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WHO/IVB/10.10 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH

Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

5-6 May 2010, Nha Trang, Viet Nam

Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

WHO/IVB/10.10 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH

Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

5-6 May 2010, Nha Trang, Viet Nam

Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

The Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals thanks the donors whose unspecified financial support has made the production of this document possible.

This document was produced by the Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR) of the Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Ordering code: WHO/IVB/10.10 Printed: October 2010

This publication is available on the Internet at: www.who.int/vaccines-documents/ Copies of this document as well as additional materials on immunization, vaccines and biologicals may be requested from: World Health Organization Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland · Fax: + 41 22 791 4227 · Email: [email protected] ·

© World Health Organization 2010

All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: [email protected]). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications ­ whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution ­ should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: [email protected]). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. The named authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication. Printed by the WHO Document Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland

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Contents

Abbreviations and Acronyms .........................................................................................v 1. 2. 3. Objectives.................................................................................................................1 Background .............................................................................................................2 Wednesday 5 May 2010 ..........................................................................................4 3.1 2.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 5. WHO initiative to increase capacity for influenza vaccine production in developing countries .............................................................4 Global Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Production and Preliminary Analysis of H1N1 vaccine deployment donated by WHO .....................7 H1N1 Vaccine Production: The Industry Perspective.............................10 Status of the WHO influenza vaccine technology transfer programme ..................................................................................................10 Summary of the Sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity stakeholders' workshop, Washington, 11-13 January 2010 ....................10 Presentations by WHO grantees ...............................................................11 Other WHO activities relevant to technology transfer ..........................15 Progress of Regulatory Preparedness for Human Influenza Vaccines ........................................................................................................17 Influenza vaccine clinical trials capacity building in Viet Nam: PATH activities ............................................................................................18 The Global Adjuvant Development Initiative ..........................................18 WHO-Wellcome Trust meeting on influenza vaccines which induce broad spectrum and/or long lasting immune responses ..............19 Influenza Production Capacity: BARDA .................................................20 Presentations of other potentially interested manufacturers ...................20 General discussion .......................................................................................21

Thursday, 6 May 2010 ..........................................................................................17

List of Participants ...............................................................................................22

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Abbreviations and Acronyms

AG BARDA CDC cGMP DC GADI GAP GMP GPO HHS IVAC IVR QA QC LAIV NVI PATH POLYVAC SII VABIOTECH WHO WHO

Advisory Group The Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Current Good Manufacturing Practice Developing Countries Global Adjuvant Global Action Plan Good Manufacturing Practice Governmental Pharmaceutical Organization (Thailand) US Department of Health & Human Services Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals Initiative for Vaccine Research Quality Assurance Quality Control Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines Netherlands Vaccine Institute Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Centre for Research and Production of Vaccines and Biology Serum Institute of India Company for Vaccines and Biologicals Products No.1 World Health Organization World Health Organization

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1. Objectives

The WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research held its "3rd Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing country vaccine manufacturers" on May 5-6, 2010 in Nha Trang, Viet Nam at the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC), a developing country vaccine manufacturer and recipient of a WHO influenza vaccine production capacity building grant. The purpose of the meeting was to review progress on the WHO technology transfer projects and to facilitate networking between the grantees and development partners. The meeting was chaired by Dr Gary Grohmann, Director, Immunobiology, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Australia, and was attended by representatives of developing country vaccine manufacturers already receiving a grant from WHO, as well as potentially interested manufacturers from South Africa, Kazakhstan, and Senegal. In addition, past, present and potentially new international donors attended the Nha Trang meeting.

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2. Background

The Global pandemic influenza action plan (GAP) to increase vaccine supply was formulated in May 2006 to identify approaches and strategies to reduce the anticipated gap between potential vaccine demand and supply during an influenza pandemic1. GAP recognized three distinct strategies: a) to promote seasonal vaccination programmes as a driver of increased market and production capacity; b) to expand manufacturing capabilities in both industrialized and developing countries; c) to promote influenza vaccine research and development. Directly relevant to strategy B (increasing manufacturing capabilities) of GAP, WHO provided since 2007 more than 25 million USD financial support to eleven developing country manufacturers in Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Republic of Korea, Mexico, Romania, Serbia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The first and second of the Meetings with international partners were held in 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland2 and in 2008 in Pune, India3, respectively. In 2008, the Global Action Plan Advisory Group (GAP­AG) reviewed the progress in implementing the strategies of the GAP and issued recommendation for future priorities. These recommendations were reviewed by the GAP­AG during a teleconference held on 22 May 2009, Geneva in order to take into consideration the pandemic threat posed by the new influenza A (H1N1). The list below summarizes the final recommendations of the GAP ­AG (2009)4: · Increased use of seasonal influenza vaccine should continue to be promoted, but attention should be given to the fact that production of seasonal vaccine in 2009 should not decrease manufacturing capacity for a potential A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine.

1

WHO, 2006. Global pandemic Influenza action plan to increase vaccine supply. Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. WHO/IVB/08.09. Meeting with International Partners on Influenza Vaccine Technology Transfer to Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers. 29 to 30 October 2007 Bangkok, Thailand WHO/IVB/09.06. Meeting with international partners on prospects for influenza vaccine technology transfer to developing countries 27­28 November 2008 Pune, Maharashtra, India Report of Global Action Plan Advisory Group (GAP-AG) teleconference, Geneva, 22 May 2009.

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

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Production capacity for pandemic vaccines should be increased irrespective of seasonal vaccine use. ­ ­ Transfer of technology to developing countries manufacturers should continue to be promoted. The results of Oliver Wyman study on the logistics of a future WHO H5N1 vaccine stockpile should be published in order to allow analysis of its assumptions and results. Support should be enhanced to those developing country manufacturers who are most likely of bringing an A(H1N1) vaccine to registration in the coming months.

