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Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Eleventh Edition

William A. Haviland Harald E.L. Prins Dana Walrath Bunny McBride

The trusted text that conveys how fascinating, how dynamic, how relevant the process of human discovery can be

Why is the study of cultural anthropology a "human challenge"? These respected and experienced authors take your students on a compelling journey of anthropology--one that uses compelling examples to help students see local responses to the challenging globalization issues of today's world. The Eleventh Edition is packed with extensive insight from an unparalleled author team, making it so much more than a book--it is a "cross-cultural survival guide" for living in our diverse, multicultural world. Once again, these experienced authors do a masterful job of introducing students to the basic aspects of anthropology, now with a more inclusive, international voice that will resonate with both Western and non-Western students and professors.

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It takes an author team this respected and experienced to produce a text so research-based, so scholarly, so trusted, so readable

For years, Cultural Anthropology has been the market leader and the recognized "standard in the field. " With straightforward, clear, and comprehensive coverage, the book presents the principles and processes of cultural anthropology within a holistic framework that includes ethnology, linguistics, human evolution, and prehistoric archaeology. Gender, ethnicity, ecology, and globalization concepts and terminologies have been updated in line with contemporary thinking, and the book's examples are more fully developed, balanced, and global.

Only the combined experience and international voice of this author team could present coverage so diverse and comprehensive

William A. Haviland, Emeritus, University of Vermont Dr. William A. Haviland is Professor Emeritus at the University of Vermont, where he has taught since 1965. He holds a Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania and has published widely on archaeological, ethnological, and physical anthropological research carried out in Guatemala, Maine, and Vermont. Haviland is a member of many professional societies, including the American Anthropological Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has participated in many projects, including "Gender and the Anthropological Curriculum, " sponsored by the American Anthropological Association in 1988. Dr. Haviland has always loved teaching and writing for anthropology students. He also has a passionate interest in indigenous rights, having worked with the Maya and Abenaki for years. He continues to work with Native Americans in the northeastern United States. Haviland was also the technical advisor for the telecourse Faces of Culture. Harald E.L. Prins, Kansas State University Dr. Harald Prins is Professor of Anthropology at Kansas State University. Born and raised in the Netherlands, Prins was academically trained in prehistoric archaeology, social anthropology, and comparative history at various universities in the Netherlands and the United States. He has a doctorate degree from the University of Nijmegen and a Ph.D. from the New School for Social Research. He has done extensive fieldwork among indigenous peoples in South and North America. Before joining the faculty at Kansas State University in 1990, Prins taught at Nijmegen, Bowdoin, and Colby. He typically teaches classes on American Indians (North/South), Anthropological Theory, Ethnohistory, Visual Anthropology, Native Rights, and Introduction to Anthropology. Known for his spirited teaching, Prins has won his university's most prestigious teaching honors and serves as University Chair for Distinguished Teaching Scholars (2004­2005). On the scholarly front, his publications include The Mi'kmaq: Resistance, Accommodation, and Cultural Survival, various edited works, and over 75 scholarly articles, book chapters, and encyclopedia entries. Dr. Prins, who is committed to balancing teaching and scholarship with native rights advocacy, played an instrumental role in the successful federal recognition and land claims case of the Aroostook Band of Micmacs and served as expert witness in several Mi'kmaq native rights cases in the U.S. Senate and Canadian courts. Professionally trained in filmmaking, he served as Visual Anthropology editor for the American Anthropologist and president of the Society for Visual Anthropology. His own film work includes co-producing Our Lives in Our Hands, a documentary on Mi'kmaq Indians, and Oh, What a Blow That Phantom Gave Me! about visual anthropology pioneer Edmund Carpenter.

About the Authors

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Dana Walrath, University of Vermont Dr. Dana Walrath is an Assistant Professor of Medicine and a Women's Studies affiliated faculty member at the University of Vermont. She earned a Ph.D. in 1997 from the University of Pennsylvania in medical and biological anthropology. Her doctoral research developed novel synthetic techniques and theories for interpreting the evolution of human childbirth. Her interests span biocultural aspects of reproduction, genetics, and evolutionary medicine. Walrath's publications have appeared in Current Anthropology, American Anthropologist, and American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Her work and writings often focus upon the conceptual relationship between evolutionary research and feminism. Dr. Walrath has received grants and fellowships from the National Science Foundation, Health Resources and Services Administration, the Centers for Disease Control, Foreign Languages Area Studies, the University of Pennsylvania, and the New York Foundation for the Arts. Research sites have ranged from fieldwork at an Aurignacian site in France to the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, to biomedical settings. Dr. Walrath's diverse experience includes work in Yemen, Egypt, and Armenia contributing to her research and writing on her Armenian heritage. Before joining the faculty at the University of Vermont in 2000, she taught at the University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, and the Mohamed Ali Othman School in Taiz, Yemen. For the University of Vermont's College of Medicine, she has developed an innovative program that brings anthropological perspectives into the study of medicine. She is presently serving on a national committee, sponsored by the Association of Professors of Obstetrics and Gynecology, to develop women's health-care learning objectives for medical education.

Bunny McBride, Kansas State University Bunny McBride is an award-winning author with a master's degree in Anthropology (Columbia University, 1980). Her books include Women of the Dawn, Molly Spotted Elk: A Penobscot in Paris, and Our Lives in Our Hands: Micmac Indian Basketmakers. Working in close collaboration with Native American communities, she curated museum exhibits based on these books. From 1978 to 1988, reporting from Africa, Europe, and Asia, McBride wrote scores of articles for The Christian Science Monitor. She has contributed to many other newspapers and magazines and has written introductions, articles, and chapters in a dozen books, including notable academic titles such as Sifters: Native American Women's Lives and Reading Beyond Words: Contexts for Native History and also coauthored the Audubon Society Field Guide to African Wildlife. McBride is an adjunct lecturer of anthropology at Kansas State University and has been a regular visiting lecturer at Principia College in Illinois since 1981. She has taught at the Salt Institute for Documentary Field Studies in Portland, Maine, and has given dozens of guest lectures in public and academic venues. From 1981 to 1991, McBride did historical research and community development work for the Aroostook Band of Micmacs in Maine, contributing to their successful efforts to gain federal status, establish a land base, and revitalize cultural traditions. In 1999 the Maine state legislature gave McBride a special commendation for her research and writing on the history of Native women in the state--an honor initiated by elected tribal representatives in the legislature. Currently, she serves as co­principal investigator for a National Parks Service ethnographic research project, oral history advisor for the Kansas Humanities Council, and board member of the Women's World Summit Foundation, based in Geneva, Switzerland.

