besides increasing the productivity of animals, the research results have further opened doors in resolving the problems associated with animal generated diseases in humans.

Effectiveness

The project by and large realised what it set out to do, or surpassed expectations, in terms of staff development, improving teaching and learning infrastructure, and applied research. A considerable number of academic and technical staff were trained; the 2nd phase was in line with the recommendations of the mid-term evaluation, which had recommended to pay more attention to staff development.

Eff iciency

As indicated above, more efforts than anticipated were made in supporting capacity building of the School of Veterinary Medicine. The funds available to this component (which included some from Component 7) have been used efficiently, though the project faced problems of funding in the start-up phase because of inadequate programme level financial management which favoured some projects to the detriment of others. Though the Belgian resident expert played an important role in project implementation, a question remains whether development aid funds should indeed have been used for Ph.D. training of Belgian nationals rather than enhancing UNZA staff capabilities. Opinions differ on this issue. In terms of project management, regular exchange visits were made by the Belgian and Zambian project leaders in the years 2001 to 200584. In terms of efficiency, project implementation was affected by late release of funds (2001) and difficulties experienced in actually accessing the available funds. This situation improved after the appointment of the programme manager. Moreover, the project was able to implement the planned activities on time due to the access to external funds from other sources (Department of Parasitology, Ghent University) and the DANIDA-ENRECA Livestock Helminthes Research Project.

83 Research topics covered include the following: (a) Human Taenia solium/cysticercosis, with the main goal being to examine the prevalence and factors hereto using an Ag-ELISA assay as diagnostic technique (in collaboration the School of Medicine, the Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, and the Department of Animal Health);(b) Schistosoma mattheei to improve the understanding of the possible transfers of immunity from mother to calf and the development of immunity of the newborn (Ph.D. research carried out by the resident Belgian expert); (c) A pig nematodes, cestode and trematode survey was carried out in goats mostly from the Southern province, the poorest region of the country; (d) The impact of East Coast fever/ Corridor disease control on the health of traditional cattle. 84 Annual report 2003, Page 35, Annual report 2005, page 35-36

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Impact

Improved staffing levels in the four teaching departments of the School of Veterinary Medicine, improved research facilities and research outputs, and publication thereof in international scientific journals, have contributed to enhanced academic standing of the university. The laboratory is being used by regional M.Sc. and Ph.D. students who apply technologies introduced by the project. The students are able to report the results back to the stakeholders in the research areas, including the farmers, veterinary and public health workers. The field station has also become a place where farmers can take their sick animals for veterinary assistance and the dip tank allows resource-limited farmers to dip their animals six days a week. Village sensitization campaigns about the importance of the facility were carried out through the village committees. Disseminating the research findings to the veterinary training institutes and extension workers as well as policy makers could equally yield more positive impact.

Sustainability

The establishment of a field station in the 1st phase was a proper strategy for enhancing sustainability because it provided a permanent arrangement for field training. Provided that the field station's running costs can continue to be met, it offers a good opportunity to increase the students' practical skills in real life situations. Another key factor in ensuring sustainability is the relatively high number of people trained under the project, including both academic and technical staff, with 5 out of 7 M.Sc. graduates trained still working at the School. Finally, the research undertaken by the project has helped the school in international research collaboration ­ both with institutions in the South and in the North85. Quality research and research facilities have helped in attracting funding for its continued research and training activities: the laboratories have already attracted more than 200,000 from the DANIDA for a Ph.D. training project in the field of cryptosporidium and porcine cysticercosis; JICA (which also financed the construction of the School) is reported to have shown an interest to work with the parasitology group at UNZA. Materials developed under the VLIR-UOS project will, in future, be used under a JICA funded project in Southern Zambia. the immunology laboratory has been designated as a regional (Eastern and Southern Africa) reference laboratory for Immunodiagnostic by the regional cysticercosis working group.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

In terms of South-South collaboration, the School has provided some training in immunological techniques to Ph.D. students, mainly from Kenya, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Within Zambia, some collaboration has been established with UNZA's School of Medicine, and the Ministries of Health and Agriculture and Cooperatives. It is moreover understood that the School of Veterinary Medicine runs a clinic that is generating income by providing diagnosis and treatment of animal diseases for farmers and domestic pet-owners. It is likely that the links between UNZA's School of Veterinary Medicine and the institutions in Flanders will continue through the VLIRUOS Research Initiative and North-South-South Cooperation programmes.

85 In terms of collaboration with Flemish universities and research institutes, the various progress reports refer to collaborative research with: Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology; Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Animal Health and the University of Leuven, Faculty of Agriculture and applied biological Sciences, department of Animal Sciences (and, in 2002, and the Free University of Brussels, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Biological Science). They also mention student exchanges for thesis and dissertation work as well as joint scientific publications with Ghent University, faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology; Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Animal Health, and in 2002 and 2003, the Free University of Brussels, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Biological Science. In terms of collaboration with other Northern institutes `thanks to VLIR funded infrastructure', the progress reports refer to collaborative research and postgraduate training with WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonosis, the Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Fredriksberg, Denmark (ENRECA Livestock research project, themes with Leiden University Medical Centre, department of Parasitology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France, Edinburgh Royal Dick Veterinary Faculty, Centre for tropical veterinary medicine, University of Michigan, US, Department of Neurology, the Danish Bilharziosis Laboratory in Denmark, the Hokkaido University, Laboratory for Parasitology, and the School of life science, University of Copenhagen. According to the 2002 Annual Report (page 57), `(these) new orientations, to be implemented during PHASE II, should ultimately lead to the specific objective of the Veterinary Medicine project, i.e., the establishment of a viable national centre of excellence, especially in the field of Veterinary Helminthology'. Over the years, the department has also been providing support for visiting student research project and final student research projects.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

9

Geology ­ Geology and Soil Sciences

Introduction

During the 1st phase of the Programme with UNZA there was only a project with the Geology Department of the School of Mines. Its overall objective was to improve the performance of the mining and environmental sectors through the provision of better educated Earth Science graduates, so that they will make an enhanced contribution to the Zambian economy. The specific objective was to improve the quality of educational, research and consultancy services offered by the School of Mines, in particular the sections involved in preparing soil samples and the laboratory for soil analysis. The intended outputs mentioned in the mid-term evaluation report were: Enhanced laboratory facilities in the Department of Geology; Improved quality of education and applied geological research; increased reliability of research and consultancy results; and increased capacity for extension services and consultancy in the field of water, soil and rock analysis. From AP-2002 onwards, the project started operating as the Geology/Soil Science project, combining the two departments from the Schools of Mines and Agricultural Sciences but with split budgets. According to the 2003 Annual Programme, the reasons for combining them were that their research interests were complementary and partially overlapping and that both departments could benefit from the investments made in the heavy state-of­the-art laboratory equipment in the Geology Department. Moreover, combining the two allowed more cooperation and interdisciplinary research, which was one of the main objectives of the IUC programme. On the Flemish side, the change implied that at Gent University two units became involved i.e. the Department of Geology and Soil Science and the International Training Centre for Physical Land Resources (partner of the UNZA Department of Soil Science in the 1980s). For the Department of Geology, the 2nd phase meant `a continuation of the first phase, but with new focus on the application of the acquired experience and techniques than on acquiring basic equipments, as in the first phase'86. According to the programme document for the 2nd phase, the overall objective of the Geology and Soil Sciences project was `Contribution of small scale mining and agricultural industries to rural poverty alleviation and sustainable economic development of the rural areas in Zambia'. Its specific objective reads as the `(provision) of sustainable quality human resource, technical and analytical services to small scale mining and agriculture'87 and the intermediate results as88: (a) Quality of laboratory services has improved; (b) Staff capacity for teaching, research and consultancy is strengthened; (c) Consultancies offered by Geology and Soil Science increase; (d) Dissemination of research results; (e) Development of effective revenue generating strategy and (f ) Geology/ Soil Science project managed effectively.

86 Annual Programme 2004, page 79. 87 Elsewhere (Annual Programme 2004, Page 68-69), the overall objective reads as `Production by small-scale miners and farmers is more environmental-friendly and cost-effective' and the specific objective as `Quality self-sustainable services are provided by the Departments of Geology and Soil Science'. 88 The intermediate results on page 177-178 of the document for the 2nd phase are somewhat different.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

realisations

Equipment and materials

Activities during the 1st phase focused on the establishment of the requisite laboratory infrastructure. Improvements to the geochemical/mineralogical laboratory, the environmental/hydro-geological/geophysical laboratory were made in 1998, for the petrological and petrographic laboratories in 1999 and of the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) laboratory in 200189. The issue of lack of transport for fieldwork was partially solved by carrying out extensive repairs on the car in the Geology Department. Not all equipment however was purchased because of an initial underestimation of the costs of upgrading the XRD and XRD facilities. Equipment spare parts were bought in 2002 in South Africa; spares for the AAS in Soil Science could not be purchased because the model was no longer produced. From AP-2003 onwards, various pieces of accessory equipment and spare parts and consumables for both Geology and Soil Science were procured. A new AAS for Soil Science90 `to enhance the research capability of the department and enhance inter-laboratory analysis for quality control' was ordered in AP-2004 and spares for the broken down XRD in AP-2005; there were some delays in 2003 as a result of suspension of the order91. Since its arrival in Lusaka, the XRD has been the biggest `challenge' and despite all efforts made and funds spent, the machine continues to be in-operational. Although a technician from the Department was trained in 2006 in Tanzania to be `able to undertake some routine maintenance of the XRD', the biggest challenge will be future maintenance as local services are not readily available for this Swiss made machine. Discussions between the Geology Department and Konkola Copper Mines (KCM, the largest copper mining company in Zambia) started in the AP-2003 to share time on the machine so that KCM could help in maintaining the XRD; it is however not clear as to whether this has finally been agreed and whether such an agreement will come into effect upon the effective handover of the project in February 2008.

Establishment of rigorous quality control procedures

Particular attention has been paid to establishing rigorous quality control procedures through the collection of mine waste slag samples and of soils, comparative laboratory tests in Belgium and vice versa, and the exchange of soil samples with laboratories at the Zambia Agricultural Research Institute. In addition, technicians were trained to employ and practise these procedures. A Laboratory Committee was set up to manage the activities of the laboratories. During AP-2004, 15 books (10 for Soil Science and 5 for Geology) on analytical procedures were acquired and distributed to the two departments to further enhance the quality of analysis. The Soil Science Department also participated in fertiliser quality analysis sponsored by the Zambia Bureau of Standards.

89 Infrastructure improvements included: partitioning and re furnishing of laboratories; provision of computer and printer; provision of small quantity of reference and text books; provision of laboratory equipment, including rock cutting and polishing machines for making thin sections; atomic absorption equipment for mineral analysis (2 sets, one for Geology and one for Soil Sciences); x-ray diffraction equipment; x-ray fluorescence equipment transmission / reflected light / polarising microscopes; video microscope and projection equipment; missing parts for special microscopes previously supplied by other donors; repairs of the existing equipment (cathodoluminescence microscopy, thin section workshop, etc). 90 `Unfortunately, after installation the equipment was discovered with a number of technical faults which the local Zambian Pelmer Office was unable to rectify. Thus the equipment could not be used waiting for experts from the South African office to come and repair the equipment (An engineer from S. Africa finally came in April 2006 and has since repaired the machine which is now fully functional)' (Annual report 2005). 91 Annual report 2003, page 43.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Academic staff development

In terms of academic staff development, in the early years of the project, the Department lost some staff taking up positions in Zimbabwe and Namibia. This necessitated embarking on a staff development programme. The mid-term evaluation report refers in this respect to a M.Sc. in GIS/Remote Sensing programme funded through the Own Initiatives Programme and a special research fellowship offered to study environmental geochemistry at UNZA. Training on the use of new equipment was also provided by an expert from South Africa. The Programme's Interdisciplinary Research component further permitted a Ph.D. student to commence his research study on environmental geochemistry and soil pollution in the Copperbelt and the closed lead and zinc mining area in Kabwe92. Further M.Sc. training that was envisaged for 2002 and 2003 did not commence because no applications from interested students were received. The Ph.D. candidate of the Geology Department who had started in AP-2002, continued his programme until AP-2006, when he submitted his PhD dissertation on `Geochemical Mapping of basemetal distribution in the Copperbelt and Kabwe mining areas'. The Ph.D. candidate from the Department of Soil Science, who recommenced his sandwich Ph.D. programme in AP-2002 after it was suspended due to lack of funds for fieldwork, was obliged to reformulate his Ph.D. topic `due to complexities in the initial sandwich arrangement'93. The topic was revised in order to focus on the fluorisis problem in Choma of Zambia; project funds were provided in AP-2004 to start fieldwork that he continued in AP-2005. M.Sc. training for Geology did not start in 2003 as planned due to absence of candidates, though one graduate had applied for a SDF in Geology. Unfortunately, this training also did not start in 2004, this time because of `the late appointment' of the SDF. The incumbent was subsequently admitted at Gent University to undertake a two-year M.Sc. programme in Land Resources Evaluation, which commenced at the end of 2005 under a separate VLIR fellowship (and continued until after the closure of the project). In Soil Science, the training at M.Sc. level never got off the ground because the Department did not have students. According to the 2005 Annual Report, `(this) may be attributed to a mismatch between the VLIR financial calendar, which ended 31st March 2007, and the University of Zambia Academic calendar, which only started in February 2007'94.

Training of technicians

In AP-2002, four technicians attended a training course in maintenance of laboratory equipment organized by Network of Users of Scientific Equipment in Africa (NUSESA) on laboratory equipment repair and preventive maintenance. In the next year, an internal quality control course was organised by the Departments of Geology and Soil Science and attended by technicians from the two Schools and other institutions95. Unfortunately, the Geology Department lost three of its experienced technicians, and in the course of the year the laboratory was left with only one junior technician with very little experience96. To allow the laboratory to operate normally the department was thus compelled to search for additional laboratory staff in AP-2004. Another setback was that due to lack of budget for training of technicians in 2004, none of the technicians could be sent for training as planned97. The situation was the same

93 Annual report 2003, Page 41. 94 Annual report 2006, page 52. 95 Such as the UNZA School of Engineering, Environmental Laboratory, Mount Makulu Agricultural Research Station, School of Veterinary Medicine, UNZA, National Industrial and Research Centre, NISIR and Geological Survey Department. 96 Annual report 2003, Page 41 97 Annual report 2004, page 45.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

in 2005. By AP-2005, there were three technicians in both the Geology laboratory and Soil Science laboratory and efforts to recruit more continued until the end of the project. In terms of training, one technician attended a short training on XRD operations and maintenance under AP-2006.

Research

Research was undertaken by both the Department of Geology and Soil Science within the framework of the project98. In March 2004 and August 2005, the results of the research were presented at the conferences that were held at UNZA; six articles were published in the special edition of the Zambia Journal of Science and Technology that was issued in 2004 while two conference papers were published in the International Conference Proceedings following the conference of August 2005. In the course of AP-2005, exchanges took place between Zambian and Flemish academics from Gent and Leuven to discuss further possibilities of collaborative research.

Consultancies and outreach

In terms of consultancy and outreach, efforts were made to visit representatives of the mining industry and identify possibilities for consultancies. Moreover, brochures for advertising the analytical and consultancy services offered by the Departments of Soil Science and Geology were developed and distributed at seminars, workshops, Agriculture and Commercial Shows (e.g. in February and August 2006). Making use of the available laboratory equipment, several consultancies and contract research assignments were conducted by the Geology Department99. In 2005, the Department was contracted to offer a course in gemology to small-scale gemstone miners and traders (14 March to 16 May 2005). The main consultancy for the School of Mines in which the Department of Geology has been involved came from the EUfunded Mining Sector diversification Programme (MSDP). The Department participated in the development of short courses for Small-Scale Miners and field training in exploration mining, geology, mining techniques and processing of gemstones and environment. For Soil Science, the Annual programme 2003 stipulates that `(the) School of Agricultural Sciences .. has a specialised laboratory .. that is already generating income by providing analysis of agricultural materials (soil, water, plants) for the agricultural sector'100 and soil, water, fertiliser and plant analysis continued to be the backbone of consultancies in the Department of Soil Science till the end of the project (e.g. fertiliser quality analysis and recommendations for various fertilizer companies in Zambia in AP-2005 and AP-2006). In 2005, the Department also won a tender to run two regional short courses on soil and water conservation and land use planning (implemented in June 2006).