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·

Research and development of new technologies: Efforts during the A(H1N1) influenza emergency should concentrate on tested technologies and proven vaccine formulations. Stockpiling: WHO should get access as soon as possible to A(H1N1) vaccine for the benefit of developing countries. Further, the GAP-AG requested that WHO continue moving ahead with establishing a physical stockpile of H5N1 vaccine as previously planned. WHO should make recommendations to countries on which risk-groups should be prioritized for access to A(H1N1) vaccine in order to determine how much vaccine doses a particular country may really need.

·

·

During the pandemic, significant progress was reported by many of the grantees: by the time of the meeting, two of their pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines had already been licensed, and two companies were conducting clinical trials of H1N1 pandemic vaccines with the objective to seek marketing authorization from their respective National Regulatory Authorities during 2010.

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3. Wednesday 5 May 2010

3.1

WHO initiative to increase capacity for influenza vaccine production in developing countries

Medium-term planning survey conducted which were carried out by WHO prior to the Nha Trang meeting in order to assess and define infrastructure needs for the 11 manufacturers currently participating in the WHO GAP initiative. The methodology involved a questionnaire which was sent to grantees in March 2010. Analysis of the responses indicate that · Seasonal influenza vaccination is already part of the national immunization programme for 55% of new manufacturers' countries. By 2015, it is expected that this percentage will increase to 73%. By end 2012, most manufacturers will be able to sell or distribute influenza vaccine in their country. By 2015, 91% of manufacturers in 11 countries will be able to produce and meet a demand for influenza vaccine in their country.

· ·

Figure 1: Influenza production capacity by developing countries manufacturers. (Detailed information in table 1)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Fundacao Vacsera G. Cross V. Serum BioPhar. Brazil Egypt S. Korea India Indonesia Razi Iran Birmex Cantan. Mexico Romania Torlak Serbia GPO IVAC Thailand Viet Nam

>50

110

Doses in million

Doses seasonal flu vaccine required annually Current max production capacity Doses of pandemic H1N1 vaccine produced Planned Capacity by 2015

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

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The average capital investment cost for creating the capacity to produce 1 dose seasonal influenza vaccine per year is estimated around US$ 3.30, with a range of US$ 0.20 for egg-based LAIV and US$ 65.8 for inactivated vaccine produced in cell culture. Figure 2: Average cost per dose at current expenditure and future forecasts in 2015

65.8 60 50 40 30 20 10 2.0 0 A B D E F Egg-based LAIV 15.0 9.8 4.3 G H 5.3 I J K 28.0 18.7 10.7 3.3 Mean Cell-culture IIV

Companies in countries with seasonal influenza vaccination as part of national immunization programme Companies in countries without seasonal influenza vaccination as part of national immunization programme

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Table 1: Influenza Vaccine Production Estimation by Manufacturers for 2010 and 2015

2010 Production Capacity Country/ Company Doses of seasonal influenza vaccine required annually 22,000,000 Doses seasonal influenza vaccine produced annually 0 Planned Production Capacity

H1N1 Forecasted Pandemic Maximum Annual Vaccine Production Production Produced Capacity in 2015 by Feb 2010 0 0

Type of Vaccine

Brazil Fundacao Butantan Egypt Vacsera Republic of Korea Green Cross India Serum Institute of India Indonesia Bio Farma Islamic Republic of Iran Razi Institute Mexico Birmex Romania Cantacuzino Serbia Torlak Thailand GPO Viet Nam IVAC Total 0 0 5,000 30,505,000 0 1,000,000 inactivated whole virion 4,000,000 0 1,500,000 0 4,000,000 inactivated subunit vaccine and LAIV 2,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 7,500,000 inactivated split vaccine 2,000,000 inactivated whole virion 20,000,000 0 0 0 25,000,000 inactivated split vaccine 400,000 0 0 0 500,000 inactivated vaccine or LAIV 200,000 0 0 0 4,000,000 whole virion vaccine 0 0 0 10,000,000 100,000,000 inactivated split vaccine and LAIV 12,500,000 10,000,000 26,000,000 20,000,000 10,000,000 inactivated split vaccine 550,000 0 0 0 1,500,000 inactivated whole virion vaccine 50,000,000 inactivated split vaccine

400,000

0

0

0

62,050,000 12,000,000

32,500,000 215,500,000

Discussion: Participants appreciated the increase in production capacity of developing countries. The chair also appreciated the leading role of WHO in this initiative.

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

2.2

Global Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Production and Preliminary Analysis of H1N1 vaccine deployment donated by WHO

Dr Kieny presented the analysis of two surveys conducted in June 2009 and January 2010 to assess the global pandemic A(H1N1) production capacity. Figure 3: Global Pandemic HIN1 2009: Planned vs actual production

June 2009 survey assumed · 1:1 H1N1 to seasonal yields · Most dose sparing formulation for each manufacturer · Use of full production capacity

6.0 B 5.0 B 4.0 B 3.0 B 2.0 B 2.459 M June 2009 estimate January 2010

October 2009

Max 3B doses 4.918 M

In reality · 1:3 H1N1 to seasonal yields · Not all manufacturers could use the most dose sparing formulation · Production capacity was used for seasonal vaccine · Demand collapsed in 2010

1,296 M 1.0 B 0B 95 M 28 M 495 M 6 Month Annual

Weekly

*

As of 10 January 2010

In spite of enormous efforts by all manufacturers, the quantity of pandemic vaccine available for use in vaccination programmes was well below GAP targets. Indeed, the amount of pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine produced over a 12 month period reached only 26 % of what was expected in June 2009 due to following issues: · · Lower than expected yields Inability of some manufacturers to use their most dose sparing formulation due to reluctance of certain regulatory authorities to register low dose adjuvanted vaccine. Utilization of production facility for the manufacturing of seasonal 2010 vaccines Collapse of the demand in 2010.

· ·

In line with the recommendation of the GAP-AG (see above), the objective of WHO pandemic vaccine deployment initiative was to ensure access to vaccines for lowand low middle-income countries. The initiative targeted a coverage of 10 % population (2 % health care workers followed by 8 % high risk groups in 98 countries in need).