About the Authors

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Exciting coverage and unique new features examine the field of cultural anthropology, its insights, and its relevance in a global society

The Eleventh Edition focuses on global challenges and local responses to help your students understand how anthropology reveals and views individual and collective challenges in today's world. The authors emphasize global connections throughout the book--including the interconnectedness of peoples and cultures in the contemporary world--as well as the connections between biology and culture.

Chapter 15/Language and Communication 389

Makers of the 1990 feature film Dances with Wolves aimed for cultural authenticity by casting Native American actors and hiring a language coach to teach Lakota to those who did not know how to speak it. However, the lessons did not include the "gendered speech" aspect of Lakota--the fact that females and males follow different rules of syntax. Consequently, when native speakers of the language later saw the finished film, they were amused to hear the actors who portrayed the Lakota warriors speaking like women.

cousin, niece, and nephew. Some cultures find it useful to distinguish an oldest brother from his younger brothers and have different words for these brothers. And unlike English, many languages distinguish between an aunt who is mother's sister and one who is father's sister. In Chapter 21 we will discuss in detail the meanings behind these and other contrasting kinship terminologies.

Language and Gender

Learning these nuances of language is not difficult for a child growing up surrounded by Lakota speakers, but it can be hard for newcomers. So it was for Kevin Costner and other actors in the 1990 film Dances with Wolves, which tells the fictional story of a white soldier's relationship with a Lakota Indian community in the 1800s. Since Costner (who plays the soldier) and several of the Native American actors did not speak Lakota, the producers hired a Lakota woman to coach them, aiming to make the feature film as culturally authentic as possible. Upon release, the film won critical acclaim and drew crowds to cinemas all across the country. When it showed in a theater in Rapid City, South Dakota, Lakota people from the nearby reservations arrived on the scene eager to see this movie about their ancestors. But when they heard Costner and his on-screen warrior friends talk, they began to snicker. As the dramatic scenes unfolded, their laughter grew. What was so hilarious? While it was true that Lakota in the audience were generally pleased to hear their own language in a major Hollywood film, they thought it very funny to hear the white hero, along with some non-Lakota Indian actors dressed as warriors, speak Lakota like women. Because the language coach had had to teach both male and female actors, and because they found the language difficult to learn, she had decided not to bother them with the complexities of gendered speech.

Social Dialects

Orion Pictures Corp/Everett Collection

Outstanding New Features

© Alec Duncan

Numerous intriguing and thought-provoking topics fall under the category of language and gender. Among these is the sometimes heated discussion about whether North American women generally exhibit less decisive speech styles than men--and if so, why? If true, it may be because they 362 Part 5/Culture and Survival: The Challenge of Communicating, Raising Children, and Staying Alive have been enculturated to see themselves as comparatively weak and needing confirmation, or perhaps because they have been enculturated to maintain logical and psychological needs of its members and profamily ties, in which case such unassertive speech styles vide some structure for reproduction in order to ensure the biological continuity of its better facilitate this. Or is it something else altogether? members. It must enculturAnother area of interest ate new members so they can become functioning adults. is gendered speech--distinct malethe maintenance It must facilitate conflict resolution and and female syntax exhibited in various languages around the world, including Lakota, as spoken at of order among its members, as well as between them and the Pine to survive Rosebud Indian reservations outsiders. It must motivate its membersRidge and and in South Dakota. When a engage in those activities necessary for survival. On top of Lakota woman asks someall of this, a culture must beone, "How are if it is to says, "Tonikthkahe?" But able to change you?" she remain adaptive under shiftingwhen her brother poses the same question, he says, conditions. "Toniktukahwo?" As explained by Michael Two Horses, "Our language is gender-specific in the area of comCulture and Change mands, queries and a couple of other things."9

What is adaptive at one time may not be at another. In the United States, the principal source of fruits, vegetables, and fiber is the Central Valley of California, where irrigation works have made the desert bloom. As happened in ancient Mesopotamia, evaporation concentrates salts in the water, but here pollution is made even worse by chemical fertilizers. These poisons are now accumulating in the soil and threaten to make the valley a desert again.

Ethnolinguists are also interested in dialects--varying forms of a language that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible. Technically, all dialects are languages--there is nothing partial or sublinguistic about them--and the point at which two different dialects become distinctly different languages is roughly the point at which speakers of one are almost totally unable to communicate with speakers of the other. Boundaries may be psychological, geographical, social, or economic, and they are not always very clear. In the case of regional dialects, there is frequently a transitional territory, or perhaps a buffer zone, where features of both are found and understood, as between central and southern China. The fact is that if you learn the Chinese of Beijing, you cannot communicate with someone who comes from Canton or Hong Kong, although both languages--or dialects--are usually lumped together as Chinese. A classic example of the kind of dialect that may set one group apart from others within a single society

gendered speech Distinct male and female syntax exhibited

in various languages around the world. dialects Varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible.

populations. Similarly, behavior that is adaptive in the short run may be maladaptive over the long run. Thus, the development of irrigation in ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) made it possible over the short run to increase food production, but over time it favored the gradual accumulation of salts in the soils. This, in turn, contributed to the collapse of civilization there about 4,000 years ago. Similarly, the development of prime farmland today in places like the eastern United States for purposes other than food production makes us increasingly dependent on food raised in marginal environments. High yields are presently possible through the application of expensive technology, but continuing loss of topsoil, increasing salinity of soils through evaporation of irrigation waters, and silting of irrigation works, not to mention impending shortages of water and fossil fuels, make continuing high yields over the long term unlikely. All of this said, it should be clear that for a culture to survive, it must produce behavior that is generally adaptive to the natural environment.

