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Personality and Facebook 1 Running Head: PERSONALITY AND FACEBOOK

Personality and Facebook: Personality's Influence on Social Networking Kendra Cozzens Email: [email protected] Pyle Box 270 Wilmington College Wilmington, Ohio 45177 and C.J. Potter Email: [email protected] Pyle Box 2265 Wilmington College Wilmington, Ohio 45177 Mary Ellen Batiuk: [email protected] 937-382-6661 ext. 228

Advance Research Dr. Mary Ellen Batiuk and Dr. Erinn Leary Green December 16, 2009

Personality and Facebook 2

Abstract Social networking sites such as Facebook allow people of all ages to utilize online friendships in new ways. We hypothesized that extroverts would use Facebook more socially through the use of wall posts, pictures, and friends. We also hypothesized that extroverts would have lower levels of privacy settings. Lastly, we hypothesized surveys which stressed confidentiality would realize more accurate representations of online profiles. We found personality type did have an effect on the social aspects of Facebook use and that type of survey had an effect on accuracy of answers.

Personality and Facebook 3

Personality and Facebook Social connection is a concept that has existed since the beginning of the human race. Ever since humans began to roam the planet, they have created, and maintained social ties. These interactions make civilization possible. Through the course of time, methods of interaction with others have become more and more sophisticated. Interactions have grown more complex as technology has expanded and created more possibilities. One of the most revolutionary breakthroughs in communication is the internet. The internet has made it possible for persons to keep in touch no matter where they may be on the globe. With the potential for any two individuals to interact through the internet, our social connections are seemingly endless. Popular social networking sites (SNS) have developed to facilitate these connections. Among these sites are: Myspace, Twitter, LinkedIn, and the very famous Facebook. These SNS allow individuals to create their own "profile" for other members to view. Personal information posted about oneself includes details about personal interests, hobbies, as well as information about jobs. Profiles may also feature photographs, status updates to let others know what is going on in your life, to a "wall" on which other members can write notes, giving users the ability to search for, find, and interact with peers from ones past, as well as their present. Our study is focused on one of these sites, Facebook. Different people go online for different reasons. Those who use SNS' are no exception. Any individual who creates a profile may have a unique intention for their time spent online. Their uses are based off different individual motives. The individuals

Personality and Facebook 4 we are studying use the internet to socialize, and express themselves. People can access these sites and socialize through the friends they have, the "wall posts" they share, and the messages they send one another. Express themselves through the pictures, status updates, etc. that are posted on their profiles. Literature Review According to Kahneman & Krueger (2006), one's social ties are a determining factor for life satisfaction. This implies the maintenance and accessibility of social ties are essential to personal satisfaction. Facebook is a fast paced, technologically advanced way to keep in touch, and even monitor the activity of friends and relatives. Facebook allows a person to find old acquaintances, discover new friends, and maintain both. Clare Madge performed a study which shows how individuals use internet websites to meet and develop relationships with fellow students from their university (2009). The usage of social networking cites allows a person to develop a sense of comfort in new environments and develop social ties to increase stability. Leary & Kowalski (1990) report when friends show inclinations of happiness about your own status, it makes you feel better and excited that they are viewing your profile. This theory is shown through Facebook by the ability of friends to react and comment that they like pictures, videos, and statuses which are ways to update a profile. The "liking" option on Facebook allows whoever posted the information to see that their friends are viewing their page and getting enjoyment from it. Those who post a lot of pictures, videos, wall posts and have a lot of friends can be considered sociable and have an extroverted personality (Francis, 1999). The presence of regular interpersonal communications, such as wall posts and comments, are likely to have a positive effect on one's satisfaction of Facebook (Diener,

