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BRIGHTMOOR'S LYNDON GREENWAY: CATALYST FOR COMMUNITY REVIVAL

June 2007

Healthy Environments Partnership

Brightmoor Community Center Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation Friends of Parkside Henry Ford Health System Rebuilding Communities Inc. Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning University of Michigan School of Public Health

Catalyst

Main Entry: cat·a·lyst Pronunciation: 'ka-t&-l&st Function: noun

2 : an agent that provokes or speeds significant change or action.

Merriam-Webster

Report prepared by Donna Erickson Consulting, Inc www.westernopenlands.com June 2007 With funding through the Healthy Environments Partnership

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page List of Figures......................................................................................v

Acknowledgements................................................................................vii I. II. III. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND..........................................1 HISTORY OF THE BRIGHTMOOR COMMUNITY............................5 NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS AND LANDSCAPE CHARACTER.........9 Demographic Factors.......................................................................9 Community Assets.........................................................................13 Transportation..............................................................................20 Landscape Character.......................................................................22 IV. LYNDON GREENWAY................................................................25 Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development and Brightmoor Alliance.........25 Greenway Vision for Lyndon Avenue...................................................25 V. THE STREET AS GREENWAY......................................................33 Hubs, Sites and Links.....................................................................33 Complete the Streets.......................................................................34 Northwest Residents Voice Desires for the Built Environment.....................34 Elements of Pedestrian-Friendly Neighborhoods......................................35 Complete the Brightmoor Streets........................................................37 VI. HILLS AND HOLLOWS GREENWAY SYSTEM...............................43 Four Neighborhood Networks............................................................44 VII. PROGRAMMING FOR THE GREENWAY SYSTEM..........................47 Target Programs for Both the General Public and Particular Age Groups.........47 Use Building the Greenway as a Means of Engaging the Community............48 Focus on the Nodes........................................................................49 Address Safely Directly and First .......................................................49

Work with Many Organizations: Find Less Apparent Partners......................49

Page VIII. CONCLUSION........................................................................51 Appendix A: Places of Worship..............................................................53 Appendix B: Educational Resources.........................................................57 Appendix C: Hospitals and Health Centers.................................................61 Appendix D: Business, Social Service and Cultural Organizations......................63 Appendix E: Parks and Recreation Centers .................................................65

v LIST OF FIGURES Page

Figure 1. HEP's Northwest study area in Detroit............................................1 Figure 2. Example of vacant, derelict housing in Brightmoor.............................6 Figure 3. Corner of Lamphere and Puritan, a block of well-kept, intact housing........................................................................6 Figure 4. Senior citizens' housing complex.................................................10 Figure 5. Total population by census block group.........................................10 Figure 6. Smith Homes at Evergreen in southeastern Brightmoor Figure 7............10 Figure 7. Median household income in the extended Northwest HEP study area.....11 Figure 8. Percent of population 65 and older by census block group...................11 Figure 9. Percent population age 5-17 by census block group...........................12 Figure 10. Educational resources in the Northwest HEP study area.....................14 Figure 11. Harding Elementary School at Burt and Lyndon..............................14 Figure 12. Detroit Hope........................................................................15 Figure 13. An historic structure at the corner of Burt and Fenkell in Brightmoor......15 Figure 14. Historic structure at corner of Fenkell and Burt in Brightmoor...............15 Figure 15. Streetscape at Dolphin and Fenkell in Brightmoor.....................................16 Figure 16. Brightmoor Community Center at Burt and Lyndon..................................16 Figure 17. Leland Church at Lamphere and Fenkell....................................................17 Figure 18. The lawn of Citadel of Praise Church on Lyndon.......................................17 Figure 19. Citadel of Praise Church on Lyndon...........................................................17 Figure 20. Stoepel Park.................................................................................................18 Figure 21. Places of worship in the Northwest HEP study area...................................18 Figure 22. Stoepel Park's vehicular entrance................................................................19 Figure 23. Parks and greenspaces in the Northwest HEP study area............................19 Figure 24. City of Detroit bus lines in the Northwest HEP study area......................... 20 Figure 25. Site at Burt and Fenkell depicting good sidewalks, street trees, and a narrow tree lawn........................................................................................22 Figure 26. Rosedale Park neighborhood within Brightmoor..................................22 Figure 27. Photo montage showing Lyndon at Rockdale and Lyndon at Lamphere....23 Figure 28. Illegal dumping on a vacant lot in the Brightmoor neighborhood................23 Figure 29. NDND-built housing at Lamphere and Lyndon............................................25 Figure 30. JJR design for the Lyndon greenway, completed in 2006.............................28 Figure 31. Butterfly garden designed for a pocket park at Lyndon and Burt..................29 Figure 32. Plants selected for the butterfly garden at Burt and Lyndon..........................30 Figure 33. Community garden design for the corner of Lyndon and Patton...................31 Figure 34. Proposed signage for the Lyndon Greenway..................................................32 Figure 35. Scheme of hubs, sites and links for a greenway network...............................34 Figure 36. Various businesses and institutions on Fenkell provide destinations for walking routes................................................................................................36 Figure 37. Site at Lamphere and Fenkell with a mixed pedestrian experience................37 Figure 38. Modest streetscape beautification at Dolphin and Fenkell.............................38 Figure 39. Mural at Lamphere and Fenkell......................................................................38 Figure 40. Model street beautification on existing successful spaces..............................38

List of Figures, continued

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Figure 41. A corner bulge that incorporates other amenities for a pedestrian node.......39 Figure 42. Site at Lamphere and Fenkell that has a crumbling sidewalk surface...........42 Figure 43. Hills and Hollows Greenway System for Brightmoor...................................43 Figure 44. Eliza Howell community...............................................................................44 Figure 45. Preliminary plan for a Brightmoor Hills and Hollows Greenway network...45 Figure 46. Street scene at Grandville and Lyndon on the Blue Route............................46

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Funding for this project was provided by a grant to the Healthy Environments Partnership (www.hepdetroit.org) from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (R01 ES01-4234). The Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) is a community-based participatory research partnership working to address excess risk of cardiovascular disease in Detroit. Partners include: Brightmoor Community Center, Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion, Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation, Friends of Parkside, Henry Ford Health System, Rebuilding Communities Incorporated and the University of Michigan School of Public Health (www.hepdetroit.org). HEP is an affiliated project of the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (www.detroiturc.org). A number of people helped bring this report to fruition. In Brightmoor, Mary Banks, of the Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development (and project manager for the Lyndon Greenway project) provided a wealth of local knowledge and abundant enthusiasm for the Lyndon Greenway. Neal Billetdeaux, ASLA, Principal and Senior Landscape Architect at JJR, LLC, in Ann Arbor helped interpret that firm's design work for the Lyndon Greenway. The GIS and other graphic work were done by Lynna Chung and Carmen Violich, graduate students at the University of Michigan.

Deedee Varick and Cassandra Parks of the Healthy Environments Partnership was also instrumental. Norm Cox at the Greenways Collaborative and Tom Woiwode at the Community Foundation for Southeast Michigan's Greenways Initiative also provided critical information about the larger greenways movement in Southeast Detroit and insights about the evolution of the Lyndon Greenway in Northwest Detroit. The source for geographic data for mapping was ESRI (www.esri.com). For aerial photography, we are grateful for the resources provided by the Wayne State Center for Urban Studies. (www.cus.wayne.edu/research_tools/inte ractive_mapping.asp)

1 I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND The Lyndon Greenway in Northwest Detroit seeks to address neighborhood revitalization through changes to the physical environment that can add beauty, health, and vitality to the neighborhood. This report focuses on three nested geographic areas. First, it considers the Northwest Detroit region, analyzing overall demographic features and community assets. Second, it focuses on the four-square-mile Brightmoor community within Northwest Detroit, bounded by Puritan on the north, Fullerton on the south, Telegraph on the west and Evergreen/Westwood on the east. The report then narrows even further to the Lyndon Greenway within Brightmoor. This study makes suggestions for: 1) expanding the greenway vision; and 2) programmatic planning that will encourage residents' use of the greenway, particularly for healthenhancing outcomes. Northwest Detroit (Figure 1), home to the Lyndon Greenway, is one of three Detroit neighborhoods that are part of the HEP "Lean and Green in Motown" project, designed to examine changes in the environment that may benefit residents' health. The Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) is a community-based participatory research project designed to examine and address aspects of the social and physical environment that contribute to racial and socioeconomic disparities in risk of cardiovascular disease Through the "Lean and Green in Motown" (LGM) project, HEP is working to better understand

Figure 1. HEP's Northwest study area in Detroit. The Brightmoor Community is generally the yellow and dark green zone within the 48223 zip code area.

relationships between the built environment, physical activity and dietary practices, and to assess the potential for interventions that include environmental change to increase physical activity and promote healthy diets. HEP aims to: 1. Assess residents' use of green spaces in selected neighborhoods to understand the relationship of the built environment to obesity. 2. Develop and implement an intervention that includes modifications to the built environment along with social and behavioral approaches to promote physical activity. 3. Conduct evaluations to determine the impact of the intervention. 4. Disseminate findings broadly throughout Detroit and elsewhere. Three neighborhoods were chosen as LGM study sites--Southwest, Northwest, and Southeast Detroit. Each of these three neighborhoods is developing greenway corridors for nonmotorized transportation, recreation, community revitalization, and environmental improvement. Representatives from each of the involved communities are actively engaged in decisions about all aspects of the project as members of the HEP Steering Committee. As part of objective #2, above, greenway reports have been developed for each study area. These reports analyze the greenway routes being implemented, make recommendations for future

development phases of the greenways, and outline ways that the greenway routes can be programmed to attract maximum use by area residents. The first LGM greenway study was produced in 2006 for Eastside Detroit by a team of Master's of Urban and Regional Planning students at the University of Michigan.1 A similar report for Southwest Detroit was completed in spring 2007.2 The HEP Northwest Detroit study area includes ten census tracts and parts of the Berg-Lahser Brightmoor, Old Redford, and Riverdale neighborhoods. The area is generally bounded by Fenkell, Evergreen, 7 Mile and Telegraph, with an additional small area just west of Telegraph. An assessment of greenway planning and design was done, supported by conversations with key project planners and community representatives. Subsequently, demographic and landscape inventory and analyses of the neighborhoods were completed, from the perspective of greenway planning. This includes historical summaries to understand the neighborhood's evolution, particularly along the Lyndon Greenway corridor. A neighborhood character study examines the factors in

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Regina Ann Campbell, Jazmin Marie Casas, Lindsay-Jean Hard, Jenifer Huestis, Howard Karp, Mitchell Wimbish, 2006. "Planning Detroit's Conner Creek Greenway: Attracting Eastside Neighbors," Unpublished report by Master's of Urban and Regional Planning students at the University of Michigan. Erickson, Donna. 2007. "Expanding the Corktown-Mexicantown Greenlink: Reconnecting Southwest Neighbors." Report for the Healthy Environments Partnership, School of Public Health, University of Michigan.

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3 the built environment that can impact future greenway development. This report offers approaches for developing the greenway concept in the Brightmoor neighborhood. This includes a preliminary plan for an expanded greenway network and approaches for programming greenway spaces.