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Several donors including 15 governments and 6 manufacturers came forward and pledged 200 million vaccine doses and 70 million syringes. A total of US$ 48.1 million was also pledged for global deployment operations. Vaccination strategies used are inspired by recommendations on vaccination targets issued by WHO in July 2009, and the EPI infrastructure is used by the majority of countries for the deployment. Further, vaccination is carried out in phases depending upon country size and readiness to receive vaccine. Figure 4: Priority Groups for Vaccination

% 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

HCWs Pregnant women Persons with chronic conditions Young healthy adults Young healthy children 6 months 15 years

100

92

69

43

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By the time of the meeting, more than 36 million doses had been delivered.

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

Figure 5: Number of donated doses to be delivered by end of May 2010

Number of doses 18,000,000 16,000,000 14,000,000 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 272,000 January February March April 20,930,900 doses 16,789,200 doses May 1,933,600 5,915,800 13,015,200 16,789,200

58 NDP approved 5 Pending Deliveries in 56 countries >36 million doses

Delivered (Jan - April): Planned (May):

Further, complexities faced by WHO in this operation were presented, which include: tight time frames imposed by rapid spread of pandemic influenza, difficulties faced by manufacturers to meet demand, logistics, intense mis-information campaigns run by anti-vaccine groups, and insufficient funding. Additionally there were challenges at country levels to meet deployment targets including demand assessments, insufficient resources for meeting deployment needs, as well as competing priorities of other public health problems. Discussion: Participants discussed the logistics of vaccine deployment, especially related to storage space and transportation. Further, there were discussions on the impact of the media and of anti-vaccine groups on the deployment initiative. There was consensus on the need for strengthening global communications on the benefits of influenza vaccination and of immunization in general.

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3.3

H1N1 Vaccine Production: The Industry Perspective

Dr Norbert Hehme presented the industry perspective with respect to lessons learned during the 2009 pandemic. A comprehensive global response was observed wherein more than 50 countries initiated vaccination during the first six months of the pandemic. Important lessons learned for future preparedness include: i) it is crucial to sustain influenza vaccine production capacity, ii) vaccine development and optimizing activities should be enhanced, iii) developing country manufacturing capacities should be supported. Dr Hehme also presented the industry's expectations from WHO and the international community, which include increased technical support especially on provision of high-yielder vaccine viruses and of standardized reagents, facilitated pre-qualification process, support to advanced supply agreements, innovative financing options, and ambitious immunization programs. Discussion: There were wide-ranging discussions on industry perspectives on how to improve global access to pandemic vaccines. Dr Hehme stressed the need for international collaborations, increasing demand for seasonal influenza vaccines and sustaining manufacturing capacities.

3.4

Status of the WHO influenza vaccine technology transfer programme

Dr Laszlo Palkonyay presented the status and progress of the WHO influenza vaccine technology transfer initiative as one of deliverables of the GAP. The presentation gave an overview of the programme since its inception, including details on grantees, technologies and progress. Capacity building of 11 manufacturers from developing countries enabled 6 of them to produce clinical lots of H1N1 vaccine in 2009-2010. Further, a royalty-free license was negotiated by WHO with Nobilon-Schering-PloughMerck which resulted in three sublicenses of the Russian Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) technology to three developing country vaccine manufacturers in China, India, and Thailand. Additionally, a centre of excellence for inactivated influenza vaccine production technology transfer (a "technology hub") was established at the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI), which is presently catering technology and training needs of many developing country grantees.

3.5

Summary of the Sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity stakeholders' workshop, Washington, 11-13 January 2010

Ms Christina Hartmann presented an overview of the Sustainable Influenza Vaccine Production Capacity Stakeholders Workshop organized by the US Health and Human Services (HHS) in January 2010. The workshop focused on defining a comprehensive framework to assess the present status, and outline a vision on steps necessary to achieve the goals outlined in the GAP. The workshop intended to i) provide recommendations to delineate short and long term priorities, ii) discuss potential roles of various stakeholders including government agencies, international organizations, the production sector, academic institutions, and non-governmental organizations, iii) assess the adequacy of existing resources, and iv) provide input on existing and potential product and technologies.

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

The workshop concluded that development of sustainable capacity in developing countries is a long-term goal that can only be achieved with a consistent balance of local and international support. Further, seasonal vaccine demand will be critical for sustainability of production capacity. Discussion: HHS plans and priorities with respect to capacity building of developing country vaccine manufacturers were discussed. Participants appreciated the HHS plans and contributions towards WHO GAP initiatives.

3.6

Presentations by WHO grantees

3.6.1 Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC), Viet Nam

Dr Le Van Hiep presented an overview of activities at IVAC. In 2007 and 2009 the company has received two WHO grants: US$ 2,700,000 and 1,500,000, respectively. The primary goal of IVAC is to establish a 500,000 seasonal doses per year production capacity with potential extension to 2.5-3 million doses/year in the future. A new production plant was established. Much of the equipment required for production has been installed and tested. The new production building meets the expectations in term of biosafety and cGMP. Intensive personnel training has been initiated both on site and via specialized training courses at the WHO technology transfer hub at NVI in Bilthoven, the Netherlands and the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in the United Kingdom. Next steps will be i) the manufacture and release of vaccines lots appropriate for clinical trials, ii) secured and reliable egg supplies for long term sustainability, and iii) continuation and extension of personnel training. Interested meeting participants were offered to visit the new facilities on 7 May 2010. Discussion: There were discussions on production capacity and average yield of vaccine per egg.

3.6.2 The Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO), Thailand

Dr Somchaiya Surichan presented progress at GPO. Two WHO grants of 2 million dollars each were provided to GPO in 2007 and 2009. In 2008, the company had developed the process to manufacture inactivated seasonal vaccine. However, because of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, following signature of a sub-license agreement with WHO on the Russian LAIV technology, GPO undertook accelerated development of pandemic LAIV. Phase 1 clinical trial of pandemic (P)LAIV was completed in January 2010, using LAIV Strain A/17/CA/2009/38 (H1N1). The vaccine was found safe in healthy adults. A Phase 2 clinical trial was ongoing at the time of the meeting. Discussion: There were discussions on seasonal vaccine coverage and demand in Thailand. Further, there were queries on capacity with respect to SPF eggs. The role of media reports on safety of vaccine and subsequent reduction of demand for pandemic vaccination in Thailand was also discussed.