98 Research topics included the following: (a) Hydrochemistry of the Muntimpa dam mine water and the impact of high sulphate levels on water quality, soils and vegetation (joint research involving Department of Geology, Department of Soil Science, Department of Metallurgy and Mineral Processing., Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Mining, Konkola Copper Mines, Safety, Health and Environment; (b) Sources of lead-zinc pollution of soils in the Kabwe lead-zinc mining area (Geology Department); (c) Phosphate-rich bat guano at the Chipongwe and Kapongo caves, Lusaka (Geology Department and Technology University of Australia); (d) Occurrence of dental flourosis on two farms with hot springs in Choma district of the Southern Province of Zambia (Department of Soil Science and department of Geology); (e) Characterisation and evaluation of selected carbonate rock and gypsum resources for use in crop production (joint research of Departments of Soil Science, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Extension); and (f) Coppercobalt pollution of soils in the Luanshya mining area (Geology Department). 99 In AP-2004, consultancies were carried out in petro-graphic studies for Kariba Minerals a mining company mining amethyst in Southern Zambia, Albidon an exploration company exploring for nickel in Zambia, and Kagem an emerald mining company on the Zambian Copperbelt. In AP-2005, e.g. petro-graphic studies were conducted for companies such as Katanga Resources, Zambezi Resources, Albidon, Geological Survey Department. 100 Annual Programme 2003, page 5.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

International collaboration

In terms of South-South collaboration, efforts were made to develop a collaborative M.Sc. programme in minerals production engineering to be conducted at UNZA and the University of Zimbabwe. This programme was to be self-paying (through student fees), with initial support coming from the Norwegian Research Foundation (NUFU). The programme was adopted by the Senate in 2004. In Zimbabwe the programme commenced (2005) and three UNZA staff participated in its implementation; in Zambia it did not because of the cost of running the programme with one student only. No further information is available about what happened to the initiative. In 2003, it was observed that North-South cooperation with Flemish universities had `not yet been fully explored' and that it was `hoped that this will be pursued more vigorously in the coming year'. However, no further information is provided in subsequent progress reports. Reference is at the same time made, to collaborative research between the Geology Department and K.U. Leuven which was expected to start with a Belgian M.Sc. student coming to Zambia in July 2006 to do research on the Nkana copper mineralization in Kitwe. In the course of AP-2006, a proposal under the NorthSouth-South Cooperation Programme (NSSCP) was eventually prepared but was not submitted `due to certain technicalities'.

Assessment

Relevance

As mining is one of the most important sectors of the Zambian economy, this project has significant relevance to the further development of the country. The number of students in geology is presently 52 (2nd year to 5th year undergraduate students and three post-graduate students) for whom, given the importance of the mining sector, employment is more or less guaranteed after graduation. The 5th year students in Geology are all sponsored by the mining industry. Graduate employability is further enhanced by the contacts that exist with the `World of Work' in curriculum development (Soil Science). The relevance of the service provision of the departments is furthermore confirmed by the demand from small enterprises, facing restrictive criteria to obtain credits, which have little means to obtain advice through commercial channels.

Effectiveness

Upgrading of laboratories with several new pieces of equipment and local servicing of such equipment, the provision of consumables, the improvement of quality control procedures, post-graduate staff development at Ph.D. level and the training of technical staff are all beneficial to the Departments of Geology and Soil Science. Better teaching and learning infrastructure has improved the departments' capacity to conduct research and deliver quality (consultancy) services. With the new equipment the Department of Soil Science is in a position to undertake environmentally related tests that it was not able to do before. Better equipped laboratories and serviced equipment will further motivate staff to conduct research and training and undertake consultancies; it is anticipated that increased revenues from these improved services will be used to sustain departmental activities further.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Eff iciency

In the course of AP-2002101 and 2003, project activities were affected by delays in the release of funds. As a result some activities were not undertaken as planned and underexpenditure occurred102. Under-expenditure continued in AP-2004 when not all equipment was bought as planned, but, as mentioned in the 2004 Annual Report, `it must be emphasized that in spite of this, the difference is not that big as compared to the previous years'. The budgetary allocation to the Soil Science project was not fully utilised in AP-2005 since it was not known how much would be spent on the repair of the XRD. The main issue has been the procurement of the XRD machine; though cheaper than other brands, insufficient account was taken of the availability of local maintenance and services in selection the equipment. This explains the problems the Department continues to face to date. Concerns have also been raised as regards the need to purchase two AAS machines (in addition to the AAS provided for the FST project), one for Geology and one for Soil Science. At the same time, an effort has been made by the project to pool the available equipment and to permit utilisation of the laboratories by e.g. the schools of Metallurgy and Mineral Processing as well as Mining Engineering. The project leaders undertook several exchange visits during the project's lifetime. In the final year of the project, the major issue discussed during the two visits evolved on the need for mutual collaborative research that would go beyond the partnership programme. Management has been affected by the turnover of project leaders at UNZA's Geology Department with four project leaders in a period of 4 years; the most recent project leader was appointed once the project was effectively over.

Impact

Consultancies were undertaken for a number of exploration companies and for smallscale miners as well as the EC. Interviews with staff from the Soil Science Department indicated that, thanks to the improved laboratory facilities, it has been able to analyse more soil samples from farmers and agricultural companies than before. Moreover, according to the internal self-assessment report, `(the) School of Mines now is directly hosting and managing a number of projects supported by other funding agencies due to the credibility built into the academic staff. For instance, the School is hosting a CIDA Canada water partnership project, the FINNIDA supported geological survey project, the Air Pollution Network for Africa, the United Nations University Mineral Resources Unit programme etc.'. Finally it was reported that research outcomes from the Soil Science Department are channelled through extension workers of the Ministry of Agriculture.

Sustainability

Sustainability of the two departments will depend on the ability of the laboratories and staff to attract extra funds from the local industry, NGOs, and other donors through research and training103. According to the internal assessment report: `Departmental laboratories had raised the cash flow from nearly zero in 1997 to about K65 million in 2006'. An important source of income has been the Internet café which is run outside the UNZANET system. It is at the same time difficult to estimate whether income generating activities will allow the Schools to replace the more expensive equipment items that were donated through the VLIR-UOS IUC Programme.

101 The implementation of the activity programme 2002 (research, teacher training in particular) was affected negatively by the late receipt of funding. The research period was reduced significantly and since the Geology and Soil Science research involves a lot of field work this could not be done before the beginning of the rainy season. 102 Annual report 2003, Page 43: `The first half was financially a difficult one as the funds were not available to carry out project activities'. 103 See also the Annual report 2003, `(the) sustainability of the two departments will depend on the ability of the laboratories and staff to attract extra funds from the local industry and other donors. The laboratories are now better equipped and allow staff to conduct research and training which is presented at international and local conferences' (page 44).

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Maintenance of the XRD, which is still not functioning, remains a challenge104. Once the XRD machine is operational again, discussions with Konkola Copper Mines and other mining companies on the possibilities of sharing time on the XRD machine will resume. Recurrent cost financing in general remains an issue. According to the 2005 Annual Report, `(it) is hoped that local equipment servicing outlets can continue to update themselves so that they are up-to-date with latest equipment'105.

104 According to the internal assessment report: `One regret, however, was the purchasing of an XRD machine that was not a Phillips make. This caused a problem as the department was not able to maintain this machine because there were no local expertise. For the Phillips make local expertise were there at the time the machine was bought and it was felt that Phillips made machines were more robust and easier to maintain. A lot of resources were spent on bringing into the country technicians at great cost although in the final analysis the machine could not be repaired and the arrangement became unsustainable. Such resources could have been put to better use' (page 11). 105 See also the Annual report 2006 (page 53), "(it) is hoped that local equipment servicing outlets can continue to update themselves so that they are up-to-date with latest equipment".

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

1

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

1 0

Inter-disciplinary Research

Introduction

The inter-disciplinary research component was added to the programme at the beginning of the 2000 Annual Programme. The initiative was taken to address the `dire need for research funding with only a few donors supporting projects in some schools'106. Intention was to `encourage young researchers at UNZA to carry out applied interdisciplinary research using the equipment provided by the IUC programme'107. According to the 2001 Annual Report, the objective was twofold: (a) to maximise retains on the investments made on laboratory equipment for the 'regular' components, by increasing their use for research purposes; and (b) to involve other departments or schools at UNZA in research conducted jointly by them and by the VLIR-sponsored departments, so as to broaden the scope and the impact of the VLIR interventions to the larger part of the university'. The 2006 Annual Programme further highlights that the funds apportioned for interdisciplinary research aimed at addressing three particular problems, i.e. (a) the insufficient linkages amongst the different regular projects within the programme, and between those projects and other departments or schools at UNZA; (b) the underutilisation of the laboratory equipment provided by the Programme to the different projects; and (c) the underrating of the scientific capacity of UNZA as perceived from outside the University and capacity building of the Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies (DRGS). The document for the 2nd phase of the Programme mentions the following specific objective: `...to carry out small one-year inter-disciplinary research projects, using the existing laboratory equipment in fields that are significant to Zambia's development and to disseminate the research results internationally and conferences'108. Intention of the component was to create conditions to enhance the development of interdisciplinary research by means of109: (a) promoting interdisciplinary research; (b) promoting, Master's and Ph.D. degree studies at the University of Zambia; (c) facilitating attendance at international conferences with active participation; (d) publishing of research results in international scientific journals; and (e) organisation of local and international workshops/conferences. Eligible costs that could be financed from the budget for interdisciplinary research were the following110: `The financing of the operational costs needed for the execution of small (max 10,000 USD) one-year inter-disciplinary research projects (possibility of extension after positive evaluation). The sponsoring of the publication of research results in international peerreviewed journals. The sponsoring of active participation of UNZA researchers to international

106 107 108 109 110 Annual Report 2002, page 48 Mid-term evaluation report, page 49. Document for the 2nd phase of the Programme, page 208. Annual report 2004, page 46. Annual Programme 2003, page 72, 75.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

conferences in order to disseminate the research results of the inter-disciplinary projects to which they have participated. The organisation of workshops at UNZA related to the research activities sponsored by the Programme'.

realisations

In terms of research projects funded (for an overview of approved and implemented research projects over the period 2001-2004, please see the Appendices), the evolution from AP-2001 to AP-2004 was as follows: During AP-2001, a total of 11 inter-disciplinary research proposals were received111; out of which 7 were approved and implemented; two others, though approved, were not implemented112. The total budget allocated for this component was 44,620, of which 29,584 was effectively used; the balance (resulting from cancellation of two projects, under-expenditure on five research projects, plus extra expenditures for conference attendance113) was transferred to the other components. In AP-2002 a total of 13 inter-disciplinary research proposals were received; 7 of these were funded114. The total budget allocated for AP-2002 was 43,540.08 (equivalent to $ 42,668.00) of which $ 38,247.96 was finally consumed, leaving an unused balance of $ 4,420.04. An equivalent of $ 62,000 was provided for 13 projects that were approved for funding out of the 26 inter-disciplinary research proposals that were received for the AP-2003. The proposals came from a number of units within the University of Zambia, some of them, an example is the School of Engineering and Technology Development Unit (TDAU), submitted a proposal for the first time. During the AP2004 a total of 18 inter-disciplinary research proposals were received from all science based schools and units115; only DDE submitted a nonnatural science based proposal. Funds were awarded for 15 projects with a total budget of 53,000. In order to share the experiences in the research activities undertaken, a Conference on Interdisciplinary Research was organised by DRGS on 25 to 26 March 2004. 123 participants from industry, Government and other research institutions, as well as UNZA academic staff attended the event. Paper abstracts were published and available during the conference. Research papers from all the components supported by the programme (with the exception of veterinary medicine) were presented. The papers that were presented at the conference and later successfully underwent the peer review were then published in a special edition of UNZA's Journal of Science and Technology (Special Edition, June 2004).

111 Two research proposals involving the 'Geology' component together with other UNZA departments; 5 involving the 'Veterinary Medicine` component together with other UNZA departments; 2 involving the "Food Science and Technology" components together with other UNZA departments; 1 involving the "Unzanet" component together with other regional Universities; and 1 research proposal involving the "Computer Studies Department" together with DDE. 112 This concerned the projects (a) Networking of Southern African Universities for Scientific and Research Collaboration Using Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT) Based Virtual Laboratories, abandoned due to the unexpected work overload of the principal investigator and (b) a research project on Computer based Training and Web based Educational System Pilot Scheme) which could not take off due to long-term illness of the principal investigator. 113 It is understood that three researchers, one from the Food Science and Technology Department and two from the School of Veterinary Medicine, have been able in this way to present their results at conferences in Vienna (Austria) and in Stresa (Italy). 114 One approved project was cancelled: 11-CST: Computer based training and web based educational system pilot scheme. 115 There were four research proposals involving the "Geology and Soil Science" Project together with other UNZA departments, eight proposals involving the "Veterinary Medicine" Project together with other UNZA departments, one proposal involving the "Distance Education" Project together with another UNZA department; and two research proposals involving units not related to the project .

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

During AP-2005 no projects were funded, as most of the funds available ( 74,400) were used to finance an international conference on interdisciplinary research and to buy equipment for DRGS (PC; heavy duty photocopier, lap top, LCD projector and binding machine). This second conference, more `Zambian driven' than the first one, was held in Lusaka from 11 to 12 August 2005 and attended by some 150 local and international delegates. Participants included some representatives from other universities in the region and from Flemish universities; there was little involvement from elsewhere due to problems of `sponsorship'. About 30 papers and 8 posters were presented. Most of the papers that were presented came from the VLIR-UNZA IUC Programme and covered the topics of the various projects financed under the programme. The production of proceedings of the conference has been completed. The budget of 10,000 in AP-2006 was used to support continuing research projects in the Veterinary Medicine component (research on Taenia Solium, Helminthes infestations in horses, and on Heterologous Immunity on Epidemiology in cattle). Funds were moreover used to support the conference attendance of a staff member of FST who had to present a research paper at an International Meeting held in Brazil in November 2006 on 'Cassava Breeding, Biotechnology and Ecology'. Two research proposal writing seminars for staff and research students were also conducted by DRGS in 2006. Since its start in 2001, the component was handled by UNZA's Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies (DRGS); since 2003, DRGS ensured that the calls for proposals were advertised among the UNZA researchers through the research coordinators. The DRGS has an independent Senate committee, the Senate Research Committee, which has the mandate to provide the research focus and formulate policy and approve research proposals. In terms of procedures, the Flemish promoters of each of the programme components established a priority list of the research proposals in their fields of specialisation, based on the scientific value and potential social relevance. Taking into account this advice as well as budgetary considerations, the Flemish coordinator subsequently sent his selection proposal to the UNZA Selection Committee, which then discussed the proposals and made a final choice; at its own initiative the Committee at UNZA added two projects to the list approved in Flanders in AP-2002. In cases of research that involved human subjects, clearance was also obtained from the University Ethics Committee in the selection process

Assessment

Effectiveness

By and large, the objectives of this project component have been realised in terms of numbers of proposals received and funded, number of publications realised, etc. Over 90% of the approved projects have had their findings presented at the two conferences that were held with VLIR-UOS Programme funding. The decision to also allow schools other than those directly involved in the Programme enhanced the interdisciplinary character of the research projects and was well appreciated.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Eff iciency

Timely completion of the research activities in AP 2003 was affected by considerable delays in the release of funds. The funds were released in the second half of the activity year only, affecting procurement of required research materials and research planning. Moreover, it is noted, that not all researchers complied with reporting obligations.