5 Taylor built a `planned community' in Brightmoor, but the houses were inexpensive and modest. The woodframed homes had a limited lifespan, and were built with few amenities. The original houses had outhouses in the back of the lots and no basements. Typically houses were built within eight hours. Responding to critics who complained about shoddy construction, Taylor reasoned that the Brightmoor housing surpassed what poor migrants occupied in Appalachia. It was an excuse that helped perpetuate the community's bleak living conditions, poor municipal services, and high crime rate. By 1925, 11,313 people had moved into 3950 homes built over three years. From its beginnings, Brightmoor was designed as a transitional, isolated neighborhood amid what was then a sparsely populated rural area. To ensure that workers could easily get to and from their factory workplaces, Taylor provided a bus service. He also built the original Brightmoor Community Center for residents' recreational and social needs. Taylor's intent was to build more substantial housing once residents had established employment and increased their incomes. Unfortunately, the Depression cut short those ambitions and the transitional structures became the permanent housing that still defines Brightmoor. Mid-Late Twentieth Century By the 1960s, many of Detroit's factory jobs had already begun to move to the suburbs. As federal housing programs were building Detroit's western suburbs, offering affordable housing,

II. HISTORY OF THE BRIGHTMOOR COMMUNITY What is now the Brightmoor community was part of Redford Township from the 1830s through the mid-1920s.3 It is a four-square mile area bordered by Puritan on the north, Fullerton on the south, Telegraph on the west, and Evergreen and Westwood on the east. Developer Burt Eddy Taylor built Brightmoor in the 1920s, in an area that was mostly rural farmland, with the first house completed in 1923. He started with the purchase of 160 acres of land, one mile from the Detroit city limit, adding another 2913 acres from 19231924. Taylor's development was meant to house workers who relocated to Detroit to work in the auto industry. The families were whites who were recruited from Kentucky, West Virginia and Tennessee, as well as Michigan's Upper Penninsulla, enticed to migrate to Detroit by advertising flyers. The workers came north to work in the Ford Highland Park and Rouge plants, as well as parts supply factories throughout Detroit. By 1920, Detroit was the fastest growing U.S. city. Due to the growing auto industry, between 1910 and 1920, the population swelled from about a half million residents to nearly a million. Brightmoor became part of the city in 1925.

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Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development, Inc. "Detroit's Brightmoor Community." Based on research conducted by Mathew Daley, PhD, Assistant Professor of History at Grand Valley State University in Allendale, Mich.

discriminatory housing policies opened these neighborhoods primarily to white families. As working class white families from the Brightmoor and other Detroit neighborhoods moved into these new developments, African American residents of Detroit--earlier confined to the central city--began to move into northwest neighborhoods. As employment opportunities within the city moved increasingly to suburban areas, housing values dropped and the poorly built homes of Brightmoor were purchased cheaply by landlords who rented to the predominantly lowerincome residents. Although the problems in Brightmoor are acute, they reflect larger issues that the city has faced for decades. Detroit has lost 100,000 residents just since 1990, with an erosion of the middleclass tax base, increased unemployment, cuts in state and federal funding, and decreased revenues overall.4 Dilapidated housing in once stable neighborhoods is exacerbated by limited City services. The City services a 139 square mile area--the same as in the 1950s--but has half the population. Owners began abandoning the housing from the 1980s onward (Figure 2). In 1980, Brightmoor's population was 31,288 living in 12,016 households. By 2000, the population had fallen to just under 24,000 in 9,228 households. By the end of the 20th century, the community continued to feel the impact of drug-related crime, escalating poverty, and vast swaths of vacant land. The number of households is now approximately 7700 and median home

values are around $55,000 compared with about $63,600 for Detroit.

Figure 2. Example of vacant, abandoned housing in Brightmoor

However, as the following sections show, Brightmoor has a wide range of community assets, such as major parks, historic schools, and cared-for neighborhoods (Figure 3), described in more detail in the following pages. In addition, it is getting focused attention from the city and from private foundations through new initiatives described below.

Figure 3. Corner of Lamphere and Puritan, showing a block of well-kept, intact housing.

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From presentation by Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick's on the NEXT Detroit Initiative.

7 NEXT Detroit Neighborhoods Initiative The Brightmoor community is one of six Detroit neighborhoods targeted in the Mayor's new Next Detroit Neighborhoods Initiative. The Mayor's strategy is a five-year effort to rejuvenate targeted neighborhoods, concentrating on improving basic quality of life issues such as cleanliness, safety and beautification through growth and development strategies. Three approaches are planned in the six neighborhoods--Reinforce, Revitalize, and Redevelop. The Reinforce strategy is meant to strengthen neighborhoods that possess a stable tax base, moderate recreational activities, and a high percentage of home ownership. The Revitalize strategy will infuse a combination of resources to reverse negative social and economic trends that are impacting an otherwise stable neighborhood. The Redevelop strategy will completely overhaul an area where disinvestment and abandoned structures exist, creating an entirely new land-use strategy for the neighborhood. Two neighborhoods were chosen within each category for a first round of activity. Brightmoor was chosen as a Redevelop neighborhood, the most far-reaching of the three categories. Brightmoor's `Impact Area' for the NEXT Detroit Initiative is bounded by Schoolcraft, Evergreen, Grand River, and Telegraph. City planners' observations for Brightmoor found areas were a mix of poor housing stock, large tracks of vacant land, and abandoned properties-- all straining city services and affecting residents quality of life. Opportunities for new commercial or green space projects were identified. Redevelop plans include assembling large blocks of land for alternative uses, including parks and greenspaces, as well as relocation and/or consolidation of existing residents. The latter idea has raised some serious concerns in the neighborhood. Good Neighborhoods Initiative A million dollars are being spent by the Skillman Foundation for youth projects and services in Detroit. The Foundation is targeting six neighborhoods, including Brightmoor. It is making radical changes in the way it does funding, motivated by the fact that within the six neighborhoods, 65,000 children live in poverty (30% of Detroit's children). The Good Neighborhoods Initiative has a chief objective to transform neighborhoods by giving more support to children in non-school hours. At a foundation-sponsored goal-setting meeting in Brightmoor 350 people attended. Participants created a community goal, which will be. implemented through small learning grants and program grants. The goal of Brightmoor's Good Neighborhood Initiative: "All Brightmoor youth will have access to, and participate in, a range of year-round programs during the non-school hours that encourage academic growth and positive social development." Collaboration between organizations is stressed. The foundation is funding a family resource center at one school, and a second one was launched at a

neighboring school in spring 2007. These centers will address children's needs, but also adult literacy, parenting and other issues.

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III. NEIGHBORHOOD ANALYSIS AND LANDSCAPE CHARACTER For a greenway project, or any other neighborhood enhancement effort, it is vitally important to understand the place-- including the human population, community assets, and landscape character. This section summarizes those factors, focusing on the larger Northwest HEP study area, where the social and economic trends are more diverse, and then more specifically on the Brightmoor community within it. Demographic Factors Population. Between 1990 and 2000 the overall population in the HEP study area declined by 27%. Population numbers, by census tract, for the HEP area are shown in Figure 5. 5 About 25,500 people live in Brightmoor. For greenway development, it is interesting that the census tracts around Lyndon Avenue, within the extended HEP boundary, are some of the most populous. Income. In 2000, the median household income in the HEP study area was $33,628. As of the 2000 Census, 32% of residents were living below the poverty level and 76% of those below the poverty level are female heads of household. As shown in Figure 7, some of the least affluent census blocks surround Lyndon Avenue, where the proposed greenway is routed.

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The poverty rate for the Brightmoor neighborhood is over three times that of the state as a whole. Children living in poverty make up 40.4% of the population compared to 13.9% city wide. For some segments of Brightmoor, the rate of childhood poverty is nearly 60%.6 The current unemployment rate is 16.2%. Housing. The distribution, character, and density of housing can impact the design and use of a neighborhood greenway. The housing in the HEP study area is diverse, with several neighborhoods of wellmaintained owner-occupied homes that provide a strong community base. Other neighborhoods have mixes of owner-occupied and rental properties, where the need for well-designed outdoor public space may be even more important. Rentals make up about half of Brightmoor's housing, although the distribution of rental units and owneroccupied homes is uneven. Brightmoor tends to be a mobile community, with 57.8% of respondents reporting that they have moved into their residence less than five years prior to a recent survey. Furthermore, in some areas of Brightmoor, one of every six houses is vacant.

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The Extended HEP Boundary was added to the original HEP study area in order to investigate, and make recommendations for, the area around the proposed Lyndon Greenway.

T'Chana Bradford, Sam Butler, Geoffrey Dancik, Kate Davidoff, Amanda Goski, Nate Gray, Ben Kraft, Matt Orenchuk, and Qingyun Shen, 2007. "Towards a Brighter Future: A Plan for Southeast Brightmoor." Urban and Regional Planning Program, Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning.

Figure 6. Smith Homes at Evergreen in southeastern Brightmoor. Figure 4. A senior citizens' housing complex, located in the northern part of the HEP study area.

In contrast, some Brightmoor housing is fairly dense and fully occupied (Figures 4 and 6). Smith Homes, a public housing complex, was built in the 1942 in the southeast part of Brightmoor between Evergreen and Stout Street.

Figure 5. Total population by census block group.

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Figure 7. Median household income in the extended Northwest HEP study area.

Figure 8. Percent of population 65 and older by census block group.

Figure 9. Percent population age 5-17 by census block group.

Age. Greenways are particularly useful for enabling a neighborhood's young and elderly residents to be outdoors and to participate in the community. The northern part of the HEP study area has relatively higher percentages of residents over the age of 65 (Figure 8). However, Brightmoor is a young community, with 37.2% of the population under 18 years of age in the 2000 Census. (The national average for that age group is 25.6%). Ten percent of the population is under the age of 4, while only 6% of the residents are aged 65 or older (Figure 8). Furthermore, in the area surrounding Lyndon Avenue, the greenway's spine, the population is particularly young (see Figure 9). This creates a wonderful potential for

engaging youth in greenway development and use.

13 Community Assets A wide range of factors contribute to a community's sense of cohesion, health, and vibrancy. The National Association of County and City Health Officials define community assets as "contributions made by individuals, citizen associations, and local institutions that individually and/or collectively build the community's capacity to assure the health, well-being, and quality of life for the community and all its members."7 By that standard, Northwest Detroit, and the Brightmoor community within it, has many community assets to draw from. In some cases, community assets are tangible places--institutions or other public places that comprise important destinations for traveling through one's neighborhood and for receiving needed services. They are the hubs that greenways should connect to. For instance, schools and churches are community hubs that link people together and help form a sense of community. In other cases, community assets are less visible; they are not destinations in themselves, but are important and influential in the community. For instance, the business organizations and community development corporations are vital to Detroit's neighborhood revitalization. These organizations create the social capital for neighborhood change. They are often responsible for the many events that enliven a neighborhood and foster sense of place. This study identified several main categories of community assets: educational resources (schools and libraries); churches; parks and recreation centers (including public gardens and open space); community and business organizations; arts and cultural destinations; and commercial hubs. These assets were documented by conducting site visits, interviewing staff of key organizations, and referencing existing maps. Several of the community assets were mapped using a geographic information system (GIS). The following maps depict the entire Northwest HEP study area, including the Brightmoor community. Educational Resources Schools are neighborhood anchors. They are critical elements to a walkable neighborhood--as destinations and as programming opportunities. Furthermore, schools often include important greenspaces that can connect to more linear greenways along streets. Schools provide extensive grounds where a variety of outdoor programs can take shape. And students are logical participants for the types of activities and programs that can occur on greenway routes. The HEP Northwest study area includes 18 educational institutions (Figure 10), including preschools, public schools (elementary, middle schools and high schools), head start centers, charter schools, private schools, and higher educational institutions. Eight of the educational institutions are public schools. Three of them are very near the proposed Lyndon Greenway in Brightmoor Warren G. Harding Elementary on

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National Association of City and County Health Officials

Figure 10. Educational resources in the Northwest HEP study area.

