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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

Project No.:

Project:

TCF20

Spec. No.:

HELIUM LIQUEFIER / REFRIGERATOR TCF20

Technical Description

03 02 Rev.

25.11.02 29.04.02 Date

Les Les by

Revised for SIMATIC Description TECHN. SALES QUAL MAN.

Cover page of 20 pages

TechnicaldescriptionTCF20 - Rev 03.doc

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

TABLE OF CONTENTS PLANT FEATURES PROCESS DESCRIPTION 2.1 Liquefier Process 2.2 Integrated Automatic Freeze-out Purifier 3 DESCRIPTION OF MAIN PARTS OF THE LIQUEFIER 3.1 Coldbox, integrated purifier and control cabinet 3.1.1 Coldbox with integrated purifier 3.1.2 Integrated control cabinet 3.2 Compressor with oil removal system 3.3 Coaxial transferline 3.4 Pure gas buffer vessel 3.5 Recovered Helium Gas Drier 4 PLANT PERFORMANCE 4.1 Liquefaction capacity 4.2 Liquefaction capacity (Optional version with LN2 precooling) 4.3 Design basis for performance data 4.4 Impact of air impurities on the liquefaction rate 4.5 Cool down time 5 DIMENSIONS AND UTILITIES 5.1 Coldbox Layout 5.2 Coldbox Utility requirements 5.3 Screw Compressor: Typical technical data 5.3.1 Layout 5.3.2 Compressor utility requirements, water cooled type 5.3.3 Compressor utility requirements, air cooled type 5.5 Pressure Control Panel (PCP) 5.6 Recovered Helium Gas Drier 5.7 Pure gas buffer vessel (horizontal design) 6 CONTROL SYSTEM 6.1 Standard control system 6.2 Option ­ Remote Monitoring and Control System (RMCS) 6.3 Option ­ Remote diagnostics (RD) 7 CODES AND STANDARDS 8 TCF20 MAINTENANCE AND SERVICE SCHEDULE (RECOMMENDATION) 8.1 Daily (if operated) 8.2 500 hours of operation (or monthly) 8.3 4'000 hours of operation (every) or annually 8.4 12'000 hours of operation (every) 8.4.1 Compressor: 8.4.2 Oil Removal System: 8.4.3 Liquefier: 8.5 24'000 hours 9 RESERVATION TO MODIFY 10 CONTACT ADDRESS 1 2 1 2 2 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18

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THIS DOCUMENT IS THE PROPERTY OF LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG, AND IS LENT WITHOUT CONSIDERATION THAN THE BORROWER'S AGREEMENT THAT IT SHALL NOT BE PRODUCED, COPIED, LENT, OR DISPOSED OF DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY NOR USED FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE OTHER THAN THAT FOR WHICH IT IS SPECIFICALLY FURNISHED. THIS DOCUMENT IS LENT SUBJECT TO RETURN ON DEMAND.

LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

1 PLANT FEATURES TCF20 is a standard Helium Liquefier of Linde Kryotechnik AG using the latest technology in Helium liquefaction. A capacity ranging from 20 to 80 litres/hour is available by using different compressors and/or LN2 pre-cooling. Some of its features, which make TCF20 an ideal liquefier for a laboratory or a production facility are as follows. · TCF20 uses turboexpanders. Operating on dynamic gas bearings, these are highly reliable, are not subject to wear and require no maintenance. · TCF20 accepts recycled helium gas contaminated with up to 20% air. The decrease of liquefaction capacity is remarkable low. 2% impurity reduces the liquefaction capacity by 12% only. · TCF20 uses a lubricated screw compressor. This is the most reliable type of compressor available for helium service, with very low maintenance requirements, high efficiency and low noise level. All parts like motor, screw and others are easily accessible. · TCF20 is using only rotating machinery with the result of a vibration free operation. · TCF20 can operate without maintenance for any period up to 8.000 hours and requires an absolute minimum of maintenance. · TCF20 is fully automatic during operating modes including cool-down and warm-up. · TCF20 is equipped with the newest process control technology. The man machine interface is an operator panel at the local control board. · TCF20 stops automatically when the LHe storage dewar is full (option). · TCF20 allows to install a printer with serial port for log readings (option). · TCF20 can be equipped with a remote On-Off signal (option). · TCF20 can be equipped with a remote monitoring and control system (RMCS) utilising a standard personal computer screen (option).

