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COM M AN D, CON T R O L , COMM UN I CAT I ON S, C O MP U TE R S A ND INT E L L I GE N CE ( C 4 I) S Y S TE MS

U.S. Army C4I programs and activities are the foundation for tactical digitization and service operations in the 21st century. The Army organizations with responsibilities to acquire, develop and sustain C4I systems include the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command, the Communications Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center and the following program executive offices (PEOs): PEO Command, Control and Communications-Tactical; PEO Intelligence, Electronic Warfare and Sensors, and PEO Enterprise Information Systems. These organizations provide and sustain advanced digital and electronic systems that support various mission areas in the tactical environment, including digital battle command, platforms and hardware support, C4 support to air and missile defense, C4 support to network operations, C4 support to effects and fires, C4 support to intelligence operations, sensors and sensor systems, night-vision systems and devices, tactical radios and satellite communications systems. The organizations also are responsible for the integration of digital and electronic systems to provide information to the right warfighter at the right time in the joint environment to increase the speed and lethality of operations for the Current Force and in support of transformation.

Col. Richard Hansen demonstrates the FBCB2-commander's digital assistant.

ware application of the system, which communicates using terrestrial radios. A related system, the blue force tracking system, uses FBCB2 software but communicates using a satellite antenna. Another critical ABCS system, the Maneuver Control System (MCS) provides the combined arms maneuver commander and staff (battalion through corps) with a

mission-critical command and control system that allows them to visualize the battlespace and synchronize the elements of their combat power for the successful execution of combat operations. The Global Command and Control System-Army (GCCS-A) is the Army's strategic and theater command and control (C2) system. It provides readiness, planning, mobilization and deployment capability information for strategic commanders. For theater commanders, GCCS-A provides a common operational picture (COP) and associated friendly and enemy status information, force employment planning and execution tools (receipt of forces, staging, intra-theater planning, readiness, force tracking, onward movement, and execution status), and overall interoperability with joint, coalition and the tactical Army battle command systems (ABCS).

Platforms and Hardware Support

The Standardized Integrated Command Post System (SICPS) provides modular, interoperable, and fully integrated, campaign-quality command post

Digital Battle Command

The Army Battle Command System (ABCS) is an integrated family of command and control systems being directed by the program executive office (PEO) for Command, Control and Communications Systems-Tactical. Digital battlefield operating systems being developed and fielded under the ABCS umbrella include: advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS); air and missile defense workstation (AMDWS); all-source analysis system (ASAS); battle command sustainment support system (BCS3); digital topographic support system; enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS); Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2); global command and control systemArmy (GCCS-A) and maneuver control system (MCS). A key representative ABCS system, Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2), forms the principal digital command and control system for the Army at brigade and below. It provides battle command and situational awareness information down to the soldier and platform level through a communications infrastructure called the Tactical Internet. FBCB2 is the name for the principal softOctober 2005 I ARMY 301

platforms and the C4I physical infrastructure, with joint capabilities, to commanders and staffs--from units of action (UA) to units of employment (UEy). SICPS integrates Army battle command systems (ABCS), for example, MCS, ASAS, AFATDS, AMDWS, FBCB2, GCCS-A, tactical communication systems, intercoms, large-scale video displays and local area networks (LANs) into standard Army command post shelters and tents. SICPS is primarily a nondevelopmental effort that integrates state-of-the-art government offthe-shelf (GOTS) and commercial off-theshelf (COTS) equipment into tactically mobile/deployable platforms that support the operational needs of the current force, the Stryker brigade combat team force, and has direct applicability to the Future Force. SICPS consists of three major subsystems: the SICPS command post platform (CPP), the SICPS family of tents with trailer-mounted support systems (TMSS), and the command center system (CCS). The centerpiece of SICPS is the CPP with its key capability of enabling multiple command and control and combat service support applications. The SICPS family of

tents with TMSS is a series of quickly erected tents, power generation and environmental control units (ECUs) that will provide the command post with environmentally controlled workspace, power distribution, lighting, tables, integrated flooring, a cable management system, and a common grounding system. A large-scale display (LSD) and its associated video controller which make up the command center system supports enhanced collaborative staff functions. SICPS and its integrated infrastructure are the critical enablers that support the capability needed to fully realize shared situational understanding, for example, common operational picture (COP), inherent in the various Army and joint C2 communications and network systems that enable networkcentric command and control. SICPS also serves as an enabler for approved battle command systems by hosting the Army battle command system (ABCS) information service (AIS) server associated with the ABCS 6.4 architecture, as well as other servers such as the command post of the future (CPOF) server and servers associated with GCCS-A and in the future JC2-

`Is it intelligence information, misinformation, information spin, credible disinformation, a failure of imagination, information manipulation, counter information, targeted deception, or blatant misrepresention?'