Lyndon (Figure 11), Frank Murphy Elementary School on Fenkell and Peter Vetal Elementary School on Westwood. The region's only city library is farther north on Grand River. Appendix B includes a full list of educational resources located in the Northwest area.

Figure 11. Harding Elementary School at Burt and Lyndon.

The threat of school closure is a major focus for Northwest Detroit. At the time this report was written the City has lost 53,000 students over the past decade and is considering the closure of 52 school buildings. Some of these, including Brightmoor, are in the very neighborhoods targeted by the City's NEXT Detroit Neighborhood Initiative. Hubert Elementary School in Brightmoor has already been closed. Redford High School was closed in spring 2007, even though the area has one of the city's densest areas of new housing. These new homes were built to attract families, but school closures could threaten that goal since families will want to locate near thriving schools. Furthermore, if a school remains standing but vacant, it becomes a magnet for crime and blight.

15 Social and Health Service Organizations Appendix D lists social service organizations and Appendix C outlines the hospitals and clinics in the Northwest HEP study area. For instance, AIMHI (African American Initiative for Male Health Improvement) is a health research site, focusing particularly on mens' health. A main health provider is Thea Bowman Health Clinic, which provides care to uninsured residents. Detroit Hope (Figure 12) offers youth programs through a local church. theatre in the 1990s. It served as a church building to several congregations after that and was finally left vacant to decay. Fenkell offers a range of commercial enterprises and community services, from Brightmoor Coney Island to Checker Drugs. The street is also important for its community services. A new post office was built on the south side of Fenkell in 1999. Other assets on this corridor are Thea Bowman Community Health Center, Brightmoor Medical Center, and the Village of Shiny Stars Childcare Center. However, many vacant storefronts line Fenkell. Schoolcraft and Outer Drive are other main commercial arterials.

Figure 12. Detroit Hope on Lahser south of Six Mile Rd (W. Mc Nichols).

Shopping/Commercial Areas Unfortunately, there are no grocery stores in the Brightmoor community. Residents must buy food at gas stations or convenience stores in order to acquire food nearby. Fenkell is the main commercial strip. A number of historic buildings are located along Fenkell, some in use and others abandoned (Figures 13 and 14). For instance, the Irving Theatre is an historic structure, (burned and subsequently razed in summer 2007) once a neighborhood theater seating over 1000 when it opened in 1927. After decades as a first-run theater, it switched to adult fare in the 1970s and then closed as a

Figure13. An historic structure at the corner of Burt and Fenkell in Brightmoor. The Guardian Bank Building, built in 1929.

Figure 14. Historic structure at Fenkell and Burt in Brightmoor.

The streetscape of Fenkell is fairly pedestrian friendly. (Figure 15), although the numerous liquor stores and boarded-up store fronts make a mixed experience.

anchors for the Brightmoor neighborhood. Brightmoor Community Center (Figure 16) began as a settlement house in 1922, providing health services to the community as it grew throughout the 1920s and 1930s. The current Center was built in 1958 and updated in 1972 and 1995. The Center serves lowincome residents, including youth, and elderly.

Figure 15. Streetscape at Dolphin and Fenkell in Brightmoor.

Figure 16. Brightmoor Community Center at Burt and Lyndon.

Arts and Cultural Destinations Arts and cultural destinations present valuable opportunities to enrich a neighborhood, connect its residents, and create hubs of activity. Like schools, they can be focal points where walking routes come together and where innovative greenway programming can coalesce. Arts institutions are potential partners in programming for greenway use. Most of the arts and cultural destinations in the Northwest HEP study area are found in the northern section (Appendix D). The Brightmoor Community Center is one of the important community

Places of Worship Churches, like schools, are primary anchors for communities. There are over 100 places of worship in the Northwest HEP study area (see Figure 21 and Appendix A). Some are grand and some are modest. About twenty churches are located within Brightmoor, primarily along Fenkell (Figure 17).

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Figure 19. Citadel of Praise Church on Lyndon.

Figure 17. Leland church at Lamphere and Fenkell.

One of the newer (opened 2006) community anchors for Brightmoor and the Lyndon Greenway is Citadel of Praise Church, with its sweeping lawn, landscaped grounds and well-kept buildings (Figures 18 and 19). The Church's lawn is used for community events and picnics. The Citadel of Praise campus includes four institutional buildings on five acres of land, including a 700-seat church, administration building, elementary school, and former convalescent home.

Parks and Greenspaces The park resources in the NW HEP study area are remarkable and diverse. There are 26 parks and other greenspaces within the entire study area, including the Rogel Golf Course, Rouge River Parkway, Eliza Howell Park, and Stoepel Park (Figure 23). Recreation Centers are also listed in Appendix E, although none are near the Lyndon Greenway. Crowell however, is located on Lahser, just south of Six Mile ­ and across from Detroit Hope. Brightmoor is blessed with outstanding parkland--resources that can truly become community assets when they are maintained and crime-free. The bookends of the Lyndon Greenway are Stoepel Park and Eliza Howell Parks. (A second Stoepel Park exists just south of W. Chicago and just W. of the Southfield Freeway on the cities west side. In this document, we refer to the Stoepel Park on the cities' northwest side, in the Brighmoor Area). This Stoepel Park (Figures 20 and 22) was one of the first neighborhood parks established on Detroit's northwest side

Figure 18. The lawn of Citadel of Praise Church on Lyndon, an important green space for Brightmoor.

Eliza Howell Park, with its large size and location on the Rouge River, has wonderful potential. Detroit accepted land in 1936 from Charles Howell for what is now the 160-acre Eliza Howell Park on the Rouge River. The park was developed after World War II. Recently, however, the park has experienced challenges related neglect, crime and misuse that contribute to residents concerns about safety. It includes little league baseball diamonds, tennis courts, football field for a youth league, and picnic areas. .

Figure 20. Stoepel Park in northwest Detroit has tennis courts, play structures, and other park amenities.

Figure 21. Places of worship in the Northwest HEP study area.

19 Burgess, James Hope Playfield, Rockdale-Kendale and Optimist-Stout. Other non-park greenspaces are also important. For instance, Hubert School (now closed) has a beautiful park campus. Community Development and Business Organizations Appendix D lists several business and community development organizations that are active within the HEP study area. Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development is one of the primary community development organizations, addressing changes to the built environment, particularly through housing construction and some renovation of existing housing units.

Figure 22. Stoepel Park's vehicular entrance is a bit remote and awkwardly placed.

In addition to the `bookends' several other parks could be part of a greenway system in Brightmoor--Outer Drive-

Figure 23. Parks and greenspaces in the Northwest HEP study area.

Events Brightmoor Week sponsored by the 45member organization Brightmoor Alliance, has been held on the third Saturday of May for the past six years. All of the local schools participate in Brightmoor Week, which includes a Unity in the Community parade styled after Detroit's larger Focus Hope Walk. Pastors of a dozen or so churches lead neighborhood walk-throughs. Which has been a community tradition for many years; it features a popular "battle of the bands" with local high schools. Another part of the program is an honors ceremony, always held at a school, where principals, businesses, and other community leaders are recognized. The University of Michigan's Detroit Project (DP) has also sponsored revitalization events in Brightmoor over a number of years through its DP Day. DPers work in Brighmoor throughout the school year in mentoring and tutoring project at the schools, churches and other organizations. Volunteers clear vacant lots of trash, remove collapsing buildings, plant trees, and paint murals. Nearly 1000 volunteers, a mix of UM students and Detroit residents, participated in the 2007 DP Day.

Transportation Public transportation is essential in Northwest Detroit, particularly since many families do not own an automobile. In fact, about one-third of Brightmoor residents do not own a car. This is a major issue in a city with limited public transportation. Brightmoor is not centrally located; walking to places of employment, to grocery stores, or to community services is difficult over long distances. Bus transportation is particularly important in those areas with high concentrations of elderly people and children. However, in 2000 Detroit was rated last in reliable public transportation among the largest cities in the U.S. Figure 24 illustrates the bus lines that are in operation across the Northwest HEP study area. Most of the main arterials are serviced by buses, including a portion of Lyndon, Grand River, Lahser, Evergreen, 7 Mile, and Fenkell. Telegraph is not used as a bus route. A greenway route will logically connect to stops along these routes so that residents who walk or bike can take advantage of public transportation over longer distances.

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Figure 24. City of Detroit bus lines in the Northwest HEP study area.

Landscape Character The assessment of landscape character focused primarily on the Brightmoor neighborhood and the Lyndon greenway spine, rather than the larger Northwest HEP study area. Despite its challenges, the Brightmoor community, at its core, is an attractive, almost pastoral, area. In some places, it has rolling topography and a gentle `hills and hollows' feel. There are many mature trees, and relatively good streets with curbs, gutters and sidewalks in most places (Figure 25). Some streets are in far worse shape than others, although a paving campaign is currently (fall 2007) underway ­ which includes streets as well

as sidewalks and curb cuts. Repairs have been made to the sidewalks over the past two years and they are in generally good condition. Lyndon is a lovely street. There is a uniform tree lawn separating the sidewalk from the street and many street trees. (Tree lawns are the green space, often with street trees, that separate the street from the sidewalk. The tree lawn is typically part of the city-owned right-ofway). The street has a very comfortable pedestrian scale and is an ideal greenway street due to its low volume of traffic. But it is rare to see a person walking along the street.

A visitor is struck by the excellent roadway, beautiful street trees, and generally intact infrastructure (Figure 27). However, those positive features are modified by several issues related to the economic situation in Brightmoor. Vacant housing--some burned out and others boarded up--as well as illegal garbage dumping lower the quality of the environment.

Figure 26. Rosedale Park neighborhood Brightmoor.

Figure 25. A site at Burt and Fenkell, depicting good sidewalks, street trees, and a narrow tree lawn.

Some parts of Brightmoor are in better shape than others. Rosedale Park for instance, an established upper class onclave, borders in southeast Brightmoor, has large; over whelmingly owneroccupied homes in good condition (Figure 26). The few vacant lots are often used by landowners as side yards. Steopel Park forms this area's northern boundary.

Figure 27. Photo montage showing Lyndon at Rockdale (top) and Lyndon at Lamphere (middle and bottom).

Illegal dumping is one of the most important challenges in Brightmoor (Figure 28). Dumped garbage ranges from small bags of household waste and

23 household garbage to entire houses and lots filled with yard waste, construction debris, animal waste, and vehicles. In places, it spills over into the street. This has led to soil contamination, health concerns, and other issues. Residents complain that there is no action on the part of the City to deter dumping on vacant lands. They have mobilized in an effort to increase the City's enforcement of regulations preventing illegal dumping.

Figure 28. Illegal dumping on a vacant lot in the Brightmoor neighborhood.

IV. LYNDON GREENWAY

The Lyndon Greenway is a neighborhood project to transform a 1.5 mile residential street, running east-west through the middle of Brightmoor, into a greenway. Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development (NDND) is one of several organizations that has created and maintained the greenway vision. NDND's work developing new and remodeled affordable housing in the neighborhood is directly relevant to greenway development. Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development and Brightmoor Alliance Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development (NDND) is a nonprofit community development organization dedicated to the revitalization of Detroit's Brightmoor community. It is particularly concerned with stable neighborhood housing. NDND has built more than 200 new owneroccupied and lease-to-own homes in the Brightmoor community since 1996 (Figure 29). It has renovated a few dozen more. In 2005, NDND completed Brightmoor Homes IV, its third 50-unit, low income tax credit, lease-to-own project. NDND plans to build over 100 homes and renovate 10 others over the next two years. The Brightmoor Alliance, to which NDND belongs, is also instrumental in greenway design and development. The 45 member organization include churches, community centers, block clubs, local businesses, and health centers. One subset of the Brightmoor Alliance is the Brightmoor Pastors' Alliance.