Functions of Culture

Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski put forth the idea that every successful culture resolves three fundamental levels of needs, which he referred to as biological, instrumental, and integrative (see Anthropologist of Note). Others have marked out different categories, but the idea is basically the same: A culture cannot survive if it does not deal effectively with primary problems. It must provide for the production and distribution of goods and services considered necessary for life. It must meet the bio-

Cultures have always changed over time, although rarely as rapidly or as massively as many are doing today. 9Personal communication, April Changes take place in response to such events as popu- 2003. lation growth, technological innovation, environmental crisis, the intrusion of outsiders, or modification of behavior and values within the culture. Changes are often signified by apparel. For example, in North America, where swift change is driven by capitalism and the need for incessant market growth, clothing fashions change quickly. Over the past half-century or so, as advertisers increasingly utilized sexuality to promote sales, it became culturally permissible for men and women alike to wear clothing that revealed more and more of their bodies. Along with this has come greater permissiveness about body exposure in photographs, movies, and television, as well as less restrictive sexual attitudes and practices among many. Although cultures must have some flexibility to remain adaptive, culture change can also bring unexpected and often disastrous results. For example, consider the relationship between culture and the droughts that periodically afflict so many people living in Africa just south of the Sahara Desert. Native to this region are some 14 million pastoral nomadic people whose lives are centered on cattle and other livestock, which are herded from place to place as required for pasturage and water. For thousands of years these people have been able to go about their business, efficiently utilizing vast areas of arid lands in ways that allowed them to survive severe droughts many times in the past. Unfortunately for them, their nomadic lifestyle annoys the central governments of modern states in the region. This is because the age-old seasonal migration patterns of pastoralists take them across relatively new international boundaries and make them difficult to track for purposes of taxation and other governmental controls. Seeing nomads as a challenge to their authority, these governments have gone all out to stop them from ranging through their traditional grazing territories and to convert them into sedentary villagers. Overgrazing has resulted from this loss of mobility; moreover, the

This edition features a new emphasis on the relevance of anthropology to a diverse array of contemporary social issues, including terrorism, racism, ethnic conflict, the distinction between nation and state, and changing perceptions of sexuality and gender. This material helps students to see the relevance of anthropology in today's world. "The quality of Haviland is outstanding with regard to the introduction of key concepts and the discussion of those concepts. " Gregory R. Campbell University of Montana

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Biocultural Connections is a revealing new feature that illustrates how cultural and biological processes work together to shape human evolution and behavior, and reflects where the field is today. These features explore such topics as: "The Anthropology of Organ Transplantation" "The Biology of Speech" "Marriage Prohibition in the United States, " "An African Burial Ground Project. "

Biocultural Connection

While other primates have shown some capacity for language (a socially agreedupon code of communication), actual speech is unique to humans. It comes at a price, for the anatomical organization of the human throat and mouth that make speech possible also increase the risk of choking. Of particular importance are the positions of the human larynx or voice box and the epiglottis. The larynx is the anatomical structure that vibrates and resonates to produce sounds as air is passed from the nose through the trachea or wind pipe to the lungs. The epiglottis is the structure that separates the esophagus or food pipe from the wind pipe as food passes from the mouth to the stomach. (See Figure 15.1 for comparative diagrams of the anatomy of this region in chimps and humans.) The overlapping routes of passage for food and air can be seen as a legacy of our evolutionary history. Fish, the earliest vertebrates (animals with back-

The Biology of Human Speech

bones), obtained both food and oxygen from water entering through their mouths. As land animals evolved, separate means for obtaining food and air developed out of the preexisting combined system. As a result, the pathways for air and food overlap. In most mammals, including human infants and apes of all ages, choking on food is not a problem because the larynx is relatively high in the throat so that the epiglottis seals the windpipe from food with every swallow. The position of the larynx and trachea make it easy for babies to coordinate breathing with eating. However, as humans mature and develop the neurological and muscular coordination for speech, the larynx and epiglottis shift to a downward position. The human tongue bends at the back of the throat and is attached to the pharynx, the region of the throat where the food and airways share a common path. Sound occurs as air exhaled from the lungs passes over the vocal cords and causes them to vibrate. Through continuous interactive movements of the tongue, pharynx, lips, and teeth, as well as nasal passages, the sounds are alternately modified to produce speech--the uniquely patterned sounds of a particular language. Based on long-standing socially learned patterns of speech, different languages stress certain distinctive types of sounds as significant and ignore others. For instance, languages belonging to the Iroquoian family, such as Mohawk, Seneca, and Cherokee, are among the few in the world that have no bilabial stops (b and p sounds). They also lack the labio-dental spirants (f and v sounds), leaving the bilabial nasal m sound as the only consonant requiring lip articulation. It takes many years of practice for people to master the muscular movements needed to produce the precise sounds of any particular language. But no human could produce the finely controlled speech sounds without a lowered position of the larynx and epiglottis. s s s

Anthropologists of Note boxes (formerly Biography Boxes) feature contemporary anthropologists--as well as important historical figures in the field--illustrating both the history and the evolution of the discipline. New profiles include Eleanor Leacock, Jomo Kenyatta, Eric Wolfe, Arjun Appadurai, Laura Nader, and Yolanda Moses.

Nasal cavity Palate Velum Tongue Epiglottis

Outstanding New Features

Larynx

Anthropologists of Note

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884­1942)

Courtesy Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology

FIGURE 15.1

Polish-born Bronislaw Malinowski argued that people everywhere share certain biological and psychological needs and that the ultimate function of all cultural institutions is to fulfill those needs. Everyone, for example, needs to feel secure in relation to the physical universe. Therefore, when science and technology are inadequate to explain certain natural phenomena-- such as eclipses or earthquakes--people develop religion and magic to account

for those phenomena and to establish a feeling of security. The nature of the institution, according to Malinowski, is determined by its function. Malinowski outlined three fundamental levels of needs that he claimed had to be resolved by all cultures: 1. A culture must provide for biological needs, such as the need for food and procreation. 2. A culture must provide for instrumental needs, such as the need for law and education. 3. A culture must provide for integrative needs, such as religion and art. If anthropologists could analyze the ways in which a culture fills these

needs for its members, Malinowski believed that they could also deduce the origin of cultural traits. Although this belief was never justified, the quality of data called for by Malinowski's approach set new standards for ethnographic fieldwork. He was the first to insist on the necessity to join in native life to really understand it. He himself showed the way with his work in the Trobriand Islands between 1915 and 1918. Never before had such in-depth work been done, nor had such insights been gained into the workings of another culture. Such was the quality of Malinowski's Trobriand research that, with it, ethnography can be said to have come of age as a scientific enterprise.