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3.6.3 Serum Institute of India (SII), India

Dr Manish Gautam presented on behalf of Dr Rajeev Dhere. SII focuses on production of both inactivated vaccine and LAIV. Protocols related to development and analytical characterization of inactivated seasonal vaccine [A (H1N1), A (H3N2), type B] were established. Further, studies related to process optimization, analytical characterization and pre-clinical immunogenicity studies were undertaken using a prototype strain of H5N1 vaccine virus (H5N1-NIBRG-14). In early 2009, SII signed a sub-license agreement with WHO on the Russian LAIV technology. SII was approached by the Government of India in March 2009 to undertake accelerated development of H1N1 pandemic vaccine. SII focused on adjuvanted inactivated and intra-nasal live attenuated technologies for H1N1 vaccines. A dedicated set up for bulk production, filling and freeze drying was established for both types of vaccine. Vaccine viruses were received in August 2009 and SII was ready with vaccine for Phase 1 human clinical trials in December 2009. Results of Phase I and 2/3 studies of LAIV and inactivated vaccine suggest excellent safety of both vaccines in healthy adults, elderly and children. Immunogenicity analysis was ongoing at the time of the meeting. SII expects to make these vaccines available to the Government of India by June 2010. Discussion: SII efforts in accelerating development of pandemic vaccine were applauded by participants. There were discussions on benefits of lyophilization on overall stability of live attenuated vaccine.

3.6.4 Fundaçao/Instituto Butantan, Brazil

Dr Laszlo Palkonyay presented the progress on behalf of Dr Isaias Raw. The Institute has production capability for 20-25 million doses per annum capacity for egg-based split seasonal vaccine, from prior technology transfer from Sanofi Pasteur. Further, for H5N1 virus, a new vaccine formulation containing MPLA and alum as adjuvant was developed, which allowed reduction of vaccine dose to 3.75µg, thereby increasing potential vaccine output four fold. In response to the 2009 pandemic influenza, Butantan was asked by the Ministry of Health to secure HIN1 vaccine and to facilitate immunization of about 130 million (about 50% populations). From the two WHO grants received in 2007 and 2009 Butantan has established a pilot facility for producing reverse genetics derived H5N1 vaccines. Three lots of H5N1 vaccines were produced in the new facility from master and working seed banks prepared by the company from donated reference strains from NIBSC, United Kingdom. In the future the facility will be used to produce master and working seed lots for influenza vaccines and work on technology improvements.

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

3.6.5 Laboratorios de Biológicos y Reactivos de México, S.A. de C.V. (Birmex), Mexico

Dr Ponce de Leon gave an account of the company profile and of its collaboration with Sanofi Pasteur. Sanofi is building in Mexico a plant to produce influenza vaccine bulk (seasonal and pandemic) and Birmex is building a plant for fill/finishing these bulks locally. With WHO and national funding, Birmex plans to remodel an existing facility to undertake blending, filling and packaging the influenza vaccine in order to produce 30 million doses of seasonal vaccine and at least 60 million doses of pandemic vaccine. Major activities undertaken in 2009-2010 are construction of plant, purchase of equipment, qualification of equipments, training and technology transfer for fill/finish of influenza vaccines. Discussion: Participants discussed demand and supply scenarios in Mexico.

3.6.6 Bio Farma, Indonesia

Dr Mahendra Suhardono gave an account of activities carried out at Bio Farma. The company has received grants from WHO in 2007 and 2009 towards capacity building for inactivated influenza vaccine production. Bio Farma signed in 2007 a bilateral agreement with Biken (Japan) to acquire from this company the technology to fill/finish seasonal influenza vaccine. In 2009, Bio Farma registered their seasonal vaccine (Flu Bio) in Indonesia, where it was used for immunization of Haj pilgrims. The second grant from WHO has allowed the company to initiate acquisition of the Biken technology for up-stream processing and bulk production. Equipment procurement was finished at the time of the meeting with significant progress of technology transfer of the antigen production as well.

3.6.7 Cantacuzino Institute, Romania

The Institute was established in 1921 as the main public health control and research entity in Rumania. They produce seasonal influenza vaccine since 1971. The institute received a WHO grant in 2009 with major objectives of optimization of influenza vaccine production, pre-clinical immunogenicity and safety studies and Phase I clinical trials. In view the national priorities fore the response to the A/H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, production of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccine was undertaken and vaccine was made ready in September 2009 for Phase 1 clinical trials. Cantacuzino completed the Phase1 trial in adults, which indicated that the vaccine was safe and immunogenic in adults. The vaccine was for the immunization of the adult population in Romania, with mass immunization starting on November 26, 2009. Recently a Phase1 trial in children was initiated with partial WHO support. Discussion: There were queries on strengths and capacities of the national regulatory authority in Romania.

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3.6.8 Green Cross Corporation, Republic of Korea

Dr Jin Won Youn presented the company experience in influenza vaccine production. Green Cross completed optimization and validation of the manufacturing process for H5N1 vaccine in a pilot facility established with WHO support. In response to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 threat, H1N1 inactivated split vaccines (plain and MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine) were developed. Preclinical immunogenicity and protective efficacy were confirmed in mouse and ferret models. The vaccines were found safe in Phase I clinical trials, with no serious adverse event reported. Phase II/III trials indicate immunogenicity of the non-adjuvanted vaccine in children, adult and the elderly. Additionally, MF 59 adjuvanted vaccine showed similar immunogenicity at lower antigen level than that of the plain vaccine (3.75ug versus 15ug). Green Cross Corporation produced more than 25 million doses of H1N1 pandemic vaccine which was used both domestically and abroad. Discussion: There was a question on which populations were immunized during the H1N1 pandemic. Dr Youn replied that high risk populations were given priority in the Republic of Korea and that vaccination was provided free of charge.