Army. SICPS supports the sub-task mission areas of command and control battlefield operating system (BOS) and combat service support BOS by providing the means for digitized units to house and host C4ISR equipment required to execute digitized C2 and sustain the force. SICPS will host future force battle command systems as they are developed and will continue to provide the integrated platforms necessary to enable digital net-centric battle command. SICPS CPPs and tents making up the next generation of command posts will be found throughout the battlefield, ranging from maneuver battalion through the UEx and UEy main CPs. SICPS is part of an overall battle command construct consisting of stationary and mobile command posts. The two related programs which support this construct are the Army airborne command and control system (A2C2S) and the mounted battle command on the move (MBCOTM) system. The Army Airborne Command and Control System (A2C2S) provides the maneuver commander and his staff with a highly mobile, self-contained and reliable airborne digital command post. This highly mobile system allows the commanders of the units of employment and units of action to maintain situational awareness (SA) and exercise command and control (C2), either from a temporary remote site or while moving through the battlespace. The Army's current utility helicopter, the UH-60L Black Hawk (and newer models), will host the A2C2S. This battle command system will consist of two components: an A-kit and a B-kit. The A-kit is permanently affixed to the airframe and consists of the antennas, wiring and aircraft interfaces (power, structural and more) to enable the B-kit to be installed in the host platform. The B-kit consists of operator positions/ workstations, computer systems and necessary communications devices to host and support the digital C2 process. Subcomponents of the B-kit include the maneuver commander's environment (MCE) and an integrated suite of radio communications equipment. The MCE are those components that the system operators physically interact with during mission execution. The multiprocessor unit (MPU), part of the MCE, is where the A2C2S will host selected ABCS software programs including MCS, ASAS, AFATDS, FBCB2, AMDWS, BCS3, GCCS-A and other software applications. These software programs will provide crucial battlefield information, allowing commanders to make sound and timely decisions and take decisive action. The Mounted Battle Command on the Move (MBCOTM) provides the unit of action and unit of employment maneuver commander and his staff with a highly mobile, self-contained and reliable combat

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vehicle-based digital command post. The MBCOTM mission equipment platform consists of a suite of communication and digital equipment/software integrated on a combat platform to enable commanders to influence the battle while maneuvering across the battlefield. The MBCOTM provides the maneuver commander situational awareness and a common operational picture, which allows the commander to maintain situational understanding while moving and physically separated from a fixed command post. This battle command system will consist of two components: an A-kit and a Bkit. The A-kit, permanently affixed to the vehicle, consists of the antennas, wiring and vehicle interfaces (power, structural and more) to enable installation of the Bkit in the host platform. The B-kit consists of operator positions/workstations, computer systems and necessary communications devices to host and support the digital C2 process. A principal subcomponent of the B-kit is a multiprocessor computer unit (MPU). The MPU will host selected ABCS software programs including MCS, ASAS, AFATDS, FBCB2, AMDWS, GCCS-A and other software applications. These software programs will provide crucial battlefield information to commanders. The MBCOTM program will integrate this capabil-

ity into three combat vehicle types: Bradley (all variants), Stryker Command Variant (CV) and Humvee. The Network Operations Center-Vehicle (NOC-V) gives signal officers with Stryker brigade combat teams (SBCTs) the means to plan, manage, monitor and control tactical systems and networks in battlefield environments. It can carry and encrypt voice and data traffic, provide radio links with various tactical radio systems and connect to a mobile subscriber equipment system, which acts as the battlefield's communications network. In addition, the NOC-V has an FBCB2 (Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below) suite for battlefield situational awareness data traffic, information assurance systems, as well as a global broadcasting system, which allows soldiers to watch CNN and the Armed Forces Network while they are in the field. The NOC-V also contains a secondary tactical operations center (TOC) server, which can act as a primary server when the TOC "splits" to separate locations. Designed and built by the U.S. Army Communications Electronics Research Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) within six months of receiving funding, the NOC-V has been called "the most valuable asset in the brigade's (SBCT's) communications architecture."