Technical description TCF20

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION

2.1 Liquefier Process The liquefaction process is achieved by using a `Claude-cycle'. Reference is made to following figure which shows the liquefaction process.

PURE FEED BUFFER

ORS Air Blow Down

GN2

LN2

HX14

IMPURE FEED GAS

HX 1

HX10 HX11

HX 2 F2

T1 HX 3

HX12 A7

T2

HX 4

HX 5

COLDBOX

DEWAR

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

Recycle compressor Pure helium is compressed by an oil injected screw compressor from 1.05 bar to approximately 12.5 bar (dependant on the chosen size of compressor). The compression heat is being removed by an either air or water cooled after cooler. Residual oil is removed from the helium by the oil removal system (ORS) to ensure that it does not contaminate the liquefier. The oil removal is performed in several stages by two coalescers and an oil vapour charcoal adsorber. Coldbox The pure high pressure gas is fed to the cold box and cooled in heat exchanger HX 1, which is also equipped with passages for liquid nitrogen cooling. The gas passes through HX2, where the flow is divided into two streams. The larger stream passes first turboexpander T1, then as medium pressure gas heat exchanger HX3 and is finally expanded to process low pressure in the second turboexpander. Two turboexpanders arranged in series produce the necessary refrigeration by adiabatic work extraction to pre-cool helium below its inversion temperature. The low pressure gas returns through heat exchanger HX4 ­ HX1 to the compressor suction. The remaining stream is cooled as Joule-Thomson flow in heat exchangers E3110 A through E3110 B, passing a guard adsorber A7 between HX3 and HX4 to remove potential impurities such as hydrogen and neon, and then being expanded in the Joule-Thomson valve, where it partially liquefies. The twophase mixture is then fed to the dewar vessel or experiment cryostat, where the liquid is separated from the vapour and collected. Liquid helium is either stored (in case of a liquefier) or circulated through an experiment (in case of a refrigerator). The flash gas is returned through the low pressure passages of the heat exchangers HX5 to HX1 and then fed to the suction of the compressor. The Linde gas bearing turboexpander The LINDE gas bearing turboexpander is a small single-stage centripetal turbine that drives a directly coupled single-stage centrifugal brake compressor. The turbine is equipped with self-acting gas bearings. The maximum admissible speed of the turbine amounts to 4'800 rps for type TGL16

The lubrication of the self-acting bearings is assured automatically and without fail during all operation modes of the turboexpander. Furthermore self-acting bearings run very stable and are extremely reliable since they require no gas supply with its indispensable control system. The main components of the turbine are the turbine housing, the rotor, the bearing housing and the brake compressor housing. The turbine housing, made of austenitic steel, is attached to the valve plate of the cold box and projects vertically into the vacuum space of the cold box. All inner parts of the turbine can be easily removed for servicing and fitted again from the outside without touching the vacuum insulation. The vertically positioned rotor is equipped with a turbine runner and a compressor impeller both of an aluminium alloy. The bearings and the compressor operate at ambient temperature. The turbine speed is measured by a magnetic induction sensor and converted into standard electronic signals. Automatic speed control acts on a control valve at the brake compressor circuit. The speed indicator has an adjustable contact for the overspeed safety trip. The work which the turbine withdraws from the process stream is transferred into the brake compressor circuit and rejected as heat to the cooling water in a helium gas-to-water heat exchanger.

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

The turbine is simple in design and features high operating reliability and excellent performance. Any contamination of the process gas is excluded. More than six hundred gas bearing turboexpanders operating world-wide have proven their reliability to the satisfaction of our customers. Please refer to the attached turbo expander drawing.

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

2.2 Integrated Automatic Freeze-out Purifier In order to avoid blockage by frozen impurities, only pure helium may be used in the liquefaction process. An integrated purifier allows to accept helium gas contaminated with up to 20% air. Impure helium feedgas delivered from a high pressure storage vessel (150 - 200 bar) is fed to the purifier via a pressure reducer at 30 bar. As a first step traces of moisture are removed from the helium in a separate delivered line dryer. Cooling of the helium and air impurities to about 65 K. The liquefied air is collected in the condenser and released via a heat exchanger to the atmosphere. Freezing out of residual impurities and adsorption of neon and hydrogen in a special cold adsorber at approximately 30 K. Regeneration of the purifier is initiated automatically upon its frozen impurity loading and follows a predetermined procedure: pressure release ð warming up ð purging ð cool down The purge gas is fed to the recovery unit. The necessary refrigeration for the cryogenic purification is provided by a small flow of cold helium gas taken from the main process. After final purification the helium is fed directly into the liquefaction cycle high pressure side or to the pure gas buffer vessel. The pure gas buffer vessel is used to provide pure gas during cool-down of the liquefier and during the regeneration of the purifier. Once purification starts the pure gas buffer vessel is refilled automatically with pure helium.

