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Preliminary Technical Information

September 1996

Lupasol® Product Range

Polymeric Amines - Polyethylenimines

® = Registered Trademark

Lupasol FG Lupasol G 20 waterfree Lupasol PR 8515 Lupasol WF Lupasol FC Lupasol G 20 Lupasol G 35 Lupasol G 100 Lupasol HF Lupasol P Lupasol PS Lupasol SK Lupasol SNA

Colorants and Process Chemicals

Lupasol® Product Range

Chemical Composition Lupasol products are polymeric amines mainly based on homopolymeric polyethylenimines. Polyethylenimines can be described in the following general formula: - ( CH2 - CH2 - NH )n - ; n = 10 - 105 Homopolymeric polyethylenimines are branched, spherical polyamines with a well defined ratio of primary, secondary and tertiary amine functions. They are best described in the following partial structural formula:

H2N H N N H N N N H

H2N

The chemical structure of homopolymeric polyethylenimines follows a simple principle: one amine function - two carbon groups. Lupasol products are usually obtained through polymerization of the ethylenimine monomer. The ethylenimine monomer has totally reacted in the polymer matrix.

Characteristics

Lupasol products are clear to slightly turbid, colorless to yellow liquids. Depending on the molecular weight and water contents they vary in viscosity. The following table contains the most important data of all Lupasol types. These figures are average values from many different production lots. Detailed specifications are available on request.

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Lupasol® Product Range

LUPASOL Unit

Appearance Viscosity at 20°C (approx.) [mPa s] Concentration in Water Water contents (approx.) Pour Point Boiling Point Flame Point Decomposition Temperature (Onset)

[%]

.

FG

G 20 wfr PR 8515 WF

FC

G 20

G 35

G 100

HF

P

PS

SK

SNA

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

liquid

3 000

5 000

12 000

200 000

250

350

450

1 200

14 000

24 000

1 400

750

500

> 98

> 98

> 98

> 99

50

50

50

50

56

50

33

24

24

[%]

<2

<2

<2

<1

50

50

50

50

44

50

67

76

76

[°C]

-18

-16

-9

-3

-24

-24

-18

-18

-20

-3

-5

0

0

[°C]

>> 200

>> 200

>> 200

>> 200

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

[°C]

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

> 100

[°C]

340

340

340

270

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Density at 20°C (approx.) [g/cm³] pH-Value (1% in Water) pKa-Value Charge Density based on [meq/g] 100% Lupasol (pH 4.5) Molecular Weight (Mw)

D

1,03

1,03

1,05

1,10

1,08

1,08

1,08

1,08

1,08

1,09

35278,00

1,06

1,06

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

8,3

8,3

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

7 - 10

16

16

16

17

16

16

16

17

17

20

20

8

9,5

800

1 300

2 000

25 000

800

1 300

2 000

5 000

25 000

750 000

750 000

2 000 000

1 000 000

Light Scattering Ratio of prim:sec:tert

1:0,82:0,53 1:0,91:0,64 1:0,92:0,70 1:1,20:0,76 1:0,86:0,42 1:0,91:0,64 1:0,94:0,67 1:1,05:0,76 1:1,20:0,76 1:1,07:0,77 1:1,07:0,77 -

amines Labelling

EEC Xn Xn Xn Xn none none none none none none none none none

Colorants and Process Chemicals

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Lupasol® Product Range

Viscosity The temperature dependence of Lupasol products is important for transport, storage and application. Lupasol products can be heated up for a short time to lower the viscosity without altering their characteristics.

Viscosity 1000000 [mPa.s] 100000 10000 Lupasol WF 1000 100 10 1 0 20 40 60 Temperature [°C] 80 100 Lupasol P Lupasol PR 8515

Lupasol products are miscible with water at any concentration. The viscosity dependence versus water content of some Lupasol products is shown in the following graph:

Viscosity at 20°C 1000000 [mPa.s] 100000 10000 1000 Lupasol PR 8515 100 10 1 0 50 Lupasol Content [%] 100 Lupasol WF Lupasol P

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Lupasol® Product Range

Solubility Lupasol products are soluble in polar solvents. Because solvents based on aldehydes or ketones react with Lupasol, they should be avoided.