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Discussions of today's hot topics and the latest research ensure that the Eleventh Edition is a completely current teaching tool

New coverage of cutting-edge topics! Throughout the book, the authors have added intriguing new information on issues such as: Medical anthropology Globalization Contemporary gender roles Power issues Visual anthropology

Old Icelandic Old English Old Saxon Old High German

Chapter 15/Language and Communication

Icelandic English South German Dutch dialects Flemish North German dialects

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Danish Norwegian Swedish

Gothic (extinct) Proto-Germanic Proto-Italic

Proto-Celtic Proto-Indo-European

FIGURE 15.3 English is one of a group of languages in the Germanic subgroup of the Indo-European family. This diagram shows its relationship to other languages in the same subgroup. The root was Proto-Indo-European, an ancestral language originally spoken by early farmers and herders who spread north and westward over Europe, bringing with them both their customs and their language.

female reproductive anatomy and physiology. Every culture gives meaning to sexual differences by explaining them and specifying what is to be done about them. Moreover, every culture stipulates how the kinds of people resulting from the differences should relate to others. Because each culture does this in its own way, there can be tremendous variation from one society to another. Anthropologists use the term gender to refer to the cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes. So, although one's sex is biologically determined, one's sexual identity or gender is socially constructed within the context of one's particular culture. The distinction between sex, which is biological, and gender, which is cultural, is an important one. Presumably, gender differences are as old as human culture--about 2.5 million years--and arose from the biological differences between early human males and females. Back then, sex differences and body size appears to have been greater in the earliest human ancestors compared to humans today. In chimps and gorillas, the species most closely related to humans, the males are on average somewhat and substantially larger respectively than females. Moreover, technological advancements in the home and workplace over the last century or two have greatly diminished the cultural significance of most remaining biological differences in many societies all across the world. Thus, apart from sexual differences directly related to reproduction, any biological basis for contrasting gender roles has largely disappeared in mod-

New Topics

© David Young-Wolf/PhotoEdit

term derived from the Greek word glottis, which means "language." This method compares the core vocabularies of languages--pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects. It is based on the assumption that 349 Chapter 14/The Characteristics of Culture these basic vocabularies change more slowly than other words and at a more or less conern industrialized societies. stant rate of 14all cultures per 1,000 years. (Linguists Nevertheless, to 19 percent determined based on biolexhibit at least some role differentiation this rate by calculating changes documented in thirteen historic written languages.) By applying a logogy--some far more so than others. Paradoxically, gender arithmic formula to two related core vocabularies, one differences were more extreme in late 19th- and can determine how many years the languages have been early 20th-century Westseparated. societies, when ern (European and European-derived) Although not as precise as this might suggest, glottochronology, in conjunction with other chronologwomen were expected to submit unquestioningly to ical methods such as those male authority, than they are among most historically based on archaeological and genetic data, can help determine the time of linguistic known and contemporary food-foraging peoples whose divergence. lifeways resemble those of our late Stone Age ancestors. Among food foragers, relationsStudying modern and between men languages in their particular culwomen tend to be relativelytural contexts can help us understand the processes of egalitarian, and although they may not typically carrychange that may have led to linguistic divergence. out the same tasks, such Clearly, one words, differarrangements tend to be flexible. In other force for change is selective borrowing by ences between the behavior of men and women in North American and other Western societies today, which are thought by many to be rooted in human biology, are not so rooted at all. Rather, they appear to have been recently elaborated in the course of history. In addition to cultural variation associated with gender, there is also variation related to differences in age. In any society, children are not expected to behave as adults, and the reverse is equally true. But then, who is a child and who is an adult? Again, although the age differences are "natural," cultures give their own meaning and timetable to the human life cycle. In North America, for example, individuals are generally not regarded as adults until the age of 18; in many others, adulthood begins earlier--often around age 12. That said, the status of adulthood often has less to do with age than with passage through certain prescribed rituals. Besides age and gender variation, there may be cultural variation between subgroups in societies. These may be occupational groups, where there is a complex division of labor, or social classes in a stratified society, or ethnic groups in some other societies (more will be said of these in subsequent chapters). When such groups exist within a society, each functioning by its own distinctive standards of behavior while still sharing some common standards, we speak of subcultures. The word subculture, it should be noted, carries no connotation of lesser status relative to the word cultural. Amish communities comprise one example of a subculture in North America.1 Specifically, they are an

one language from another. This is evident in the many French words present in the English language--and in the growing number of English words cropping up in languages all around the world due to modern-day globalization. Technological breakthroughs resulting in new equipment and products also prompt linguistic shifts. For instance, the electronic revolution that brought us radio, television, and computers has created entirely new vocabularies. Increasing professional specialization is another driving force. We see one of many examples in the field of Western medicine where today's students must learn the specialized vocabulary and idioms of the profession--over 6,000 new words in the first year of medical school. There is also a tendency for any group within a larger society to create its own unique vocabulary, whether it is a street gang, sorority, religious group, prison inmates, or platoon of soldiers. By changing the meaning of existing words or inventing new ones, members of the "in-group" can communicate with fellow members while effectively excluding outsiders who may be within hearing range. Finally, there seems to be a human tendency to admire the person who comes up with a new and clever idiom, a useful word, or a particularly stylish pronunciation, as long as these do not seriously interfere with communication. All of this means that no language stands still. Phonological differences among groups may be regarded in the same light as vocabulary differences. In a class-structured society, for example, members of the upper class may try to keep their pronunciation distinct from that of lower classes, or vice versa, as a means of demonstrating class solidarity. An example of this is Cockney, an English working-class dialect from London's East End, characterized by loss of initial h, use of an intrusive r, and extreme diphthongization in which these speakers glide from the position of one vowel sound to that for another within the same syllable, as "oi" in boy, and "ou" in down. Perhaps the most powerful force for linguistic change is the domination of one society over another, as demonstrated during 500 years of European colonialism. Such dominations persist in many parts of the world to the present time, such as Taiwan's aboriginal peoples being governed by Mandarin-speaking Chinese, Tarascan Indians by Spanish-speaking Mexicans, West New Guinea's Papuas by Malay-speaking Indonesians, Lapland's Saami by Norwegians, or Bushmen by Englishspeaking Namibians. In many cases, such political power has resulted in linguistic erosion or even complete

core vocabularies The most basic and long-lasting words in any language--pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects.