Figure 29. NDND-built housing at Lamphere and Lyndon.

The Alliance was established in response to the neighborhood's high crime rate, poor housing, and declining population. A 2000 memorandum of understanding unites member organizations. Primary focus issues are schools, employment, human services, shopping, and recreation. The Alliance created a Brightmoor Community Revitalization Plan in 2001-02, that has been partially implemented. The new housing ­ and the greenway (greenspace) is part of this original plan.

Greenway Vision for Lyndon Avenue The proposed Lyndon greenway would connect two of Detroit's large, wooded city parks--Eliza Howell Park and Stoepel Park--as greenway bookends. "A key element of the community's revitalization efforts, this tree-shaded `green corridor' will provide a setting for an inviting array of new recreational, educational, and social opportunities for residents."8 Community landmarks along the proposed greenway route include: Smith

8

Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development. "What is the Lyndon Greenway?"

Homes, Citadel of Praise, the 85 year-old Warren G. Harding Elementary School, and the Brightmoor Community Center.

"A key premise of the Lyndon Greenway is that it will signal a sea change for Brightmoor. An attractive, safe and walkable area right through the middle of the community will be evidence of Brightmoor's continuing revitalization, and the critical `nextlevel' step in transforming Brightmoor into a mixed-income neighborhood of choice. As with countless other greenways nationwide, the Lyndon Greenway will be an exciting catalyst for development on the residential streets and commercial areas nearby."

Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development

These visioning sessions were bolstered in 2001 when 200 Littleleaf Lindens (Tilia Cordata) were planted on Lyndon Street by hundreds of Greening of Detroit and Detroit volunteers and community residents as part of the cities tricentennial clebration. In September 2001, NDND was awarded a $37,930 predevelopment grant for the Lyndon Greenway project from the GreenWays Initiative. The funds were used to create a schematic design for the greenway, implement activities to involve the local community, confirm land ownership and title issues, and determine permit requirements. A subsequent $196,748 grant from the GreenWays Initiative, awarded in September 2004, was given for implementation of the greenway. The JJR firm in Ann Arbor developed a vision plan for the greenway, including three pocket parks, greenway trail signs, pocket park signs, and trail head exhibits at each terminus. The first phase of the project will include a network of landscaped vest-pocket parks with distinctive landscape and signage. JJR's design work has focused on landscape design that is resilient and not easily destroyed or defaced. The tree-lined street is one important backbone for an urban greenway, as are the cultural nodes along it. One outcome of the population loss in this area is the large amount of open, vacant land where houses once stood. This land presents both a challenge and an opportunity where strategically located empty lots can be incorporated into the greenway as additional green space. A series of pocket parks are being created on formerly vacant parcels, particularly on corner lots. They will serve

Without this catalytic effect, it can seem that the Lyndon Greenway is irrelevant. One is tempted to dismiss the greenway as a `nice' amenity for which time and money is better spent on more pressing neighborhood problems. But the greenway vision is one that is only partly about physical changes to the built environment. It is about demonstrating the power of grassroots action and reclaiming a sense of community while improving the tangible landscape. There are some positive signs. In 2004, several community meetings were held to discuss the Lyndon Greenway. A core group of people is involved and promoting it.

as oases with natural plantings, exhibits, gardens and public art. "The green space will provide a setting for new recreation options. It is anticipated that the pocket parks will be designed and maintained through a community-based `adopt-a-parks' program formed through community partners."9 Figure 30 shows the vision plan prepared for NDND by JJR, LLC firm in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It includes signage along the 1.5 mile route, several vest pocket parks at current vacant lots, and trail head amenities at Stoepel Park No.1 and Eliza Howell Park. Three pocket parks are the focus for early work--one across the street from Harding Elementary School adjacent to Brightmoor Community Center, one at Lyndon and Patton; and one at Lyndon and Blackstone Figures 31-34 depict the other design work, including a mock-up of signage and a plant palette for the butterfly garden. Figure 31 shows the butterfly garden envisioned for the corner of Lyndon and Burt adjacent to the Brightmoor Community Center. This design for the garden at Patton (Figure 33) includes garden planters for community gardening, fruit trees, and a garden plaza.

9

"What is the Lyndon Greenway Project? Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development.

28

Figure 30. JJR design for the Lyndon Greenway, completed in 2006. Source: JJR

Figure 31. Butterfly garden designed for a pocket park at Lyndon and Burt. Source: JJR

30

Figure 32. Plants seleted for the butterfly garden at Burt and Lyndon. Source: JJR.

Figure 33. Community garden design for the corner of Lyndon and Patton. Source: JJR.

32 The trailheads that bookend the Greenway will be landscaped; benches, bike racks, lighting, and trash receptacles will be installed. A series of exhibit panels will be created along the greenway, in the pocket parks, and at trailheads. At Eliza Howell, the focus will be on the ecology of the area, including the river environment. Brightmoor Community's history will be the focus at Stoepel Park. Trailhead design was underway as this report was written, in response to a federally-funded sewer overflow project starting along the Rouge River. Construction for that project will not start in Eliza Howell until 2010, but revisions in the greenway plan will entail adjusting the trail head location. NDND successfully negotiated with the City of Detroit Parks and Recreation Department, seeking permission to build the trail heads at both parks. For the rest of the project, construction documents have been completed and building could start in fall 2007. At the writing of this report, bids had not yet gone out. Although the street is not wide enough for a bike lane without removing onstreet parking, the parking lanes will not be removed for the greenway project for several reasons. First, the street has minimal traffic, so a bike lane is not so necessary. Second, it would take a quorum of homeowners to agree to abolish on-street parking and third, onstreet parking is generally a good buffer between pedestrians and the street.

Figure 34. Proposed signage for the Lyndon Greenway. Source: JJR.

V. THE STREET AS GREENWAY

physical structure, but less appealing for the social landscape it traverses. For more long-term impact, it would be useful to connect other community assets into a greenway network, with Lyndon as its spine. Hubs, Sites, and Links A useful way to understand a landscape from a connectivity standpoint is shown in Figure 35. Although depicted in a more rural context in this illustration, this simple scheme places open landscapes in relationship to each other and to people, based on a system of hubs, sites, and links at a regional scale. This way of viewing open space has profound implications for how the landscape is studied, planned and developed. It can be applied at a range of scales, can address a gradient of naturalness, and can incorporate varied land-use contexts. To apply this model to Brightmoor, Eliza Howell Park would be a hub. Sites are smaller, but plentiful. They include Warren Harding Elementary School, Brightmoor Community Center, and Stoepel Park. Existing links include the Fenkell commercial corridor and the Rouge River. The goal is to create additional links to physically connect the hubs and sites identified in the inventory of community assets. In an urban context, streets provide the framework for those links.

Greenways are linear open spaces along natural or human-made features such as rivers, ridgelines, railroads, canals or roads. They are planned, designed and managed to connect and protect ecological, scenic, recreational, and cultural resources. They usually contain trails and a significant natural, or `green,' component--river corridor, forested land, or other environmental feature. The focus is often on the natural resource and making places for people to travel through it, learns from it, and help protect it. In Northwest Detroit, the focus of a greenway effort is very different. It is focused primarily on people ­ connecting neighbors, providing healthy places and habits, and celebrating the rich human history of the city. This distinction is subtle, but powerful. We need to approach greenways in urban neighborhoods, particularly when those neighborhoods are blighted, in a very different way than a greenway along the Kalamazoo River, for instance. The focus is on streets and the social institutions they connect-- neighborhoods, churches, and schools. This is precisely what the Lyndon Greenway sets out to do. The hope is that Brightmoor's Lyndon Greenway, following Lyndon Road between Eliza Howell and Stoepel Park, can spark important neighborhood renewal in Northwest Detroit. Its design is currently simple--a straight corridor that is already pedestrian friendly in its

34 community once completed. They connect local community amenities such as parks, schools, libraries, community centers, or shopping streets. They are also meant to highlight places of special meaning, such as a group of historic houses, an interesting street, or a corner store. Greenways become a new way of thinking about, and changing, urban streets. Northwest Detroit would be an excellent place to test these principles.

Figure 35. Scheme of hubs, sites and links for a greenway network.

Complete the Streets Some cities have defined urban street revitalization projects as greenways in urban contexts. For example, Vancouver's greenway system is almost entirely focused on city streets.10 Vancouver's two-tiered system starts with a network of City Greenways, fourteen corridors totaling about 87 miles. About 50% of this system will use street rights-of-way. When done, a city greenway will be no more than a 25minute walk or 10-minute bike ride from every residence. City greenways are distinct from bikeways, of which Vancouver has an extensive network, although objectives sometimes overlap. The second tier in Vancouver's system, Neighborhood Greenways, creates smaller-scale connections with ideas initiated by local residents. These projects are smaller in scope, with shorter routes that are maintained by the

Donna Erickson, MetroGreen: Connecting Open Space in North American Cities. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2006.

10

In many cities, a Complete the Streets strategy is taking shape, complementing greenway initiatives. Complete the Streets initiatives show how streets can accommodate far more constituencies than only car-drivers. "Complete Streets are designed to enable safe access for all users. Pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists, and bus drivers of all ages and abilities are able to safely move along and across a complete street."11 Although there is no perfect prescription, a number of physical amenities are emphasized: sidewalks, bike lanes, and wide shoulders, plenty of crosswalks, refuge medians in large streets, bus pullouts, and sidewalk bulb-outs. Some of these align with elements that residents are asking for. Northwest Residents Voice Desires for the Built Environment For Northwest Detroit, and many other areas of the city, a Complete the Streets focus may be effective--not replacing, but supplementing, the greenways vision. These assets would be compatible with the expressed desires of Northwest neighborhood residents.

Complete the Streets. www.completestreets.org

11

In January 2006 the Healthy Environments Partnership--Lean and Green in Motown project conducted two focus groups in the Northwest HEP study area. Participants discussed the places that are used for physical activities in their neighborhood and their thoughts on a new paved trail or pathway. Northwest residents reported walking down Fenkell, gardening in their own yards, and riding bikes in River Rouge Park, but otherwise avoid walking or jogging in public spaces. The problems that seem to deter them include stray dogs, a dirty environment, drug activity, insufficient lighting, dead ends, speeding cars, and concerns about overall personal safety. These residents highlighted a set of factors that would make it easier or more pleasant to walk and do other outdoor activities. The following list shows the factors that relate to changes in the built environment. · · · · · · · · More trails all over the neighborhood Better lighting Cleaner parks Signage Complete sidewalks Flowers, mowed grass. Low plantings for more safety. Benches Water fountains

than the inherent qualities of the streets and sidewalks themselves. The residents had even more good ideas about programming for greenway use; these are shown in the following chapter. Elements of Pedestrian-Friendly Neighborhoods Observations of neighborhood streets and discussions with residents suggest limited reliance on walking and biking to move around the Brightmoor community. Concerns about safety, condition of travel corridors, aesthetics and distance to destinations all contribute to reduced reliance on pedestrian and bicycle travel in the community. Safety in Numbers Concerns about safety are articulated by residents of many Detroit neighborhoods, including those in Northwest Detroit. Worry about criminal activity keeps people off the sidewalks, which in turn make sparselyused sidewalks even more risky. Safety is not automatically assured by the presence of many residents out on the sidewalks, but it makes for a far more secure and stable environment. A second aspect of personal safety has to do with automobile traffic--both the volume and speed at which traffic moves cause concerns for pedestrians. Traffic calming has been proven to slow traffic and create more pedestrian-friendly experience. "Traffic calming is based on the fact that the way a street is designed tells drivers what to do. Wide, straight and flat expanses of asphalt say to drivers, "It's ok to go fast." When driving lanes and streets are narrow, or

It is interesting to note that residents did not see great changes needed in the basic physical structure of their neighborhood. The issues of safety and trash have more to do with law enforcement and not with the basic structure of the street. Empty, trash-strewn lots and abandoned homes deter pedestrian use of the street more

36 when the areas where people on foot cross the street are raised; or when streets are made curvy by adding trees, lights, and benches, drivers get the message, "slow down! This is a shared space."12 The presence of people out on the sidewalks has also been shown to reduce traffic speeds. Motorists slow down in response to intrigue and uncertainty.13 The presence of children on the sidewalks, for instance, increases both. As walking increases, the chance that a given walker will be struck by a driver actually decreases. As drivers become more used to seeing people walking on the sidewalks, they become more attentive. Going Somewhere When people are walking for exercise, or just to get outdoors, a destination is not always needed. A loop around a block or several blocks suffices. But many people would walk more if there was somewhere to go. With a destination, people can reap the benefits of physical exercise while also accomplishing an errand or visiting a neighborhood gathering place (Figure 36). That destination can be as simple as a grocery store or library. In some cases--the grocery store is a good example--the destination is lacking for the Brightmoor area. In other cases, the destination exists--public school or park--but there is no easy, attractive way to walk there.