3.6.9 Razi Institute, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Dr Abdolhossein Dalimi presented the profile of the company and the objectives of the WHO grant to the Institute. The Razi Institute aims to establish a full scale production plant conforming to cGMP, WHO requirements and meeting Iranian national pandemic preparedness goals. The steps taken in 2009-2010 included i) completion of conceptual design with technical support of AKAM consultants, ii) participation in training courses (6 experts attended NVI training courses (on QA, QC and manufacturing aspects of influenza vaccine production)

3.6.10 Torlak Institute, Serbia

Institute of Virology, Vaccines and Sera - Torlak is a national Institute established by the Serbian Government. The Institute was producing until recently whole virus, inactivated influenza vaccine in embryonated hen's eggs. Dr Gordana Dakic presented progress achieved by the Institute in 2009-2010. The WHO grant, along with funds from the Ministry of Health of Serbia, is aimed at reconstructing production facilities to conform to latest GMP standards. Major work is ongoing in reconstruction of filling facilities. The WHO grant of US$1.2 million is used to establish a dedicated unit for filling, optical control, and labeling of inactivated influenza vaccine in syringes.

3.6.11 Vacsera, Egypt

Dr Hamdallah Zedan presented the progress in 2009-2010. Vacsera aims to establish an embryonated hen's egg-based influenza vaccine production facility with initial capacity of 500,000 doses of trivalent seasonal influenza per year, with expansion possibility up to 20 million doses monovalent pandemic vaccine per annum. The WHO grant of US$1.5 million was awarded in 2009. The facility is now under establishment in 6th of October City in compliance with national environmental regulations. A contractual partnership for technology transfer was established between the company and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) for the lifetime of the project. The bilateral agreement also contains training elements specifically designed to meet Vacsera's training needs.

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

General discussion on the WHO grant programme There were some queries related to WHO's criteria for selection of developing country vaccine manufacturers for the grants. Dr Kieny emphasized that there was one absolute selection criterion: selected manufacturers needed to have at least one vaccine (for the 2007 grantee selection) or one biological drug (for the 2009 grantee selection) produced and marketed domestically for human use under the egis of the National Regulatory Agency This criterion ensured that the necessary starting expertise was available.

3.7

Other WHO activities relevant to technology transfer

3.7.1 The Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) - Technology Hub

Dr Jan Hendricks presented an overview of the International Technology Platform for Influenza Vaccines established at NVI/RIVM for addressing technical training needs of developing countries grantees. The presentation covered current status and achievements of the Influenza vaccine hub. Further, the next steps for 2010-2011 were presented. This initiative has the short term goal of becoming an international training centre for egg-based inactivated influenza vaccine production (seasonal and pandemic). As a medium term goal, the initiative will also provide access to cell-based influenza vaccine production process technology. In 2009-2010, NVI conducted workshops on QA and GMP aspects which were attended by 13 participants. In addition, three workshops (each of three weeks duration) were conducted on influenza vaccine production aspects with 29 participants from developing countries. The workshops covered aspects related to process development, documentation, QC assays, and preclinical studies. Participants in the training workshop produced an industrial scale sized influenza vaccine batch based on viruses grown on 10,000 embryonated hen's eggs. The initiative also met broad interest from DC manufacturers which are not part to the WHO technology transfer project, and past workshops attracted staff from 13 manufacturers from countries such as Argentina, India, Serbia, Egypt, China, Croatia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kazakhstan, Romania, Thailand and Viet Nam. Discussion: Participants applauded NVI's efforts towards development of a technology hub for capacity building of developing countries vaccine manufacturers.

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3.7.2 Live attenuated Influenza Vaccine Development for Developing Countries

Dr Larisa Rudenko presented results of a double blind randomized clinical trial of HINI LAIV in adults, elderly and children aged 12-18 years of age. Cumulative data of different assays such as HAI, cytokine, IgG, IgA and cytokine tests demonstrated that the vaccine was immunogenic, especially in children, and suggest that a single dose vaccination with LAIV might be protective in different populations. Further development of A17/Mallard/NETHERLANDS/00/95 (H7N3) vaccine was presented. A lot of H7N3 LAIV will be produced for preclinical studies (immunogenicity and challenge studies in chicken and ferret) and clinical trials. Activities related to development of H5 LAIV were also presented. Future plans include generation of LAIV reassortants for other potentially pandemic influenza viruses, as well as evaluation of correlation of protection for LAIV. Discussion: Issues related to dose of vaccine (whether single dose or double dose) and correlates of protection were discussed.

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Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

4. Thursday, 6 May 2010

4.1

Progress of Regulatory Preparedness for Human Influenza Vaccines

Dr Claudia Alfonso presented WHO's work on regulatory preparedness for human influenza vaccines in collaboration with national regulatory authorities in targeted Member States. Opportunities for capacity building for influenza vaccine regulation were identified in areas of: A) seasonal influenza vaccine licensing and marketing authorization, B) lot release, C) evaluation of clinical trial data for regulatory registration, and D) post marketing surveillance and monitoring of adverse events following immunization. Further, the 2009 influenza pandemic enhanced the visibility of influenza vaccines globally and strengthening national regulatory capacity is currently recognized as critical to accelerate the supply and introduction of vaccines in future pandemics. Ways forward to increase the use of influenza vaccine were identified in the areas of formulation of seasonal vaccine policy, strengthening of regulatory networks, building of national regulatory capacity, enhancing surveillance systems, improving communications on vaccine safety and efficacy with the press and the health care community. Furthermore, the need to support research and development to optimize vaccine virus yields, vaccine production and antigen sparing technologies was underlined. Discussion: Participants noted with interest WHO's activities in strengthening NRA in developing countries. There were discussions that such efforts should be further strengthened as having functional NRAs is critical to ensure the safety and efficacy of vaccines. There were also discussions on assessment of GBS risk following pandemic H1N1 vaccination. Dr Alfonso indicated that more than 300 million doses had been administered globally. While GBS cases have been reported, their rate appeared to be similar to that reported with seasonal influenza vaccines. Participants recommended that post marketing surveillance activities in developing countries should be strengthened.