"This is an exceptionally well written text and very easy to digest by entrylevel students. " Romona L. Perez San Diego State University

In the United States, European American culture requires that newborn infants be assigned a sexual identity of either male or female. Yet, significant numbers of infants are born each year whose genitalia do not conform to cultural expectations. Because only two genders are recognized, the usual reaction is surgery to make the young bodies conform to cultural requirements. In most cases, male genitals are constructed, merely because they are easier. This is in contrast to many Native American cultures in which more than two genders are recognized and socially acceptable.

1Hostetler, J., & Huntington, G. (1971). Children in Amish society. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

gender The cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to

the biological differentiation between the sexes. subculture A distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates.

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Ongoing, relied-upon features illustrate the continuing role of cultural survival issues

Chapter 15/Language and Communication 371

Original Studies excerpts-- integrated within the flow of the example, he used the sign DOG for (GOOD, HURT), and emphasis (MORE, text--are from case studies and actual dogs, as well as for a picture of TIME-TO-DO). We found that Chantek's a dog in his viewmaster, orangutans on signing was spontaneous and nonrepeother original publications by television, barking noises on the radio, titious. He did not merely imitate his birds, horses, a tiger at the circus, a caregivers as had been claimed for the sign language-trained chimpanzee Nim; herd of cows, a picture of a cheetah, professionals working in the field. and a noisy helicopter that presumably rather, Chantek actively used his signs sounded like it was barking. For to initiate communications and meet These Original Studies illustrate Chantek, the sign BUG included crickhis needs. Almost immediately, he ets, cockroaches, a picture of a cockbegan to use his signs in combinations important anthropological concepts roach, beetles, slugs, small moths, spiand modulated their meanings with ders, worms, flies, a picture of a graph slight changes in how he articulated Though the orangutans diverged from and show students how anthroshaped like a butterfly, tiny brown and arranged his signs. He commented humans, chimps, and gorillas about 12 milpieces of cat food, and small bits of "COKE DRINK" after drinking his coke, lion years ago, all of these ape species share pologists study human behavior, feces. He signed BREAK before he broke "PULL BEARD" while pulling a carea number of qualities. Orangutans have an and shared pieces of crackers, and after giver's hair through a fence, "TIME insightful, humanlike thinking style charache broke his toilet. He signed BAD to HUG" while locked in his cage as his past and present. Exciting topics terized by longer attention spans and quiet himself before he grabbed a cat, when caregiver looked at her watch, and deliberate action. Orangutans make shelters, he bit into a radish, and for a dead "RED BLACK PAINT" for a group of coltie knots, recognize themselves in mirrors, examined include excerpts from: ored paint jars. At first he used signs to bird. use one tool to make another, and are the We also discovered that Chantek manipulate people and objects to meet most skilled of the apes in manipulating Lyn Miles: Chantek, the Signing could comprehend our spoken English his needs, rather than to refer to them. objects. In this photo, an orangutan named (after the first couple of years we used But, could he use these signs as symChantek, now an adult, begins the sign for Orangutan tomato. speech as well as signing). When he bols, that is, more abstractly to reprewas 2 years old, Chantek began to sign sent a person, thing, action, or idea, for things that were not present. He even apart from its context or when it opmental study of his cognitive and Frans de Waal: Reconciliation frequently asked to go to places in his was not present? linguistic skills. It was a great ethical yard to look for animals, such as his pet One indication of the capacity to and emotional responsibility to engage and Cultural Modification in use symbolic language in both deaf and squirrel and cat, who served as playan orangutan in what anthropologists hearing human children is the ability to mates. He also made requests for ICE call "enculturation," since I would not Primates CREAM, signing CAR RIDE and pulling point, which some researchers argued only be teaching a form of communius toward the parking lot for a trip to a that apes could not do spontaneously. cation, I would be teaching aspects of Linda Stone: The Ever-Changing local ice-cream shop. We learned that Chantek began to point to objects the culture upon which that language an orangutan can tell lies. Deception is when he was 2 years old, somewhat was based. If my project succeeded, I an important indicator of language later than human children, as we might American Family would create a symbol-using creature abilities since it requires a deliberate expect. First, he showed and gave us that would be somewhere between an and intentional misrepresentation of objects, and then he began pointing to ape living under natural conditions and Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala: reality. In order to deceive, you must be where he wanted to be tickled and to an adult human. This threatened to able to see events from the other perwhere he wanted to be carried. Finally, raise as many questions as I sought to Fighting HIV/AIDS in son's perspective and negate his or her he could answer questions like WHERE answer. perception. Chantek began to deceive HAT? WHICH DIFFERENT? and WHAT A small group of caregivers at the 372 Part 5/Culture and Survival: The Challenge of Communicating, Raising Children, and Staying Alive Africa: Traditional from a relatively early age, and we WANT? by pointing to the correct University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, caught him in lies about three times a object. began raising Chantek when he was 9 Healers on the week. He learned that he could sign As Chantek's vocabulary increased, months old. They communicated with DIRTY to get into the bathroom to play the ideas that he was expressing him by using gestural signs based on became more complex, such as when he with the washing machine, dryer, soap, the American Sign Language for the Front Line signed deaf. After a month, Chantek produced We at a close relationship and formula and staring at the location of BAD BIRD hadnoisy birds giving with so on, instead of using the toilet. by opening his mouth and signing alarm calls, and WHITEbecame extremely He also used his signs deceptively to his Chantek. He CHEESE FOODthe remaining ingredient. FOOD-EAT, as if to say that he had own first sign and eventually Margo Demello: EAT learned to use approximately 150 that Chantek for cottage cheese. He understood began to attached to his caregivers and gain social advantage in games, to A further indication difswallowed it. However, he really held divert ferent show characteristics or had mental images is found in histhat things had empathy and jealousy toward us. attention in social interactions, abilthe eraser in his cheek, and later it was signs, forming a vocabulary The Modern Tattoo and to attributes He would quickly "protect" us from an avoid testing situations and that could be described. He similar that respond young child. found in his bedroom where he com- to ity toof a very to his caregiver's request Chantek learned names forthe articulation of a created combinationsanimal or that pre"attacking" toy of signs other coming home after walks on campus. that he improve people (LYN, also monly hid objects. Community On we JOHN), places (YARD, BROCK-HALL), became had never used before. In the way day with one occasion, Chantek stole food tense. We have lived day to sign. When his articulation We carried out tests of Chantek's