The Common Hardware Systems (CHS) Program procures and provides standard common hardware and software to the Army battle command system (ABCS) battlefield functional area (BFA) programs for use in their system development and fielding. The product manager (PM) develops and acquires the common products that will provide the Army with battle command automatic data processing and networking capabilities designed to improve the effectiveness of the ABCS and Force XXI tactical operations centers (TOCs) in support of Army transformation. The PM also provides these products to other Department of Defense organizations when required. In addition, the PM manages the design, development, analysis, production and engineering efforts for these products to ensure that they meet their stated requirements and program objectives. The CHS program includes a wide range of commercial and rugged computers, from handheld devices and lightweight computers to high-end workstations and servers. These are complemented by a wide variety of networking devices and peripherals, including many types of storage devices, printers, displays, tactical secure fax, communications devices, modular tiled display (MTD) systems, installation kits, operational transit cases, cables and more.

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These products have been designed, field tested and environmentally qualified for use in wheel and track vehicles, shelters and tents. The contractor provides worldwide repair and maintenance and logistics support through strategically located regional support centers (RSCs) and CHS repair centers (CRCs) established to meet the needs of tactical military units. Procured nondevelopmental item (NDI) computers include a compact computer unit (CCU), versatile computer unit (VCU), rugged handheld computer (RHC), color flat panel displays and notebook computer unit-rugged and fully rugged (NCU-R and NCU-FR). All but the RHC and NCU-R and NCU-FR will be provided as a V1 version similar to commercial models or as a ruggedized V2 version. Commercial V1 and ruggedized networking equipment (switches, routers, and hubs) are also available through CHS. Procured commercial software includes operating systems, graphics, database management systems, word processing, spreadsheets, communications, training and maintenance diagnostic programs. Also included are commercial off-theshelf (COTS) software programming support environment, programmatic support, maintenance, time and materials for technical assistance and support services and training.

C4 Support to Air and Missile Defense

Another representative ABCS component is the Air and Missile Defense Workstation (AMDWS), the air and missile defense component of the Army battle command system (ABCS). AMDWS serves as a battle space awareness information management system that contributes to combat effectiveness by retrieving, fusing and distributing time-sensitive information necessary to achieve decision-cycle dominance. AMDWS retrieves battle space awareness information from many sources, including joint headquarters, the ABCS network, national intelligence assets, all-source centers, and tactical and strategic sensors. AMDWS uses this information to provide an area-complete, combat-operations display that combines ground-, air- and space-based sensor inputs and command and staff data with automated planning tools. Distribution is accomplished over tactical and special purpose communications in near real time, while supporting

concurrent interaction with joint command and control (C2) networks, sensor sources and ABCS systems. The AMDWS system is the force operations piece of AMDCCS. AMDWS is also the foundation software platform for the air and missile defense task force planner for Patriot battalion and batteries, integrating Patriot with the ABCS. AMDWS are fielded to ADAM cells, ADA brigades, AADMCs, Patriot and maneuver air and missile defense battalions and to battlefield coordination detachments. Software version 6.4 is being fielded to units throughout the Army as part of the ABCS good enough upgrade. The Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control (FAAD C2) is the engagement operations piece of the AMDCCS. FAAD C2 collects, stores, digitally processes, displays and disseminates realtime tactical cueing and tracking information, the common tactical air picture, and command, control and intelligence information to all short-range air defense weapons. FAAD C2 also provides the local air picture to joint and multinational forces to protect friendly aircraft and facilitate management of the air battle. Interoperability and horizontal integration are maintained with all Army air defense systems, including Patriot, the theater highaltitude area air defense (THAAD) and the medium extended area air defense system (MEADS). Distribution of the local air picture is with tactical and special purpose radios, and includes integration with the airborne warning and control system (AWACS), the ABCS and joint and multinational air and missile defense command and control systems FAAD C2, which currently support several global war on terrorism operations, including homeland defense. The Air and Missile Defense Planning