Figure 36. Various businesses and institutions on Fenkell provide destinations for walking routes.

Connectivity is key. In many cases, the connections are more important than having the perfect continuous park setting. Looped routes are more inviting than out-and-back routes that lack as much visual interest. Loops give people far more choice and provide a more engaging setting for people walking for exercise. Path of Least Resistance Streets that will be used by people, not just by cars, need to be deliberately designed to accommodate the needs of pedestrians, bikes, wheelchairs, and other non-motorized transit. The Brightmoor neighborhood adjacent to the Lyndon Greenway has many streets with infrastructure that is adequate for walking. Wide tree lawns (green space, often with trees that

Transportation Alternatives. "Streets for people: Your Guide to Winning Safer and Quieter Streets." www.transalt.org 13 www.lesstraffic.com

12

separate the streets from the sidewalks) buffer pedestrians from traffic along some streets, including Lyndon itself. These are usually owned by the City as part of its street right-of-way. In other areas, some aspects of existing streets fail the `Complete Streets' test. For example, in some areas sidewalks are in poor condition or are missing entirely, making pedestrian travel challenging where risks of falls increase (Figure 37). In other areas tree lawns are lacking, or are not maintained adequately. Crosswalks and other pedestrian safety features are present in some places, but absent or in disrepair in others, again contributing to safety hazards for walkers or bikers. Finally, benches and water fountains, providing areas for rest and refreshment, particularly important for older walkers, those walking with young children, or those walking in the warm summer months, are absent.

Visual Interest It is difficult to talk about pleasant views encouraging residents to walk outdoors when they fear criminals, tripping on trash or glass, or crossing dangerous streets. But lack of beauty probably keeps people from taking to the streets just as much as fear. People turn away from a landscape of graffiti-covered houses, piles of garbage, and empty lots. At the pedestrian scale, a small amount of aesthetic upgrade can make a huge difference. This is the scale where individual street trees change the entire experience, or where a tree lawn separating the street from the sidewalk makes walking seem safe. There is growing evidence that trees not only clean the air but that they are effective traffic-calming devises. Trees and street amenities signal drivers to slow down; the result is fewer accidents involving pedestrians. Complete the Brightmoor Neighborhood Streets The focus should be on three types of improvements for the pedestrian experience in Brightmoor: aesthetics, safety, and function. The three areas are, of course, interrelated. Some additions, like street trees, good walkable surfaces, and signs will result in improvements in all three categories. These multiobjective amenities should be the first to be implemented. Subsequent stages can incorporate benches, flowers, grass, art, and other amenities. Aesthetic Improvements One desire among residents of Northwest Detroit is for a more attractive urban environment. People

Figure 37. Site at Lamphere and Fenkell, where a mixed pedestrian experience is found. In the first block, there are no street trees, tree lawn is absent on the right and narrow on the left. The second block illustrates a more ideal situation, where street trees and a wide tree lawn clearly create a more pleasant pedestrian context.

38 will respond to a cleaner and more beautiful streetscape. Make these improvements look deliberate and appealing (Figure 38).

Figure 39. Mural at Lamphere and Fenkell.

Plantings are the other obvious effort toward beautification. Street trees provide many urban services: they are the main key to improving the pedestrian experience (Figure 40). Tree lawns that separate pedestrians from traffic should be a primary focus as streets, sidewalks, and/or curbs are renovated. Garden planters, flower beds and other vegetative improvements are a later stage in the streetscape evolution.

Figure 38. Modest streetscape beautification at Dolphin and Fenkell.

One important strategy is to incorporate art. The existing murals are already a recognized and appreciated part of Detroit's heritage (Figure 39). Build on it. Murals are a fascinating phenomenon in the public realm, as they are very seldom vandalized by graffiti and other damage.

For all planting schemes along the greenway, adaptability to the urban environment should be a key selection criterion. Plants that provide shade, flowers, fall color should be prioritized, and those that attract birds.

Figure 40. Model street beautification on existing successful neighborhood spaces such as this site in Rosedale Park near Outer Drive. On-street parking, street trees, tree lawns, and good sidewalks attract walkers.

Safety Improvements Northwest residents report that speeding traffic in residential neighborhoods is a problem. In addition, the more heavily traveled streets, like Fenkell and Outer Drive, can be dangerous. Traffic calming techniques have been proven to slow traffic and lower pedestrian injuries and fatalities. The list of traffic calming options is long and each street will have a subset that is appropriate and feasible. A partial list of traffic calming devises is shown below.14 Some of these may be particularly effective to protect children walking to and from school in the Brightmoor community. Diagonal parking: The narrowed street encourages drivers to slow down. Adds up to 40% more parking space than parallel parking and is a good use for streets that are currently wide and underused. More appropriate in commercial areas than in residential zones. Raised medians: A median in the center of a divided street slows down traffic because the street seems narrower. Pedestrian refuge island: A raised island located along the center of the street provides a safe place for people waiting to cross the street. It can be nicely landscaped and bollards can be

placed at its ends to further protect pedestrians. Signal timing: Signals can be timed to give people on foot a head start when the light turns green for turning traffic, allowing pedestrians to get half way across the intersection before drivers start turning. This method has been shown to reduce pedestrian injuries by 26% in New York City.15 It is especially helpful to children and the elderly. Curb extensions, bumpouts, corner bulges: These are horizontal extensions of the sidewalk into the street at an intersection that reduces the crossing distance (Figure 41). They increase space for people on foot, and slow turning drivers. They can only be used on streets with on-street parking, but work well to accommodate bus stops.

Figure 41. A corner bulge that incorporates other amenities to make a pedestrian node: lighting, benches, art, bicycle lane, bike rack, vegetation.

"Streets for People: Your Guide to Winning Safer and Quieter Streets", New York City's Advocates for Walking Bicycling and Sensible Transportation.

14

15

Ibid.

40 Speed tables: A speed table is a speed bump with an elongated flat top. It works better than a speed bump because it is easier to construct and provides an easier ride to drivers. It can be used individually or in series of up to five, and can be adapted to speeds of 10-40 miles per hour. Wider sidewalks/narrower streets: Driving lanes are typically wider than needed, and should be narrowed to 10 feet in many places. The reduction slows drivers by 2-5 mph per foot.16 Adding trees, bollards, benches, lighting and other tall streetscape furniture further discourages speeding by visually narrowing the street. Redesigned intersections: Sometimes a complete redesign of an intersection is needed to slow drivers down, provide better sight lines, and reduce crossing time for people on foot. A common realignment converts a Y intersection to a T, which are far safer for pedestrians (shorter crossing distances and slower automobile turning). Different paving colors/textures at pedestrian crossings: A change in paving color or texture registers with drivers as a place to slow down. The crosswalk, ideally raised in profile, can be colored differently to signify to drivers that this is a slow zone.

Figure 42. Site at Lamphere and Fenkell that has a crumbling sidewalk surface.

Functional Improvements The main functional improvement is sidewalk surfacing. Some Brightmoor sidewalks are in good repair and some are dangerous and crumbling (Figure 42). In other areas, there is no sidewalk or it is narrow. 17 Concrete sidewalks should be a minimum of five feet wide.

Sidewalks are expensive. However, sidewalk surfaces should be improved for uniformity, accessibility, adequate width, and separation from traffic. Many are currently being repaired. A careful, block-by-block inventory would be needed to assess priority projects, costs, and timeline for sidewalk improvement. In addition, as streets are repaired or replaced, the tree lawns should be included where they are now absent. They protect the pedestrian from the street and provide growing room for street trees. Other functional amenities will add to the streetscape for the Brightmoor neighborhood. Street furniture includes lighting, benches, trash bins, water fountains, and bike racks. This report

Concrete sidewalks should be a minimum of 5' wide, should typically be set back 5' from the curb, and have a minimum of 8' vertical clearance.

17

16

Ibid.

does not show actual locations or designs for these features, but they should be prescribed in subsequent streetscaping plans. One way to think about these amenities is to consider activity nodes where multiple features can come together. Concentrate activities in areas where adequate investment already exists. That builds the catalytic effect.18 Activity nodes are places that people are encouraged to frequent, gather, or rest. For Brightmoor, they are most logically the important hubs and sites identified as community assets, such as Citadel of Praise Church, Warren Harding Elementary School and Brightmoor Community Center. Clustering amenities at these nodes will give more bang for the buck, since construction is concentrated for several features within one area. The visual impact is greater as well. Activity nodes can also be at particular street corners, outside businesses, or bus stops. It can be as simple as a large rock for kids to climb on, interactive sculptures, or community notice boards. Lingering on street corners has a negative connotation in many Detroit neighborhoods. Legitimate lingering should be encouraged and promoted ­ reclaiming these nodes from those whose presence is dangerous and illegal.

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a concept that describes how physical design elements can increase perceptions of safety.19 Elements include the type and location of lighting, planting, signage, and maintenance. CPTED's main idea is that good design can lead to a reduction not only of the fear of crime, but of actual incidences of crime. Applying CPTED to the Brightmoor community would entail creating active places with `eyes on the street.' Residents' input has focused strongly on the fear of crime. Activity nodes would be structured around existing community assets, like schools, libraries and parks. The opportunity for criminal activity is hindered by using designs that encourage appropriate users and discourage non-intended users. CPTED precepts (see CPTED guidelines in sidebar, below) emphasize designing open spaces through the use of three major principles for deterring criminal activity and making residents feel assured about their urban surroundings: 1. Natural surveillance, limits on the opportunity for crime through the use of lighting and visibility. Eyes on the street. 2. Natural access control, limits on the opportunity for crime by using landscaping, fencing and signage to clearly mark pubic spaces.

T'Chana Bradford, Sam Butler, Geoffrey Dancik, Kate Davidoff, Amanda Goski, Nate Gray, Ben Kraft, Matt Orenchuk, and Qingyun Shen, 2007. "Towards a Brighter Future: A Plan for Southeast Brightmoor." Urban and Regional Planning Program, Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning.