[CONTINUED]

from my pocket while he simultanethat things to eat (YOGURT,would ask him to SIGN a child learns and have shared common Chantek language, Chantek careless, we CHOCOLATE), mental ability using measures develbegan actions (WORK, HUG), objects (SCREW- he would to over- or under-extend the a child.ously pulled my hand away in the experiences, as if he were We BETTER. Looking closely at us, oped for human children. Chantek meaning of his healedwhich gave us DRIVER, MONEY), animals emphatically, taking have signs, his hurts, comforted opposite direction. On another occahis sign slowly and (DOG, APE), reached a mental age equivalent to sion, insight into his of stray cats, playedhe colors fears emotions and how keep-away he stole a pencil eraser, pretended one hand pronouns other that of a 2- to 3-year-old child, with (RED, BLACK),to put the (YOU, into the was beginning to cracked nuts in theFor games, classify his world. woodsto swallow it, and "supported" his case with proper shape. Evidence for some skills of even older children.ME), location (UP, POINT), attributes mental On stones, watched him sign to himself, images also comes from Chantek's some tasks done readily by children, spontaneous execution of signs with his felt fooled by his deceptions and frussuch as using one object to represent [CONTINUED] feet, which we did not teach him to do. trated when he became bored with his another and pretend play, Chantek pertasks. We have dreamed about him, had Chantek even began to use objects in formed as well as children, but less conversations in our imagination with relation to each other to form signs. frequently. He engaged in chase games For example, he used the blades of scis- him, and loved him. Through these rare in which he would look over his shoulevents shared with another species, sors instead of his hands to make the der as he darted about, although no I have no doubt I was experiencing sign for biting. one was chasing him. He also signed to Chantek as a person. (Adapted from Chantek was extremely curious and his toys and offered them food and H. L. W. Miles. (1993). Language and inventive. When he wanted to know drink. the orangutan: The old "person" of the the name of something, he offered his Like children, Chantek showed eviforest. In P. Cavalieri & P. Singer (Eds.), dence of animism, a tendency to endow hands to be molded into the shape of The great ape project (pp. 45­50). New the proper sign. But language is a creobjects and events with the attributes ative process, so we were pleased to see York: St. Martin's Press.) of living things. Chantek also experithat Chantek began to invent his own mented in play and problem solving. signs. He invented: NO-TEETH (to show For example, he tried vacuuming him2003 update: My relationship and us that he would not use his teeth durself and investigated a number of research with Chantek continues, ing rough play); EYE-DRINK (for conclever ways to short out the electric through the Chantek Foundation in tact lens solution used by his carefence that surrounded his yard. He givers); DAVE-MISSING-FINGER (a name Atlanta, Georgia. Chantek now uses learned how to use several tools, such several hundred signs and has invented for a favorite university employee who as hammers, nails, and screwdrivers, new signs for CAR WATER (bottled had a hand injury); VIEWMASTER (a toy and he was able to complete tasks water that I bring in my car), KATSUP, that displays small pictures); and BALusing tools with up to twenty-two and ANNOYED. He makes stone tools, LOON. Like our ancestors, Chantek had problem-solving steps. By the time he arts and crafts, necklaces, and other become a creator of language, the criwas 2 years old, he was imitating signs

H. Lyn Miles

Proven Features

MEDIATREK

To visit an award-winning Web site that presents the ins and outs of anthropological fieldwork from start to finish, go to MediaTrek 14.2 on the companion Web site or CD-ROM.

MEDIATREK

To test your cross-cultural gesture literacy, go to MediaTrek 15.2 on the companion Web site or CD-ROM.

MediaTreks (formerly entitled Cyber Road Trips) are attention-grabbing, brief descriptions that send students to the free Student CD-ROM or the textspecific Companion Web Site for additional resources and perspectives on key topics relevant to the material found in the chapter. As students explore related information on the CD-ROM or the Web site, they gain insight from differing perspectives and learn to gather facts from more than a single source. Each chapter contains several MediaTreks that provide timely information and encourage deeper exploration of topics.

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A dynamite map and photo program provides the visual impact that keeps students engaged and interested in learning more

Chapter 14/The Characteristics of Culture 353

The book's generous use of figures, photographs, illustrations, and maps gives students a visual explanation of important information. Locator maps illustrate where in the world the chapter's content is taking place.

Atlantic Ocean

North Pole

Eskimos Chukchi

ALASKA, U.S.

Arctic Ocean

Chukchi

Eskimos

NORWAY SWEDEN FINLAND LAT.EST. LITH. BELARUS Moscow Russian

UKRAINE

Chukchi Even Yakut Koryak Even Yukagir Koryak Nganasan Selkup Enets Nenets Mansi Tatar Evenk Evenk Evenk Even

Pacific Ocean

I Yukagir

E

Nenets Komi Nenets

R

Even Evenk Negidal Evenk

A

Saami

Nenets

Itelmen

S Yakut

I B

R U S S I A N

Khanty

Nivkhi Orok Ulchi Nanay Oroch

Cossack

Khanty Bashkir

F E D E R A T I O N

Tofalar Evenk

Udege

Chechens

GEORGIA

Udege

KAZAKHSTAN MONGOLIA CHINA JAPAN

ARM. AZER.

The newly titled Visual Counterpoints features use side-byside photos to compare and contrast cultures and issues from around the world. Throughout the book, the authors have added new photos covering more global topics.

FIGURE 14.1 Shown here are some of the ethnic groups of the Russian Federation, which is by far the largest and most important part of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Contrary to popular belief, the ethnic conflicts that have broken out since the collapse of the Soviet Union stem not from a conflictive nature of ethnicity but from Stalin's policy of emphasizing ethnicity while preventing its expression and forcibly removing populations from their homelands to new localities.

VISUAL COUNTERPOINT

In the United States, a man dressing as a woman (crossdressing) has traditionally been regarded as abnormal behavior, but in some cultures, it is considered perfectly normal. Not only does culture define what is normal and abnormal, but such definitions may change over time. Although male crossdressers in the United States are still mocked or looked down upon by many, women today throughout North America commonly wear men's clothing without being regarded as at all odd.

United Artists/The Kobal Collection © Monika Graff/The Image Works

© John Chellmann/Animals Animals

Dynamite Visuals

VISUAL COUNTERPOINT Humans talk, while other primates communicate mostly through gesture and body language, including facial expression. Still, humans have by no means abandoned these other forms of communication, as we see here.

