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FIREFIGHTER-1 STUDY GUIDE

The following study guide has been designed to provide all personnel an easy and quick means to keep current on all Firefighter-1 skills and core competencies. Each item listed below has a skill number and name, this is provided for easy reference to look-up a specific skill sheet, it should also be noted that not every skill is listed, but only ones that are frequently tested upon.

Skill No. BA-2 (SCBA use in restricted passages) · · · · · Wear full PPE Never removes face piece Rotates 45 degrees Partially removes SCBA (low-profile technique) As a last resort, performs a full-escape, maintaining contact and control of the unit.

Skill No. BA-3 (Skip breathing) · · · · Inhales a normal breath Holds, for as long as it would take to exhale Inhales again Exhales slowly

Skill No. BA-4 (Emergency by-pass valve) · · · · Partially opens the by-pass valve Takes a breath Activate PASS device, call for help Close the valve until another breath is needed

Skill No. HN-1 (Operate a fog nozzle) · · · · · Holds nozzle in one hand and hose in the other Anchors the hose with one foot and supports the hose on the hip Opens and closes nozzle slowly Adjust the fog pattern Adjusts the GPM, if applicable

Skill No. HN-2 (Extend a hose line) · · Place hose clamp 5 feet behind the nozzle Positions besides the clamp, never straddling the handle

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Remove the nozzle and attaches additional line(s) Stretches the new line and attaches the nozzle Slowly releases the hose clamp

Skill No. HN-3 (Replace a burst hose section) · · · · · Place a clamp 5 feet behind the female coupling of the damaged section, on the supply side Position beside the clamp, never straddle it After pressure bleeds off, removes he damaged section Replaces with 2-additional sections and straightens Slowly release the clamp

Skill No. HN-4 (Operate a charged line from a ladder) · · · · · Wear full PPE After line is passed up, project the nozzle between the rungs Secure the hose with a hose strap or rope to the beam Use a leg lock or ladder belt to secure yourself to the ladder Open the nozzle slowly and flow water

Skill No. HN-5 (Carry hose and advance from standpipe) · · · · · Wear full PPE Use appropriate carry, ensure there is sufficient hose Carry one floor below the fire, flake hose up the stairway, above the fire floor if possible and back to the fire door Calls for line to be charged Bleeds air, checks pattern, advances line to the fire

Back-up Firefighter: Same as above, plus attaché hose to standpipe connection and open the valve when called to do so Skill No. HN-6 (Accordion load) (Forward Lay) · · · · Start with male end, lay hose on its edge against the side of the hose bed from the open end to the closed end of the bed At the end of the bed, fold the hose back on itself and lay it back to the open end of the bed Continue laying the hose to the front and rear of the bed Stagger the folds so that every other bend is approximately 2 inches inside the adjacent bends to complete the load.

(Reverse Lay) Note: Same as above, except start the load with the female coupling. Skill No. HN-7 (Horseshoe load) · · · · · · Forward lay-start with the male coupling. Reverse lay- start with the female coupling. Lay hose on its edge against the side of the bed from the open end to the closed end At the closed end, bend the hose and bring it around the back of the bed to the other side When the hose reaches the open end, bend it back and reverse the procedure Stagger the folds at the open end, approximately 2-inches inside the adjacent bends

Skill No, HN-9 (Donut hose roll) Method-1 · Lay the hose out flat in a straight line · Position 5-feet off center, toward the male coupling · Start the roll by rolling the hose on top of itself, towards the female coupling · Complete the roll by covering the male coupling with the hose, leaving the female exposed Method-2 · Lay the hose out so that the hose is folded on top of itself with the male coupling on top, about three feet short of the female · Start at the fold, the hose is rolled toward the coupling, a partner can assist by pulling slack out as the hose is being rolled · Complete by covering the male coupling with the hose, leaving the female exposed Skill No. HN-10 (Twin donut roll) · · · · · Lay the hose out flat, fold the hose in half, lay one half beside the other so the halves are parallel and the couplings are together Position at the end opposite the couplings, facing the couplings Fold the loop end over and start rolling towards the couplings Roll the two halves simultaneously until the roll is complete Complete by looping a short piece of rope through the roll and tie it off

Skill No. HN-11 (Hose drain and carry)