Personality and Facebook 5 Sandvik & Payot, 1991). Valenzuela and Associates (2009) believe that these positive, frequent interactions are all correlated to high life satisfaction and happiness. Facebook can be used as a means of depicting how one desires to be, for example more extroverted and outgoing than introverted and quiet. Social networking is often described as a way "to interact with peers and gather feedback" (Pempek et al., 2009, p. 228). Facebook privacy settings are capable of being open (not confidential) or closed (confidential). This means each person who has a Facebook account has the choice to make their profile information readily available to everyone, or only to specific people such as their own friends. Levels of privacy can be changed and monitored by each person who has an account. With these privacy setting options, it is possible to protect specific aspects of the profile from certain people. Christofides, Muise, & Desmarais (2009) explain Facebook's social networks as memberships into a group of people such as city, school, or workplace. Membership in a network allows any current member of that network to see other network member's profiles. Thus, the membership to specific networks can make personal and revealing information accessible to friends as well as strangers. Facebook has a variety of information available to the users. This means that each user has the option to fill out "basic information (e.g. sex, hometown), contact information (e.g. mobile phone number, campus room/residence), and "personal" information (e.g. interests, favorite movies/music/books)" (Lewis et al., 2008, p.81). Another aspect of personality, specifically jealousy, has been associated with the use of Facebook. Muise, Christofides, and Desmarais (2009) report frequent Facebook users in romantic and sexual relationships have an increased amount of jealousy due to the open nature of the social networking site. The openness of expression and

Personality and Facebook 6 communication on Facebook may be a way to foster the negative and jealous impulses that individuals in relationships fear. The active interaction on Facebook may give rise to jealous impulses which otherwise may have not become aroused. The availability of "creeping" (filtering through someone's pictures, videos, wall posts, chat history, etc.) increases negative beliefs about the relationship. According to Muise and colleagues (2009), social interaction sites such as Facebook expose information about a partner that promotes jealousy. Personality traits such as jealousy, may contribute to the amount of time one spends on Facebook, as well as the amount of personal interaction used on Facebook including, wall posts, pictures(tagged by others and posted by self), status updates, and number of friends. Those who suspect a partner checks up on their Facebook may post less pictures, videos, and statuses as well as communicate less frequently via wall posts (which are public). According to Ross, Orr, Sisic, Arseneault, Simmering, & Orr (2009), there is more than identity presentation which influences the use of Facebook. This means that there are multiple factors which may contribute to the will and desire to self expression by means of Facebook. The characteristics of being either introverted or extroverted may be related to the way a person depicts themselves on Facebook. " The extrovert is a friendly person who seeks company, desires excitement, takes risks, and acts on impulse, whereas the introvert is a quiet, reflective person who prefers his or her own company and does not enjoy large social events; he or she does not crave excitement and may be seen by some as distant and remote" (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975). The concept of the real self is addressed in research conducted by Yair Amichai-Hamburger, Galit Wainapel, and Shaul Fox who state, "The discovery of the true self is essential in order for a person to

Personality and Facebook 7 express the real self in social interaction and receive social recognition for it" (AmichaiHamburger et al, 2002, p. 126). The real self can be measured in terms of categorizing a person as being introverted or extroverted. Previous research predicted that people are introverted because of their difficulties in social interactions and they will locate their "real me" through the internet. Extroverted people will locate their "real me" through traditional social interactions because they have no problems creating and maintaining normally developed relationships. The first hypothesis of this research is that extroverted people will use Facebook more socially than those who are introverted because they will feel more drawn to the social networking capabilities it offers. The second hypothesis is that extroverted people will have lower levels of privacy settings, and therefore allow more open viewing of personal information. The third hypothesis is that those who receive a survey with a confidentiality heading will answer the questionnaire more accurately. We feel they will be more accurate because they will not feel their answers are being judged or ridiculed. Method Approximately 200 Wilmington College Students participated in this research. These students voluntarily completed our survey. Once the survey was completed each subject was analyzed utilizing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The subject's survey was compared to their online profile to see what kind of discrepancy we might get from a participant's self report, versus the information he or she disclosed online. Certain indicators that we were going to look for, and compared with, on participant's profiles include the number of pictures they had posted themselves, pictures others had posted of them, wall posts, and number of friends each person has.