Impact

Some of the funded projects were partly for higher degree research - including Ph.D. research of one of the Belgian resident experts116. The funding provided a window of opportunity for staff to carry out research and produce publications that help them get promoted; it also contributed to improved academic standing of UNZA, both amongst international academics as well as the Zambian government, private sector and the general public, particularly through the two conferences that were held with programme funding. To some extent, research funding has contributed towards staff retention and sustainability of the programme as well as departmental activities. The mid-term evaluation report stated that `(researchers) involved in current and future projects should be encouraged to ensure that developmentally relevant results are disseminated to the people who will most benefit from them at the earliest possible time'. The Mission endorses this recommendation as still insufficient attention is paid to `changing lives'.

Sustainability

In 2006, UNZA academic staff were provided with 100,000 funding from Government to conduct research. It is understood that the programme has indirectly been instrumental in obtaining these funds and that the `VLIR experience' motivated the Government to come up with the research funds. However, for 2007 no research budget was available, for the 2008/2009 research funding is still uncertain. Research proposal writing workshops held by DGRS in recent years have equipped the lecturers with essential tools that will help them to get access to competitive research funds. To this effect, UNZA is in the process of finalising the research and intellectual property policies that will in future guide the institution on its research agenda. Part of the balance of the Interdisciplinary research project was used for a workshop focusing on research policy making at UNZA.

116 According to the mid-term evaluation report, the research project on `The effect of maternal transfer of immunity in early infections with Schistosoma mattheei in calves' `did not ... appear to involve young Zambian researchers, as most of the work was done by the resident Belgian expert assisted by colleagues in Belgium and France' though it `will nonetheless raise the profile of UNZA in the world of helminthology' and `has already resulted in one presentation at an international conference...' (page 50). Similar observations were made with respect to the research project `The comparative epidemiological study of porcine and human cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Provinces of Zambia'. Hence the recommendation that `(any) new projects approved should involve younger Zambian academics or Staff Development Fellows as the principal active researchers, receiving support and guidance from more experienced Zambian and Belgian staff' (page 56)

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

1 1

Programme Management

General

It should be noted that UNZA was closed from March to October 1997, before the start of the operational phase of the programme. It was also closed for about three months in 1998 and two months in 1999, resulting in a shift of half a year in the academic calendar. Half an academic year was therefore `lost', delaying the implementation of academic programme activities. Industrial disputes with both academic and nonacademic staff culminated in closure of the undergraduate teaching programmes in all but two Schools for a period of two months in 2003. During other years, the university was sometimes closed for some or few weeks because of strikes of students or staff.

Management ­ General

Based on the principles of IUC programme management as articulated by VLIRUOS117, two programme steering committees, one at UNZA and one in the North, were set up to coordinate the implementation of the partnership programme. In addition, joint meetings of the two steering committees were held once a year with participation of project leaders from both sides and the two Flemish and UNZA coordinators and their deputies (the `Joint Steering Committee'). The Flemish Steering Committee was composed of the programme co-ordinator and the project leaders of the various projects at UNZA, as well as the ICOS at the Ghent University, which dealt with issues of overall programme administration and financial management and reported to the coordinator. Contacts among Steering Committee members have been regular, often through E-mail and telephone, and through a series of meetings for which no fixed timeframe was set. The Steering Committee meetings, used to discuss financial matters, reporting and planning of activities, were attended by a representative of VLIR-UOS. Consultation and participation at the level of the project leaders and coordinator has been good, amongst others as a result of joint efforts made in drafting and implementing Programme activities.

117 `That VLIR is accountable to the Belgian Government and thereby responsible for the programming, monitoring and evaluation of the overall programme; the university of the Flemish coordinator and the partner university have the responsibility to jointly manage the implementation of the partner programme and the constituent activity programmes based on an agreement signed by the Flemish coordinating university, the partner university and VLIR; the partner university also has to nominate a local coordinator who functions as the key responsible person from local side; at the level of the partner university a full time professional manager is appointed in order to support the local coordinator, being an academic charged with numerous other responsibilities, in the various management duties associated with the implementation of a complex pro-gramme; both in the North and the South a steering committee is established to coordinate the implementation of a partner programme. On an annual or bi annual basis both committees hold a Joint Steering Committee Meeting (JSCM)' (Mission Terms of Reference).

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Discussions with members of the Steering Committee and ICOS have highlighted the following issues: The mandate and `modus operandi' of the Steering Committee may have not been well defined Heavy administrative load in terms of financial management and reporting as per VLIR-UOS requirements, resulting in, amongst others, repetitive and not very informing progress reports. A clear mechanism to track results based on clear logical frameworks did not exist; the situation was compounded by the fact that for both phases of the Programme lacked an overall Programme logical framework and worked with logical frameworks at project level only, unfortunately occasionally without clear objectives. At UNZA, a Steering Committee was set up as well. During the early phase of the Programme, the role of the local Coordinator and chair of the Committee was performed by the Vice Chancellor. Regular meetings of the Steering Committee, which included all UNZA project leaders, were held throughout the programme's lifetime (four times per year); minutes of the meetings were prepared and shared with the members of the Flemish Steering Committee. Project leaders received a monthly topping up allowance, paid from the Programme; guidelines on this issue were prepared and agreed upon. Until 2003, when he was replaced by an UNZA academic staff member, one of the Belgian long-term experts acted as programme coordinator. In addition to the UNZA Steering Committee, an IUC co-ordination unit was set up (secretary, accountant (as of 2003), and driver); this unit is currently headed by a programme manager (earlier by the programme coordinator). Interviews held with both Flemish and Zambian project leaders indicate that: Basically, programme management had been handled in satisfactory manner, but lacked an assertive, external, programming monitoring function Apart from the May 1999 Agreement between UNZA and the Flemish Universities that sets requirements under Article 7 for implementation of the IUC Activity Programme, there are no documents or guidelines to lead steering committees on the conduct of their committee meetings. The decision to transfer National Coordinator responsibilities from the VC to the Director of Research and Graduate Studies was appropriate as this implied a possibility of appeal in case of any difficulties experienced in programme management and implementation, Management by the long-term expert, who combined his coordinating function with his responsibilities in Computer Science project, had not worked out well. The appointment of the programme manager in 2003 was considered an important improvement; It has been agreed to continue financing the position of programme manager until the end of year 11. Intention was `to integrate the position of Programme Manager into the University structure' by the beginning of year 12. So far, no decision seems to have been taken on this issue by UNZA management.

Regular exchange visits were undertaken by both Flemish and Zambian project leaders (planning of activities, review of realisations, etc.), though not always as planned.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

In general these visits were appreciated; all interviewees acknowledged the close consultation that existed between the project leaders at UNZA and their counterparts in Flanders. Based on its assessment, the Mission makes the following suggestions: introduce a logical framework for the IUC Programme with a particular university as a whole- in addition to those at individual project level; simplify and streamline reporting formats in order to improve the M&E functions of the Coordinators, Steering Committees as well as VLIR-UOS. Reports should provide a proper overview of activities undertaken and results accomplished in relation to activities planned and results envisaged and information on reasons for deviation that may exist introduce clear management guidelines for the functioning of the Steering Committees, clarifying their role and mandate; Avoid the combination of the functions of (overall) coordinator and project leader.

Programme funding and financial management

The available data indicate that total expenditure over the period 1997 to 2006 has been some 6,485,598 of which 3,671,995 during the period 1997-2001 and 2,813,603 during the period 2002-2006. An overview of expenditures per programme year (which differs from the regular calendar year as it runs from April-March) is depicted in the following graph, with data for the period 1997-2001 coming from the mid-term evaluation report118.

Expenditure

900.000 800.000 700.000 600.000 500.000 400.000 300.000 200.000 100.000 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

118 The mission is not in a position to verify actual expenditures during 1997. It has noted the observation made on the draft report that since the University was closed from March to October 1997, it is unlikely that a comparatively large amount was spent in 1997. The mission is however not in a position to provide the appropriate financial details.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

For the Programme's entire lifetime it has not been possible to calculate the expenses incurred per budget category. An overview for the period 2001-2006 is provided in the table below.

2001 Total Investment costs operating costs Personnel costs Scholarship costs Travel costs Board and lodging costs Shipping costs Administrative costs Total 213.192 165.197 214.281 25.824 24.057 33.391 8.711 68.370 753.022

2002 Total 128.695 202.555 229.817 53.014 22.111 24.664 6.705 67.472 735.034

2003 Total 57.394 259.939 190.600 45.801 32.075 26.180 8.337 51.884 672.208

2004 Total 142.280 189.265 68.114 54.018 25.635 26.773 2.923 60.680 569.688

2005 Total 52.454 237.405 0 106.848 39.994 24.858 5.631 40.484 507.675

2006 Total 25.524 128.913 3.936 86.593 25.704 18.913 5.414 34.000 328.998

Total 619.539 1.183.273 706.749 372.099 169.576 154.780 37.720 322.889 3.566.625

The share of the different cost categories as a percentage of total expenditures is shown in the pie-chart below.

9,1% 1,1% 4,3% 4,8%

17,4%

Investment costs Operating costs Personnel costs Scholarship costs

10,4%

Travel costs Board and lodging costs 33,2% Shipping costs 19,8% Administrative costs

Problems have been experienced in financial management of the Programme, especially in the period 2002-2003. According to the document `IUC Ex-Post Programme with the University of Zambia (UNZA), Zambia for Year 11, approval', `(efforts) to reconcile the financial accounts since the beginning of the programme are currently underway. The task is very demanding as certain documentation, particularly during the early years, may not be readily available. One of the first tasks was to determine the beginning and ending of each of the ten Activity Programmes, as the start and end dates of Activity Programmes were not standardized during the early years. This has since been completed. The process of ascertaining the amount of money received and utilised under each activity Programme, is being undertaken. The target date for production of the first draft of the reconciled accounts was planned for 31st December 2006'119.

119 `IUC Ex-Post Programme with the University of Zambia (UNZA), Zambia for Year 11, approval, page 3.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

The Mission understands that this has proven too optimistic and reconciled accounts are not yet available. The Mission furthermore observes that there may still be a difference between accounts kept at UNZA and those of ICOS. The financial data included in virtually all self-assessment reports, exceptions are the Geology/Soil Sciences and Interdisciplinary Research projects, appear furthermore not totally correct. Issues raised as regards financial management were furthermore the following: under-spending on available budget has been a common feature for many years; it has not been possible to transfer unspent budget to subsequent years: the money had to return to the Belgian Government; funding was not always available in time, thus hampering implementation of planned activities and resulting in the under-expenditure referred to above; a lack of transparency in financial management, which, according to some of the interviewees some projects `favoured' over others, a situation which improved only after the appointment of the programme manager; VLIR-UOS rules and regulations differed from those of UNZA, e.g. with respect to payment of fieldwork where the VLIR-UOS per diems were lower than those of UNZA. It is understood that UNZA may have financed the difference (ref. Annual programme 2003, page 11). Finally, the issue of `rejected expenditures' has come up several times and has been a cause of friction.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

1 2

Overall programme assessment

relative strengths

The programme has established a research infrastructure, comprising laboratories in several of UNZA's schools and Departments (Veterinary Medicine, Geology, Soil Sciences, and Food Science and Technology). This will allow University staff to continue to undertake research and consultancy services in areas that are of immediate relevance to the Zambia's economy and population. Research infrastructure plus the establishment of appropriate human resource capacity would allow for continuation in research collaboration, especially in Veterinary Medicine, Geology and Soil Sciences and, to a lesser extent, in Food Science and Technology. In these areas there is also an interest among the Flemish institutions to do so. Improved laboratories are also used in teaching and learning of undergraduate and postgraduate students. The introduction of the (competitive) Interdisciplinary Research project has given further impetus to the University's Schools and Departments to undertake (some) collaborative research; opening up of the project to University units outside those directly participating in the VLIR-UOS IUC Programme ensured a broader impact of the initiative. The quality of the research undertaken appears to have been good, resulting in some cases in publication in international peer-reviewed journals. Attention for research policy development, training in research proposal preparation, etc. during the final year of the Programme is likely to contribute to a more sustainable approach to scientific research. Ample attention was also paid to key services - most notably the Computer Centre and the university library, supporting UNZA' research and training as well as services functions. Considerable attention was paid to staff development - enhancing the capabilities of academic and technical staff has been a core component of most projects, especially during the 2nd phase of the Programme. This was also true for the three projects in which (relatively expensive) Belgian resident experts have been involved. Despite `greener pastures' that continue to exist outside the University, especially, though not exclusively, in the ICT sector, a substantial number of those trained have remained with the institution even though no staff retention policy has been in place. Through the Programme, the University has furthermore managed to introduce two new undergraduate programmes, one in computer science, the other in food science and technology. All acknowledge that the presence of the Belgian resident experts has been instrumental in this.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

relative weaknesses

During the 1st phase of the VLIR-UOS IUC Programme with the University of Zambia consisted of a series of more or less `stand alone' projects, with some common sharing of available facilities. Though there has been some more cooperation among the individual projects in the 2nd phase, one cannot escape the impression that these `stand alone' projects have prevailed. There is little sense of a real integrated programme with e.g. common themes and approaches as well as common overall goals or objectives. The individual projects were all, some more than others, affected by common problems, including the lack of an appropriate staff reward and retention policy, problems experienced in the financing of recurrent costs, especially once the Programme is over, and the absence of a proper research policy and framework, however without supporting institution-wide initiatives to address them. At the same time, UNZA management appears to have given insufficient priority to these issues; for long, the same seems to have been true for issues related to ICT. Programme funding and financial management have encountered problems - particularly until the nomination of a Programme Manager in 2003. Money arrived late, communication about funding available was inadequate, causing difficulties in projects to stick to their original planning, which in turn led to activities either not implemented or implemented with delay on the one hand and under expenditure on the other. Programme financing furthermore suffered from uncertainties concerning expenditures that had not been accepted in Belgium and the lack of reliable financial reporting. Efficiency of implementation of project activities was also affected in some cases by limited time inputs from the Flemish staff in relation to the key problems to be addressed (an example is the Computer Centre and library project). Moreover, projects are often based on interpersonal rather than inter-institutional collaboration which would imply the involvement of more persons on both sides. The transfer from personal to inter-institutional collaboration is seldom made. Sustainability remains a key concern - though there has been some increase in own income generated by the laboratories and departments that participated in the VLIRUOS IUC Programme. To date, the funds generated through research and consultancy are in most cases, an exception is the School of Veterinary Medicine, well below the operational costs paid for by the Programme. There has been little increase of the Government budget for the University.

General recommendations

The VLIR-UOS IUC Programme with the University of Zambia was one of the first three of such linkages that commenced in 1997. Since that time, much has changed in the way in which the Programme is handled, how partner universities are identified, programmes developed, and managed, etc.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Nevertheless, the UNZA experience would seem to give cause for the following VLIR-UOS IUC programme level recommendations: For ICT, `horizontal' programme activities have been identified, recognising that ICT plays a key role across universities and various VLIR-UOS IUC partnerships in different parts of the world. Thought could be given to introducing similar cross cutting, horizontal and thematic topics - which are key to the future of the universities in developing countries but easily disregarded - such as research and quality assurance policies, staffing and human resource development, with particular attention for staff rewarding and retention issues. Reconsider the system of progress reporting, allowing it to become more informative, focused on accomplishments, difficulties encountered and solutions found, and less repetitive. Reconsider the system of self-assessment in terms of timing (preferably before the Programme ends rather than one year after), reporting format (simplify forms, avoid contradictions, focus on key results, refrain from embedding other types of documents), and separating self-assessment from preparing plans for future cooperation. Along the same lines, VLIR-UOS ought to reconsider the timing of the external evaluations, organising these shortly after or at the end of the last year of Programme implementation. Within the Flemish universities there is a need to recognise the importance of participation in development work - in addition to teaching, learning, and consultancy services to generate `third stream' financial resources. Only if senior university management allows academic staff to spend time on development work and honours this, will it be possible to find younger academics to replace a generation of which many are still active but often in retirement.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Appendix I : Tor Contents

GeNerAL PrINCIPLeS oF THe ProGrAMMe For INSTITUTIoNAL UNIVerSITY CooPerATIoN VLIr-UoS deCISIoN To eVALUATe THe oNGoING CooPerATIoN wITH UMSS, UNZA ANd SUA INTrodUCTIoN To THe eVALUATIoN MeTHodoLoGY oBJeCTIVe ANd SCoPe oF THe eVALUATIoN eVALUATIoN CrITerIA ACTorS INVoLVed MeTHodoLoGY orGANISATIoN oF THe eVALUATIoN TIMING oF THe eVALUATIoN FoLLow-UP To THe eVALUATIoN BUdGeT

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

General principles of the Programme for Institutional University Cooperation

Background

The VLIR-UOS programme for Institutional University Cooperation (IUC) emanates from the Specific Agreement signed by the Belgian State Secretary for Development Cooperation and the VLIR-UOS on 16 May 1997. This agreement foresees a system of programme funding whereby, based on a Global Programme (1998-2002), the Belgian government provides each year funding for the implementation of an annual programme submitted by the VLIR-UOS. Once the government has approved the VLIRUOS annual programme, it is the responsibility of the VLIR-UOS to implement the programme.