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With the hose laid out, pick up either end and place it over the shoulder with the coupling behind the body, waist high Hold the hose in front of your body and walk slowly forward, form a bend that hangs in front of you Continue walking forward, guiding the hose back over your shoulder to form a bend that hangs behind your body Continue walking slowly, forming bends in front and behind you until the entire length of the line is on your shoulder

Skill N0. HN-12 (Join two 21/2 lines into one) · · · · Select a Siamese appliance Connect two sections of hose (male couplings) to the female Siamese connections Connect one section of hose (female coupling) to the male Siamese connection Indicate the direction of water flow (from the two lines towards the single line)

Skill No. HN-13 · · · · Select a 2-1/2" to 2-1/2" wye appliance Connect one section of 2-1/2" or 3"hose (male couplings) to the female wye connections Connect two sections of 2-1/2" hose (female couplings) to the male wye connections Indicate the direction of water flow

Skill No. HN-14 (Connect 2 lines with damaged couplings) · · · Select two sections of 21/2" hose and a hose jacket Lay two hose couplings in the open hose jacket Close the hose jacket and secure with the foot

Skill No's. KN-1 thru 6 (Knots) Refer to book or skill sheets to see a photograph of the different knots that are required for Firefighter-1. Skill No. KN-7 (Hoist an axe) · · · Form a bowline or figure-eight on a bight, slide the loop down the handle and wrap the formed loop around the head of the axe Tie one or more half-hitches around the handle of the axe Tie a safety knot in the working end of the rope, hoist the axe off the ground without the knot slipping

Method-2: Tie a clove hitch around the head of the axe and follow the steps listed above.

Skill No. KN-8 (Hoist a pike pole) · · · Form a clove hitch at approximately mid-point of the pole Tie one or more half-hitches around the handle, toward the head Secure with an overhand safety in the working end and hoist off the ground without the knot slipping

Skill No. KN-9 (Hoist a ground ladder) · · · · Tie a bowline or figure-eight on a bight with a large loop, with a safety knot Slip the loop under the ladder, about one-third of the way down Pull the loop back over the top of the ladder around the beams Take up the slack to tighten the loop around the beams, hoist the ladder without the knot slipping

Skill No. KN-10 (Hoist a dry hose line) · · · · Fold the hose with the nozzle back over the hose, shut-off against the hose, to form a bight about 3-5 feet long Form a clove hitch around the nozzle and hose together Tie one or more half-hitches around the bight in the hose Tie a safety knot in the working end of the rope at the nozzle, hoist the hose without the knot slipping

Skill No. KN-11 (Hoist a charged hose line) · · · · · Tie a clove hitch around the hose, about 1-3 feet back from the nozzle Form a bight and push it under the bale, towards the nozzle tip Twist the bight and form a half hitch, and place the loop over the end of the nozzle Adjust the half hitch around the nozzle so it will hold the bale in the off position Hoist the line without the knot slipping

Skill No. KN-12 (Hoist a smoke ejector) · · · Tie a bowline of figure eight around two of the connecting rods between the front and back plates Secure with an over hand safety knot Host the ejector, without the knot slipping

Skill No. LD-1 (Carry, position, and raise a single ladder) · · · Wear PPE Use approved carry Check for overhead obstructions

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Lower the butt end and simultaneously raise the ladder Lower against the building and check for proper climbing angle

Skill No. LD-2 (Beam raise an extension ladder) Tip firefighter · · · · · · · · Wear PPE Use approved carry Check for overhead obstructions Advance hand over hand down the beam to raise the ladder to a vertical position The tip firefighter moves to the outside and steadies the ladder for the butt firefighter to raise the halyard After butt firefighter raise the halyard, the tip firefighter ensures the locks are secure and then lowers the ladder into the building Check for proper climbing angle Note: the following ladder tip placements 1. Rescue from narrow window: below the sill 2. Rescue from wide window: into the window 3. Operate a hose line: above the window 4. Vertical ventilation: 3-5 rungs above the roofline 5. Breaking glass: upwind with the tip even with window top

Skill No. LD-3 (Flat raise) · Same as above, only the ladder is lying flat and the tip firefighter will raise by walking the ladder up using the rungs Note: The butt firefighter on beam and flat raise always raises the halyard