18

The remainder of this chapter has been adapted from sections of the Southeast Detroit greenway study, "Planning Detroit's Conner Creek Greenway: Attracting Eastside Neighbors," by Regina Ann Campbell, Jasmin Marie Casas, Lindsay-Jean Hard, Jenifer Huestis, Howard Karp, and Mitchell Wimbish. 2006.

19

42 3. Natural territoriality reinforcement, limits on the opportunity for crime through local investment and a sense of neighborhood ownership. Lighting is a primary mechanism for safer streets. It typically has three overlapping purposes: orientation to reveal important features of one's surroundings; identification of critical intersections, signs and buildings; and safety from personal and property damage by another person. Before a final routing for the Brightmoor greenway network is complete, a lighting assessment should be completed to indicate the location, intensity and type of lights that are needed for safety. Please see the Conner Creek Greenway report20 for a good overview of lighting guidelines in this urban context

20 Regina Ann Campbell, Jazmin Marie Casas, Lindsay-Jean Hard, Jenifer Huestis, Howard Karp, Mitchell Wimbish, 2006. "Planning Detroit's Conner Creek Greenway: Attracting Eastside Neighbors," Unpublished report by Master's of Urban and Regional Planning students at the University of Michigan.

VI. HILLS AND HOLLOWS GREENWAY SYSTEM

A concept plan for an expanded `Hills and Hollows' Greenway system is shown in Figure 43. The name comes from the pastoral, gently undulating topography of the area. It also refers to the Appalachian origins of Brightmoor's first residents. Lyndon Avenue is the central spine of the greenway system. Four main loops connect to the main Lyndon Greenway. The loops range in length from about two to about three miles. Shorter loops are possible within them.

locations that are currently vacant lots. The signage package that is proposed is an excellent way to build awareness and buy-in about the greenway. The plantings that have been designed will need to be tailored to the community's needs; however, a good start has been achieved through JJR's efforts. Even before completion of the Lyndon Greenway, however, the routing for secondary loops off Lyndon should be pursued. The loops shown below are merely starting places for discussion. Walking groups should be utilized to assess these, and other, routes in order to create a more solid plan for a Hills and Hollows Greenway System. Walking Groups could use a simple score card that analyzed both tangible and experiential aspects of various routes. The score card could include 1-5 scores on the following factors, where 5 is the most positive: · · · · · · · Sidewalk surface Distance of pedestrian from street and traffic Presence of street trees Feelings of safety Presence of other people on the street Safe street crossings Pedestrian amenities (seating, water, etc)

Stoepel Park Eliza Howell Park Lyndon Greenway

Figure 43. Hills and Hollows Greenway System for Brightmoor.

Lyndon Avenue has already been chosen as the heart of Brightmoor's greenway. This street is a good choice: it incorporates a range of community assets, has a low traffic volume, and, as discussed above, is a pleasant pedestrian street. The JJR vision plan for the Lyndon Greenway should be implemented first. Its strengths include the location and programming of pocket parks at

Another task that walking groups could undertake is to inventory housing and vacant lots along proposed greenway streets (from the sidewalk). Their findings would, of course, contribute to understanding greenway walkability. A thorough survey of housing should be done, similar to the one done for

44 southeast Brightmoor by UM Urban Planning students.21 Four Neighborhood Networks Four neighborhood-oriented loops weave through housing, commercial destinations, and public institutions (Figure 45). These four pedestrian schemes connect to even more of the community assets shown in Chapter III. They are laid out as a series of loops that connect to the larger green spine of Lyndon Avenue. Red Route (3.5 miles, extended 4.25 miles) The red route is an extensive walk compromised of nicely shaded areas as well as vivid sunshine. It is the longest of all the routes. The route originates in the residential Eliza Howell Community, and principally follows Lamphere Street to Fenkell Street, passing by older homes as well as newly renovated and infill homes (Figure 44). The commercial corridor of Fenkell connects the walker to the one of Detroit's largest wooded city parks, Eliza Howell Park. The walker can enjoy a tranquil walk through the park, where the River Rouge passes, before returning to Fenkell Street. This route connects the walker to various prominent churches along Fenkell as well as Murphy Elementary School. Additionally, the route can be extended

T'Chana Bradford, Sam Butler, Geoffrey Dancik, Kate Davidoff, Amanda Goski, Nate Gray, Ben Kraft, Matt Orenchuk, and Qingyun Shen, 2007. "Towards a Brighter Future: A Plan for Southeast Brightmoor." Urban and Regional Planning Program, Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning.

21

into the suburban neighborhood south of Lyndon, weaving through a repetitive pattern of well-maintained brick homes.

Figure 44. Eliza Howell community.

Yellow Route (3 miles, extended 4 miles) The yellow route is a long walk, sharing time along pleasant tree-lined Lamphere Street, landscaped boulevards of Outer Drive, and busy Lahser Road. The route benefits from many community assets, making it a very practical route. These assets include Riordan Park, James T. Hope Playfield Park, and various churches, including Leland Missionary Baptist Church and its Head Start Center. Additionally, several home renovation and infill development projects are found along the route. The yellow route offers an extended loop up to the McNichols corridor, connecting to further assets such as Renaissance Senior Housing, Houghten Elementary School, Wellspring Center and several other prominent schools and churches.

Figure 45. Preliminary plan for a Brightmoor Hills and Hollows Greenway network, using the Lyndon Greenway as a spine to which four neighborhood routes connect

.

46 Orange Route (2.3 miles, extended 2.8 miles) This is the most diverse of all the Hills and Hollows routes, progressing through both quiet residential streets and active commercial corridors. It allows the walker to visit many of the assets the community has to offer. The west end of the route begins at a community core, which includes the Brightmoor Community Center, St. Paul Brightmoor Head Start Center and Harding Elementary School. The route terminates on the east end at Stoepel Park, where play structures, and tennis and basketball courts offer the walker further activities. In between, the route leads the pedestrian through well-known residential and commercial streets. Hayden and Pilgrim Streets offer tranquil walks to Burt Elementary School and though the residential neighborhood north of Stoepel Park. Fenkell Street and Burt Road offer a more eventful walk with various destinations such as retail, service, older commercial buildings (including the original Central State Bank built in 1927) and several prominent churches. Additionally the route offers diversions up to busy Grand River Avenue. Blue Route (1.75 miles, extended 2 miles) The blue route offers a relaxing walk through the historic Rosedale Park neighborhood (Figure 46). Charming brick homes line the landscaped boulevards that weave through the neighborhood. Rows of oak and maple trees, some dating back to the 1920's, cast shadows over the street and form a heavy canopy in the warm summer months. Developed in the 1920s, the neighborhood includes custom-built homes in a variety of classic styles with distinctive brick entry gates leading into well-maintained front yards. The spine of the Rosedale Park Route is Grandville Avenue. However streets such as Piedmont, Warwick and Artesian to its east, allow the walker to further explore this historic neighborhood. To the south, the route connects to Vetal Elementary School and passes several home renovation and infill housing projects. This route connects to the main Lyndon Greenway through Stoepel Park and Auburn Street. Due to its proximity to Stoepel Park, walking groups can include the park's playground and tennis and basketball courts in their outings. Thursday afternoons walking groups can extend the route down Chalfonte Street to buy fresh and locally grown produce at the Northwest Detroit farmer's market set up at Brushnell Congregational Church.

Figure 46. Street scene at Grandville and Lyndon on the Blue Route.

VII. PROGRAMMING FOR THE GREENWAY SYSTEM

Outdoor movie nights in summer. Public art projects on or near the greenway would be wonderful.

Brightmoor residents had even more ideas for programs and activities along the Lyndon Greenway than they did for its physical design. The list below shows some of their ideas, which are woven into the recommendations in this chapter.22 This is a wonderful starting point for thinking about how to get pedestrians out onto Brightmoor streets. Competitions and races Entertainment: music and dancing More people out on the sidewalks Supervised activities for children Enhanced security and monitoring Citizen crossing guards for children and other resident patrols Bicycle policeman patrols Stray dog enforcement Licensed food vendors on sidewalks Let kids decorate the greenway Activities (something to do there!) Free lunches on the weekends to bring people out Give it a theme; kids contest for naming the greenway High School kids do community service on the greenway Enforce `pick-up-after-your dog'

One central objective of the Lyndon Greenway project and a goal of the HEP project is to improve resident's health through increased activity outdoors. Once the greenway system is in place-- bike lanes are constructed, sidewalks repaired, signs installed--there are no assurances that the routes will be used. Many factors go into individual decisions regarding transportation, recreation, and health options. This section suggests ways not only to get residents out onto the sidewalks, but to foster ownership and care. Target Programs for Both the General Public and Particular Age Groups A wide range of community events are already bringing residents together, often outdoors. Some are currently being organized to promote the Lyndon Greenway, such as the walk-about conducted during Brightmoor Week. Other runs and walkathons could be developed in a similar manner. Walking groups can be organized, either tailored to certain segments of the population or for all residents. HEP has organized walking groups in northwest Detroit, and these groups' feedback to the routes proposed here will be valuable. A seniors walking club currently meets at Redford High School, at Grand River Avenue and McNichols Rd. As the greenways are developed, children could be a particular focus.

"Healthy Environments Partnership--Lean and Green in Motown Summary of Northwest Focus Groups." www.hepdetroit.org

22

48 NDND and others should advance the collaborations with Harding Elementary School. The Safe Routes to School program is one context and a pilot program was completed earlier in Detroit. When the pocket parks along the Lyndon Greenway are being developed, it will be important to work with school-age children on planting, maintenance, and even construction. The NDND partners at Harding School can help facilitate this involvement. Other programs have been developed for school age children. Those shown below are simply a sampling; many other programs have been used successfully. Walking School Bus. A Walking School Bus is a group of children walking to school with one or more adults. It can be as informal as two families taking turns walking their children to school or as structured as a route with meeting points, a timetable, and a regularly rotated schedule of trained volunteers.23 Another variant of the Walking School Bus is the Walking Train in which adults supervise children as they ride their bikes to school. The Walking School Bus organization gives advice on how to start, including picking a route and taking test walks. Organizing such a pilot `bus' would be a good way to field test the routes proposed in the report, for instance for bringing children to local elementary and middle schools. WOW ­ Walk- n- Wave on Wednesday. Walk-n-Wave on Wednesday is a project stimulated by the desire to slow traffic

23

and let drivers know that they share the streets with pedestrians. It is based on the notion that waving at drivers slows them down, while angry signals or shouts just speed them up. Children walking to school on Wednesdays are given large foam hands for waving to drivers. Motorists are educated by news stories telling them that every time they see a child with a foam hand, it is a reminder to slow down and make streets safer for children. Parent volunteers help organize the Wednesday walks. Block Parties and Street Games The city and/or other organizations can sponsor block parties and street-game competitions to celebrate greenway routes. It is important NOT to close the street for these events, as the important message is that pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists CAN share the street. Use Building the Greenway as A Means of Engaging the Community An important method for encouraging use and ownership of the greenway network route is for residents to help design and build it. Residents that mobilize to help construct these routes develop the investment and ownership that fosters long-term care. The neighborhood greenway program in Vancouver, BC has found that the small greenway projects that residents propose, plan, and help construct are some of the most successful and lasting. Gardening along the greenway is a primary focus of resident involvement. Demonstration gardens, community gardens, floral displays and other activities are wonderful ways to get the community engaged and to encourage

www.walkingschoolbus.org

safe, well-used walking routes. Residents could also help spray paint the greenway name or logo on the sidewalk to help make it `real.' Focus on the Nodes Building activity, information, and comfortable amenities at and near activity nodes will help make the connection between walking and destinations. People are enticed to walk a few blocks to areas where things are happening, and where it may be easier to just walk (and simultaneously get some exercise) than to drive, park, and perhaps walk just as far. Address Safely Directly and First For central city locations where the fear of crime is tangible, programming for the greenway should address safety directly. Some planners recommend calling walking routes "Safewalks" rather than greenways. "Creating a safewalk is 75% community and 25% land, design and money. Inner city residents know the land, people, socializing patterns, buildings, and vacant lots better than anyone. They also are the ones with the daily vigilance to make sure it is maintained...They can be the ones to pick the final route, choose the benches, select the garbage cans, and even buy the flowers."24 Again, this calls for active involvement of the community to reclaim these spaces. Businesses could put stickers in their windows indicating that their establishment is part of the Safewalk corridor.