General description

The IUC programme is an inter-university cooperation programme of the Flemish universities, focused on the institutional needs and priorities of partner universities in the South. The IUC programme is in principle demand-oriented, and seeks to promote local ownership through the full involvement of the partner both in the design and implementation of the programme. The programme relates to only a few carefully selected partner universities in the South, hoping that synergy, added value and greater institutional impact can be achieved through the different IUC projects located in the same partner university. Support is directed towards the institutional development of the partner university, the improvement of quality of local undergraduate and postgraduate education, and the encouragement of south-south academic and research linkages. Each partnership consists of different projects aiming at maximum institutional impact, apart from education and research-oriented projects. The partnership may also include some projects aimed at improving the organisation, administration and management of the university as a whole. The identification of the fields of cooperation is in principle demand-based, but demands can obviously only be met to the extent that Flemish expertise is available. Each partnership consists of a coherent set of interventions geared towards the development of the teaching and research capacity of the university, as well as its institutional management.

Objectives

The VLIR-UOS accepted as the core requirements for its IUC Programme the following : long-term cooperation : in order for institutional cooperation to be effective, long-term partnerships need to be developed. Institutional partnerships are to cover a period of at least ten years; orientation on the institutional needs and priorities of the partner universities in the South : donor support should start from the needs and priorities of the partner institution. Linkage projects and programmes need to fit well into the local policy environment of the Southern partner institution and therefore should respond to the priorities that have been identified by these institutions themselves. It is believed that only linkages based on projects to which the partner university attaches high priority, will be sustainable in the long run;

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

ownership : apart from their required participation in the process of project identification, partner institutions from the South also need to be fully involved in the process of implementation at all levels. A lack of strong involvement from beneficiary institutions has a negative impact on the successful implementation as well as on the sustainability of cooperation projects; concentration : concentrating efforts in a limited number of partner institutions in the developing world leads to apparent advantages in terms of programme management, but concentration is also meant to allow for synergy between different projects of a same linkage in order to create an added value in terms of the expected broader institutional impact of the intervention; donor coordination : the VLIR-UOS is convinced of the usefulness of donor coordination.

The VLIR-UOS programme for IUC aims at the provision of substantial support to a limited number of carefully selected partner universities in the developing world. This support is geared towards the institutional development of the partner university; the improvement of the quality of local education; the development of local postgraduate education in the South; the encouragement of south-south linkages. Each partnership is broad in orientation, and includes the following : different components (projects) make up the partnership; all projects aim at a maximum of institutional impact; the activities which are organised in the context of the partnership can involve all constituent parts of the university; apart from direct support to the improvement of education and research the partnership can also contain projects which are aimed at improving the organisation, the administration and the management of the university as a whole; the identification of the fields of cooperation within the partner programme is in principle based on the partner university's demands; these demands obviously can only be met in so far that the required expertise can be provided by the Flemish universities (demand driven approach); each partner programme consists of a coherent set of interventions geared towards the development of the teaching and research capacity of the partner university, as well as its institutional management.

Fixed budgets and annual funding

The annual budget per partner university is 745.000. As part of the phase-out process, the fixed annual budget decreases to 85%, 75% and 50% of a full budget for the activity programmes of year 8, 9 and 10 respectively. While the partner programme represents a 5 year framework actual funding is based on the approval of annual activity programmes with no possibility to roll over possible balances to the following budget year.

IUC management system at present Summary outline of IUC management

The IUC management system is based on the following division of tasks:

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

VLIR is responsible for the programming - including the selection of partner universities -, monitoring and evaluation of the overall programme. VLIR is accountable to the Belgian government; the implementation of a partner programme is delegated to a Flemish university which functions as the coordinating university in Flanders. The Flemish university of the VLIR appointed Flemish coordinator functions as the coordinating university in Flanders. Administratively, the university of the Flemish coordinator is responsible for the day-to-day management of the programme implementation based on an agreement signed by the Flemish coordinating university and the VLIR; the university of the Flemish coordinator and the partner university have the responsibility to jointly manage the implementation of the partner programme and the constituent activity programmes based on an agreement signed by the Flemish coordinating university, the partner university and the VLIR; the partner university also has to nominate a local coordinator who functions as the key responsible person from local side; at the level of the partner university a full time professional manager is appointed in order to support the local coordinator, being an academic charged with numerous other responsibilities, in the various management duties associated with the implementation of a complex programme; both in the North and the South a steering committee is established to coordinate the implementation of a partner programme. On a annual or bi annual basis both committees hold a Joint Steering Committee Meeting ( JSCM).

PROJECT 1

PROJECT 2

PROJECT 3

PROJECT 4

PROJECT 5

FLEMISH STEERING COMMITTEE

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

ICOS

VLIR

FLEMISH COORDINATOR JOINT STEERING COMMITTEE LOCAL COORDINATOR LOCAL STEERING COMMITTEE

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT LEADER

PROJECT MANAGER

BILATERAL CONTACTS

Project Cycle Management (PCM)

In 2003, VLIR-UOS has introduced the PCM-methodology in VLIR-UOS funded activities. This approach has called for a much more focused approach framed by the formulation of a logical framework matrix spanning a 5-year period and including measurable indicators.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

The present IUC partner universities List of the IUC partner universities at present

AFRICA Tanzania : Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) (phasing out) Zambia : University of Zambia (UNZA) (phasing out) Kenya : University of Nairobi (UoN) Kenya : Moi University (MU-K) (will start on 1 July 2007) Zimbabwe : University of Zimbabwe (UNZI) South-Africa : University of the Western Cape (UWC) Ethiopia: Mekelle University (MU) Ethiopia :Jimma University ( JU) (will start on 1 July 2007) Mozambique : University Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) (will start on 1 April 2008) LATIN AMERICA Bolivia : Universidad Mayor de San Simón (UMSS) (phasing out) Ecuador : Escuela Superior Politécnica Del Litoral (ESPOL) Ecuador: Universidad de Cuenca (UCuenca) (will start on 1 July 2007) Cuba: Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de las Villas (UCLV) Suriname : Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname (ADEKUS) (will start on 1 April 2008) ASIA Vietnam : Can Tho University (CTU) Vietnam : Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) the Philippines : the network of the Saint Louis University (SLU) and Benguet State University (BSU).

Take-off in different stages

1996 1997 1998 1999 2003 2007 2008 : : : : : : : preparation of the start of the IUC programme SUA, UNZA and UMSS UDSM, UON, UNZI, HUT and CTU ESPOL and SLU/BSU MU, UWC and UCLV JU, MU-K, UCuenca UEM, ADEKUS

IUC Programming cycle Duration of the cooperation

1. In principle the cooperation with a partner university covers a period of maximum ten years: two time blocks of five years each. For each time block of five years a partner programme is to be drafted. Objectives have to be defined within a timeframe of five years. 2. Every three to five years the cooperation with a partner will be evaluated. Each year at least three partner universities will be evaluated. In 2000/2001, the IUC cooperation with the Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Bolivia, the University of Zambia (UNZA), Zambia, and the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania, was evaluated, since these three universities were the first to start. It was jointly

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

decided to accelerate the evaluation of the IUC cooperation with the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Tanzania, with one year. Consequently, the IUC partnership with UDSM was also evaluated in 2001. In 2002, the partner programmes with UoN, UNZI, ESPOL, SLU/BSU, HUT and CTU were evaluated. Following the inability to overcome the weaknesses brought out by the partnership with UDSM, VLIR-UOS decided to not enter into a second phase partner programme with UDSM. 3. On the condition of positive outcome of the evaluation exercise, a partner university can continue its cooperation for another five years. In case of negative outcome, the cooperation can be stopped, either immediately or after the first block of five years. Each evaluation is followed the next year by a control to check whether the results of the evaluation have been followed-up. Each evaluation can be followed by changes to the cooperation programme, both in terms of content and of budget. In terms of the Phase I and Phase II partner programme emphasis, the following can be observed: Phase I is meant to focus on capacity building Phase II is meant to focus on consolidation, application and phase-out

Partner Programme support opportunities

Following a period of 10 years of collaboration, limited funding is provided during a phase out process. More importantly however, is the possibility of IUC partner universities to submit proposals under the so called "IUC Research Iniciative Projects". In this way, support will be provided for quality research proposals undertaken by members of former IUC project teams. The modalities of this fund are currently being elaborated.

IUC Partner Programme support facilities

The support facilities explained underneath are funded by VLIR-UOS for the benefit of all ongoing and phasing out IUC partner universities. Competitive funds Apart from an annual budget, the partner programmes may respond to calls by VLIR to submit proposals under the ICT and North South South Cooperation Fund (NSSCF). Proposals are appraised on a competitive basis. Under the ICT Fund second hand pc's are availed to the partner universities free of charge within a certain conceptual framework. Under the NSSCF, two are more IUC partner universities may join hands in developing a proposal that includes the involvement of a Flemish academic and builds upon the achievements of the partner programmes within the framework of SS collaboration. International Foundation for Science (IFS) With VLIR funding, IFS is able to fund deserving research proposals of young researchers of any eligible academic of the IUC partner universities that are recommended following an IFS review but for which IFS does no have the funds. Put differently, VLIR will be addressing the IFS funding gap as far as proposals from IUC partner universities are concerned. International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) VLIR is funding INASP in order to develop a curricula for training on bandwidth management. Under this initiative, the IUC partner universities will benefit from training at various levels in order to optimise available bandwidth.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Cross cutting initiatives Cross cutting initiatives are workshops, training activities, study visits and similar activities on matters of common interest in which participants of IUC partner universities can participate.

A full 17 year programme cycle framed by a comprehensive IUC tool box

With reference to the tables underneath, please find herewith an outline of the programme cycle both at the level of responsibilities during the different programme phases (table 1) and the overall timeframe (table 2). Table 1. Programme cycle at the level of responsibilities during the different programme phases

Phase

ProGrAMMING

Activities

Definition policy framework. Broad outlines of partner/programme types and guidelines for elaboration. Elaboration of programme/project idea. Analysis whether idea is fundable and matching is feasible. Analysis against VLIR-UOS policy. Flemish interest based negotiations. Collection of data, consultation, detailed formulation

Actors

VLIR-UOS /DGDC

Outputs

Typology of fundable projects. Conditions for acceptance. Preliminary proposals submitted to VLIR-UOS.

IdeNTIFICATIoN

PARTNER UNIVERSITY

APPrAISAL MATCHMAKING ForMULATIoN FUNdING deCISIoN IMPLeMeNTATIoN ANd MoNITorING eVALUATIoN (every 3 to 5 years)

VLIR-UOS

Projects admitted for formulation. Formalised matching. Project proposals. Funded programme. Implementation as planned. Adapted when necessary. Evaluation report. Lessons learnt fed back to cycle

PROJECT LEADERS VLIR-UOS

Annual planning Annual implementation Adaptation as required Evaluation activities

ALL ACTORS BUT MAINLY PROJECT PARTNERS ALL PARTIES AND EXTERNAL ACTORS

Table 2.

PP ident. and for Year Partner Programmes Partner 1 Partner 2 ICT Fund IFS INASP NSSCF IUC Research Fund Cross cutting initiatives evaluation ? ? ? ? ? PP Objectives ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 0 Phase I PP Capacity Building 1 2 3 4 5 Phase II PP: Consolidation and Phase-out 6 7 8 9 10 Post IUC support 11 12 13 14 15 PP Objectives PP Objectives PP Objectives PP Objectives PP Objectives PP Objectives

other IUC supporting initiatives

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

The IUC programme terminology Activity programme

An activity programme gives an outline of the activities that will be implemented within the framework of cooperation between the Flemish universities and a given partner university with regard to Institutional University Cooperation for a given year, i.e. within the period of maximum twelve months. The activity programme is composed of the activities of the different projects. An activity programme as well as a partner programme is made up of projects. Previously, these were referred to as `projects'. In the framework of the activity programmes, VLIR-UOS was using a number of additional documents namely the `Synthesis of the activity programme' and the `Detailed activity programme'. From 2003 onwards, such documents have been replaced by internal monitoring systems to be applied by the various stakeholders involved in programme implementation.

Annual programme

In the framework of the IUC Programme VLIR-UOS will submit for approval by the Belgian Minister for Development Cooperation, annual programmes. An annual programme is composed of the activity programmes with the different partner institutions in Africa, Latin America and Asia.

Partner programme

A partner programme is composed of the successive activity programmes with a given partner university covering the entire period of cooperation (5-year period).

Global programme

A global programme is composed of the different partner programmes with all partner institutions in Africa, Latin America and Asia.

VLIr-UoS decision to evaluate the IUC partnership with UMSS, UNZA and SUA

Taking into account the programming cycle of the IUC cooperation programmes, the 10 year cooperation based on earmarked funding with UMSS, UNZA and SUA has come to an end in March 2007. As a consequence, these three institutions will be the first to be submitted to a final evaluation.

Introduction to the evaluation methodology

Since 2003, the new partnerships differed with the partnerships that had been evaluated earlier. These differences related mainly to the following: programme and project design based on the logical framework approach; a more coherent programme focus with an in-built opportunity for a synergetic programme approach; the introduction of a full time programme management position at the level of the partner university;

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

a simplification of some financial (lump sum basis), compensations that are much more oriented towards the academics unit that are providing actual support and leadership.

Furthermore, VLIR-UOS has been developing more indicator based programmes and project files that elaborate upon the indicators developed earlier, and introduced the following additional dimensions: a three layered approach whereby the projects fit into the programme that fits into the partner institutions that fits into a country context; indicators that relate to broad based managerial issues; an evaluation model that takes the log frame as a reference. In the case of UMSS, SUA and UNZA most of these different approaches were taken into account when preparing the Phase II partner programme. Nevertheless, a full time programme management position was only introduced by UNZA, and all three universities held on to the "old" financial guidelines instead of the lump sum based financial compensations.

objective and scope of the evaluation

Objective of the evaluation

The final evaluation is meant to generate conclusions that will allow: the identification of strengths and weaknesses of each specific IUC collaboration with the three institutions in particular, and of the IUC programme in general; VLIR-UOS to identify departments and/or research groups that have received substantial support from the IUC programme in Phase II and thus can present proposals for the "IUC Research Iniciative Projects" the formulation of recommendations to all stakeholders in terms of the follow up plan that has been elaborated by the Northern and Southern project leaders to identify and comment upon possible venues for the future of the involved projects in view of establishing sustainability

Scope of the evaluation the present implementation of the programme

evaluating the global state of implementation of the programme, both at the level of the overall programme and the constituent projects; evaluating whether the activities, per project, have met the objectives, that had been defined by the actors involved, within the given timeframe and with the given means; evaluating the management of the programme, both in Flanders and locally, and formulating, if necessary, recommendations that could be of interest for the partnerships that are still ongoing;

the nature of the programme

evaluating the quality, efficiency, efficacy, impact, development relevance and sustainability of the programme in the light of the overall goal of the IUC Programme, being institutional capacity-building of the local university, as situated in the context of the needs of the local society;

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

evaluating the cooperation between all parties involved, and formulating, if necessary, recommendations that could be of interest for the partnerships that are still ongoing;

the position of the IUC programme within the international cooperation activities of the partner university

evaluating the added value of the IUC Programme for the partner university, in comparison to other ongoing donor cooperation programmes;

the follow up plan of the programme

evaluating the follow up plan as elaborated in the self assessment report (Format F1, self assessment per project), in view of the continuation of the different activities that have started up within the framework of the IUC programme (Phase I) and the consolidation of the results as aimed for in Phase 2.

evaluation criteria

The logical framework

The logical framework will serve as the basic reference document in terms of the objectives and indicators specified to assess actual progress against the objectives and results formulated. All project leaders will therefore in the framework of the self-assessment report against the key indicators as well as the assumptions formulated at project design stage.