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Skill No. LD-5 (Deploy a roof ladder) · · · · · · · · Wear proper PPE Check for overhead obstructions Lay the roof ladder down and open hooks Raise the roof ladder and rest it against the ladder to be climbed, hooks facing outward Climb main ladder until shoulder is about two rungs above the midpoint of the roof ladder Reach through the rungs and place roof ladder onto shoulder, climb to the top of the main ladder, and lock in Take the roof ladder off the shoulder and lay it on the roof, hooks down and feed to the pitch of the roof Ensure the hooks catch securely over the peak before climbing

Skill No. LD-6 (Carry tools up and down ladder)

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Wear PPE Check for proper climbing angle and ensure ladder is being healed (from outside position, not underneath) During climb, slide free hand under the beam while holding the tool in the other hand and sliding the tool along the other beam

Skill No. MN-1 (Daily/weekly SCBA inspection) · · · · · · · · · Check unit for cleanliness Check the cylinder to see it is full Turn cylinder completely on, ensure all low pressure alarms and other indicators are working Compare gauges and related indicators Check hose and connections Check face piece and BA harness Check bypass valve Bleed off air and listen for low pressure alarm Close bypass

Skill No.OVH-1 (Open a ceiling) · · · · Wear full PPE Ensure a charged line is ready Stand between the work area and the exit, not directly under the area that is to be opened Push hook through the ceiling, hook pointed away and pull ceiling down and away

Skill NO.OVH-2 (Open a wall) · · · · · Wear PPE Ensure charged line is ready Select the place to make the opening, locating the studs by sounding the wall Use a chopping stroke to cut the wall along the studs Use the pick to pull the material off the wall

Skill No.OVH-3 (Open a floor) · · · · · Wear PPE Ensure a charged line is ready Select the place to make the opening, removing furniture and floor coverings Locate the joists by sounding, use chopping strokes to cut along the joists Use the pick to pull the material off the floor

Skill No.PPE-1 (Don PPE)

Notes for this skill: · Ensure cylinder is completely on · Tighten face piece from lowest to top · Ensure all straps and Velcro are fastened · Ensure chin strap is tightened Skill No.SAL-1 (One person salvage spread) · · · · · · Wear PPE Start at one end on the objects to be covered and unroll enough to cover the end Lay the roll on top and unroll to the opposite end Open the sides of the cover by snapping the hands up and out Open the other end and ensure all materials are completely covered Tuck the edges of the cover in

Note: For skills SAL-2 thru 9 please refer to actual skill sheets for more detail Skill No.SFC-1 (Direct fire attack) · · · · · · Wear full PPE Select proper hose line and nozzle Bleed air from line, checks pattern Extinguishes any burning fascia, cornice, or overhangs Stay out of the doorway on the side opposite the hinges and opens door slowly Advance to the fire area by crawling and apply water directly to the base of the burning material

Skill No.SFC-2 (Indirect attack) · Same as above, except water is applied into the superheated gases at the ceiling by moving the stream back and forth

Combination Attack is also the same, except water is applied in either a "T" or "Z" pattern at the ceiling then dropped down to the base of the fire Above and below grade attack: Remember on the stairs to move quickly. 1. Going up stairs crawl with head-up and feet down 2. Going down stairs either sit or slide, staying on your left side so as not to turn off the cylinder. Skill No.SR-1 (Primary search operation) · · · Wear full PPE Work in a group of two or more, search on hands and knees Use a standard right or left hand pattern, starting on an outside wall

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Search around furniture, in all closets, pantries, and shower stalls Pause to listen for sounds of distress, communicate with partner and find victim

Search (back-up firefighter): Wear PPE follows lead firefighter, staying toward the inside of the room and maintains physical contact with lead firefighter. Back up also sweeps the inside of the room with hand. Leg or tool. Skill No.SR-2 (Assist conscious victim down ladder) · · · · Wear PPE Ensure ladder is healed and locks are seated Ascends ladder to the victim, after victim is on ladder, positions behind and slightly below the victim Keep hands on the rungs in front of the victim and arms around and under the victims armpits