Personality and Facebook 8 Participants were chosen for this study using an availability convenience method. The individuals were all Wilmington College students enrolled in the Fall 2009 semester. Persons were enrolled in courses offered on the main campus. Surveyed individuals were mostly enrolled in general education classes in levels that ranged from freshman through capstone courses. These classes were chosen based on previous experiences with particular professors including prior enrollment in their classes. Classes were typically introductory courses in various subjects that include business, psychology, and fine arts. Introductory courses were selected as they traditionally have the highest enrollments, thus making the most effective use of our time administering surveys. The emphasis Wilmington College places on interdisciplinary studies for students still allows for adequate inclusion of various age ranges in our study. Our study consisted of two different versions of the same survey. The only difference between the normal survey and the confidential survey was the heading. The normal survey did not mention confidentiality in the title on each page (Appendix A). The confidential survey was composed of a title at the top of each page saying "Confidential Survey" (Appendix B). Additionally we included demographic questions as well as predictors of introversion and extroversion. These introversion and extroversion questions were adapted from an online survey developed to determine personality types created by Lenore Thompson (1998). See Appendix F for the personality measure questions created by Thompson. Some of the statements which were used to determine personality type include answering questions regarding words that best describe self (talkative, intense, open, reflective, well rounded, deep). We believe that personality type influences the way a person interacts and uses Facebook. In order to

Personality and Facebook 9 measure how a person uses Facebook "socially" we decided to look at the reported number of friends, pictures posted, and pictures tagged and compare them with the actual number of friends, pictures posted, and pictures tagged. These were used as a way to measure the social aspects of sharing information with friends on Facebook. We looked at the type of personality (extroversion or introversion) and compared it with individuals' reported privacy settings. Individuals with high privacy allow only those who are their friends to access their profile and see their information. Those who reported their profiles to be not private allow anyone who searches their name to access all their information. To ensure a high response rate, surveys were given to each of the classrooms before the professor began his/her session. With the professor's permission, the survey was distributed to all those willing to participate. Each session was given one of two surveys, which was decided before they were distributed randomly by flipping a coin. Two copies of a consent form were distributed with the survey. This form stated that participants were willing to disclose information through our survey. Each individual was given two copies of the consent form, one for them to keep, and a copy that was to be signed and returned to the researchers. Once everyone had a survey, the participants were directed to complete the survey using a standardized script that ensures that all participants were given the same instruction. Individuals who were uncomfortable or had doubts about participating were encouraged to drop out and not fill out their survey. Rare cases (less that 1%) included individuals who refused to take the survey, resulting in returning the instrument without

Personality and Facebook 10 completion. Others cases involved individuals who were only comfortable in partially completing the survey. These cases were rare, and dismissed from the research. Participants were viewed as volunteers. Subjects did not physically gain or benefit from participating in our study. Each individual filled out their survey out of a willingness to complete it, and was not enticed by any sort of compensation. This eliminates the chance of any compensation being viewed as a reward or influence as to how they answer the questions on their survey. Participants were assigned to one of these surveys prior to the instrument's administration. This made sure that each classroom had a random chance at getting either version of the survey. Each classroom, no matter the type of survey being administered was addressed identically. A developed script (Appendix G) was verbally presented to the participants before they begin our survey. This increased validity by reducing extraneous variables that might influence responses. Once collected, each individual's responses (approximations) were matched with the corresponding real data posted on their profile. Key observations were made noting significant differences between extroverted and introverted responses based on the type of survey each received. Results The first hypothesis of this study is those who are extroverted will use Facebook more socially in terms of number of friends; pictures posted, pictures tagged, and wall posts. We believe this is the case because extroverted people will want to share themselves with the online community more than introverted people will. The second hypothesis is that extroverted people will have lower privacy settings. We believe this