Descriptive indicators of results

In order to allow the usage of some `standard indicators', all projects will report against these indicators. Such a reporting will furthermore greatly contribute to documenting the actual outputs and retaining such information in a database that will be annually updated. The evaluation will be focused on seven areas of key (programme/project) results areas (KRAs), each one specified in terms of its corresponding indicators. Where possible, both quantitative and full descriptive data will be obtained and used as a basis for evaluation :

Key result areas

KrA 1: research

Indicators (quantitative and full descriptive data)

· · · · · · · Articles in international peer reviewed journals Articles in national peer reviewed journals Conference proceedings (full paper) Conference abstracts Chapters in books (based on peer review) Books with international distribution (author or editor) Working/technical papers/popularising literature/articles in national journals, electronic journals etc. · Conference contributions (posters, lectures) · Patents. · Other

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

KrA 2: Teaching

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Number of courses/training programmes developed New of substantially updated curriculum Textbooks development Learning packages developed (distance learning, CD-rom etc.) Laboratory manuals Excursion guides Other Leaflets, flyers or posters for extension Manuals or technical guides Workshop or training modules package Audio visual extension materials Consultancy / contract research Policy advice/papers Other New institutional procedures / policies Lab or departmental management inputs Systems development (e-management, software etc.) Research protocols Other BSc. MSc. PhD. Pre-doc Training in Belgium Other Physical infrastructure (incl. land) ICT-equipment Library equipment (incl. books) Laboratory equipment Transport Flemish travel grants Flemish PhDs Other PhDs Spin off projects Other

KrA 3: extension and out-reach

KrA 4: Management

KrA 5: Human resources development

KrA 6: Infrastructure Management

KrA 7: Mobilisation of additional resources/opportunities

7. other

With input of the VLIR-UOS-secretariat and the concerned stakeholders, this table is to be completed for each project of each partner programme. In case it is impossible to complete the table in details, the evaluation commission can make its evaluation at the level of the main categories or subcategories.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Qualitative evaluation criteria

In addition to the primarily descriptive profile of results both per project and in general terms, the evaluation commission will be invited to evaluate these results in qualitative terms applying different qualitative criteria and a five-point scale.

Qualitative evaluation criteria

Per project

Criterion

1. Quality

Indicators

This is the main criterion, being the result of all other criteria. Possible indicators of "quality": · quality of research : the extent to which the results have been incorporated in local or international refereed journals · quality of education : the extent to which alumni easily get a job which fits their education profile; the number of fellowships acquired from foundations · quality of rendering services to society : the extent to which the university/faculty/department is involved in feasibility studies/consultancies · job opportunities · strategic vision the extent to which the specific objectives have been achieved (the level of the results) The relationship between the objectives and the means used to reach the objectives. The degree to which the installed capacity (human/physical/financial) is used; goals/means ratio in human, physical and financial resources Possible indicators of "efficiency": At the level of the programme : the extent of flexibility in the programme implementation, e.g. reallocation of resources during implementation Not just actual but also (given time limitations) potential impact (at level of goals), looking at consultancy, policy advise and accreditation models Possible indicators of "impact": · impact at the level of the private sector : the amount of money earned on the market · impact at policy level : the extent to which academics, involved in the IUC programme, are called upon by the government for policy advice · impact at the level of the own university or other universities : - renewed curriculum functions as example for other universities/ departments - the new style of teaching has become a model for teaching (e.g. the systematic use of teaching in combination with laboratory work) the extent to which the programme/project addresses immediate and significant problems of the community, looking at the amount of selffinance, demand from state and private actors Especially financial and institutional sustainability Possible indicators of institutional commitment in the South: · co-funding by the partner university (matching funds) · incorporation of costs into the budget of the partner university · capacity to attract new funds · retention of highly qualified staff · the partner university sets aside funds for operations and maintenance of physical infrastructure Possible indicators of mutual interest: · do the Flemish universities commit their own university funds to the programme, for instance by giving fellowships or by allowing academics to go to the field ? · are Flemish academics personally committed (e.g. spend their holidays working in the partner university) ? · are there joint research projects which are interesting both to the Northern and Southern academics involved ? · do the partner universities also commit their own funds to the programme (matching funds)? · is there a good quality follow up plan for implementation after the 10 year period of partnership with earmarked funding ? (see self assessment reports)

2. effectiveness 3. efficiency

4. Impact

5. development relevance

6. Sustainability

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

A five-point evaluation scale

A five-point evaluation scale is to be used, both when judging the results in the above areas in general terms, and when evaluating the performance of the projects and the programme as a whole in terms of the qualitative criteria. The scale is as follows: 1 = (very) poor 2 = insufficient/low 3 = sufficient 4 = good/high 5 = excellent/very high. These scores - expressing in quantitative terms an overall and synthetic yet differentiated qualitative judgement - should facilitate the task of evaluation. In terms of collaboration at the level of the programme, the following criteria can be applied as a reference. No scores will be applied, only a qualitative elaboration.

Criterion

1. efficiency

Indicators

The relationship between the objectives and the means used to reach the objectives. The use and application of the means earmarked for collaboration. The actual net result in terms of the achieved efficiency through collaboration. The extent to which collaboration can contribute to solving institutional needs and problems. Possible indicators of "efficiency": At the level of the programme : existence of systems for continuous alertness for opportunities to enhance efficiency through cost-sharing/economies of scale etc.

2. Impact

Not just actual but also (given time limitations) potential impact. Possible indicators of "impact": · impact at the institutional level : the extent to which the col-laboration has sparked other departments to initiate inter-university collaboration, joint capacity building, fund raising etc. · impact at regional developmental level: the extent to which the collaboration has led to joint developmental activities or similar collaborative models at the regional level · impact at policy level : the extent to which the collaboration has raised interest of policy makers and academics, and SLU/BSU are called upon or are pro-actively developing collaboration models that could be fed into policy advice

3. development relevance

the extent to which the planned collaboration is addressing immediate and significant problems and needs of the concerned partners as well as regional and national policy makers. Especially financial and institutional sustainability Possible indicators of institutional commitment to collaboration: · feedback and/or participation in each others strategic planning · strengths and weaknesses of two institutions in terms of institutionalising collaboration · intensification and/or formalisation of inter-university consultations · references in external and internal documents · joint proposals (fund raising, research) · collaboration and exchanges outside of VLIR-UOS-programme · presence of a detailed follow up plan (see self assessment reports)

4. Sustainability

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

The collaboration as a whole: management and related issues

A more elaborate list of indicators to review the management and cooperation aspects of the partnership will be provided to stakeholders and the external evaluators. This list is partly drawn from the TOR developed for the audit of the management of the IUC partnership with UoN, as well as the basic IUC concept. More specifically, the following areas are among the issues to be reviewed: Overall assessment of the programme management (North and South) System development (manuals, synergy approach, interim monitoring and reporting etc.) Management issues related to actual implementation (financial information flow, procurement, facilitation of visits etc.) Financial management Academic cooperation PR and visibility Synergy and coherence of the programme

Actors involved

General

The following actors will be involved in the evaluation : the members of the evaluation commissions; the Northern stakeholders involved in the three ongoing IUC cooperation programmes; the Southern stakeholders involved in the three ongoing IUC cooperation programmes; the IUC Commission (still to be composed); the Bureau UOS of VLIR-UOS and the VLIR-UOS; the Direction General for Development Cooperation (DGDC), i.e. the Belgian government administration for international cooperation.

The evaluation commission Management, academic content and country context

Ideally, the following expertise would be represented in the evaluation commission: a development management expert who is familiar with processes of institutional/organisational development, capacity building and methodological issues in general; an academic expert regarding the core theme of the partner programme such that the academic quality may be assessed; a country expert who is familiar with the national issues at hand in terms of higher education and research in the country concerned. In view however of the fact that: with each additional team member the evaluation process will be more costly and complex;

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

VLIR-UOS wishes to maintain a balance between the self-assessment and external assessment of programme implementation; not in all the partnerships, a single academic theme can be identified around which expertise could be mobilised

it has been decided not to compose a three member commission but rather ensure that all the above field can be accommodated by the joined field of expertise of two members of the evaluation commission to be composed. The experts should be neutral, and have no relation with the universities involved - neither the Flemish universities involved nor the partner university - or the IUC partnership. The experts should have a proven experience and expertise with evaluation. The Bureau UOS will decide on the composition of the evaluation commission, based on suggestions from the Flemish and the partner universities, as well as from the VLIR-UOS-secretariat.

Division of tasks among the members of the evaluation commissions

The evaluation is to be undertaken by both members of the evaluation commission who are expected to function as a team. The international cooperation expert The international cooperation expert will act as team leader (chairman). In this capacity he/she will lead the meetings that have been programmed and will coordinate the report drafting. He/she will be invited to use his/her experience with international cooperation in the field of higher education and research as reference for the evaluation, especially when formulating recommendations for improvement of the global set-up and management of the programme. The country expert The country expert will be invited to situate the partner university and its IUC Programme in its larger national context, taking into account local legislation relating to higher education, etc.

The Northern stakeholders involved in the three phasing out IUC cooperation programmes

What is meant by the Northern stakeholders is : all persons from the Flemish universities who are involved in one of the phasing out IUC cooperation programmes (SUA, UNZA and UMSS). This means : the top management of the Flemish coordinating university, the Flemish coordinator, the Flemish project leaders and team members, Ph.D. student promoters, the Institutional Coordinator for University Development Cooperation of the Flemish coordinating university (the so-called ICOS), the financial officer(s) of the Flemish coordinating university, the permanent expert(s) (if applicable), the IUC desk officer etc.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

The Southern stakeholders involved in the three phasing out IUC cooperation programmes

What is meant by the Southern stakeholders is : all persons from the partner university and the local community who are involved in the respective IUC partnership. This means : the Southern stakeholders within the partner university : the top management of the partner university, the authorities at faculty level, the local coordinator, the programme manager, the local project leaders, their deputies (if applicable) and team members, the staff of the local coordinating unit of the IUC programme (secretaries, accountants, ...), the bursar, the students funded by the programme, the student supervisors and/or promoters, technicians, staff from other donor-sponsored cooperation programmes being implemented at the partner university, etc.; other Southern stakeholders : representatives from central, regional and local government agencies and from civic society (e.g. local chambers of industry, employers' association, ...), officials of the Ministry of Education and of Foreign Affairs, and of the Belgian Embassy, ...

The IUC Commission

In order to have more systematic follow-up of the IUC partner programmes, especially relating to its academic content, an IUC Commission will be installed by VLIRUOS. The IUC Commission will be an advisory body that will advise the Bureau of the VLIR-UOS on the IUC Programme. The VLIR-UOS will create this commission in the coming months. The final evaluation reports will be submitted, for discussion, to the IUC Commission.

The VLIR-UOS-secretariat

The VLIR-UOS-secretariat will function as organiser of the evaluations, as well as resource centre for the commission members.

DGDC

DGDC will be invited to have a separate discussion with the evaluation commission, if so desired, and to participate in debriefing meetings with the evaluation commission.

Methodology

Evaluation mission

An evaluation mission will be conducted by an external commission for each of the three phasing out IUC cooperation programmes. This evaluation commission will have discussions with the Northern stakeholders of the resp. phasing out IUC cooperation programme; the Southern stakeholders of the resp. phasing out IUC cooperation programme;

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

the VLIR-UOS and the Direction General for International Cooperation (DGDC); the Belgian Embassy and DGDC section in the partner country; if possible but highly advised : the department for university education and/or research of the Ministry of Education/Research of the partner country and/or other actors in the field; any other relevant stakeholders.

The team will also visit all relevant facilities of the university. Consistent with the mid-term evaluation methodology, VLIR-UOS has developed a final evaluation methodology. This includes a briefing of the international during a one day mission to Brussels. As to giving the opportunity to the evaluation commission members to have discussions about the resp. partnership with the Northern stakeholders, these discussions are planned to be held at the partner university at the end of the evaluation mission. Therefore, preferably, the Northern stakeholders or a delegation should be at the partner university at the very end of the evaluation mission, for two reasons : to have in-depth discussions with the evaluation commission, separately from the Southern stakeholders, to allow the evaluation commission to have a balanced view which takes into account the viewpoints of both parties; to discuss with the southern stakeholders how to react to and implement the evaluation commission's conclusions and recommendations, thereby focusing on the future. This discussion is to be held in the form of a joint steering committee meeting. A representative of the VLIR-UOS-secretariat will also be present at the end of the mission to serve as resource centre and in order to elucidate in situ aspects of the programme which the commission members as outsiders would otherwise not capture well enough, and to clarify the expectations of VLIR-UOS vis-à-vis the commission in more detailed terms. At the end of the mission the evaluation commission will present its draft conclusions and recommendations to all stakeholders.

Inputs

Input into the evaluation will be provided through : an analysis of documents by the evaluation commission, in particular programme documents (reports) and the self-assessment reports which will have to be prepared prior to the mission of the evaluation commission; focused interviews of the evaluation commission with various stakeholders; visits of the evaluation commission to the relevant facilities of the partner university and the site of development projects with a link to the IUC programme.

Documents

Programme documents Prior to its mission the evaluation commission will receive from VLIR-UOS, apart from basic information on the IUC Programme, a number of documents relating to the respective IUC partnership, such as the university strategy paper, the IUC partner programme, annual reports, etc.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Self-assessment reports The stakeholders in a given IUC partnership will be invited, prior to the mission of the evaluation commission, to make a self-assessment and to report on it to the commission in the form of a number of self-assessment reports. Contrary to the evaluation process of 2001 and 2002, the VLIR-UOS-secretariat aims at producing project files that contains basic information (financial, scholars etc.) The objective of the self-assessment is threefold : interim reporting against the logical framework; consolidation and/or completion of some quantitative and qualitative information to the evaluation commission to complement the information contained in the formal programme documents; stimulate the internal quality assurance by a strengths-weaknesses analysis by all parties involved; internal preparation for the discussions with the evaluation commission and its visit to the partner university.

The following formats were sent to the different stakeholders: Format 1 or F1 : Self-assessment per project (See annex 1 to these ToR's) This is a format that has to be completed for each project, by the Flemish and local project leader jointly, in consultation with their team members. Through this format, reporting is done on the following: accomplishments in view of objectives and indicators; assumptions at the start of Phase II, the development over time and the action that has been taken in view of possible developments; KRA's as in the database; qualitative appreciation; self-scoring KRA's; self-scoring cooperation dynamics; definition of capacity building recipients; effects in the North; sustainability and overall outlook; follow-up plan; and others..... Format 2 of F2 : Self assessment of the partnership (See annex 2 to these ToR's) This format has to be completed separately by the Flemish and the local coordinator, jointly with the respective steering committee. Through this format, reporting is done mainly on the following issues: main effects and assessment; lessons learned; hindsight; impact over the full 10 year period; synergy; SWOT; financial and overall management of the IUC programme; outlook and other recommendations; and others...

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Focussed interviews with all stakeholders

The evaluation commission members will visit the partner university where they will have focused discussions with all stakeholders of the IUC partnership, both the Southern and Northern ones.