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4.2

Influenza vaccine clinical trials capacity building in Viet Nam: PATH activities

Dr Bright presented an overview of PATH activities towards influenza vaccine capacity building in Viet Nam. Since 1980, PATH has initiated 55 projects in Viet Nam towards capacity building, vaccine uptake and other health interventions. PATH has engaged both public and private sectors, and works from national to community level to provide technical support for health interventions. Several approaches to enhance influenza vaccine capacity are in active development in Viet Nam. There is strong support from the government of Viet Nam (Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science and Technology) and active collaborations with the US Government and WHO. Three established manufacturers and one research organization in country are currently pursuing influenza vaccine development activities. Dr Bright presented the progress of these organizations which include IVAC, VABIOTECH, POLYVAC and Institut Pasteur-Ho Chi Minh City. Dr Bright gave an overview of PATH-BARDA agreement on continuing efforts in collaboration with the WHO for advancing vaccine production in Viet Nam. The PATH-BARDA cooperative agreement aims to ensure production of cGMP-quality vaccine and clinical evaluation of vaccines in Viet Nam. Discussion: Participants noted with interest the PATH activities and contributions to influenza vaccine clinical trials in Viet Nam.

4.3

The Global Adjuvant Development Initiative

Dr Nicolas Collin presented the Global Adjuvant Development Initiative (GADI), recently established by WHO, with the aim of promoting access to adjuvant and vaccine formulation know-how for public sector and for developing countries vaccine manufacturers. The presentation gave an outline of existing adjuvant systems with specific reference to formulations having demonstrated both immunogenicity and safety when combined with pandemic influenza vaccines. Notably, oil-in-water emulsions allow significant dose sparing effect (5-20 times) when used in pandemic influenza vaccines (H5, H7 and H9). These emulsions, formulated with seasonal and pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza vaccines, have been administrated to more than one hundred million people including children, making them attractive candidates for adjuvantation of pandemic vaccines produced by developing countries vaccine manufacturers. Dr Collin also presented the current activities of the Vaccine Formulation Laboratory at University of Lausanne, Switzerland, a WHO Collaborating Centre in Immunology and Adjuvants. The laboratory acts as a GADI platform for the following activities: access to adjuvants for the public sector, training in vaccine formulation, harmonization of read-outs, and technology transfer towards developing countries. Discussion: There were discussions on adjuvant efficacy and cost of production. The members applauded WHO role in planning such an initiative.

18

Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

4.4

WHO-Wellcome Trust meeting on influenza vaccines which induce broad spectrum and/or long lasting immune responses

The WHO-Wellcome meeting (9-10 November 2009 in London, United Kingdom) focused on i) improvements in existing strategies including live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) and adjuvantation of inactivated influenza vaccines, ii) developments in upstream antigen production methods, new routes of vaccine delivery and administration, and novel approaches based on conserved virus antigens, and iii) correlates of immune protection and regulatory issues relevant for future approvals of novel influenza vaccines. Dr Palkonyay gave an account of merits of various approaches presented at the meeting. Participants at the London meeting recognized that currently egg based inactivated influenza vaccine dominates vaccine supply. In recent times, technologies such as reverse genetics engineered vaccines, cell culture technology, and potent oil in water emulsion adjuvants have shown significant potential. Co-expression of multiple antigens in recombinant vaccine candidates and improved methods of antigen presentation have shown significant potential in improvement of immunogenicity as well. While newer and specific technologies continue to develop, national and international licensing requirements should be harmonized through international collaboration. Licensure of a universal influenza vaccine would make an enormous contribution to epidemic and pandemic preparedness, therefore support for the research in this area remains important, even there is no warranty that such a universal vaccine is achievable. Discussion: Participants noted that newer technology platforms have shown some potential in "antigen sparing", and that research on newer technologies should remain an important component of GAP.

WHO/IVB/10.10

19

4.5

Influenza Production Capacity: BARDA

The Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority (BARDA) is supporting international efforts for strengthening pandemic influenza preparedness and response capabilities. Dr Michael Perdue presented BARDA's influenza related activities which are aiming i) to reduce risks of influenza epidemics globally (with this objective BARDA has initiated a partnership with WHO and initial bilateral funding of VABIOTECH, Viet Nam), ii) to promote investment and establish partnerships to develop and sustain influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and pandemic readiness (HHS-BARDA is participating with WHO and members of the WHO Technical Advisory Group in site visits to the WHO-funded manufacturers in Thailand, Viet Nam, Mexico, Indonesia, Romania, Egypt, Serbia and India, iii) to help the development of sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity worldwide through leveraging HHS/BARDA's unique resources. Under this objective, BARDA engaged industry by organizing site visits and regular conferences with WHO and PATH. BARDA is also supporting NIAID and CDC efforts in developing diagnostic kits such as rapid test to detect influenza A and B antigens, and to distinguish in a rapid manner H1, H3 and H5 influenza A subtypes. Proposed activities in 2010 include continued support to WHO cooperative agreement, funding for advanced training in bio-manufacturing, funding for adjuvant development and technology transfer, and additional funding for diagnostics projects. Discussion: There were queries on BARDA plans for support of newer technologies. Dr Perdue with other BARDA representatives responded that presently most of potential newer technologies are at pre-clinical stages and therefore might be difficult to transfer at this early stage of development.

4.6

Presentations of other potentially interested manufacturers

4.6.1 Bio Vac, South Africa

Dr Patrick Tipoo presented an overview of the company with specific reference to its product portfolio and capacities. BioVac has strong interest in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine and is targeting a 2 million doses market in the African region. BioVac expects WHO support in form of seed grants for lab scale technology transfer and training.