Personality and Facebook 11 would be the case because the extroverted people will not be concerned with keeping their identities and personal information private and instead share this information more openly with the online community. The last hypothesis of this study is that those who take the survey which stresses confidentiality will have more accurate answers than those who take the survey which does not stress confidentiality. We believe this will occur because the participants will not feel they are being judged or ridiculed for their use of Facebook. They will feel that their answers are completely confidential and no one will know what they are reporting so they can be honest. Those who receive the survey with no confidentiality header may feel like their answers will not be secret and that others will judge them if they have excessive amounts of friends, pictures, and other applications on Facebook. Therefore, those who answer the confidentiality survey will represent themselves more accurately on paper in regards to content submitted on their Facebook profiles. The independent variable for this study is the type of survey completed and the dependant variable is the accuracy of answers in regard to actual Facebook profiles. Significance levels in this study are reported as p>.05. The first hypothesis of this study was that extroverted people will use Facebook more socially. For this aspect we defined social use of Facebook as the number of friends, pictures posted, pictures tagged, and wall posts a person has on Facebook. The addition of all these aspects was called social aspect and that was put into an independent t test with the personality measure (extrovert or introvert). There was a significant effect for personality and social aspect, t(153) = 2.175, p=.031. This means that there was a significant difference between personality type and the social aspects of Facebook. This

Personality and Facebook 12 supports the hypothesis that personality type does in fact contribute to the social aspects of Facebook, including number of friends, pictures posted, pictures tagged, and wall posts. The second hypothesis was that extroverted people would report lower levels of privacy settings. An independent samples t test was used to evaluate the response of privacy settings and personality measure. There was not a significant effect for personality type and privacy settings, t(185)= .323, p= . 747. This means there was no significant difference in personality type and the level of privacy settings used on Facebook. The third hypothesis of this study was the participants who received the survey with the confidentiality heading would report more accurate responses in regard to number of Facebook friends, pictures tagged, pictures posted, and wall posts. There was a significant effect for type of survey and accuracy of social aspects, t(155)= -2.640, p= .009. This means there was significant findings when confidentiality heading was measured with the social aspect response. The type of survey did make a difference in the accuracy of responses. Missing data was cleaned up by coding the information as "missing". If the user did not have Facebook, did not put a name, or if left they failed to complete 1/3 or more of the survey, or refusal to accept the friend request, it was thrown out because this information is necessary for the evaluation of the survey content in comparison to the Facebook profile. The literature which was most relevant to our study was Francis (1999). This research reported those who are extroverted people have more pictures, videos, and wall

Personality and Facebook 13 posts as compared to introverted personalities. This is relevant because our study also found these results within the Wilmington College campus. Discussion The major concerns we had while conducting this research included people not filling in their names or putting fake manes. We knew if we did not get names that these surveys would have to be thrown out because we would need this information to look at their Facebook profiles in order to analyze accuracy. Another problem we thought we might have was defining race. We ended up with three categories for race: Caucasian, African American, and other. This is a problem because it isn't scientific (or accurate) to cluster many different races into one other group. It was often a problem for us if people had private profiles because we would have to enter all their demographics and personality responses into the computer and then wait for them to approve our friend request in order to see how many friends, tagged pictures, posted pictures, and wall posts they each had. We had some problems with people not wanting to add us, so we asked three times, and when that didn't work, I asked them. This luckily was accepted by the people so their profiles were able to be analyzed. We were also frustrated with students who filled out the survey with answers like "a lot" or "a little" in categories asking for specific number responses. A way to fix this would be to create scales for the numbers of pictures posted, tagged, friends, and wall posts. This would be easier for people to understand what the researchers are looking for as well as make easy categories to code. It would also be a good idea to change number of pictures posted personally to number of albums posted, because there was a group of

Personality and Facebook 14 people who were more able to recall the numbers of albums. It is also a lot easier to count total number of albums as opposed to the number of pictures posted. Certain unfavorable responses required coding. Coding dealt mostly with open ended questions, as well as responses that were not ideally answering our questions. The majority of the questions regarding each participant's profile included numerical data. Some individuals' estimations included responses such as "A couple hundred" or "not sure" to questions that were seeking a numeric response. These responses were coded as missing data to avoid skewing actual results. Questions that asked for a written response of a few words were coded into categories, such as categorizing individual participant's majors into more general groupings. Any data that could not be grouped or coded, were labeled missing and did not impact our results. The sample size was about 200 out of about 1,200 total students. This research included more than half, (64%) percent of students 19 years of age. Full synopsis of age of participants can be found in Table 3. Freshman made up (32%) of the data collected in this survey. There were no students who were above the age of 31 or below the age of 17. The majority of participants in this study were Caucasian at (85%). The vast variety of majors can be seen in Table 1. Most students were majoring in agriculture, business, athletic training, psychology, education or sports management. The majority of students participating in this study were freshman or sophomore level (see Table 2). Obtaining a wider variety of students might be a factor to consider in a larger scale study. It would be interesting to have a good amount of students who are typical college age, as well as the information for those who are significantly younger or older. See Table 3 for the statistics