Visits

The evaluation commission will also visit all relevant facilities of the university, with special attention to infrastructure, the central offices involved in the programme, the classrooms and laboratories involved, research sites, field stations, development projects with a link to the IUC programme, .... .

Debrief ing meeting of the evaluation mission with the stakeholders

At the end of the mission the evaluation commission will discuss its preliminary findings - general conclusions and recommendations - during a meeting with all stakeholders, both the Northern and the Southern ones.

Evaluation report

Each evaluation commission will draft an evaluation report, in English, based on the written material and the discussions and visits during the mission. The draft report will be submitted, for comments, via the VLIR-UOS to the respective Flemish and local coordinator. It will be up to the two coordinators to coordinate the reactions to this draft report. The evaluation commission will decide, given its autonomy, whether or not to take into account the comments received. The final report will be submitted to the VLIR-UOS.

organisation of the evaluation

The evaluation commissions will be composed by the Bureau UOS of the VLIRUOS, based on suggestions from the Flemish and the partner universities, as well as of the VLIR-UOS-secretariat. The evaluation commissions will receive from the VLIR-UOS, apart from basic information on the IUC Programme, a set of documents relating to the respective IUC partnership. The Northern and Southern stakeholders of each of the three IUC partnerships will receive the formats for the self-assessment reports by end of April 2007 in the case of UMSS, by the end of June 2007 for UNZA and SUA. The reports will have to be submitted to the VLIR-UOS-secretariat at the latest on 20 June 2007 for UMSS and on 15 December 2007 for UNZA and SUA. The partner universities will be invited to draft the programme of the evaluation missions, taking into account the possible requests formulated by the resp. evaluation commission. The evaluation missions will be organised in July 2007 (UMSS) and early 2008 (UNZA and SUA), each of them lasting at least one week.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

At the end of each mission, one or more days will be reserved for discussions between the evaluation commission and (a delegation of ) the Northern stakeholders who will be invited to be on the spot at that moment. At the very end of the mission, the evaluation commission will discuss its preliminary conclusions and recommendations at length with the Southern and the Northern stakeholders. It is advised that this debriefing meeting be followed by a joint steering committee meeting. The evaluators are not supposed to participate in this joint steering committee meeting. The evaluation commission members will submit their report within three weeks after their return from the mission. This draft report will be submitted, for comments, via the VLIR-UOS to the respective Flemish and local coordinator. The commission will decide whether or not to change its final report based on the comments received. Submission of the final report by the evaluation commission to the VLIRUOS.

Timing of the evaluation

Action

Mailing of the terms of reference to the stakeholders Mailing of the formats for the self-assessment reports to the stakeholders Composition of the evaluation commissions

Actor

VLIR-UOS secretariat VLIR-UOS secretariat

Time

UNZA/SUA September 2007 June 2007 UMSS June 2007 End of April 2007

Bureau UOS of the VLIR-UOS, based on the suggestions of the resp. partner university, Flemish coordinating university, and the VLIR-UOS-UDC-secretariat VLIR-UOS secretariat January 2008

May 2007

Mailing of the resp. IUC partnership documents to the members of the evaluation commission Deadline for submission of the self-assessment reports to the VLIR-UOS-secretariat

June 2007

· The general information report is to be submitted by the Flemish coordinator to the VLIRUOS-secretariat · The compilation of selfassessment reports per project is to be submitted by the Flemish coordinator to the VLIR-UOSsecretariat · The collective self-assessment report of the Southern stakeholders within the partner university is to be submitted by the local coordinator to the VLIR-UOSsecretariat · The collective self-assessment report of the Northern stakeholders is to be submitted by the Flemish coordinator to the VLIRUOS-secretariat

15 December 2007

20 June 2007

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Preparation of the missions of the evaluation commissions

VLIR-UOS-secretariat

as soon as the composition of the evaluation commissions has been agreed upon as soon as the composition of the evaluation commissions has been agreed upon

as soon as the composition of the evaluation commissions has been agreed upon as soon as the composition of the evaluation commissions has been agreed upon 2 ­ 9 July 2007

Drafting of the programme for the evaluation commissions

Partner universities

Evaluation missions

· · · · · · · · · · · ·

the evaluation commissions the Southern stakeholders the Northern stakeholders VLIR-UOS and DGDC the evaluation commissions the Southern stakeholders the Northern stakeholders VLIR-UOS and DGDC the evaluation commissions the Southern stakeholders the Northern stakeholders VLIR-UOS and DGDC

Local debriefing

10 July 2007

Joint Steering Committee Meeting

9 ­ 10 July 2007

Submission of the draft evaluation reports to the Flemish and local coordinators Commenting on the draft evaluation report

the evaluation commissions, via the VLIR-UOS-secretariat · the Northern stakeholders, under the coordinatorship of the Flemish coordinator · the Southern stakeholders, under the coordinatorship of the local coordinator · VLIR-UOS the evaluation commissions the evaluation commissions,

10 August 2007

Finalising the evaluation report Submission of the evaluation reports to the VLIR-UOS

31 October 2007

Follow-up to the evaluation

Three years after the final evaluation and the closing of the 10 year IUC collaboration, VLIR-UOS intends to organize a follow up survey. This survey would allow : to determine whether the impact of the IUC programme still can be perceived in order of research activities, networking and capacity building activities among others ; to determine whether the follow up plan as elaborated in the self assessment reports has been used in order to establish continuation of the IUC programme after the earmarked funding ; to determine whether the observations and recommendations made by the evaluation commission on the follow up plan during the final evaluation have been taken into consideration by the different stakeholders.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Budget

All costs linked to the evaluation by the evaluators (fee, travel, board and lodging) - except the ones listed below - will be covered by the VLIR-UOS. The organisation costs linked to the mission of the evaluation commissions (e.g. lunches, local transport, etc.) are to be covered by the partner universities. They can book these costs on their respective IUC budget. The costs of the Flemish stakeholders and of VLIR-UOS participating in one or more of the missions will be born by VLIR-UOS. The costs of the DGDC representatives participating in one or more of the missions will be born by DGDC.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Appendix II : Flemish Interuniversity Council

For over 30 years, the Vlaamse Interuniversitaire Raad (VLIR) (Flemish Interuniversity Council) has fostered the development of member universities. Beginning in the 1980s, the VLIR member universities began to participate in an advisory capacity in development cooperation programmes administered by the General Directorate for Development Cooperation (now the Directorate-General for Development Cooperation (DGDC). During the past decade, VLIR-UOS has been given significantly greater responsibility for administering programmes and managing federal funds for University Development Cooperation (UOS) on behalf of the Flemish universities. VLIR-UOS operates under authority of the Minister for Development Cooperation based on an approved 5-year work plan. VLIR-UOS prepares and submits an UDC annual programme. Upon approval by the Government, funds are released to VLIR-UOS for the implementation of the an-nual programme. Under this arrangement, Flemish universities may propose activities. If selected, they are charged with the responsibility for implementing the proposed activities. VLIRUOS retains responsibility for selecting universities to implement activities, and for monitoring and evaluation. VLIR-UOS is also responsible for financial and programmatic accountability.

The IUC Programme

The VLIR-UOS programme for Institutional University Cooperation (IUC) finds its origin in the Specific Agreement signed by the Belgian State Secretary for Development Cooperation and VLIR-UOS on 16 May 1997. With this agreement, a system of programme funding was introduced whereby the Belgian Government would provide funding each year for the implementation of an annual programme submitted by VLIR-UOS. Once this annual programme is approved by the Government, VLIRUOS is responsible for its implementation. The IUC programme is an interuniversity cooperation programme of Flemish universities, focused on the institutional needs and priorities of carefully selected partner universities in the South. The general objective of the Programme reads as "Empowering the local university as institution to better fulfil its role as development actor in society". It is in principle demand-oriented: the identification of the fields of cooperation within the partner programme is in principle based on the partner university's demands. At the same time, there is the understanding that demands can obviously only be met to the extent that Flemish expertise is available. The programme seeks to promote local ownership through the full involvement of the partner both in the design and in the implementation of the programme. Each partnership consists of a coherent set of interventions [projects] geared towards the development of the teaching and research capacity of the university, as well as its institutional management. Support is directed towards the institutional development of the partner university, the improvement of the quality of local undergraduate and postgraduate education, and the encouragement of South-South academic and research linkages. The partnership may also include some projects aimed at improving the organisation, administration and management of the

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

university as a whole. Activities organised in the context of the partnership can involve all constituent parts of the university. The programme anticipates that synergy, added value and greater institutional impact can be achieved through the different IUC projects located in the same partner university. VLIR-UOS accepted the following as the core requirements for the IUC programme: Long-term cooperation: in order for institutional cooperation to be effective, long-term partnerships need to be developed. Institutional partnerships are to cover a period of at least ten years; Orientation towards the institutional needs and priorities of the partner universities in the South: donor support should start from the needs and priorities of the partner institution. Linkage projects and programmes need to fit well into the local policy environment of the Southern partner institution and therefore should respond to the priorities that have been identified by these institutions themselves. It is believed that only linkages based on projects to which the partner university attaches high priority, will be sustainable in the long run; Ownership: apart from their required participation in the process of project identification, partner institutions from the South also need to be fully involved in the process of implementation at all levels. A lack of strong involvement from beneficiary institutions has a negative impact on the successful implementation as well as on the sustainability of cooperation projects; Concentration: concentrating efforts in a limited number of partner institutions in the South leads to apparent advantages in terms of programme management, but concentration is also meant to allow for synergy between different projects with the same linkage in order to create added value in terms of the expected broader institutional impact of the intervention; Donor coordination: VLIR-UOS is convinced of the usefulness of donor coordination. The IUC programme support is geared towards: the institutional development of the partner university; the improvement of the quality of local education; the development of local postgraduate education in the South; the encouragement of South-South linkages.

The IUC management system is based on the following division of tasks: VLIR-UOS is responsible for the programming - including the selection of partner universities - monitoring and evaluation of the overall programme. VLIRUOS is accountable to the Belgian Government; implementation of a partner programme is delegated to a Flemish university that functions as the coordinating university in Flanders. This Flemish university appoints the Flemish coordinator who is responsible for the day-to-day management of the programme implementation, based on an agreement signed by the Flemish coordinating university and VLIR-UOS; the university of the Flemish coordinator and the partner university have the responsibility of jointly managing the implementation of the partner programme and the constituent activity programmes based on an agreement signed by the Flemish coordinating university, the partner university and VLIR-UOS;

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the partner university also has to nominate a local coordinator who functions as the key responsible person from the local side; at the level of the partner university, a full-time professional manager (an academic) is appointed in order to support the local coordinator, charged with numerous other responsibilities regarding the various management duties associated with the implementation of a complex programme; both in the North and the South a steering committee is established to coordinate the implementation of a partner programme. On an annual or bi-annual basis, both committees hold a Joint Steering Committee Meeting ( JSCM).

Currently, the IUC programme consists of the following partnership programmes: Africa Ethiopia: Mekelle University (MU) Ethiopia: Jimma University ( JU) Kenya: University of Nairobi (UoN) Kenya: Moi University (MU) Mozambique: Eduardo Mondlane University (EMU) South-Africa: University of the Western Cape (UWC) Zimbabwe: University of Zimbabwe (UNZI) Latin America Cuba: Universidad Central ` Marta Abreu' de Las Villas (UCLV) Ecuador: Escuela Superior Politécnica Del Litoral (ESPOL) Ecuador: Cuenca University (CU) Surinam: Anton de Kom University of Surinam (ADEKUS)

Asia Philippines: the network of the Saint Louis University (SLU) and Benguet State University (BSU). Vietnam: Can Tho University (CTU) Vietnam: Hanoi University of Technology (HUT)

The partnership programmes with the University of Zambia (UNZA), the Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS) in Bolivia and the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) in Tanzania were phased out in 2007, having completed two phases of five years. Since the IUC Annual Programme for 2003, the annual investment for a fullyfledged university in the context of the IUC Programme has been 745,000, i.e. for 100% of the costs, for a period of seven. As of year 8, funding will decline to 85% in year 8, 75% in year 9 and in year 10 to 50% of the former annual budget (i.e. a maximum of 375,000). With this reduction in funding it should be clear to the partner universities that they will have to take over within the near future and that they will have to prepare themselves for this takeover. In the context of the IUC Programme support can be given to the partner in its search for new funds or partners. After a period of ten years the partner university can access a number of ex-post funds on a competitive basis and participate in transversal activities organised at the overall IUC Programme level.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Summarized, the programming cycle is the following:

Programme cycle 17 years

Pre Partner Programme

(y1-y2)

(y13-y17)

Post IUC Partner Programme Support

16 15 14 13 12

17

1

2 3 4 5 6

1

2

Partner Programme: Phase I

(y3-y7)

3

5 4

11 10

3

7 9

2

4 5

8

1

Partner Programme: Phase II

(y8-y12) Activity Programme (AP)

Appendix III : references

Ministry of Education, Government of the Republic of Zambia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark (November 2004), Support to the Education Sector in Zambia, Phase II 2005-07, Volume 1, Sector Programme Support Document Ministry of Education, Government of the Republic of Zambia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark (February 2005), Support to the Education Sector in Zambia, Phase II 2005-07, Volume 2, Annexes Self assessment document, Computer Centre project Self assessment document, Computer Studies project Self assessment document, Food Science and Technology project Self assessment document, Geology and Soil Sciences project Self assessment document, Interdisciplinary research project Self assessment document, Library project Self assessment document, Veterinary Medicine project

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Self assessment reports per project Self assessment of the partnership UNZA UNZA, Activity Programme 2003 Institutional University Co-operation (IUC) with the University of Zambia, Budget for the period 01/04/2003 ­ 30/09/2003, 18 July 2007 UNZA, Activity Programme 2003, Institutional University Co-operation (IUC) with the University of Zambia UNZA, Activity Programme 2005, Institutional University Co-operation (IUC) with the University of Zambia UNZA, Activity Programme 2006, Institutional University Co-operation (IUC) with the University of Zambia UNZA, Annual Progress Report 2002 UNZA, Annual Progress Report 2004 UNZA, Annual Progress Report 2005 UNZA, Annual Progress Report 2006 UNZA, Building Development and management through public-private partnership at UNZA Great East Road Campus, A Conceptual Paper, January 2005 UNZA, IUC Project Follow-up Plan [UNZA Library] UNZA, Relevance, Excellence and Accountability, Strategic Plan 2002-2006 UNZA, University of Zambia, Annual Activity report 2001, 1 April 2001 ­ 31 March 2002 VLIR, Institutional University Co-operation (IUC), Phase II Partner Programme with the University of Zambia (UNZA) (2003-2007) VLIR, Institutionale Universitaire Samenwerking (IUS), Jaarprogramma 1998 VLIR, IUC Programme with the University of Zambia (UNZA), Zambia, 2004 Activity Programme (AP) VLIR, Meeting Belgian steering committee IUC-co-operation UNZA Gent, 7th of October 2002, Report VLIR, Programma "Institutionele Universitaire Samenwerking", Jaarprogramma 1999, Jaarverslag, October 2001 VLIR, Programma "Institutionele Universitaire Samenwerking", Jaarprogramma 2000, Jaarverslag, March 2002 VLIR, Programma "Institutionele Universitaire Samenwerking", Jaarprogramma 2001, Jaarverslag, February 2004 VLIR, Programma "Institutionele Universitaire Samenwerking", Jaarprogramma 2003, Jaarverslag, September 2005 VLIR, Programme for Institutional University Co-operation (IUC), IUC Programme with the University of Zambia (UNZA), Zambia, 2006 Activity Programme (AP) VLIR, Programme for Institutional University Co-operation (IUC), IUC Ex-Post Programme with the University of Zambia (UNZA), Zambia, for Year 11 approval VLIR, Report of the financial control in the context of the IUC Programme UNZA 2002, of. 3/12/03 VLIR, Report of the financial control in the context of the IUC Programme UNZA 2002, dd. 1/5/04 VLIR, The Programme for Institutional University Co-operation (IUC), Annual Programme for 2000, with the positive advise of the Steering Committee on University Development Co-operation of 24 September 1999, 1 October 1999

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Appendix IV : overview of persons met

Ahmed, Dr. A. H., Project Leader, Geology Akakandelwa, Dr. A., Acting Project leader, Library Banda, Dr., Project leader, Soil Science Chifwepa, V. Head UNZA library Chinyama, Mr. C., Director computer Centre De Sitter, J., Project leader computer centre & library project, University of Antwerp Decupere, F., VLIR-UOS Dewettinck, K., Project leader Food Science and technology project Eisendrath, G., Project leader Distance Education project Gabriël,S., Veterinary Medicine Project, Belgian resident Kanyanga, S., DGRS Mbale, Dr. ­ Project leader, Computer Studies Mulavu, S., Programme manager Mwape, K. Veterinary Medicine Mwenda, Dr., Former Acting Vice-Chancellor Nguz, A., Resident expert, Food science and technology project Nkosha, D., Director, Distance Education Phiri, I., Former Project Leader Veterinary Medicine (currently Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives) Phiri, Mr. R., Project Leader, Computer Centre Serpell, Prof. R., Former Vice-Chancellor Shindano, Dr. , Food Science & Technology Siaciwena, Prof,, Project Leader, Distance Education Sikazwe, Dr., former Project Leader, Geology Simukanga, Prof. S., Vice Chancellor Van Ranst, Eric, Flemish programme coordinator Vercruysse, J., Flemish project leader Veterinary Medicine project Verheylezoon, A., ICOS, University of Gent Willems, Y., Flemish project leader Computer Studies project

Appendix V : overview of approved and implemented research projects (by programme year) ­ Multidisciplinary research project

AP 2001

FST120: Microbiological safety and quality of processed milk produced in Zambia. (completed) GEO: Environmental geo-chemical mapping of base-metal distribution in the soils, vegetation and stream sediments in the vicinity of mining areas in Kitwe and Kabwe (completed) VET: Variations in the immune profiles of young calves exposed to natural Schistosoma mattheei infection (completed) VET: The impact of East Coast Fever/Corridor disease control on the health of traditional cattle of Southern Province of Zambia (completed).