FG G20wfr 8515 WF FC G20 Water + + + + + + Methanol + + + + + + Ethylacetate o o o o o o THF o o o o o o Toluene o o o n-Hexane + = soluble, o = partly soluble, - = insoluble G35 + + o o G100 + + o o HF + + P + + PS + + SK + + SNA + + -

Storage

Under the proper conditions Lupasol products can be stored for at least 12 months. Lupasol products should be stored in a dry and cool place within tightly sealed original packaging. High temperatures and direct sunlight can result in a colored product and surface films. At temperatures below 0°C Lupasol products can solidify. Upon short term heating up to 80°C maximum this state is reversible. Local overheating should be avoided. Upon storage in tanks exposure to air should be avoided. In contact with oxygen Lupasol products can change color. Carbon dioxide and water are absorbed by Lupasol products. Therefore an inerting with nitrogen is recommended. Lupasol products can be stored in stainless steel or in a variety of plastic (PP, PE, PVC...) containers. Iron containing materials can form a brown color with Lupasol products. Copper and copper containing materials should also be avoided for they give a blue colored complex.

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Lupasol® Product Range Application

Lupasol products belong to the class of cationic polymers. For their structure is always one amine nitrogen and two carbon groups, they are the cationic polymer class with the highest density of cationic charges per molecule or per weight. Lupasol products being the most cationic polymer class stick to various polar surfaces very effectively. Their branched and spherical nature with many additional cationic anchor points allows fixation of substrates onto these surfaces. The resulted adhesion is usually exceptional high. Lupasol products have a strong surface active character and function at the interface between two substrates. They can be applied as an additive in one of the substrates, as building blocks in a polymer matrix or as a primer on a specific surface. Lupasol products work as bifunctional molecular adhesive tapes. They function in low concentartion or as thin films (monomolecular layer). 1 mg of homopolymeric polyethylenimines can totally cover an area of approx. 2 m² of a non porous surface with a monomolecular layer.

Compatibility

Lupasol products as cationic polymers are compatible with cationic or non ionic systems. Lupasol products form salts with anionic systems. In solution these salts can drop out. Anionic dispersions can be broken by Lupasol products. This negative effects can be used in a postive way by applying Lupasol products as a primer on a surface and overlay with an anionic system. Lupasol products react with aldehydes and ketones. Solvents or chemicals based on this chemistry should be avoided. Lupasol grades can interfer with dyes and colored pigments due to their cationic nature. A change in the coloristic behavior can occur.

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Lupasol® Product Range

Adhesion on Surfaces Lupasol products stick to a large variety of surfaces very effectively just because of their cationic character. Here are some examples: Cellulosic products Proteins Polyesters Polyamides Chlorine cont. polymer Silicate Silicium dioxide Stainless, iron, alu steel Pigments paper, wood, cotton, plants ... skin, hair, bacteria, enzymes ... films, fibers ... films, fibers ... films ... concrete ... glas metal parts and films, automotive ind. .. Color pigments, filler, additives ...

Polyolefinic surfaces (PE, PP ...) are usually pretreated to adhere certain substrates like coatings, adhesives or polymer films. Lupasol products stick to polyolefins exceptional strong, if the polyolefin surface is oxidatively pretreated.

Primer Technique

Lupasol products can typically be used at 1 - 10% solids (aqueous solution) from a smooth roll or a cylinder. The amount is in the range of 0.5 - 2g (2% solution) per square meter surface. To achieve strong adhesion it is best to dry the primer layer. This can be achieved with a hot air flow (> 50°C). A good wetability is required to form an even primer layer. Especially on unpolar substrates it is advisable to test the wetability first. Addition of small amounts of a nonionic surfactant (Lutensol ON products) improves the wetability. The linkage of a Lupasol coated surface with a second substrate is best been done under pressure at elevated temperature depending on the material and thickness.

Areas of Application Adhesives Lupasol products function as the adhesion promoting part in adhesives. Lupasol products can be used in combination with polyvinylalkohols, vinylacetate or styrene copolymers as an additive (0.1 - 5%, on 100% basis). Medium to high molecular weight Lupasol products are suitable.

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Lupasol® Product Range

Lupasol products can be building blocks in the polymer matrix of epoxy resins or polyurethanes. Low to medium molecular weight products are recommended. The amounts depend very much on the nature of the epoxy or isocyanate component and the desired features of the final product. Medium to high molecular weight Lupasol products are suitable as adhesion promoters for acrylate based systems, which are best applied as primers.

Coatings

Lupasol products can be used in coatings when an exceptional strong adhesion is required. Medium to high molecular weight products are best applied as additives in top and sub coatings (phosphate conversion coatings). Low and medium molecular weight, aqueous or waterfree, are suitable to be built into a epoxy or polyurethane resins. They can also function as dispersing reagent and adhesion promoter for inorganic and organic pigments in various coatings formulation.