Personality and Facebook 15 on age of participants for our study. This could give insight into how non-traditional students use Facebook in ways that are similar or a lot different from traditional students. It was sometimes difficult to get people to accept our friendship on Facebook. There were some people who we asked multiple times and on the third or fourth time they added us. We had to throw out a good amount of surveys which the participants didn't have Facebook accounts or had inactive Facebook accounts. It would be interesting to add a question to the survey asking why people do not have Facebook, or no longer use Facebook. Other issues we feel we had in our research dealt with our personality evaluation instrument. With an overwhelming majority of individuals testing with an extroverted personality, we feel a more thorough instrument may help give an even more accurate representation of our sample. For the future, a more thorough look at each participant in person may also shed some light as to the differences between individuals and their use of SNS'. An overwhelming majority of our participants were rated "Extroverted" by

our scale. This leads us to believe that the scale may not be accurate. Future research could look at the relationship between personality type and membership to an athletic team. One alternative hypothesis would be those who play a sport are more extroverted and they have more friends on Facebook. Another alternative hypothesis would be students in their third and fourth year would have more friends and be more extroverted on Facebook due to the increased number of relationships they developed over the extra years in college. Overall, this research really threw some light on Facebook and personal affiliation with the site. We surveyed a good percentage of Wilmington College students and many

Personality and Facebook 16 of these students were actively using Facebook. This suggests support that developing technological advances are opening the doors for new means of communication. There is a plethora of information which could be examined in regard to Facebook use and our study was an attempt to look at personality type and its influence on Facebook usage.

Personality and Facebook 17 Tables

m

i l a V

c i r g a a e l h t a m i n a g a i b u b m i r c u m o c c i f h p a r g g r m e t i l o p p s i h l a i c o s l e w g n e u q e h t a m o d e r u n t r o p s t r a c e d n u l m i n a 4 3 l a t o T

9 1 2 3 1 1 3 7 2 7 4 2 2 1 1 3 5 3 1 2 1 3 2 2 0 2 3 8 2 4 3 1 1 3 9 1 7 0 2

5 . 9 0 . 1 5 . 6 5 . 5 . 1 5 . 3 5 . 3 0 . 2 0 . 1 0 . 1 5 . 5 . 5 . 1 5 . 0 . 1 5 . 5 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 2 5 . 1 5 . 5 . 5 . 3

8 . 9 0 . 1 7 . 6 5 . 6 . 1 6 . 3 6 . 3 1 . 2 0 . 1 0 . 1 5 . 5 . 6 . 1 5 . 0 . 1 5 . 6 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 6 . 1 1 . 2 6 . 1 5 . 5 . 0

8 . 9

n

i

i

is M ta o T

t s y S

Table 1: College Major

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i l a V

e r f o s i n u j i n e s t i f a t o T t s y S

3 6 8 5 7 3 2 3 40 4 9 1 6 0 2

5 . 1 3 0 . 9 2 5 . 8 1 0 . 6 1 0 . 2 0 . 7 9 0 . 3

5 . 2 3 . 9 2 . 9 1 5 . 6 1 1 . 2

5 . 2 3 4 . 2 6 4 . 1 8 . 7 9

s i M a t o T

Table 2: Number of years in college

e g a

li a V

7 1 8 1 9 1 0 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 6 2 1 3 ta o T s y S t

1 6 3 4 6 5 3 7 3 3 1 4 1 2 1 4 9 1 6 0 2

5 .

5 .

5 .