120 AG- Agricultural Sciences; CC ­Computer Centre, DE ­Distance Education; MIN- Mines; NS- Natural Science, VET- Veterinary Medicine

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

VET: Assessment of diagnostic methods for Taenia solium cysticerosis in pigs in Zambia (completed) Active participation (with presentation of AP-2000 C7 research results) of Dr. A. K. Nguz to Austropa "17th International Conference of Nutrition" in Vienna (Austria) (This activity was added during the AP-2001, conforming to established rules for Component-7 projects) Active participation (with presentation of AP-2000 C7 research results) of Dr. Sarah Gabriël and Dr. Isaac Phiri to WAAVP Conference in Stresa (Italy) (This activity added during the AP-2001, conforming to established rules for Component-7 projects)

AP 2002

VET: The influence of maternal and colostral immunity on early Schistosoma mattheei infection in calves (completed) VET: Study of human taeniosis/cysticerosis in a village in Zambia (completed) VET: Studies of immune mechanisms governing resistance to African trypanosomosis in African buffaloes (completed) GEO: Environmental geochemical mapping of base-metal distribution in soils in the vicinity of mining areas in Kitwe and Kabwe (completed) GEO: Geochemical mapping and characterisation of calcerous soils developed on dolomite marbles in the Lusaka East area. (no report) FST: Microbiological safety and quality of processed milk products in Zambia (no report) NET: Networking of Southern African universities for scientific and research collaboration using small aperture terminals (VSAT) based virtual laboratories (VL) ­ Extension (completed)

AP 2003

AG-ENG: Microbiological process-line evaluation of milk in Zambian milk processing firms (completed) AG ­NS: Evaluation of packaging and storage of oilseeds of nutritional importance in rural Zambia : safety and quality study of powdered groundnuts (completed) NS-AG: Assessment of the impact of endocrine disrupters on humans and wildlife in the Lochinver National Park (completed) VET-NS: The maternal to foetal transfer of immunoglobulins in cattle (completed) VET-MED: The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in cattle in Zambia (completed) VET-VET: Parasitological, serological & molecular studies on the development of a Trypanosoma congolense strain, isolated in Eastern province in Zambian pigs and goats (no report) VET-NS: Studies on the association of cattle and lechwe tuberculosis on the interface areas of Lochinvar National Park in Zambia (completed) MIN-AG: Evaluation of weathered materials from Kaluwe carbonatite as sources of phosphorus for crop production (completed) MIN-ENG: Quality management of groundwater resources in the Lusaka Aquifer and its possible implications on public health (completed) AG-AG: Validation of a simple diagnostic tool for small scale farmer lime estimation (completed)

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

CC-NS14: Electronic system for teaching and learning(E-Learning) within information &communications services (ICS) (on-going) DE-ED: The attitude of the Zambian working class towards distance education. The case of the civil servants (competed) Conference attendance - S. Gabriel - USA (funding of air ticket; completed)

AP 2004

MN-AG: Quality management of ground water resources in the Lusaka aquifer and its possible implications on public health ­ a case for Chawama/Misis, John Laing and Libala dumpsite areas EG-AG: Assessment of the potential for localisation of the manufacture of mechanised irrigation systems in Zambia MN-EG: An investigation of water and soil quality in areas with high incidence of dental fluorosis in the Southern province of Zambia: A case study from two farms in Choma VET-AG: Assessment of levels of pesticides in fish living in the Kafue river, between Nakambala sugar estate and Kafue town VET-MN: Cattle milk and its possible role as a source sub-chronic lead poisoning in the Kabwe area MED-MN: Association of cotton dust and occurrence of respiratory conditions VET-MED: A case-control study assessing the presence of circulating Taenia solium antigen and specific antibody response among people with epilepsy and without epilepsy in the Chikankata catchment area VET-MED: Longitudinal study of trypanosome congolense strains diversity in a cattle herd kept in Ttrypanosomosis endemic area of the Eastern province of Zambia VET-MED: Epidemiological and risk factor studies of tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife in the interface areas of the Kafue basin national parks VET-MED: Experimental infection of pigs with Taenia solium oncospheres of Zambian origin VET-NS: The seroprevalence of trichinellosis in free range pigs in Zambia VET-MED-NS: The seroprevalence of bovine cysticercosis in cattle rearing regions of Zambia EG-AG: The engineering properties and products of stablised soil-cement building blocks EG-AG: Bioprocessing for renewable energy production from municipal and industrial liquid wastes in Lusaka, Zambia DE-ED: Impact of ICT and training provided under the VLIR-UNZA IUC pro-gramme on delivery of distance education by the Directorate of Distance Education

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Appendix VI : Publications resulting from the VLIr-IUC Programme

Veterinary medicine Publications in peer reviewed journals

M. Munyeme, J.B. muma, E. Skjerve, A.M. Nambota, I.G.K. Phiri, K.L. Samui, P. Dorny, M. Tryland. (2008). Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle of the livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Kafue basin of Zambia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2008). Doi: 10.1016/j. prevetmed.2008.03.006 C.S. Sikasunge, I.K. Phiri, A.M. Phiri, S. Siziya, P. Dorny, A.L. Willingham 3rd. 2008. Prevalence of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in the Eastern, Southern and Western provinces of Zambia. Veterinary Journal 176, 240-244. S. Gabriel, C. Ververken, J. Vercruysse, L. Duchateau, I.K. Phiri, B.M. Goddeeris. (2007). Parental priming of calves born to Schistosoma mattheei-infected dams. Veterinary Parasitology. 144 61­67. A.M. Phiri., I.K. Phiri., A. Chota and J. Monrad (2007). Trematode infections in freshwater snails and cattle from the Kafue wetlands during a period of highest cattle-water contact. Journal of Helminthology 80, 1­9 Phiri IK, Phiri A M, Harrison LJ. (2006).The serum glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in sheep with experimental Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infection. Veterinary Parasitology, 143 287­293. Sikasunge CS, Phiri IK, Phiri AM, Dorny P, Siziya S, Willingham AL 3rd. (2007). Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in selected districts of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology; 143, 59­69. A. M. Phiri, I.K. Phiri, C.S. Sikasunge, M. Chembensofu and J. Monrad (2006). Comparative fluke burden and pathology in condemned and non-condemned cattle livers from selected abattoirs in Zambia. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 73:275­281. Phiri IK, Phiri A M, Harrison LJ. (2006). Serum antibody isotype responses of Fasciola-infected sheep and cattle to excretory and secretory products of Fasciola species. Veterinary Parasitology 141 (2006) 234­242. Geurden T, Goma FY, Siwila J, Phiri IG, Mwanza AM, Gabriel S, Claerebout E, Vercruysse J. (2006). Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in three cattle husbandry systems in Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology 138(3-4):217-22. Phiri IK, Dorny P, Gabriel S, Willingham AL 3rd, Sikasunge C, Siziya S, Vercruysse J. (2006). Assessment of routine inspection methods for porcine cysticercosis in Zambian village pigs. Journal of Helminthology. 80 (1):69-72. Phiri AM, Phiri IK, Monrad J. (2006). Prevalence of amphistomiasis and its association with Fasciola gigantica infections in Zambian cattle from communal grazing areas. Journal of Helminthology. 80 (1):65-8. Phiri AM, Phiri IK, Sikasunge CS, Monrad J. (2005). Prevalence of fasciolosis in Zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, series B; Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health. 52(9):414-6. Phiri AM, Phiri IK, Siziya S, Sikasunge CS, Chembensofu M, Monrad J. (2005). Seasonal pattern of bovine fasciolosis in the Kafue and Zambezi catchments' areas of Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology. 2005 Nov 25; 134(1-2):87-92.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Gabriel S, Dorny P, Duchateau L, Phiri IK, Chembensofu M, Vercruysse J. (2005) The influence of colostrum on infection of calves around 7 months of age with Schistosoma mattheei. Veterinary Parasitology. 129 (1-2): 55-60. Gabriel S, Geldhof P, Phiri IK, Cornillie P, Goddeeris BM, Vercruysse J. (2005). Placental transfer of immunoglobulin in cattle infected with Schistosoma mattheei. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 104(3-4):265-72. Ngowi HA, Phiri IK, Afonso S, Matenga E, Boa ME, Mukaratirwa S, Githigia S, Saimo M, Sikasunge C, Maingi N, Lubega GW, Kassuku A, Michael L, Siziya S, Krecek RC, Noormahomed E, Vilhena M, Nsengiyumva G, Andriantsimahavandy A, Dorny P, Johansen MV, Willingham AL. (2004). Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs and human in Eastern and Southern Africa: an emerging problem in agriculture and public health. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health; 35: 266-270. Willingham, A. L.; Phiri, I. K.; Joshi, D. D.; Githigia, S. M.; Kyvsgaard, N. C. (2004): Public and Private Aspects of Veterinary Public Health Delivery Systems at community level and monitoring and evaluation of VPH systems. In FAO Expert Consultation on Veterinary Public Health, FAO, Rome, Italy, 44-54 Dorny P, Phiri IK, Vercruysse J, Gabriel S, Willingham AL 3rd, Brandt J, Victor B, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D. (2004). A Bayesian approach for estimating values for prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of porcine cysticercosis. International Journal for Parasitology. 34 (5):569-76. Gabriel S, Phiri IK, Van Dam GJ, Deelder AM, Duchateau L, Vercruysse J. (2004). Variations in the immune response to natural Schistosoma mattheei infections in calves born to infected mothers. Veterinary Parasitology. 119 (2-3):177-85. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Chota, A. and Monrad, J. (2004). The prevalence of larval trematodes in Lymnaea natalensis snails from the Kafue river basin of Zambia-a preliminary study. Zambian Journal of Veterinary Science, Special issue 46-47. Phiri IK, Ngowi H, Afonso S, Matenga E, Boa M, Mukaratirwa S, Githigia S, Saimo M, Sikasunge C, Maingi N, Lubega GW, Kassuku A, Michael L, Siziya S, Krecek RC, Noormahomed E, Vilhena M, Dorny P, Willingham AL 3rd. (2003). The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk. Acta Tropica. 2003 Jun; 87(1):13-23. Review. Phiri I.K., Sikasunge C.S, Siziya S.,Gabriel S., Dorny P., Willingham III A.L. (2003). The prevalence and risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in Zambia. Proceedings of the 5th International symposium on the epidemiology and control of food-borne pathogens in pork. (5) 68-69. Gabriel S, De Bont J, Phiri IK, Masuku M, Riveau G, Schacht AM, Deelder AM, Van Dam GJ, Vercruysse J. (2002). Transplacental transfer of schistosomal circulating anodic antigens in cows. Parasite Immunology. 24 (11-12):521-5. Gabriel S, De Bont J, Phiri IK, Masuku M, Riveau G, Schacht AM, Billiouw M, Vercruysse J. (2002). The influence of colostrum on early Schistosoma mattheei infections in calves. Parasitology. 125 (Pt 6):537-44. Phiri IK, Dorny P, Gabriel S, Willingham AL 3rd, Speybroeck N, Vercruysse J. (2002). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology. 108 (1):31-9. Dorny P, Phiri I, Gabriel S, Speybroeck N, Vercruysse J. (2002). A sero-epidemiological study of bovine cysticercosis in Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology. 104 (3):211-5.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

L. Willingham, I. K. Phiri, H. Ngowi, M. Boa, S. Githigia, S. Afonso, S. Mukaratirwa, M. Saimo, L. Michael, R. Krecek, G. Lubega and A. Kassuku (2002). Initiation of a Regional Programme for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Taenia solium Cysticercosis/Taeniosis in Eastern and Southern Africa. Acta Tropica Vol. 83 (S1) S75-S76. Gabriel S, Phiri IK, Dorny P, Vercruysse J. (2001). A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Lusaka, Zambia. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 68(4):271-4. Siwila J., Phiri I.G.K., Vercruysse J., Goma, F., Gabriel S., Claerebout E., Geurden T. (2007). Asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis in dairy farm workers and their household members. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (In Press). F.Y. Goma, T. Geurden, J. Siwila, I.G.K. Phiri, S. Gabriel, E. Claerebout and J. Vercruysse (2007). The prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in small ruminants in Zambia. Small Ruminant Research, doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.08.010 (In Press). A.M. Phiri., A. Chota and I.K. Phiri (2007). Seasonal pattern of bovine amphistomiasis in traditionally reared cattle in the Kafue and Zambezi catchments areas of Zambia. Tropical Animal Health and Production (in press). Phiri, I.K.; Phiri A.M.; Ziela, M., Chota, A., Willingham, AL., Monrad, J. (2007). Prevalence and distribution of gastro-intestinal helminths and their effects on weight gain in free range chickens in Central Zambia. Tropical Animal Health and Production (in press). H. Simukoko, T. Marcotty, I. Phiri, D. Geysen, J. Vercruysse, P. Van Den Bossche, 2007. The comparative role of cattle, goats and pigs in the epidemiology of livestock trypanosomosis on the plateau of eastern Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology (in press).

Submitted papers

H. Simukoko, T. Marcotty, I. Phiri, D. Geysen, J. Vercruysse, P. Van Den Bossche, 2007. Heterogeneity in the transmission of livestock trypanosomosis in different sex and age groups of cattle in a trypanosomosis endemic area of eastern Zambia. Submitted to Acta Tropica. H. Simukoko, T. Marcotty, I. Phiri, D. Geysen, J. Vercruysse, P. Van Den Bossche, (2007). Monthly incidence of livestock trypanosomosis and factors affecting challenge in a trypanosomosis endemic area of eastern Zambia. Submitted to Veterinary Parasitology. J. Yabe , I.K. Phiri, A.M. Phiri, M. Chembensofu, P. Dorny, J. Vercruysse (2008). Co-joint Fasciola, Schistosoma and Amphistomum infections in cattle from Kafue and Zambezi river basins of Zambia; Submitted to Journal of Helminthology.