Anne Lusk, "Safewalks: neighborhood stroll to peaceful existence--safe inner city areas". Parks and Recreation, August 1995.

24

Work with Many Organizations: Find Less Apparent Partners A range of partners could help assure that the greenway system becomes a reality. The Brightmoor Alliance is the most obvious. Adopt-a-greenway segments could be chosen by different churches, clubs, or businesses, to help maintain the routes and to host activities and events along the corridors. Church congregations are obvious collaborators. They could adopt parts of the greenway for maintenance, and help program activities outside. The most critical participation from religious groups is to help get pedestrians out using the streets. Brightmoor's newer residents may be particularly important for bringing the greenway idea along and for using it in innovative ways. The owners of the NDND-built homes may be anxious for participate in efforts to rebuild and protect the neighborhood. However, there are sometimes tensions between these newer residents and the long-term residents next door (some of whom are renters). Perhaps a focused effort to get these neighbors working together on the greenway will help them coalesce around a common goal.

VIII. SUMMARY

individuals to use for exercise and to access various community destinations. Pedestrian linkage should be thought about in a phased manner, addressing certain streets first and then building the program to complete auxiliary loops through neighborhoods. A good place to begin is with walking groups organized for outdoor exercise. These groups will be invaluable for assessing current conditions, suggesting pedestrian improvements, and identifying important nodes where street amenities can be clustered. This report advocates concentrating on pedestrian nodes where seating, lighting, signage, art, and other amenities come together to make a safe and comfortable destination. Walking groups can eventually help monitor and care for these nodes and the links between them. Pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods give residents the ability to walk to a community destination, relative safety from crime and traffic, passable surfaces for all levels of mobility, and pleasant visual surroundings. The quick audit done for this study identifies places where these factors are intact, and a few places where they all come together. Some streets, however, are badly in need of improvement to make them pedestrian-friendly. Pedestrian improvements for the Lyndon Greenway and Hills and Hollows Greenway network can be broken down into three types: aesthetic, safety, and functional. Some amenities, like street trees, provide benefits in all three categories. They should be added in early phases of the project. However, a piecemeal approach to completing the

Momentum is building for improvements to the built environment that will sustain and support Northwest Detroit neighborhoods. The area has an interesting human history, abundant community assets, and good basic urban infrastructure. The Lyndon Greenway project is a wonderful starting point, not only for revitalizing the Brightmoor community, but for enhancing the larger Northwest Detroit region. This report provides background for urban greenway solutions that can connect the built environment to healthy outcomes and catalyze neighborhood revival. It is sometimes daunting to know how to apply greenway concepts in disadvantaged inner-city neighborhoods. Greenways are mainly suburban and rural landscape features. This report questions what greenway planning means in highly urban places. The answer offered here is that greenways are improved streets-- `Complete Streets.' One concept from more suburban contexts can be used effectively here: a network of hubs, sites and links can form the structure for planning pedestrian improvements. The Lyndon Greenway has already achieved a plan and funding for improving the pedestrian environment in Brightmoor. The recommendations in this work focus primarily on expanding that vision outward from the Lyndon Greenway, with a Hills and Hollows Greenway network that formalizes routes for walking groups and

52 streets will be more costly in the long run. In an urban context, trees are part of a larger infrastructure that includes underground utilities, curbs, gutters, tree lawns, intersections and other street features. For the streets highlighted here, more holistic plans should be done that integrate traffic calming, street trees, and other amenities for Complete Streets. This report briefly addresses programming options to help engage local residents in using the streets for improved health. In addition to walking groups, other programs can target particular ages. For instance, there are a range of programs being developed nation-wide to enable and encourage children to safely walk or ride bikes to school. For children, and all residents, safety should be addressed foremost. The more people out on the streets, the safer residents will be, including children. Naming projects and places is often powerful. Programs for naming, building, monitoring, and using the Lyndon Greenway should start now, before it is `built.' In fact, this report urges an approach that uses `building' the greenway network as a way to engage the community. It is true that large infrastructure projects (street narrowing, cross-walks, etc) must be completed by the City. But there are also elements that can be planned and implemented by residents, including planting, painting route markers on pavement, and trash removal. This helps `name' the greenway as a place and builds support for continued improvement. Finally, a successful greenway effort will include many partners in the community. Dozens of individuals and groups have already been involved in developing the Lyndon Greenway vision. It will take a large coalition, from many different arenas, for the greenway to become a catalyst for improved human health and neighborhood revitalization. The Lyndon Greenway can be a major unifying factor for Northwest Detroit.

APPENDIX A: Places of Worship

Name

Abyssinian Missionary Baptist Church * Apostolic Church of God & Christ Jesus * Bethany-Pembroke Chapel Calvary Presbyterian Church Christ the King * Christ the King Church * Christ the King Church School * Christian Fellowship Church * Christian Fellowship Of Love Baptist Church * Christian Harmony Ministries * Christian Science - Churches, 8th Church * Church in Detroit Church of the First Born * Church of The Firstborn * Church of the Risen Christ Annex Curtis Gospel Chapel Detroit Contemporanry Christian Center * Detroit Free Methodist Church * ELIM Baptist Church Fellowship Full Gospel Church * Fellowship of Love Missionary Baptist Church * Fully Persuaded Church Of The Apostolic Faith * Gods Divine Order * Great Commission Baptist Church Greater Bethlehem Faith Healing Temple Greater Ebenezer Greater Haven of Rest Church of God in Christ * Harvest Christian Church House Of Judah Jerusalem Temple Of Worship * Jones Memorial Church of God & Christ Just As I Am Ministry Living Word Church Mt Calvary Church of Jesus Church * New Faith Baptist Church New Hope Tabernacle New St Marks Baptist Church NW Com Baptist * Old Pathway Oneness Apostolic Church * Pendora Missionary Redford Church of Christ * Redford Lutheran Church * Redford Presbyterian Church *

Address

22521 Grand River Ave. 20332 West McNichols Rd. 19901 Burt Rd. 19125 Greenview Ave. 20800 Grand River at Burt Rd. 16805 Pierson St. 16800 Trinity St. 21654 Santa Clara 22464 Grand River Ave. 24230 West McNichols Rd. 23834 Grand River Ave. 24444 West 7 Mile Rd. 17170 Rockdale St. 17244 Redford St. 18926 West McNichols Rd. 17753 Lenore 16631 Lahser Rd. 17377 Westbrook St. 19333 Lahser Rd. 22131 Grand River Ave. 22085 Kessler St. 20727 W 7 Mile Rd. 17626 Lahser Rd. 19250 Riverview St. 18229 West McNichols Rd. 18845 West McNichols Rd. 16130 Woodbine St. 24400 West 7 Mile Rd. 21560 Grand River Ave. 19152 Cooley St. 19195 Plainview Ave. 18905 West 7 Mile Rd. 19620 West McNichols Rd. 22120 Grand River Ave. 19961 McIntyre St. 20221 Lahser Rd. 24331 West 8 Mile Rd. 17208 Fielding St. 18041 Bentler St. 19244 W 7 Mile Rd. 16776 Lahser Rd. 22159 Grand River Ave. 22122 West McNichols Rd.

ZIP Phone

48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 (313) 387-8314 (313) 537-6658 (313) 533-6165 (313) 537-2590 Not Available (313) 532-1211 (313) 532-1213 (313) 534-5711 (313) 533-2160 (313) 532-1000 (313) 531-1276 (313) 537-5810 (313) 533-1978 (313) 535-3631 (313) 541-8125 (313) 537-4660 (313) 531-0470 (313) 532-9771 (313) 533-7253 (313) 794-6360 (313) 537-8403 (313) 387-1727 (313) 255-0930 (313) 255-7995 (313) 592-1470 (313) 255-8955 (313) 537-8729 (313) 532-0346 (313) 531-9201 (313) 541-2790 (313) 534-2860 (313) 533-3489 (313) 535-0949 (313) 362-0187 (313) 592-0370 (313) 535-7999 (313) 541-3846 (313) 541-1533 (313) 531-3829 (313) 531-9447 (313) 537-7180 (313) 535-3733 (313) 531-0327

54

Regional House of Prayer * Rock of Ages Christian Ministries * Scott Memorial United Methodist Church * Second Chapel Hill Missionary Baptist Church Silent Assembly of God * Solid Rock Baptist Church * St Christopher's-St Paul's Episcopal Church * St Gerards Church St Martin's Episcopal Church St Timothy Lutheran Church The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints * The Salvation Army Trinity-Faith United Methodist Church True Believers Westside Bible Church Worldwide Fellowship Church Anderson Temple Missionary Baptist Church Apostolic Church Bethel Community Church Bushnell Congregational Church Cathedral of Faith Center For Orthodox Christian Studies Christian Faith Ministry * Citadel of Praise * Coronado Baptist Church * Detroit Northwest Seventh-day Adventist Church * EBER Memorial Baptist Church Emmanuel PCL Christian Center * Evening Light Tabernacle Fifth Ave. Missionary Baptist Church * Free Indeed Ministries Church * Genesis New Beginnings God Land Unity Church Gods Oldschool Ministry * Gospel Church of Faith Grace Refuge Chapel * Greater Ebenezer Missionary Baptist Church Greater Outreach Church Of God In Christ * Greater Southern Missionary Baptist Church Greater Works Ministry * Greatest Unique Ministry of Jesus Christ Holy City Of God Christian Fel Joy Temple Church Of God In Christ Leland Missionary Baptist Church * Macedonia Baptist Church March of Faith Book Store 23363 West 7 Mile Rd. 16501 Evergreen Rd. 22400 Grand River Ave. 19160 Evergreen Rd. 18513 Lahser Rd. 23810 West 7 Mile Rd. 20750 West McNichols Rd. 19800 Pembroke Ave. 24699 Grand River Ave. 19400 Evergreen Rd. 16621 Lahser Rd. 16603 Warwick St. 19750 West McNichols Rd. 18410 West McNichols Rd. 19000 Winston St. 19519 Evergreen Rd. 19646 Schoolcraft 21446 Schoolcraft 20748 Schoolcraft 15000 Southfield 13925 Burt Rd. 23300 W Davison St. 21241 Fenkell St. 20280 Lyndon 15125 Burt Rd. 14301 Burt Rd. 19001 Schoolcraft 14355 Burt Rd. 20644 Schoolcraft 20827 Fenkell St. 22019 Fenkell St. 21500 Schoolcraft 22450 Schoolcraft 15122 Rosemont Ave. 19248 Grand River Ave. 10711 West Outer Drive 18751 Fenkell St. 22627 Fenkell St. 13624 Stout St. 22221 Fenkell St. 18343 Schoolcraft 19144 Schoolcraft 20118 Schoolcraft 22420 Fenkell St. 14221 Southfield Rd. 15340 Southfield Freeway 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 (313) 534-3031 (313) 538-6039 (313) 531-2210 (313) 535-6655 (313) 255-2715 (313) 532-3266 (313) 538-2320 (313) 537-5770 (313) 533-3600 (313) 535-1970 (313) 538-4955 (313) 537-3393 (313) 533-0101 (313) 535-0654 (313) 532-0820 (313) 537-2379 (313) 838-5189 (313) 535-0606 (313) 537-2252 (313) 272-3550 (313) 533-9673 (313) 533-3953 (313) 537-8280 (313) 535-1500 (313) 531-1188 (313) 538-5755 (313) 273-2532 (313) 538-2523 (313) 537-4150 (313) 538-9242 (313) 535-7750 (313) 533-3510 (313) 794-5683 (313) 659-1722 (313) 535-8710 (313) 592-1717 (313) 273-3606 (313) 538-0910 (313) 531-3071 (313) 592-0935 (313) 837-4397 (313) 653-3774 (313) 537-3692 (313) 538-7077 (313) 837-5040 (313) 835-5329