Food Packaging Films Multilayer polymer films can be sealed together very effectively with high molecular weight Lupasol products. They are usually applied as a primer out of aqueous solutions. Typical film combinations for the use of Lupasol are polyethylene or polypropylene (pretreatment recommended) on cellophane, polyamide, polyacrylate, polyester, PVDC or paper; or polypropylene (OPP) in combination with polyethylene (LDPE, MDPE, HDPE). To reinforce viscose or cellophane in casings high molecular weight Lupasol products can be used. Low molecular weight types can prevent migration of color pigments out of the colored casing.

Textile Fibers

High molecular weight Lupasol products are able to fix fiber reactive dyes onto cotton during an aftertreatment step in the dying bath. Best results can be achieved with quaternized high molecular weight Lupasol types. Lipophilic modified Lupasol products are suitable as a lubricant for glass fibers to improve the handling.

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Lupasol® Product Range

Cosmetics Due to the high affinity to proteins Lupasol products can fulfill various functions for hair, skin and dental care. Lupasol can show a conditioning effect for hair care. They can also fix special ingredients to the hair. In skin care products high molecular weight Lupasol grades can lead to smoother skin textures. Inorganic Ingredients in tooth paste can be fixed to the teeth with Lupasol and have a prolonged impact.

Medical Devices

High molecular weight Lupasol products are suitable to fix medically active substances to the surface of medical devices especially tubings.

Dispersing agent, Flocculant

Lupasol products are dispersing agents and flocculants in one compound. Flocculation can be achieved if only parts of the solid surface is covered with Lupasol. High molecular weight grades and amounts smaller than 1% Lupasol per solid usually result in a fast sedimentation of the dispersed product. Increasing the amount or using low molecular weight products can result in stable dispersions.

Metal Salts

Lupasol products of any molecular weight grade bind reversibly heavy metal salts in the same strength as EDTA. Specifically modified Lupasol are able to selectively bind certain heavy metals. Excellent binding can be achieved with bivalent metal ions (Zn2+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Ni 2+, Cd2+) and some tri and monovalent metal ions (Rh3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Ag+).

Modifying Polymers

Lupasol products can be built in various polymer matricies like polyamides, polyesters, polyetherketones, polyethersulfones or polyolefines, polystyrene and others. Features like dyeability, coatability, adhesion to various subtrates or forming a barrier layer against CO2, NOx, SOx, O3, aldehydes, ketones and other chemicals can drastically be improved with the Lupasol grades.

Aldehyde-, CO2-, NOx-, SOx-, O3-Scavenger Lupasol products react with aldehydes and acidic gases (partly reversible) and can remove them from unwanted areas.

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Lupasol® Product Range

Registrations Various Lupasol grades are listed and approved under FDA regulations mainly as an additive for food packaging on certain substrates. - 173.357 PEI for enzyme immobilization - 175.105 PEI for food packaging - 175.320 PEI on polyolefine in contact with food - 176.170 PEI in paper in contact with aqueous and fatty food - 176.180 PEI in paper in contact with dry food - 177.1200 PEI on cellophane in contact with food

FG G20wfr 173.357 N N 175.105 N N 175.320 N N 176.170 N N 176.180 N N 177.1200 N N N = No; Y = Yes 8515 N N N N N N WF N Y Y Y Y Y FC N N N N N N G20 N N N N N N G35 N N N N N N G100 N Y Y Y Y Y HF N Y Y Y Y Y P Y Y Y Y Y Y PS Y Y Y Y Y Y SK N N N N N N SNA N N N N N N

Safety

We know of no ill effects that could have resulted from using Lupasol products for the purpose for which it is intended and from processing it in accordance with current practice. According to the experience that we have gained over many years and other information at our disposal, Lupasol products do not exert any harmful effects on health, provided that they are used properly, due attention is given to the precautions necessary for handling chemicals, and the information and advice given in our Safety Data Sheet are observed.

Ecology

Lupasol products are soluble in water. Like most cationic chemicals Lupasol grades have an influence on organisms living in water. Practical experience has shown that Lupasol products do not have any effect on fish stocks if small traces are discharged, even over prolonged period. Nevertheless, Lupasol products must never be discharged into surface waters in their undiluted form.

Note

This information is based on our best knowledge and experience. Since we do not have control over the exact use of our products or other factors that may affect your specific process and application, our providing this data does not relieve you of the responsibility of carrying out your own tests and experiments prior to use. Therefore, we make NO WARRANTY, EITHER OF MERCHANTIBILITY OR OTHERWISE ABOUT THE FITNESS OF OUR PRODUCTS FOR A PARTICULAR APPLICATION. It is the responsibility of those to whom we supply our products to ensure that any proprietary rights and existing laws and legislation are observed.

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