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

3 DESCRIPTION OF MAIN PARTS OF THE LIQUEFIER

3.1 Coldbox, integrated purifier and control cabinet 3.1.1 Coldbox with integrated purifier § § § § § § § Vacuum insulated coldbox Dynamic gas bearing expansion turbines with direct-coupled, single stage centrifugal compressor, water-cooled Vacuum-brazed plate-fin aluminum heat exchangers Electrically driven cold valves Freeze-out purifier with automatic liquid air drainage Cold guard adsorber Thermal losses are reduced to a minimum by multi-layer superinsulation and high vacuum, consisting of a two stage rotary pump and vapour diffusion pump.

OPTION: § LN2 precooling equipment

3.1.2 Integrated control cabinet § § § § § § Programmable logic controller Man-machine-interface by an operator panel with LCD display for indication of important process parameters (pressures, temperatures, status reports etc.) Safe shut down after power failures etc. Transmitters for important process parameters Electrical connections, power supply and distribution Coldbox vacuum indicator

OPTIONS: § § 3.2 § § § § § § § § § § Remote monitoring by a standard personal computer, incl. process visualisation, trend curves and log sheets. Remote On-Off signal Compressor with oil removal system Single stage oil-injected screw compressor, helium leak tight Electric motor direct driven Standard supply: 400V/3ph/50 cycles, other available as option Air or water cooling Bulk oil separator Electric switch gear Control devices Foundation free installation Sound proof casing Skid mounted

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

OIL REMOVAL SYSTEM (ORS): § § § Skid mounted unit with Two-stage coalescers system Oil vapour charcoal adsorber

PRESSURE CONTROL PANEL (PCP): § Pre-assembled and packaged panel comprising valves, pressure gauges and pressure switches for gas management

OPTIONS: § § Special design for outdoor installation of compressor Alternative power supplies on customer's request

3.3 Coaxial transferline For connection of the coldbox and the customer supplied dewar a rigid coaxial transferline is available. § § § § Permanent vacuum insulated with multi-layer radiation shielding Combined flow and return (pipe in pipe) Safety valve and evacuation port for vacuum space Allows up to 2 metres separation between cold box and dewar in accordance with the specification

OPTIONS: § Other lengths available on request

3.4 Pure gas buffer vessel Pure gas buffer vessel, different sizes are used for different liquefaction capacities. Please refer to chapter 5.4 3.5 Recovered Helium Gas Drier § § § Vertically mounted desiccant bed Pressure gauges and regulator Thermostatically controlled heater for regeneration

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

4 PLANT PERFORMANCE

4.1 Liquefaction capacity The following table shows typical liquefaction rates without LN2-precooling using helium grade A (99.996%). Liquefaction capacity without LN2-precooling 18 l/h 30 l/h 37 l/h Compressor type and motor rating *) DSD 141 / 75 kW / 50Hz DSD 201 / 110 kW / 50 Hz DSD 241 / 132 kW / 50 Hz

*) Compressor data: see. chapter. 5.2.2 The liquefaction capacity of helium contaminated with up to 2% of air impurities will decrease by approximately 12% compared to the liquefaction capacity of pure helium gas. The given data are subject to a +/- 10% tolerance. 4.2 Liquefaction capacity (Optional version with LN2 precooling) The following table shows typical liquefaction rates with LN2-precooling using helium grade A (99.996%).

Liquefaction capacity with LN2-precooling 36 l/h 57 l/h 78 l/h

Compressor motor rating*) DSD 141 / 75 kW / 50 Hz DSD 201 / 110 kW / 50 Hz DSD 241 / 132 kW / 50 Hz

*) Compressor data: see. chapter. 5.2.3

The liquefaction capacity of helium contaminated with up to 2% of air impurities will decrease by approximately 12% compared to the liquefaction capacity of pure helium gas. The indicated data are subject to a +/- 10% tolerance. 4.3 Design basis for performance data · · · · · · approx. 4.6 K measured at rising level of liquid helium in a regular functioning dewar, purifier not in operation. LN2 consumption: approximately 0.8 ...1.0 liter LN2 per liter of liquid Helium Feed gas: pressure min. 25 bar quality of Helium grade A (99.996%) Ambient temperature: 21°C Cooling water temperature: 21°C

8 29.04.2002/Les

LHe-temperature: Liquefaction rate:

Technical description TCF20

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

· Atmospheric pressure: 1.013 bar

4.4 Impact of air impurities on the liquefaction rate The data shown are for information and not subject to guarantee.

100%

90%

80%

Liquefaction rate % of pure gas capacity

70%

60%

50%

0%

5%

10% % Impurity in feedgas

15%

20%

4.5 Cool down time Typical cool down time of the coldbox from ambient temperature to operating temperature is about 2 (4) hours with (without) LN2 pre-cooling.