5 . 7 1 5 . 8 1 5 . 6 0 . 2 5 . 0 . 1 5 . 0 . 7 9 0 . 3

0 . 8 1 . 9 1 7 . 6 1 . 2 5 . 0 . 1 5 .

1 . 0 7 2 . 9 8 . 5 9 . 7 9 5 . 8 9 5 . 9

is M ta o T

Table 3: Age of participants

Personality and Facebook 19 References Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Wainapel, G., & Fox, S. (2002). "On the internet no one knows I'm an introvert": extroversion, neuroticism, and internet interaction. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 5(2), 125-128. Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2009). Information disclosure and control on facebook: are they two sides of the same coin or two different processes? Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 12(3), 341-345. Diener, E., Sandvik, E., & Pavot, W. (1991). Happiness is the frequency, not the intensity, of positive versus negative affect. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwars (Eds.), Subjective well-being: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 119139). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press. Eysenck, H. J., & eysenck, S.E.G. (1975). Manual: Eysenck Personality Inventory. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Francis, L.J. (1999). Happiness is a thing called stable extraversion: A further examination of the relationship between the Oxford Happiness Inventory and Eysenck's dimensional model of personality and gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 5-11. Kahneman, D., & Krueger,A.B. (2006). Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(1), 3-24. Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two-component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 34-47. Lewis, K., Kaufman, J., & Christakis, N. (2008). The taste for privacy: an analysis of college student privacy settings in an online social network. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 14(1), 79-100. Madge, C., Meek, J., Wellens, J., Hooley, T. (2009). Facebook, Social Integration and Informal Learning at University `It is more for Socializing and Talking to Friends about work than for actually doing work'. Learning, Media and Technology, Vol. 34 (no. 2), 141-155. Muise, A., Christofides, E., & Desmarais, S. (2009). More information than you ever wanted: does facebook bring out the green-eyed monster of jealousy? Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 12(4), 441-444. \

Personality and Facebook 20 Pempek, T., Yermolayeva, Y., & Calvert, S. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 227-238 Ross, C., Orr, E., Sisic, M., Arseneault, J., Simmering, M., & Orr, R. (2009). Personality and motivations associated with Facebook use. Computers In Human Behavior, 25(2), 578-586. Thomson, Lenore (1998). Are You an Introvert?. Personality Type. Hudson Book Series. Shambhala Publicatons. Valenzuela, S., Park, N., & Kee, K. (2009). Is There Social Capital in a Social Network Site? Facebook Use and College Students' Life Satisfaction, Trust, and Participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(4), 875-901. Zuckerberg, Mark. http://blog.facebook.com/blog.php?post=190423927130

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Appendix A: Normal Heading Survey Social Networking and College Students Section I: Demographics In this section, we are asking you for specific information about yourself. This is not to identify or single you out in any way, but to better understand how different types of people answer these questions. If you are uncomfortable answering any of the questions, you may choose to leave them blank. Name:_____________________________ Race:_____________________________ Age:_______ Sex:_________________________ Major:_______________________ Number of Years in college:______

Section II: Use of Facebook Please answer the following questions about your Facebook habits. Do you have a Facebook account? 1. Yes 2. No (skip to Section III) What is the main reason you use Facebook?

How private is your facebook account? 1 Not Private 2 3 4 Somewhat Private 5 6 7 Completely Private

How often do you use Facebook to stay in touch with your friends?

Personality and Facebook 22 1 Never 2 3 4 Sometimes 5 6 7 All the time

Do you check to see what your friends are doing by looking at their pictures, wall posts, status updates, etc? 1. No 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes 4. Occasionally 5. Regularly Please estimate the number of each of the situations below: How many Facebook friends do you have? _________________ How many albums have you posted on Facebook? _________________ How many pictures are tagged of you on facebook? __________________ How many different people have written on your wall (in the past week)? ____________ Section III: Personality Traits Please answer the following questions about your personality. Circle the answer that best describes you. Even if neither option seems much like you, choose the one that is a closer fit. When you meet new people, do you: A. talk as much as you listen. B. listen more than you talk. Do you prefer a social life that includes: A. many friends and acquaintances. B. a few people that you feel close to. If a heavy snowfall keeps you from going to school or work, do you A. wonder what you're missing. B. enjoy the unexpected time alone.