and Control System (AMDPCS) is the hardware component of Army's air and missile C2 system. It consists of an assemblage of modular and reconfigurable shelters, unique air and missile defense hardware/software, standardized automated data processing equipment and communications suites. The AMDPCS provides air defense commanders and staff with the automated capabilities to plan missions, direct forces, perform airspace control, allocate resources, and collect and process tactical, logistical and administrative data. The reconfigurable nature of the system design supports operations during deployment and early entry, and aids in transportability and battlefield mobility. The AMDPCS provides commanders with a networked, distributed tactical information system that uses common protocols, standard formats and standard data elements for the exchange of information. AMDPCS configurations are fielded as air defense and airspace management (ADAM) cells to brigade combat teams and UExlevel tactical command posts. Forty ADAM cells will be fielded by the second quarter of FY 2006. AMDPCS configurations are also fielded at air defense brigades and at theater-level air defense commands. The recently activated 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command is fielding the latest AMDPCS configuration in early FY 2006. Two critical AMDPCS hardware/software systems are the air and missile defense workstation (AMDWS) and air defense system integrator (ADSI). ADSI provides engagement operations functionality and an integrated air picture for the AMDPCS. The ADSI's integrated hardware and software provide the tools and communications required to provide strategic and tactical situational awareness and to integrate, display and forward tactical data,

Air and missile defense workstation. 304 ARMY I October 2005

Dennis Steele/ARMY Magazine

electronic intelligence and other information from various sensors. The ADSI provides a simplified, single integrated, unambiguous air and missile defense picture, and timely theater ballistic missile alerts. ADSIs are fielded as a component of the AMDPCS to ADAM cells, ADA brigades and AAMDCs. The ADSI is a tri-service managed system that consists of commercial hardware and software.

C4 Support to Network Operations

The Joint Network Management System (JNMS) is a software system consisting of modules for planning and engineering, monitoring, control and reconfiguration, spectrum management, and security (information assurance/communication security). It provides the commanders, combatant commands, joint task forces and service component headquarters a common, automated planning and management tool that will plan, monitor and control the joint communications and data backbone associated with a JTF/JSOTF. The Integrated System Control (ISYSCON) V(1), V(2) provides the signal commander and staff with a centralized automated planning and control capability to assist in managing tactical communication systems in support of combat forces, weapons systems and battlefield automated systems. It will function as the battlefield signal command and control management system at division through theater echelons or in support of independent task force operations. The ISYSCON V(4) is the S6's tool to provide network management to the local area network (LAN) at division, brigade and battalion tactical operation centers (TOCs) and command posts (CPs). The ISYSCON (V)4 gives the signal soldier the capability to manage the Tactical Internet (TI), perform Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) network and security administration functions, and monitor the enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS) network. Information Dissemination Management-Tactical (IDM-T) is a suite of tools that enables tactical users to distribute mission-critical information to commanders, allowing them to streamline the decision-making process on the battlefield. IDM-T was initiated as an Army rapid acquisition program (RAP) to develop an information flow management capability for the tactical force in parallel with development of similar capabilities for the combatant command and above. IDM-T is currently a program under the Product Manager NETOPS--Current Force in PEO C3T--and has programmatic and security approval (IATO) to proceed with deployment to tactical units worldwide. IDM-T achieves information superiority by providing commanders and staffs with

a single information source by fusing the C4I systems in the tactical operations center (TOC). IDM-T organizes this information so that relevant content can be extracted to support the military decision-making process (MDMP). Mission-critical information changes quickly at all echelons on the modern battlefield, and IDM-T seamlessly bridges the information flow from the joint task force to brigade and below units. It has adapted a combination of COTS (Microsoft WindowsTM/SharePoint-based) products to create a web-based service that operates at the tactical edge of the battlefield in support of units of action and units of engagement. It is currently being placed in the

field with tactical forces to provide an early NETOPS, net-centric capability in response to Army and other service requirements for information flow management. Joint Network Node (JNN) network commercial technology insertion will provide the Army with a high-speed and high-capacity backbone communications network focused on rapidly moving information in a manner that supports commanders, staffs, functional units, and capabilities-based formations. The JNN network enables commanders to plan, prepare and execute multiple missions and tasks simultaneously. The JNN network is a state-of-the-art COTS/ GOTS communications network that en-

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The tactical exploitation system component of the distributed common ground system-Army (DCGS-A).

ables the exchange of voice, video and data throughout the tactical division and into the sustaining base. It leverages commercial satellite technology to provide beyond-line-of-sight capabilities and commercial Internet networking technology to increase functionality and efficiency while reducing size, weight and power. The JNN network includes the unit hub, the UEx/brigade JNN and the battalion command post node. The JNN network has been fielded to the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) and is currently being fielded to the 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry), 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) and the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized).