© Jeff Greenberg/PhotoEdit

© 1996 Richard Lord

VISUAL COUNTERPOINT There is a great deal of similarity around the world in such basic expressions as smiling, laughing, crying, and anger, as one can see from the expressions of these children from Africa, South America, and Asia. Expressions such as these are part of the human inheritance from their primate ancestry.

© 1995 Richard Lord

© Jutta Klee/Corbis

VISUAL COUNTERPOINT In the United States before 1950, matters pertaining to the human body were not considered suitable for polite conversation, so mention of President Roosevelt's paralyzed legs was scrupulously avoided in the 1930s and 1940s. By the 1980s, attitudes had changed so dramatically that the president's colon was discussed in great detail when President Reagan was hospitalized for cancer. By the late1990s even President Clinton's genitals were discussed in public.

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AP/Wide World Photos

AP/Wide World Photos

© Bettmann/Corbis

Clear and interesting pedagogical features get students interested from the very start--and keep them focused on chapter mastery

The book's outstanding pedagogical features include new part openers that address major "challenge issues" for that section. Each chapter also opens with a "challenge" issue or question, linked to the chapter-ending Questions for Reflection exercises that follow the chapter summary. Other new pedagogical tools include Key Terms, Multimedia Review Tools, and Suggested Readings that are both classical and contemporary.

CHAPTER 15

Language and Communication

f

f

1 2 3 4 5

1.

If apes can learn to use sign language in a meaningful way beyond mimicking, how does that challenge the idea of a CHALLENGE ISSUE boundary between humans and apes? UMANS COMMUNICATE IN MANY WAYS , INCLUDING TOUCH , 2. Up to 4,000 languages have disappeared over the last 500 GESTURE , AND POSTURE . Our most distinctive and complex years, most of them vanishing without a trace. Only 6,000 lan- form of communication, however, is language. It is the foundation guages remain. If the same rate of extinction continues, and stone of culture, which is our species' primary means of meeting the challenge just one or two languages exist in the year 2500, would that be of survival. a loss or a gain? How so? 3. Applying the principle of linguistic relativity to your own language, consider how your perceptions of objective reality might have been shaped by your language and how your sense of reality might have been different if you grew up speaking Hopi. 4. Think about the gestures commonly used in your own family. Are they more or less powerful than words expressed? 5. From its earliest days writing was linked to political power. How does that apply to modern media and globalization?

H

© Yavuz Arslan/Peter Arnold

Questions for Reflection

Helpful Pedagogy

culture A society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions--which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and which are reflected in behavior. society An organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well-being.

q dealt with shortly. Although a culture is shared by members of a society, it is important to realize that all is not invariable uniformity. For one thing, no two people share the exact same version of their culture. And there are bound to be other variations. At the very least, there is some difference between the roles of men and women. This stems from the fact that women give birth but men do not and that there are obvious differences between male and

Glossary

absolute or chronometric dating In archaeology and paleoanthropology, dates for archaeological materials based on solar years, centuries, or other units of absolute time. acculturation Massive cultural changes that animism A belief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized spirit beings separable from bodies. Anthropoidea A suborder of the primates that includes New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes (including humans). anthropology The study of humankind in all blade technique A technique of stone tool manufacture by which long, parallel-sided flakes are struck off the edges of a specially prepared core. blended family A married couple raising children together from their previous unions. brachiate To use the arms to move from branch to branch, with the body hanging suspended beneath the arms

There is a running glossary in each chapter, and cumulative glossary at the end of the text to help students master the language of anthropology.

people are forced to make as a consequence of intensive firsthand contact between their own group and a another often more powerful society.

times and places.

9

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In our ongoing efforts to give students and instructors the most value for their money, Wadsworth has developed a new packaging policy that allows instructors to select a case study and order it packaged with new student copies of Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Eleventh Edition, for free.

Free Case Study Program

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You can peruse the available case studies by topic or region from three exciting series-- simply visit our Explore Case Studies site at http://anthropology.wadsworth.com.

Vivid and engaging student CD-ROMs take learning to an interactive level

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Student CD-ROM for Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Eleventh Edition

This new CD-ROM engages students with lively video clips of anthropologists in the field, Meet the Scientist photo essays, Media Treks (Web links) for each chapter, fun and thought-provoking exercises such as The Challenge of Ethnocentrism, Map Studies: WHERE in the World Is . . .?, Time Studies: WHEN in the World?, and Chapter Study.

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This CD-ROM includes 10 interactive full-color maps covering contemporary topics such as: Global Population Life Expectancy Global Income Disparity The Global Water Supply Global Internet Usage The accompanying booklet includes critical-thinking questions that students can tear out and hand in to their instructor as homework or extra credit.

Student CD-ROMs

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Our latest online technology offers new dimensions in teaching and learning

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. . . Now packaged with new copies of the text! InfoTrac® College Edition

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The Book Companion Web Site includes the following for each chapter of the Eleventh Edition: Tutorial Practice Quizzes that can be scored and emailed to the instructor, Internet links and exercises, InfoTrac® College Edition exercises, flashcards of the text's glossary, CNN Videos with discussion questions, crossword puzzles, essay questions, learning objectives, and much more. From this page, students can link to the Wadsworth exclusive "Earthwatch Journal, " "Exploring Case Studies, "Applying Anthropology, " " and "The Latest Dirt" Web sites. The Wadsworth Anthropology Resource Center

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Four months' access to the new and improved InfoTrac College Edition-- FREE with every new copy of the text! When you adopt the Eleventh Edition, you and your students receive anytime, anywhere access to reliable resources with InfoTrac College Edition, the online library! This fully searchable database offers more than 20 years' worth of full-text articles from almost 5,000 scholarly and popular sources such as USA Today, The New York Times, Newsweek, Human Ecology, Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Journal of Folklore Research, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, MAN, Marvels & Tales, Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, and Oceania. New! Students now have instant access to criticalthinking and paper-writing tools through InfoWrite.

Here you can find special Wadsworth Web sites such as Applying Anthropology, Breaking News, InfoTrac College Edition, Research Online, information about all of our products, and links to information on Wadsworth's Case Study program, including: Spindler Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology--This series includes over 60 classic and contemporary ethnographies representing geographic and topical diversity. Newer case studies focus on culture change and culture continuity, reflecting the globalization of the world. Young Case Studies on Contemporary Social Issues--This series includes contemporary cases that are framed around a social issue. The cases are comparative in nature and represent the cutting-edge work of anthropologists today. Quilter Case Studies in Archaeology Series-- This series includes engaging accounts of modern archaeological techniques, issues, and solutions--as well as studies discussing the collection of material remains--ranging from site-specific excavations to types of archaeology practiced.