More Excellent Way Cathedral Church * Mount Vernon Missionary Baptist Church * New Christian Liberty Missionary Church * New Liberty Baptist Church * New Resurrection Faith Ministries Inc Northwestern Community Baptist Church * Redford Kentfield Congegration Of Jehovah's Witness Rosedale Park Baptist Church * St. Catherine o fSienna St. Christine Christian Service * St James Lutheran Church St Paul's Lutheran Church Tabernacle of Faith Missionary Baptist Church * United Christians In Christ Assembly Church Retrieved: March, 2007 Available at: http://www.superpages.com

11491 West Outer Drive 15125 Burt Rd. 15490 Lahser Rd. 14432 Braile St. 18614 Schoolcraft 20225 Fenkell St. 12500 West Outer Drive 14175 Evergreen Rd. 23450 W.Davison 15317 Dacosta St. 14450 Ashton Rd. 13991 Evergreen Rd. 21406 Fenkell St. 18718 Grand River Ave.

48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223

(313) 533-0380 (313) 538-1355 (313) 592-0449 (313) 538-6260 (313) 836-8099 (313) 541-1533 (313) 255-6010 (313) 538-1180 (313) 255-3666 (313) 535-7272 (313) 838-3600 (313) 531-8992 (313) 535-1001 (313) 272-2130

APPENDIX B: EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES Institutions of Higher Education C.H. Mason Bible School 15350 Southfield Fwy. University of Detroit Mercy ­ Outer Drive Campus, School of Dentistry 8200 W. Outer Dr.

Institutions of higher education found at: http://www.superpages.com

48223 48219

Public Schools Elementary & Middle Schools Burt Elementary School* Cooke Elementary School Emerson Elementary School Gompers Elementary School Harding Elementary School Holcomb Elementary School* Houghten Elementary School* Hughes, Langston Academy Lodge Elementary School* Ludington Magnet Middle School McKenny Elementary School Murphy Middle School* Taft Middle School

20710 Pilgrim St. K-6, PK 18800 Puritan St. K-6 18240 Huntington Rd. K-8, PK 20601 W. Davison St. K-5, PK 14450 Burt Rd. K-6, PK 18100 Bentler St. K-5, PK 16745 Lamphere St. K-5, PK 19900 McIntyre K-8 24325 Bennett St. K-5, PK 19355 Edinborough Rd. 5-8 20833 Pembroke Ave. K-6, PK 23901 Fenkell St. K-8 19501 Berg Rd.

48223-1168 48223-1350 48219-2800 48223-3320 48223-2711 48219-2479 48219-3711 48219-3431 48219-3629 48219-2727 48219-1344 48223-1431 48219-1714

58 6-8 14200 Westwood St. K-8 19299 Berg Rd. K-5, PK

Vetal Elementary School Wright, Charles School

48223-2819 48219-1712

Detroit Public Schools. School information. Retrieved, February 15, 2007. Available at: http://www.detroit.k12.mi.us/schools/ Note: Schools scheduled to be closed in 2007 by Detroit Public Schools as of April 4, 2007, have not been included High Schools Henry Ford High School

20000 Evergreen Rd. 9-12

48219-2075

Detroit Public Schools. School information. Retrieved, February 15, 2007. Available at: http://www.detroit.k12.mi.us/schools/ Note: Schools scheduled to be closed in 2007 by Detroit Public Schools as of April 4, 2007, have not been included

Charter Schools Center for Literacy and Creativity Detroit Community High School Michigan Technical Academy Nataki Talibah Schoolhouse of Detroit Old Redford Academy* Old Redford Academy* Weston Technical Academy YMCA Service Learning Academy* 18401 W. McNichols Rd. 12675 Burt Rd. 19900 Evergreen 19176 Northrop 17195 Redford Ave. 17226 Redford Ave. 20131 Berg Rd. 21605 W. 7 Mile Rd. 48219 48223 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 K-8 K-5 K-2 K-8 K-1 2-3 K-12 K-8

Michigan Department of Education. Directory of public school academies. Retrieved, October 13, 2006. Available at: http://www.michigan.gov/mde/0,1607,7-140-6530_6558-23300--,00.html

Private Schools Christ the King School Grandmont Rosedale Park Christian School Greater Ebenezer Childcare Metropolitan Academy of Detroit* St. Timothy Lutheran School 16800 Trinity Ave. 15350 Southfield Rd. 18751 Fenkell St. 21355 W. 7 Mile Rd. 19400 Evergreen Ave. 48219 48223 48223 48219 48219 K-8 K-5 PK-K PK-6 PK-7

Private School Review, LLC. Profiles of private elementary day schools and high schools. Retrieved, March 12, 2007. Available at: http://www.privateschoolreview.com/

Preschools & Nurseries Center for Literacy & Creativity School Children's Learning Institute Creative Children's Learning Center Fellowship Chapel Headstart God's Kiddie Kingdom Hartford Headstart Agency* High Achievers Montessori School Jackies Little Angels Daycare* Kids Expectations Learning Center* Kinderkirk* 18401 W. McNichols Rd. 18401 W. McNichols Rd. 19532 W. McNichols Rd. 19555 W. McNichols Rd. 18845 W. McNichols Rd. 22420 Fenkell St. 24331 W. 8 Mile Rd. 15491 Vaughan St. 21350 W. 7 Mile Rd. 22122 W. McNichols Rd. 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48223 48219 48223 48219 48219

60 Paul Headstart Rainbow Academy* Rosedale Park Northwest Detroit* Cooperative Preschool Westbrook Day Care Center* 15340 Southfield Fwy. 22420 Fenkell St. 16800 Trinity Ave. 17377 Westbrook St. 48223 48223 48219 48219

Preschools found at: http://www.superpages.com

Public Libraries Detroit Public Library Branch Location, Redford* 578-8000

21200 Grand River Ave.

48219

313-

Public libraries found at: http://www.superpages.com

APPENDIX C: HOSPITALS AND HEALTH CLINICS

Brightmoor Medical Center 20510 Fenkell St. Detroit Medical Centers ­ Woodland Medical W. 8 Mile Rd. 48219 Professional Medical Center 20901 W. 7 Mile Rd. Thea Bowman Community Center 20548 Fenkell Woodland Urgent Care, LLC 22341 W. 8 Mile Rd. Hospitals and health clinics found at: http://www.superpages.com

48223 22341 48219 48223 48219

APPENDIX D: BUSINESS, SOCIAL SERVICE AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS Business and Community Development Organizations

New Hope Non-Profit Housing Corporation Destiny & Purpose Community Outreach Northwest Detroit Neighborhood Development Wellspring Community Outreach Abayomi Community Development Corp Grandmont Rosedale Development Trinity Community Development Center 19487 Evergreen Rd. 22575 West 8 Mile Rd. 8200 West Outer Dr. 16742 Lamphere St. 24331 W 8 Mile Rd 15399 Plainview Ave. 15125 Burt Rd. 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48223 48223 (313) 255-6275 (313) 533-1931 (313) 535-9164 (313) 255-9085 (313) 541-9828 (313) 255-0119 (313)538-1355

Service Organizations

Freedom Institute Neighborhood Reconciliation Center Simon House Triangle Foundation Starr Commonwealth Starr-Vista Teen Challenge-Detroit Development Centers, Inc. Christian Youth Production Salvation Army Brightmoor Corps Thea Bowman Community Health Center St. Christine Community Soup Kitchen Turner Education Training Agency Jowers Employment Training Services Corp 19600 West McNichols 17321 Telegraph Rd. 17300 Burgess 19641 West 7 Mile Rd. 22400 West 7 Mile Rd. 22390 West 7 Mile Rd. 17667 Pierson St 24424 W. McNichols 14347 Crescent Dr. 21551 Fenkell St. 20548 Fenkell St. 15317 Dacosta 19600 Grand River Ave. 14044 Greenview, Suite 100 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 48223 (313) 533-3818 (313) 592-1900 (313) 531-3400 (313) 537-3323 (313) 794-4447 (313) 387-6000 (313) 531-0111 (313) 531-2500 (313) 535-0378 (313) 537-8163 (313) 255-3333 (313) 535-7272 (313) 533-8382 (313 )272-1304

Cultural and Community Destinations

Rosedale Community Players 21728 Grand River Ave. International Gospel Music Hall Of Fame & Museum 18301 West McNichols Rd. Upstage Theatre 21728 Grand River Ave. Caribbean Cultural & Carnival Organization 18323 West McNichols Rd. James E. Wadsworth Jr. Community Center 19621 West McNichols Rd. Brightmoor Community Center 14451 Burt Rd. Artists Village Lahser 48219 48219 48219 48219 48219 48223 48223 (313) 532-4010 Not Available (313) 532-4010 (313) 255-2226 (313) 531-5980 (313) 531-0305 (313) 538-7668

Retrieved, March, 2007. Available at: http://www.superpages.com

APPENDIX E: PARKS AND RECREATION CENTERS Parks, Playgrounds, and Other Green Space

Belden-Santa Maria Belle Branch Cemetary Clarita-Stout

*

Playlot

*

Miscellaneous Playground Park Park Miscellaneous Playground Playfield

Eliza Howell

Eliza Howell (Walnut Hills Apt.) Grayfield-Glenhurst Heckel Hope

* * * *

Lahser-Clarita Markulis Milan

*

Playground Playground

*

Midland-Bentler

Playground Playfield

*

Mt. Hazel Cemetary Optimist-Stout

Miscellaneous Playground Playground

*

Outer Drive-Burgess Reid

* *

Outer Drive-Fullerton Riordan

Miscellaneous Park Playground Playground

Rockdale-Kendale

Rogell Golf Course

* * *

Park Parkway Parkway Playground Playground Park Playground

Rouge Valley Parkway Rouge Valley Parkway Seven Mile-Appleton Simmons Stoepel Park No.1 Votrobeck

City of Detroit Department of Planning and Development

Recreation Centers

Crowell Recreation Cr. Detroit Roller Wheels Fat 2 Lean Northland Roller Rink Northwestern Family YMCA

*

1663 Lahser 22311 W. 8 Mile R. 22311 W. 8 Mile Rd. 21755 W. 7 Mile Rd.

48219 48219 48223 48219 48219

66

Park Lane Powerhouse Gym Rosedale Park 19150 W. McNichols Rd. 18430 Fenkell St. 48219 48223

City of Detroit, Detroit Recreation Department. Recreation centers. Retrieved, February 1, 2007. Available at: http://www.ci.detroit.mi.us/recreation/ Other recreation centers found at: http://www.superpages.com

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