Oral presentations at Conferences and workshop

I. K Phiri. Dorny, P., Mwape K.E., Willingham, A.L., (2006). Immunodiagnosis of Human and Porcine Taeniasis/Cysticercosis. The international workshop for cross-disciplinary risk assessment of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa (CESA) project held on 3rd and 4th July 2005 Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. I. K. Phiri; S. Mukaratiwa; A. L. Willingham III, (2006), Taeniosis/Cysticercosis: One of the "Neglected Diseases in Neglected Populations" in Eastern and

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Southern Africa. The Helminth Workshop: Strengths, limitations and knowledge gaps for evidence-based integrated helminth control in Africa, Taj Pamodzi Hotel, Lusaka, Zambia, 16-19 January, 2006. S. C. Sikalizyo; Phiri I. K.; M. Vang Johansen; A. L.Willingham III (2006). Immunopathological responses to treatment of cysticercosis and investigation of Taenia solium congenital infections in pigs. Presentation at the international workshop for cross-disciplinary risk assessment of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in eastern and southern Africa (CESA) project held on 3rd and 4th July 2005, Sokoine university of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. I. K. Phiri, Mwape K. E, and A. L. Willingham III, (2005). Rural Pig Production and Management in Zambia. Presentation at the project 2/DANIDA; Improving small holder pig health and production in Mozambique; 8th November 2005, Holiday Inn, Maputo Mozambique. Mwape K.E, Phiri I.K, Sikasunge C.S, Siziya S., Vercruysse, J, Dorny P, (2005). Taenia Solium Taeniasis-cysticercosis, A Neglected Zoonotic Infection In Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. Simukoko, H, Van den Bossche, P, Geysen, D, Phiri. I, and Vercruysse, J. (2005). Live-stock Trypanosomiasis on the Plateau Of Eastern Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. Goma F, Siwila J, Phiri IK, Gabriel S, Claerebout E, Vercruysse J, Geurden T. (2005). The Role of Cryptosporidium parvum In the Aethiology Of Diarrhea In Calves and as a Zoonotic Pathogen In Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. S. Gabriel, I.K. Phiri, P. Dorny, J. De Bont, G. Riveau, M. Masuku, M. Chembensofu, A.M. Schacht, L. Duchateau, M Billiouw and J. Vercruysse. (2005). The influence of colostrum on Schistosoma mattheei infection in calves. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005; Pamodzi Hotel. M Munyeme, A. Nambota, L. Rigouts, J.B.Muma, I.K.Phiri, P. Dorny. (2005). Preva-lence and Risk Factor Assessment Of Tuberculosis In Cattle, Wildlife And Humans Of The Interface Areas Of Selected National Parks In Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005; Pamodzi Hotel. Phiri, I.K., Dorny, P., Willingham, A.L., Gabriel, S., Vercruysse, J, (2002). The Prevalence of Porcine Cysticercosis in Zambia and its implication for human Cysticercosis/Taeniosis. Proceedings of The 23rd African Health Sciences Congress, 22nd ­ 26th April 2002; Kampala Uganda page Abstract 94 p 48. F.Y. Goma, J. Siwila I. K. Phiri, A.M. Mwanza, S. GabriëL, E. Claerebout, T. Geurden, J. Vercruysse (2003). The role of Cryptosporidium parvum in the aetiology of diarrhoea in calves and as a zoonotic pathogen in Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2003; Mulungushi conference centre. Lee A. Willingham, H. Ngowi, M. Boa, E. Matenga, C. Sikasunge, S. Afonso, S. Githigia, M. Saimo, G. Nsengiyumva, A. Andriantsimahavandy, A. Zoli, S. Geerts, P.M. Preux, P. Dorny, I. K. Phiri, A. Kassuku, E. Noormahomed, H. Foyaca-Sibat, S. Mukaratirwa, L. Cowan, H. Carabin, M.V. Johansen, R.C.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Krecek and the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (2005). Present situation of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Africa. Asahikawa, Japan. 5-8th July 2005. Willingham, A. L.; Phiri, I. K.; Joshi, D. D.; Githigia, S. M.; Kyvsgaard, N. C. (2004): Public and Private Aspects of Veterinary Public Health Delivery Systems at community level and monitoring and evaluation of VPH systems. In FAO Expert Consultation on Veterinary Public Health, FAO, Rome, Italy, (2004); s.44-54. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Siziya, S., Sikasunge, C.S., Monrad, J. (2004). The prevalence and factors influencing the occurrence of bovine fasciolosis in Zambezi and Kafue river basins of Zambia. In: Proceedings of the 13th International meeting of the ENRECA collaborative livestock helminth research project, Nairobi, Kenya, 26-28 April, 2004, p. 32. Sikasunge, C.S., Phiri, I.K., Siziya, S., Phiri, A.M., Dorny, P., Willingham III, A.L. (2004). Sero-prevalence and transmission risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in rural pigs of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia. In: Proceedings of the 13th International meeting of the ENRECA collaborative livestock helminth research project, Nairobi, Kenya, 26-28 April, 2004, p. 43. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Chota, A. and Monrad, J. (2004). The prevalence of larval trematodes in Lymnaea natalensis snails from the Kafue river basin of Zambia-a preliminary study. In: Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association and Veterinary Association of Zambia joint Conference for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, Lusaka, Zambia, 4-6 August, 2004, p. 10. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Sikasunge, C.S., Monrad, J. (2003). Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in Zambia. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, New Orleans, USA, 10-14 August, 2003, p. 163. Sikasunge, C.S., Phiri, I.K., Siziya, S., Phiri, A.M., Dorny, P., Willingham III, A.L. (2003). Sero-prevalence and transmission risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in rural pigs of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasi-tology, New Orleans, USA, 10-14 August, 2003, p. 178. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Sikasunge, C.S., Monrad, J. (2003). Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in Kafue and Zambezi river basins of Zambia. In: Proceedings of the12th International meeting of ENRECA collaborative livestock helminths research project, Morogoro, Tanzania, 21-24 June, 2003, p. 37. Sikasunge, C.S., Phiri, I.K., Siziya, S., Phiri, A.M., Dorny, P., Willingham III, A.L. (2003). Prevalence and transmission risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in rural Zambian pigs. In: Proceedings of the 12th International meeting of the ENRECA collaborative livestock helminth research project, Morogoro, Tanzania, 21-24 June, 2003, p. 28. Phiri, I.K., Sikasunge C.S., Willingham, AL., Dorny, P. (2003). A human taeniosis/cysticercosis survey in Lusaka, Zambia: Preliminary results. Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop of ENRECA collaborative livestock helminth research project held in Morogoro, Tanzania from 21st -24th, 2003. L. Willingham, H. Ngowi, I. K. Phiri, M. Boa, S. Githigia, S. Afonso, S. Mukaratirwa, M. Saimo, L. Michael, R. Krecek, G. Lubega and A. Kassuku (2002). Initiation of a Regional Programme for Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Taenia solium Cysticercosis/Taeniosis in Eastern and Southern

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Africa. Proceedings of the 3rd European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, September 8 - 11, 2002 Lisbon, Portugal Abstract No. PS19. Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Sikasunge, C.S., Monrad, J. (2002). Bovine fasciolosis in Zambia with particular reference to aquatic weed infested Kafue river basin. In: Proceedings of the 11th International meeting of the ENRECA collaborative livestock helminth research project, Lusaka, Zambia, 6-8 June, 2002, p. 22. Sikasunge, C.S., Phiri, I.K., Siziya, S., Phiri, A.M., Dorny, P., Willingham III, A.L. (2002). Prevalence and transmission risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in rural Zambian pigs. In: Proceedings of the 11th International meeting of the ENRECA collaborative livestock helminth research project, Lusaka, Zambia, 6-8 June, 2002, p. 31. Phiri IK; Ngowi H; Afonso SMS; Matenga E; Boa M; Mukaratirwa S; Githigia SM; Saimo MK; Sikasunge CS; Maingi N; Lubega GW; Kassuku A; Michael LM; Siziya S; Krecek RC; Noormahomed E; Vilhena M; Dorny, P. and Willingham A.L. III (2002). The Emergence of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a Serious Agricultural Problem and Public Health Risk. Proceedings of the International Action Planning Workshop on Taenia Solium Cysticercosis/Taeniosis With Special Focus on Southern and Eastern Africa. In Arusha, Tanzania 19-22 August 2002. Abstract 5A. Ngowi, H., Boa, M., Phiri, I.K, Githigia, S., Mukaratirwa, S., Kassuku, A. and Willingham, A. L. (2001). The Emergence of Taenia solium Cysticercosis as a Serious Agricultural Problem and Public Health Risk in Eastern and Southern Africa. Proceedings of the Swedish Society of Parasitology, Stockholm, Sweden 18th to 21st October 2001. Abstract No. 3. Phiri, I.K., Gabriel, S., Chota, A, Banda, D. S., Willingham, AL., Dorny, P.,. (2001). Effects of T. Solium Cysticercosis on Nematodes Infection in Free Range Pigs In Zambia. Proceedings of the 9th international workshop of ENRECA livestock Helminthes Research Project in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi Kenya 2-6 May 2001. page 15. Phiri, I.K., Gabriel, S., Dorny, P., Willingham, A.L., Vercruysse , J, (2001). Cysticercosis in Zambia. The 18th International Conference of The World Association for The Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, Stresa, Italy 26th ­ 30th August 2001 Abstract A9, p7. Phiri, I.K., Gabriel, S., Dorny, P., Willingham, A.L., Vercruysse , J, (2001). The Prevalence of Bovine and Porcine Cysticercosis in Zambia. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Stresa-Italy, Abstract No. A9. Gabriel, S., Phiri, I. K. Masuku, M. De Bont, J.; Rivveau G. and Vercruysse , J (2001). Effects of colostrums on early Schistosoma mattheei infection in calves. Proceedings of 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Stresa-Italy, Abstract No. C17. Isaac K. Phiri (2001). The prevalence of bovine and pig Cysticercosis in Zambia. The 1st international workshop on Human Helminth infection, future research foci, Lusaka Zambia 5-9 March 2001. Abstract No. Z16. Ziela M., Phiri, I.K., Masuku, M., Willingham, AL., and Nansen, P. (2001). A comparative study of Helminth infection on traditional and commercial chickens, and their impact on productivity Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop of ENRECA Live-stock Helminthes Research Project in Eastern and

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Southern Africa, Copenhagen, Denmark 24-25 August 1999. page 15. Phiri I. K. Ziela M., Gabriel, S., Mwase, E. T., Chota, M., Dorny, P. and Willingham A. L. (2000). The seasonality pattern of helminth infection in free range chickens in Shibuyunji, Mumbwa in central Zambia. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop of ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern and Southern Africa, Lusaka Zambia 6-9 March 2000. Phiri I. K. Samui K., Gabriel, S., Mwase, E. T., Banda, D. S., Dorny, P. WillinghamA. L and Vercruysse J. (2000). The Taenia solium Cysticercosis in pigs sold and slaughtered at Chibolya market in Lusaka: A preliminary study. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop of ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern and Southern Africa6-9 March 2000, Lusaka Zambia.

Poster presentations at conferences and workshops

Phiri IK., Dorny P, Gabriel S, Willingham A.L. III, Sikasunge C, Mwape K.E, Siziya S, Vercruysse J. (2005). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Zambia as shown by two major studies. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. M. Munyeme, A. Nambota, J.B. Muma, I.C Shamputa, I. K. Phiri, P. Dorny, V. Siamudaala, H.M Chimana, L. Rigouts (2005). Reservoir Host Potential Of Mycobacterium bovis in Free-living Kafue Lechwe Antelopes (Kobus Leche Kafuensis) of Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on interdisciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. M. Munyeme, A. Nambota, J.B.Muma, I.C Shamputa, I.K. Phiri, P. Dorny, V. Siamudaala, H.M Chimana, and L. Rigouts. (2005). Transmission Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) In Pastoralist Cattle of The Kafue Basin interface Areas In Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. Phiri IK, Dorny P., Gabriel S, Willingham A.L, Sikasunge C, Siziya S, Vercruysse J. (2005). Assessment of Routine inspection Methods for Porcine Cysticercosis in Zambian Village Pigs. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. S. Gabriel, I.K. Phiri, P. Dorny, J. De Bont, G. Riveau, M. Masuku, M. Chembensofu, A.M. Schacht, L. Duchateau, M Billiouw and J. Vercruysse. (2005). The Influence of Colostrum on Schistosoma mattheei Infections in Calves. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. Gabriel S., Phiri IK., Cornillie P., and Vercruysse J. (2005). Examination of Placentomes of Schistosoma mattheei infected Cattle. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. I.K. Phiri, P. Dorny, S. Gabriel , A.L. Willingham III , C. Sikasunge , S. Siziya , J. Vercruysse, (2005). Risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Provinces of Zambia. Presentation at the international conference on inter-disciplinary research held between 11th and 12th august 2005 at Pamodzi Hotel. Simukoko, H, Van den Bossche, P, Geysen, D, Phiri. I, and Vercruysse, J.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

(2005). Live-stock trypanosomiasis on the plateau of eastern Zambia. In proceedings of The 28TH Meeting Of The International Scientific Council For Trypanosomiasis Research And Control (ISCTRC) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 26th ­ 30th September, (2005). IK Phiri, P Dorny, S Gabriel, AL Willingham, C Sikasunge S Siziya J Vercruysse, (2005). Risk factors for the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in eastern and southern provinces of Zambia. Presentation at the 20th international conference of the world association for the advancement of veterinary Parasitology16th to 20th October Christchurch New Zealand. Phiri, I.K., Chota, A., Gabriel, S., Willingham, A.L., and Dorny, P. (2001). Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis in Zambia. International Action working planning Workshop on Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis with special focus on Eastern and Southern Africa. Arusha, Tanzania, from 17th to 24th August 2002. Phiri, I.K., Chota, A., Gabriel, S., Willingham, A.L., and Dorny, P. (2001). Effects of T. solium cysticercosis on production and nematodes infection in free range pigs in Zambia, Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of Association of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine (AITVM), Copenhagen, Denmark 18th to 24th August 2001.

Geology Articles in international peer reviewed journals:

Shitumbanuma V., Tembo F., Tembo J.M., Chilala S, and van Ranst E. 2007. Dental Fluorosis associated with drinking ground water from hot springs in Choma District in Southern Province, Zambia. Environmental Geochemistry and Health Vol. 29:51-58.

Conference proceedings ( full paper):

Shitumbanuma V., Tembo F., Tembo J.M., Chilala S., and van Ranst E. 2005. Dental fluorosis associated with drinking water from hot springs in Choma District in Southern Province, Zambia. Proceedings of the International Conference on Inter-disciplinary Research. 11-12th August, 2005, Taj Pamodzi Hotel, Lusaka, Zambia. Yerokun O.A. 2006. A simple empirical method for estimating lime requirements in smallholder fields. Proceedings of the SADC Land and Water Management Applied Research First Scientific Symposium. 14-16th February, 2006, Lilongwe, Malawi. Kashoki G., Yerokun O.A., and Phiri C. 2005. A simple empirical method for estimat-ing lime requirements II: Laboratory and greenhouse changes in soil pH, acidity and available phosphorus. Proceedings of the International Conference on Inter-disciplinary Research. 11-12th August, 2005, Taj Pamodzi Hotel, Lusaka, Zambia. {Some of the papers presented during the 2004 and 2005 interdisciplinary research conferences are missing (for instance those from Food Science and Technology, Engineering, Soil Science ....... Furthermore, the papers published in the local science journal are missing. Kindly refer to the relevant documentation on the two conferences}

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Conference contributions (posters, lectures) :

Shitumbanuma V., Tembo F., Tembo J.M., and van Ranst E. 2007. Dental fluorosis associated with drinking water containing high levels of fluoride in Luangwa and Choma Districts, Zambia. Poster presentation at CEANAC Conference on Chemistry for Health , 15-18th July, 2007, Gaborone, Botswana.

Final Evaluation of the UNZA-IUC partnership

Publisher: Flemish Interuniversity Council, University Cooperation for Development (VLIR-UOS) Design: www.cibe-cvo.be, Gent Registration: D/2008/10.960/9

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