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Using the text-specific, preformatted content and total flexibility of WebTutor, you can easily create and manage your own personal Web site. With WebTutor Advantage, instructors can provide virtual office hours, post syllabi, track student progress with the quizzing material, and even customize the content to suit their needs. WebTutor Advantage also furnishes instructors with communication tools, enabling them to set up threaded discussions, conduct "real-time" chats, and bring the latest developments from the field into the classroom using NewsEdge, an authoritative news source that delivers customized news feeds daily. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center This online searchable database of more than 2,000 point-counterpoint articles allows students to analyze different perspectives of today's hotly debated and controversial issues. From environmental issues to bioethics, terrorism, and cultural conflict, this timely, well-stocked online library gives students an opportunity to more deeply explore issues, think critically about the pros and cons of each position, and formulate their own opinions on such topics. To take a quick tour of OVRC, visit http://www.gale.com/OpposingViewpoints.

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Instructor's Manual

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Test Bank

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The Instructor's Manual includes a Resource Integration Guide that illustrates how and where to use various text supplements including multimedia, videos, and enrichment material. Each chapter of the Instructor's Manual features a chapter synopsis, student learning objectives, a chapter review, brief descriptions of chapter feature pieces, key terms, and suggestions for exercises, assignments and research topics. Also included is a list of additional resources for instructors, including films and ancillary readings. Concise user guides and tips for InfoTrac College Edition and WebTutor are included as appendixes. Included with the manual is the bookspecific Multimedia Manager Instructor Resource CD-ROM, containing digital media and Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations for the text, and placing images, lectures, and video clips at your fingertips. This CD-ROM includes preassembled Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations with chapter outlines and key terms. You can add your own lecture notes and images to create a custom-made lecture presentation. The Multimedia Manager also includes an exciting Earthwatch Institute Research Expedition feature with engaging Lecture Launcher images.

Each chapter of the Test Bank features approximately 40­70 multiple-choice, 10­15 true/false, matching, 10­15 short answer, and 5­10 essay questions. In addition to answers and page references, all test questions are followed by codes that indicate whether the question focuses on the main narrative of the text or on a feature piece, and if a similar question can be found in the Study Guide and Workbook.

Instructor's Resources

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Create, deliver, and customize tests and study guides (both print and online) in minutes with this easy-to-use assessment and tutorial system. ExamView offers both a Quick Test Wizard and an Online Test Wizard that guide you step-by-step through the process of creating tests.,Its Unique what-you-see-is-what-you-get capability allows you to see the test you are creating on the screen exactly as it will appear when printed or displayed online. Using the complete word processing capabilities provided with ExamView, you can enter an unlimited number of new questions or edit existing questions.

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CNN® Today Cultural Anthropology Video Series, Volumes I­VII

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Visual Anthropology Video

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From Documentary Educational Resources and Wadsworth, this 60-minute video features clips from over 30 new and classic anthropological films.

Presentation Resources

CNN Videos, a Wadsworth exclusive, allow professors to integrate the newsgathering and programming power of CNN into the classroom to show students the relevance of anthropology to their everyday lives. Each video in the series consists of approximately 45 minutes of footage originally broadcast on CNN within the last several years. The videos are broken into two- to sevenminute segments perfect for classroom use as lecture launchers, or to illustrate key anthropological concepts. An annotated table of contents accompanies each video, along with descriptions of the segments and suggestions for their possible use within the course.

A Guide to Visual Anthropology

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This valuable booklet provides complete listing and information for over 50 videos, including full descriptions, discussion questions, and annotations on how to use the video effectively in teaching cultural anthropology.

Wadsworth's Cultural Anthropology Transparency Acetates 2005

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These workshops feature discussions by the author team. Contact your Thomson Wadsworth sales representative for information.

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Additional resources for your students

Study Guide and Workbook

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The Study Guide and Workbook includes chapter synopses, chapter goals, lists of key terms and people, and questions to guide students in their reading of chapter material. Each chapter also includes practice tests consisting of fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, matching, true/false, and essay questions.

Researching Anthropology on the Internet, Second Edition

0-534-56793-2 · Packaged with the text 0-534-21788-5

This useful guide is designed to assist anthropology students in doing research on the Internet.

Classic Readings in Cultural Anthropology by Gary Ferraro

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InfoTrac College Edition Student Guide for Anthropology

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Brief, accessible, and inexpensive, this reader includes those articles and excerpts from works that have been pivotal to the field of anthropology and that have endured over the decades.

This brief booklet offers information on how to get the most out of InfoTrac College Edition and includes user instructions, troubleshooting tips, and frequently asked questions. In addition, key word search terms are provided for students to find articles related to the following topics: cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, biological anthropology, paleoanthropology/archaeology, and primatology.

Student Resources

15

Also available

Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Eleventh Edition

896 pages. Paperbound. 8-1/2 x 11. 4-Color. ©2005. 0-534-62361-1. Available Now!

A well-earned reputation as the best text for the course . . . Through each successful edition, William A. Haviland's Anthropology has provided readers with a comprehensive and balanced presentation on views of human culture, evolution, and prehistory. Now, the extensively revised new edition of Anthropology: The Human Challenge also includes three award-winning authors, educators, and researchers as coauthors: Harald E.L. Prins, Dana Walrath, and Bunny McBride. In this edition, you'll find new content and a new framework that emphasizes the interconnections of the world's cultures and the connections between biology and culture, ensuring the text's position as the standard-bearer for the course.

Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge, Seventh Edition

434 pages. Paperbound. ©2005. 0-534-61016-1. Available Now!

Also by The Authors

This brief text presents students with the latest contemporary thinking on human evolution, adaptation, and prehistory. The authors provide a straightforward and integrated presentation of material, focusing on selected aspects of physical anthropology and prehistoric archaeology as they relate to the origin of humanity, the origin of culture, and the development of human biological and cultural diversity.

"Haviland's text is a truly practical, genuinely educational, useable resource for the teaching of introductory biological anthropology and its findings. " Joseph W. Ball San Diego State University

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