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I usually... A. B.

think on my feet, as I'm talking. reflect on what I'm going to say before I say it.

When it comes to sharing what is important to me: A. People who know me are generally aware of what's important to me. B. I don't talk about what's important to me unless I feel close to someone. I get restless when..... A. I'm alone too long. B. I don't have enough time to myself. When I'm having a good time with others, A. I get energized and keep going. B. My energy runs out and I need space. When I'm on vacation, I am more likely to: A. spend time doing things with others. B. take time to read or walk or daydream alone. When I'm on vacation, I am more likely to: A. see famous landmarks. B. spend time in museums and quiet places The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. open B. reflective The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. talkative B. intense The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. well-rounded B. deep

Personality and Facebook 24 The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. straightforward B. reserved I would rather A. be admired for my work, even though I'm not satisfied with it myself B. create something of lasting worth, but remain unknown

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Appendix B: Confidentiality Heading Survey CONFIDENTIAL SURVEY Social Networking and College Students Section I: Demographics In this section, we are asking you for specific information about yourself. This is not to identify or single you out in any way, but to better understand how different types of people answer these questions. If you are uncomfortable answering any of the questions, you may choose to leave them blank. Name:_____________________________ Race:_____________________________ Age:_______ Sex:_________________________ Major:_______________________ Number of Years in college:______

Section II: Use of Facebook Please answer the following questions about your Facebook habits. Do you have a facebook account? 3. Yes 4. No (skip to Section III) What is the main reason you use facebook?

How private is your facebook account? 1 Not Private 2 3 4 Somewhat Private 5 6 7 Completely Private

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CONFIDENTIAL SURVEY How often do you use facebook to stay in touch with your friends? 1 Never 2 3 4 Sometimes 5 6 7 All the time

Do you check to see what your friends are doing by looking at their pictures, wall posts, status updates, etc? 6. No 7. Rarely 8. Sometimes 9. Occasionally 10. Regularly Please estimate the number of each of the situations below: How many facebook friends do you have? _________________ How many albums have you posted on facebook? _________________ How many pictures are tagged of you on facebook? __________________ How many different people have written on your wall (in the past week)? ____________ Section III: Personality Traits Please answer the following questions about your personality. Circle the answer that best describes you. Even if neither option seems much like you, choose the one that is a closer fit. When you meet new people, do you: C. talk as much as you listen. D. listen more than you talk. Do you prefer a social life that includes: C. many friends and acquaintances. D. a few people that you feel close to.

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CONFIDENTIAL SURVEY If a heavy snowfall keeps you from going to school or work, do you C. wonder what you're missing. D. enjoy the unexpected time alone. I usually... A. B.

think on my feet, as I'm talking. reflect on what I'm going to say before I say it.

When it comes to sharing what is important to me: A. People who know me are generally aware of what's important to me. B. I don't talk about what's important to me unless I feel close to someone. I get restless when..... A. I'm alone too long. B. I don't have enough time to myself. When I'm having a good time with others, A. I get energized and keep going. B. My energy runs out and I need space. When I'm on vacation, I am more likely to: A. spend time doing things with others. B. take time to read or walk or daydream alone. When I'm on vacation, I am more likely to: A. see famous landmarks. B. spend time in museums and quiet places The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. open B. reflective The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. talkative B. intense

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CONFIDENTIAL SURVEY The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. well-rounded B. deep The word that best describes the way I see myself is... A. straightforward B. reserved I would rather A. be admired for my work, even though I'm not satisfied with it myself B. create something of lasting worth, but remain unknown