4.6.2 Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Almaty - Kazakhstan

Dr Saule Burkitbayeva presented an overview of the company and its plans to undertake trivalent LAIV production for intranasal immunization. This development will be a collaborative effort between the National Centre of Biotechnology, Kazakhstan and the Russian State Virology and Biotechnology Scientific Center "Vector".

20

Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

4.6.3 National Center of Biotechnology, Astana - Kazakhstan

Dr Berik Khairullin presented an overview of the company and of its work towards the development of potential pandemic vaccines. The institute has significant expertise in development of Avian Influenza vaccines for veterinary use. In 2008 and 2009 the company has produced more than 7 million doses veterinary vaccine per year. In 2008-2010, the institute also undertook development of A(H5N1) vaccines for public health use. Further, A(HIN1) vaccine development was also undertaken in 2010. Results of preclinical testing have demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of Kazfluvac® A/H5N1 and Refluvac® A/H1N1 inactivated vaccines. These vaccines are whole virion alum adjuvanted formulations and presently in Phase 1 clinical trials in healthy adults.

4.6.4 Institut Pasteur, Senegal

Dr Ronald Perraut presented the profile of the company including its facilities, experience and expertise with egg-based Yellow Fever Vaccine. The company looks for support to extend its expertise in Yellow Fever Vaccine to embryonated hen's egg-based influenza vaccines.

4.7

·

General discussion

WHO GAP-inspired technology transfer programme initiative is anticipated to increase production capacity in developing countries by 2015, which will have a significant impact on pandemic preparedness in the developing world. Demand for seasonal influenza vaccine will be crucial for the sustainability of both old and new production capacity. Technology hubs such as NVI and initiatives such as GADI will be important for capacity building of developing country vaccine manufacturers. Strengthening of National Regulatory Authorities should be continued and extended to all countries intending to initiate vaccine production. Research and development of newer technologies should be encouraged. There is an urgent need to strengthen global communications on the benefits of influenza vaccination.

· · · · ·

The Chair thanked all the speakers and participants for their contribution to an informative meeting. Dr Kieny also thanked everyone for their participation and informed them that WHO is looking for new financing options in support of global influenza vaccine production capacity building.

WHO/IVB/10.10

21

5. List of Participants

Participants/Observers

Dr David Behnam, Pandemic Preparedness Initiative, Division for Health, Education, Social Protection, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH, 65726 Eschborn, Germany Dr John Boslego, Director, Vaccine Development Strategic Program, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, Washington D.C, 20006 U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America Dr Rick Bright, Scientific Director, Influenza Vaccine Project, Vaccine Development Global Program, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, PATH, Washington DC 20006, United States of America Ms Saule Burkitbayeva, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Center for Biotechnology, Astana, Kazakhstan Dr Daniel Camus, Chargé de mission `Grippe', Direction générale de la Santé, Paris 07 SP, 75350 France Dr Tony Colegate, Influenza Technical Affairs Manager, Novartis Vaccines, Liverpool, L24 9DJ United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland Dr Nicolas Collin, Head, Vaccine Formulation Laboratory, University of Lausanne, 1066 Epalinges sur Lausanne, Switzerland Dr Francisc Czobor, Head, Development Programs and Projects Management Unit, National Institute for R&D in Microbiology and Immunology Cantacuzino, 050096 Bucharest, Romania Dr Gordana Dakic, Head, Influenza Production Department, Institute of Virology, Vaccines and Sera Torlak, 11152 Belgrade, Serbia Professor Abdollhossein Dalimi, Director General, Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, 1558 Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of) Dr Armen Donabedian, US Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), Washington, DC 20201, United States of America Dr Nasr Mohammed El Sayed, Deputy Minister for Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health and Population, Cairo, 11467 Egypt Dr Donald P. Francis, Global Solutions for Infectious Diseases, South San Francisco, California, 94080 United States of America Dr Manish Gautam, Serum Institute of India Limited, Pune, 411 028 India

22

Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

D r G a r y G r o h m a n n , T h e r a p e u t i c G o o d s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Wo d e n , ACT 2606 Australia Dr Hamdallah Hafez Zedan, Chairman and C.E.O., The Egyptian Organization for Biological Products and Vaccines (Vacsera), Cairo, Egypt Ms Christina Hartman, Public Health Scientist, Influenza & Emerging Diseases Division (IEDD), US Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), Washington, DC 20201, United States of America Dr Norbert Hehme, Chairman, IFPMA's IVS International Task Force, Vice President Flu Manufacturing Strategy, GSK Biologicals, Dresden, 01069 Germany Dr Jan T. Hendriks, Account Manager International Support, International Support, The Netherlands Vaccine Institute, 3720 AL Bilthoven, Netherlands D r K a r o l i n H e r z o g , A d v i s e r, P a n d e m i c P r e p a r e d n e s s I n i t i a t i v e , Division for Health, Education, Social Protection, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH, 65726 Eschborn, Germany Dr Nguyen Tran Hien, Director, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Viet Nam Dr Le Kim Hoa, Vice Director, QC & QA, R&D/Head of QA, Institute of Vaccine and Medical Biologicals, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam Dr Marit Holleman, Advisor Strategy & Policy, Netherlands Vaccine Institute, 3720 AL Bilthoven, Netherlands Dr Vu Minh Huong, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam Dr Berik Khairullin, Deputy Director, Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Gvardeiskiy 080409, Kazakhstan Professor Le Van Be, Director, Institute of Vaccine and Medical Biologicals, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam Professor Le Van Hiep, Former Director, Institute of Vaccine and Medical Biologicals, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam Ms Inge Leutscher, President, Excellence International, 1201 Geneva 21, Switzerland Mr Kritsada Limpananont, Pharmacist, Biological Products Section, Drug Control Division, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand Dr Daniel S. Miller, Director, International Influenza Unit, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington DC 20201, United States of America Mr Robert Mischler, Mibiotec Ltd, CH-3048 Worblaufen, Switzerland Dr Abdulsalami Nasidi, EchiTAb Study Group, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria Dr Puntawit Natakul, Division of Biological Products, Ministry of Public Health, 11000 Nonthaburi, Thailand Dr Kathy Neuzil, Senior Clinical Adviser, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, Seattle, 98121 WA, United States of America Professor Angus Nicoll, Influenza Coordination, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 171 83 Stockholm, Sweden