Skill No.SR-3 (Unconscious victim down ladder) · · · · · Wear PPE Ensure ladder is healed and locks are sealed Ascend ladder to victim, victim is placed on the knee, facing the ladder Victims legs are placed outside the beams Firefighter keeps hands on the beams and around victim, descends the ladder rung by rung, never loosing contact with the beams

Method-2: Same as above, only victim is facing the firefighter. Skill No.SR-4 (Extremities carry) · · · · One firefighter at the head and one at the feet Head firefighter kneels, wraps arms around victims chest and grasps the victims wrist Signal the firefighter at the feet to stand together Firefighter at the feet will be grabbing the victims legs, under the knees

Skill No.SR-5 (Firefighter drag removal) · · · · Turns victims on to his/her back Using a piece of rope or webbing, ties the victims hands together Straddle the victim and place the victims arms over his head Drag the victim by crawling

Skill No.SR-6 (SCBA harness drag)

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Determine if SCBA is functional, if not remove the regulator and leave the face piece in place Roll firefighter onto his/her side, ensuring air supply is not compromised and loosen the shoulder straps Disconnect the waist strap and pass it between the firefighters legs and fasten it Grab the shoulder straps and drag firefighter from the area

Skill No.SR-7 (Blanket drag) · · · · Stretch the blanket/sheet out next to the victim Roll the victim onto his/her side and bunch one third of the blanket against the victims body Lay the victim back down and pull the bunched material out from underneath the victim and wrap it around the victim Grab the blanket at the victims head and drag backwards to safety

Skill No.SR-8 (Webbing sling drag) · · · Place the victim in the center of the loop so the webbing is behind the patients back Take the large loop over the victim and place it under the victims armpits toward the victims head Reach through, grab the webbing behind the victims back and pull through all the excess webbing, creating a loop at the top of the victims head and two loops around the victims arms Adjust hand placement to protect the victims head while dragging

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Skill No.SR-9 (Incline drag) · · · · · Turn victim so that victim is supine Kneel at the head, supporting the victims head and neck Lift the victim into a sitting position, reach under the victims arms Grasp the victims left wrist with your right hand the victims right wrist with your left hand Stand and walk backwards, while dragging the victim to safety

Skill No.SR-12 (Two-person seat carry) · · · Both firefighters kneel beside the victims hips Raise the victim to a sitting position and link arms behind the victims back Both firefighters place free arms under the victims knees and link arms, both firefighters then stand together, carrying the victim to safety

Skill No.UT-1 (Shut off electrical service)

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Call power company, if power has to be shut off prior to their arrival Wear PPE, locate the electrical panel box Throw the main breaker or shut-off switch

Skill No.UT-2 (Shut off natural gas) · · · Call gas company, wear PPE Locate the gas meter, usually outside and visible from the street Using a spanner wrench, turn the petcock to a position perpendicular (crosswise) to the pipe

Skill No.UT-3 (Shut off LPG) · · · Wear PPE Locate the LPG tank and find the shut-off valve, usually under a cover Turn the valve in a clockwise direction to close

Skill No.VFC-1 (Extinguish a vehicle fire) · · · · Wear PPE Select the proper hose line, set the nozzle to a straight stream Approach the fire from the uphill/upwind side if possible Advance to a distance that allows the stream to reach the fire, preferably from the side of the vehicle (extinguish as much fire as possible from the maximum effective distance) Extinguish any ground fire around the vehicle first, then apply stream directly to any other burning material

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Skill No.VN-1 (Breaking glass) · · · · Wear PPE Choose a tool suitable for breaking glass, stand to the windward side of the window or door Strike the glass at the top of the pane, keeping hands above the point of impact Remove jagged edges by sweeping the tool around the sash frame

Skill No.VN-2 (Ventilate pitched roof with an axe) · · · · Wear PPE Select the proper place to ventilate and ensure partner is covering him/her with a hose line Sound the roof for structural integrity and ensure roof ladder hooks are secure on the peak Work with the wind at your back, locating roof supports by sounding for joists

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Mark the hole to be cut using the pick of a pick-head axe and remove the roofing material Use short chopping strokes to cut the roof decking diagonally alongside the rafter Make the cuts in this order; opposite side, top, bottom, adjacent side Use the pick end to pull the decking and push the blunt end of a pike pole through the ceiling