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5

DIMENSIONS AND UTILITIES

5.1

Coldbox Layout The same dimensions apply for a coldbox with or without LN2-precooling and with or without integrated purifier.

Dimensions: Length: Width: Height: Weight: 1'280 kg, approx. 1'985 mm 1'100 mm 2'227 mm

Please note: The minimum room height to remove internals is 3'800 mm 5.2 Coldbox Utility requirements Power Cooling water: 400 V / 50 Hz / 3 phase / 3 kW 0.4 m3/hour; 3 - 6 bar, 10 ­ 25 °C Preferred water from a closed cycle to be used. By means of an open water cycle corrosion might occur. In this case a water analysis is necessary for decision of further necessities. Helium gas: For pure gas liquefaction Helium Grade A (= 99,996 Vol%) For recovered Helium to enter line drier before integrated purifier following quality is required: § Water: < 200 vpm Air: < 20 Vol% § Argon: < 1 Vol% Neon: < 20 vpm § Hydrogen < 20 vpm LN2 consumption: 0.8 .....1 ltr / 1 ltr LHe, saturated liquid

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

5.3 Screw Compressor: Typical technical data

5.3.1

Layout The compressor is manufactured by KAESER, Germany.

5.3.2 Compressor utility requirements, water cooled type Motor [kW] 110 132 Type DSD201 DSD241 Size L x B x H [m] 2.23 x 1.96 x 1.86 2.23 x 1.96 x 1.86 Weight [kg] 3'300 3'400 SL [dB(A)] 71 72 Water [m3/h] T=15 °C 6.7 8.1 Oil content[ltr] 72 72

In addition 4'800 ...5'000 m3/h of ambient cooling air are vented by a fan integrated into the compressor (heat dissipation approximately 10% of power input). 5.3.3 Compressor utility requirements, air cooled type Motor [kW] 110 132 SL: T: Type DSD201 DSD241 Size L x B x H [m] 2.23 x 1.96 x 1.86 2.23 x 1.96 x 1.86 Weight [kg] 3'300 3'400 SL [dB(A)] 71 72 Air [m3/h] 14'000 21'000 T [K] 23 24

Sound level (Distance: 1m, according to CAGI Pneurop) Temperature difference: cooling water inlet/outlet or cooling air inlet/outlet + 3°C to + 41°C 400 V / 50 cycles / 3-phases

Ambient (cooling) air temperature: Standard power supply:

Other power voltages and frequencies are available upon request.

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

5.4 Oil removal system (ORS) Dimensions: Length: Width: Height: Weight: 0.7 m 0.8 m 2.4 m 200 kg

5.5 Pressure Control Panel (PCP)

Dimensions: Length: Width: Height: Weight: 0.8 m 0.42 m 0.8 m 50 kg

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5.6 Recovered Helium Gas Drier

Dimensions: Length: Width: Height: Weight: approx. 0.3 m 0.3 m 1.9 m 75 kg

5.7 Pure gas buffer vessel (horizontal design)

Liquefaction capacity Volume: Design pressure:

30 ltr/hr

55 ltr/hr

75 ltr/hr

3 m3 -1/+16 barg

6 m3 -1/+16 barg

8 m3 -1/+16 barg

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6 CONTROL SYSTEM

6.1 Standard control system The integrated control system features the selection of automatic operation of the liquefier plant. The man-machine communication is provided via the function keys of the text display. The standard control system is a SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 type with a SIMATIC OP270-6" type operator panel which is designed primarily for use as a stand-alone control and monitoring system. It may also be used as slave station within a network of other (supervising) devices. Communication with such devices is via an integrated interface (multipoint interface-MPI). The CPU includes a 100-event buffer with a time stamp. Both hardware and software are designed to be flexible. The S7 has a powerful integrated operating system. The software environment for program development is STEP® 7 with the CFC (continuos function chart) engineering tool. It is a very simple and user-friendly software and it runs on Windows TM 95 or higher. The S7 is programmed by means of an instruction list or with relay symbols for ladder diagrams. The S7 accepts all possible process signals (voltage, current, frequency etc.). For this purpose standard and special interface boards are available. More and detailed information can be obtained from the enclosed system overview for standard configuration. Standard control system