WHO/IVB/10.10 23

Dr Michael Perdue, Director -Division of Influenza & Emerging Diseases, Biomedical Advanced Research & Development Authority (BARDA), US Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), Washington, DC 20201, United States of America Dr Ronald Perrault, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris, France D r Yu r i P e r v i k o v, C o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e Wo r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , Geneva, Switzerland Dr Samuel Ponce de León, General Director, Laboratorios de Biologicos y Reactivos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V, 06000 Mexico DF, Mexico Mr Kittisak Poopipatpol, Director, Vaccine Filling Division, The Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Bangkok 10400, Thailand Ms Pattamaporn Puenmuang, The Government Pharmaceutical Organisation, Bangkok 10400, Thailand Dr Pilaipan Puthavathana, Department of Microbiology, Mahidol University, 10700 Bangkok, Thailand Dr George A. Robertson, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, Washington D.C, 20006 United States of America Dr James S. Robertson, Principal Scientist, Virology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Potters Bar, EN6 3QG Herts, United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland Dr Mauricio Rodriguez-Alvarez, Laboratorios de Biologicos y Reactivos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V, 06000 Mexico DF, Mexico Dr Larisa Georgievna Rudenko, Head, Department of Virology, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Russian Federation Dr Bijan Sadrizadeh, Senior Adviser to the Minister, Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Tehran, 11365 Iran (Islamic Republic of) Dr Jean-François Saluzzo, Senior Director, Network Virology Expert, Manufacturing Technology, Sanofi Aventis, F-69280 Marcy L'Etoile, France Dr Pathom Sawanpanyalert, Director, Department of Medical Sciences, Center for International Cooperation, National Institute of Health, Thailand Dr Jaspal Sokhey, Consultant, New Delhi, 110048 India Dr Mahendra Suhardono, Production Director, Bio Farma, Bandung, 40161 Indonesia Dr Somchaiya Surichan, Researcher, Research and Development Institute, The Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Bangkok 10400, Thailand Dr Teiji Takei, Director, International Cooperation Office, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Tokyo 100-8916, Japan Dr Sit Thirapakpoomanunt, Director of the Viral Division, The Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Bangkok 10400, Thailand Professor Nguyen Thu Van, Director General, Company for Vaccines and Biologicals Products No. 1, Ha Noi, Viet Nam Mr Patrick Tippoo, R&D Manager, Biovac Institute, Pinelands 7430, South Africa

24

Meeting with international partners on influenza vaccine production technology transfer to developing countries

Dr Ruth Velazquez Fernandez, Head of Influenza Project, Laboratorios de Biologicos y Reactivos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Estado de México 54740, Mexico Dr Suwit Wibulpolprasert, Senior Advisor on Health Economics, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, 11000 Thailand Dr Jin Won Youn, Head, Vaccine II Team, Green Cross Corporation, ongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-799, Republic of Korea

WHO regional staff

Dr Jean-Marc Olivé, WHO Representative, Hanoi, Viet Nam Dr Nicole Smith, WHO Representation, Hanoi, Viet Nam,

WHO Secretariat

Dr Claudia Alfonso, Scientist, QSS, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland Dr Marie-Paule Kieny, Director, Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland D r L a s z l o P a l k o n y a y, P r o d u c t R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( R P D ) , Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland Mr Ludy Suryantoro, Programme Officer, Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR), World Health Organization, Geneva 27, 1211 Switzerland

WHO/IVB/10.10

25

The World Health Organization has provided technical support to its Member States in the field of vaccine-preventable diseases since 1975. The office carrying out this function at WHO headquarters is the Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (IVB). IVB's mission is the achievement of a world in which all people at risk are protected against vaccine-preventable diseases. The Department covers a range of activities including research and development, standard-setting, vaccine regulation and quality, vaccine supply and immunization financing, and immunization system strengthening. These activities are carried out by three technical units: the Initiative for Vaccine Research; the Quality, Safety and Standards team; and the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The Initiative for Vaccine Research guides, facilitates and provides a vision for worldwide vaccine and immunization technology research and development efforts. It focuses on current and emerging diseases of global public health importance, including pandemic influenza. Its main activities cover: i ) research and development of key candidate vaccines; ii ) implementation research to promote evidence-based decision-making on the early introduction of new vaccines; and iii ) promotion of the development, evaluation and future availability of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria vaccines.

The Quality, Safety and Standards team focuses on supporting the use of vaccines, other biological products and immunizationrelated equipment that meet current international norms and standards of quality and safety. Activities cover: i ) setting norms and standards and establishing reference preparation materials; ii ) ensuring the use of quality vaccines and immunization equipment through prequalification activities and strengthening national regulatory authorities; and iii ) monitoring, assessing and responding to immunization safety issues of global concern. The Expanded Programme on Immunization focuses on maximizing access to high quality immunization services, accelerating disease control and linking to other health interventions that can be delivered during immunization contacts. Activities cover: i ) immunization systems strengthening, including expansion of immunization services beyond the infant age group; ii ) accelerated control of measles and maternal and neonatal tetanus; iii ) introduction of new and underutilized vaccines; iv ) vaccine supply and immunization financing; and v ) disease surveillance and immunization coverage monitoring for tracking global progress. The Director's Office directs the work of these units through oversight of immunization programme policy, planning, coordination and management. It also mobilizes resources and carries out communication, advocacy and media-related work.

Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Family and Community Health

World Health Organization 20, Avenue Appia CH-1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland E-mail: [email protected] Web site: http://www.who.int/immunization/en/

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