Note: When using a saw, follow the same process as with an axe. Also, the same steps should be used on flat roof ventilation as well. Skill No.VN-4 (Mechanical ventilation-positive pressure) · · · · Wear PPE and determine the location of the fire Ensure attack team is in place and ready to make entry Place the fan 4' to 10' in front of the opening to be used for attack Provide an exhaust opening at or near the fire, start the fan and check that the cone of air completely covers the opening

Skill No. VN-5 (Mechanical ventilation-negative pressure) · · · · · Wear PPE Determine the area to be ventilated and the outside wind direction Place the ejector to exhaust on the leeward side of the building Hang the fan as high as possible, remove any obstructions from the area to be ventilated (curtains, blinds, or screens) Provide an opening on the windward side to provide cross ventilation

Skill No.VN-6 (Hydraulic ventilation) · · · · Wear PPE Enter the room, remain close to the ventilation opening, staying low Open the nozzle to a narrow to medium fog, directing the stream through the window, holding the nozzle 2' to 4' back from the window or opening Cover no more than 85% to 90% of the opening with the stream

Skill No.FE-1 (Force entry- out swinging door) · · · · · Wear PPE and has charged line ready Check door for heat and see if door is locked (try before you pry) Using a halligan, insert the adz of the tool between the door and the jamb, above or below the lock Force the adz in against the rabbet or stop and have partner strike the tool Pry the bar away from the door to move the door and the jamb apart

Method two: Insert the forked end of the tool between the door and the jamb, forcing it in against the rabbet or stop and have partner strike the tool. Note: The back up firefighter on forcible entry will perform the following; wear PPE, have charged line ready, strike the tool only when instructed and maintain control of the door by placing a rope or other tool around the doorknob.

Skill No.FE-2 (Force entry-in swinging door, nailed on stop) · · · · Wear PPE Charged line ready, check for heat and try before you pry Hold spike of the halligan tool against the door frame above or below the lock and tell partner to strike the tool After spike is driven into the frame, the lead firefighter pushes against the halligan, using the adz as a fulcrum to apply pressure to the door

Skill No.FE-3 (Force entry- in swinging door, rabbeted stop) · · · PPE, charged line, check for heat, try before you pry Insert the forked end of the halligan between the door and jamb with the bevel side of the fork against the door, just above or below the lock Tell partner to strike the tool, the fork should be completely between the door and the jamb, exert pressure on the handle, towards the door

Skill No.FE-4 (Pulling a cylinder lock) · · · · PPE, wind at your back, charged line, check for heat, try before you pry Remove the outer ring from around the lock, place the K-tool over the lock cylinder and then insert the adz of the halligan into the proper position Tell partner to strike the tool, once the blades have engaged into the body of the cylinder, pull the cylinder Insert the key tool, twist so as to move the bolt into the open position

Skill No.FE-6 (Force entry- wooden double hung checkrail window · · · · Wear PPE Remove the screen and check window to see if it is locked Force prying tool under the center of the lower sash and pry up until the screws in the lock pull out or break Slide the lower sash up to open the window

Note: Always wear PPE, have a charged line, and try before you pry

Factory window: Break the lowest pane of glass nearest the lock, clear all the glass from the opening, reach in and release the latch at the center and the bottom and pull the sash outward Casement window: Same as above, except there may be a crank at the bottom lower side of the window

Skill No.FE-10 (Breach a masonry wall) · · · · · · · · Wear PPE, size-up wall for any safety hazards, charged line ready Select a row of blocks that is at floor level Using a sledge hammer, knock two holes each in five blocks along the selected row Repeat the process on the four blocks above the first row Repeat the process on three blocks above the second row Repeat the process on two blocks above the third row Repeat the process on one block above the fourth row Begin knocking out the remaining portion of block by hitting them parallel to the wall, enlarging the hole

Skill No.FE-5 (Tool carry) · · · Wear PPE Pick-head axe: Cover the pick with the hand, carry the head close to the body under the arm Halligan tool: Carry the tool close to the body, with the adz under the arm and the pick covered with the hand OR carry the tool in one hand in a horizontal position, pick/adz in front and pointed down Pike pole: Carry the tool so that the head is in front and lowered

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FIREFIGHTER-1 study guide

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