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Appendix C: Informed Consent Long Form Informed Consent Long Form This is to certify that I, ____________________, hereby agree to participate as volunteer in a scientific investigation as an authorized part of the education and research program of Wilmington College under the supervision of ________________________________. The investigation and my part in the investigation have been defined and fully explained to me by the investigator(s), and I understand this explanation. A copy of the procedures of this investigation and a description of any risks and discomforts has been provided to me and has been discussed in detail with me. I have been given an opportunity to ask whatever questions I may have had and all such questions and inquiries have been answered to my satisfaction. I understand that I am free to deny any answers to specific items or questions in interviews or medical history questionnaires. I understand that any data or answers to questions will remain confidential with regard to my identity, I understand that, in the event of injury resulting from this investigation, neither financial compensation nor free medical treatment is provided for such an injury. I certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief, I have fully disclosed any physical illness (or mental illness) or weakness that would increase the risk to me from participation in this investigation. I FURTHER UNDERSTAND THAT I AM FREE TO WITHDRAW MY CONSENT AND TERMINATE MY PARTICIPATION AT ANY TIME. _____________ Date ______________ Date of Birth ___________________________________ Subject's Signature

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Appendix D: IRB Proposal Form Title of Investigation: Social Networking and College Students Investigators: CJ Potter and Kendra Cozzens, Erinn Green, PhD, Mary Ellen Batiuk Purpose of Study: Because the validity of the results could be affected if the purpose of the study is fully divulged to me prior to my participation, I understand that the purpose of the study can not be explained to me at this time. I understand that I will have an opportunity to receive and complete explanation of the study's purpose following my participation in the study. Procedures: Participants will be required to take the assigned personality test. This test will be the source of data to determine the level of introversion/extraversion. Confidentiality will be maintained by the examiners as well as supervisor Erinn Green PhD. Any subject that feels uncomfortable with questions asked is encouraged to terminate their participation in the study immediately. This can be done by communicating with any of the following examiners (C.J. Potter, Kendra Cozzens, Erinn Green PhD.). Discomforts and Risks: There are minimal risks involved with the study. All surveys and observations are kept confidential, and private at all times. All results are to be reported with statistical data and Potential Benefits: Participation in this study will lead to insights as to the structure of the social atmosphere at Wilmington College. Participants who are curious or interested in learning more about their own social life, as well as the social life of their peers will benefit the most from this study. Period of Time Required: The only time required of this is the time necessary to fill out the questionnaire. Contact Person: C.J. Potter, Kendra Cozzens, Erinn Green, PhD, Mary Ellen Batiuk, PhD

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Appendix E: IRB Approval Form, Signed by Dean

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Appendix F: Introversion and Extroversion Measures Adapted from: Thomson, Lenore (1998). Are You an Introvert?. Personality Type. Hudson Book Series. Shambhala Publicatons. When you meet new people, do you A. talk as much as you listen? B. listen more than you talk? Do you prefer a social life that includes A. many friends and acquaintances? B. a few people that you feel close to? If a heavy snowfall keeps you from going to school or work, do you A. wonder what you're missing? B. enjoy the unexpected time alone? A. I usually think on my feet, as I'm talking. B. I usually reflect on what I'm going to say before I say it. A. People who know me are generally aware of what's important to me. B. I don't talk about what's really important to me unless I feel close to someone. A. I get restless when I'm alone too long. B. I get restless when I don't have enough time to myself. A. When I'm having a good time with others, I get energized and keep going. B. When I'm having a good time with others, my energy runs out and I need space. When you're on vacation, are you more likely to: A. spend time doing things with others? B. take time to read or walk or daydream alone? A. see famous landmarks? B. spend time in museums and quiet places? Which word best describes the way you see yourself? A. open B. reflective

Personality and Facebook 33 A. expansive B. intense A. well-rounded B. deep A. straightforward B. reserved Would you rather A. be admired for your work, even though you're not satisfied with it yourself? B. create something of lasting worth, but remain unknown?

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Appendix G: Script read to each class Good Morning. My name is ________, and I'm conducting research to try and examine how people express themselves here at Wilmington College. If you don't mind filling out this survey it would really help. The survey shouldn't take long; there are questions about Facebook, as well as some that help evaluate your personality. Two forms are also given to you with the survey, one is for you to keep- you can simply tear it off and take it with you. The other should be left stapled to the survey. This form states that you are willing to fill out our survey and be a part of our research. Thank You."

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