SIMATIC S7-300

OPERATOR PANEL OP270-6"

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LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG

6.2 Option ­ Remote Monitoring and Control System (RMCS) The remote monitoring and control system (RMCS) is an additional equipment with a standard personal computer, which is capable of both monitoring and control of the process. The key functions are: · · · · · · · Remote on/off of the compressor, liquefier, purifier Displays of control loop status, including process variable input, controller set points etc. Display of process variables, valves adjustments manual or automatic mode Trend recording Alarms to advise the operator of abnormal process conditions Dynamic color graphic displays Plotting of snapshots, log sheets, alarm listing etc.

Following items belong to the remote monitoring and control system: · · · · Standard personal computer (actual standard class) Color ink bubble jet printer MPI interface cable from OP270-6" to PC approx. 5 mtr of length Linde software for process visualization based on WINCC

Figure: Remote monitoring and control system:

SIMATIC S7-300

MPI MPI

PC

OPERATOR PANEL OP 270-6"

PRINTER

Graphical User Interface:

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6.3 Option ­ Remote diagnostics (RD)

Satelite Phone

SIMATIC S7-300

Computer

Modem

Linde Kryotechnik AG - Homeoffice at Pfungen Switzerland - Online visualisation of plant status at site - Online modification of parameters - Online up-date possibilities

OPERATOR PANEL OP270-6"

If the visualization option is chosen, following remote diagnostics service could be additionally installed.

7 CODES AND STANDARDS Pressure vessels (with exception of the ASME heat exchangers inside the coldbox) are designed and built in accordance with the German pressure vessel codes and standards. Upon request (option) the design and manufacture can be matched to other standards. As per standard we offer: Pressure vessel design: Certificates: Piping: Electrical Equipment: Other Standards: acc. to AD Merkblätter (Germany) and/or ASME Section VIII ­ Div.1 acc. PED 97/23/EC (European) or ASME Section VIII ­ Div.1 acc. DIN acc. IEC/VDE Linde Standards

Third party inspection for pressure vessels will be done by TÜeV resp. SVTI (= Schweizer Verein für Technische Inspektion). LINDE AG is certified by ISO 9001. Linde Kryotechnik AG uses a quality management system similar to the requirements of ISO 9001. Linde Kryotechnik AG sub-suppliers and workshops as well are certified by ISO 9001.

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8 TCF20 MAINTENANCE AND SERVICE SCHEDULE (RECOMMENDATION)

8.1 Daily (if operated) · Check display and take log readings.

8.2 500 hours of operation (or monthly) · · · Check compressor air inlet (filter mesh) for contamination, clean or replace as necessary. Check oil level of the compressor and top up with correct oil if necessary. Regenerate feed gas drier.

8.3 4'000 hours of operation (every) or annually · · · · Check aftercooler in air cooled compressor for contamination, clean if necessary. Check condition of flexible hoses in compressor, where fitted. Leak check for helium loss. Grease motor bearings

8.4 12'000 hours of operation (every) 8.4.1 Compressor: · · · Check water cooler. Clean if necessary (only water cooled version) Check oil filter. Change if necessary. Check separator element. Change if necessary.

8.4.2 Oil Removal System: · · · Check coalescer filter elements and change if necessary. Change carbon charge in adsorber. Change after filter element.

8.4.3 Liquefier: · · · · · · · Check safety and control switch settings. Check tightness of pipes and connections. Change vacuum pump oil. Check operation and settings of all control and safety switches. Check all electrical connections for tightness. Check cryogenic valves Check switches, contacts, relays, plugs and gauges

8.5 24'000 hours · Integral compressor check, change bearing if necessary

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9 RESERVATION TO MODIFY Technical modifications will be reserved, in case these modifications will have the effect of improvements.

10 CONTACT ADDRESS For additional information please contact:

LINDE KRYOTECHNIK AG Daettlikonerstraße 5 P.O.Box CH-8422 Pfungen Fax: Tel: E-mail: Internet: (+41) 52 304 05 50 (+41) 52 304 05 55 [email protected] www.linde-kryotechnik.ch

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