C4 Support to Intelligence Operations

The Common Ground Station (CGS) is a rapidly deployable and mobile tactical data processing and evaluation center that integrates imagery and signals intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance data products into a single visual presentation of the battlefield, providing commanders with near real-time situational aware-

ness and enhanced battle management and targeting capabilities. CGS links multiple air and ground sensors, including the joint surveillance/target attack radar system (JSTARS) aircraft, to the Army battle command system at various nodes, such as echelons above corps, corps, division and brigade. JSTARS is a multiservice battle management and targeting system with an airborne multimodal radar incorporating an electronically scanned antenna. The radar combines moving-target indicator (MTI) and fixed-target indicator and syn-

thetic aperture radar (SAR) functions and is carried aboard an E-8 (militarized Boeing 707) aircraft. Radar data are broadcast to the Army CGS through an omnidirectional data link and over ultra high-frequency (UHF) satellite communications, which can also be received from other air platforms, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to being the Army's premier radar MTI ground station, CGS has evolved into a multisensor ground station that receives, processes and displays sensor data from the Predator

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UAV, tactical UAV (TUAV), airborne reconnaissance low, U-2, Guardrail common sensor and the integrated broadcast service, while maintaining a small footprint. CGS capabilities are being channeled into a distributed common ground system-A (DCGS-A) through preplanned product improvements, which will be disseminated in a network-centric environment. CGS, with its JSTARS and other sensor feeds, fulfills an urgent AirLand battlefield requirement by providing an Army/Air Force sensor and attack control capability designed to locate, track, classify and assist in attacking moving and stationary targets beyond the forward line of troops. CGS is the only wide-area surveillance system that has the resolution and realtime capability to provide the commander the data necessary to be effective in the future sensor-oriented battle management process. The All-Source Analysis System (ASAS) provides combat leaders with the fused intelligence needed to view the battlefield and more effectively conduct the land battle from battalion to echelons above corps. ASAS encompasses a family of systems that includes the compartmented allsource workstation in the analysis control element (ACE) found at division, corps and echelons above corps (EAC); the collateral laptop configuration called ASAS-

Light, issued down to the battalion level; the Humvee-mounted intelligence fusion station (IFS) with integrated communications called the analysis control team-enclave (ACT-E), which is found at brigade level; and the communications control set (CCS) found at division, corps and EAC. ASAS processes and analyzes all-source intelligence including nonstructured threat data; automates intelligence preparation of the battlefield; produces a correlated ground picture; disseminates intelligence products; provides target nominations; manages the intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) ISR collection and mission; provides counterintelligence (CI) and electronic warfare (EW) mission support; provides interim capabilities for intelligence fusion to distributed common ground system-Army (DCGS-A); supports predictive intelligence analysis; and interoperates with the Army battle command system (ABCS). It supports all echelons and functions in all phases of military operations. ASAS receives and correlates information from strategic and tactical intelligence sensors and sources. It automates sensorto-shooter linkage by providing target nominations directly to the advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS). A mission-critical system of systems, it is built upon the common hardware (CHS-2) platform and is tactically deployable. It op-

erates at compartmented top-secret security levels and fuses signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT), counterintelligence/human intelligence (CI/HUMINT), measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) and open sources.

Sensors and Sensor Systems

The Aerial Common Sensor (ACS) offers one representative PEO IEW&S program. It is the Army's airborne ISR system and will replace the current RC-7 airborne reconnaissance low (ARL) and Guardrail common sensor (GRCS) programs. ACS will use the operational and technical legacies of the ARL and GRCS systems, along with technological improvements, to provide a single, effective and supportable multiple intelligence (multi-INT) system for the Army. The ACS will include a full multi-INT capability, including carrying signals intelligence (SIGINT) payloads, electro-optic and infrared sensors, radar payloads and hyperspectral sensors. The Guardrail Common Sensor (GRCS) system is the Army's corps-level airborne signal intelligence (SIGINT) collection, location and dissemination system providing tactical commanders near real-time targeting information. There are currently four GRCS systems fielded worldwide, providing support to U.S. Forces Korea, U.S. Army Europe and supporting Opera-

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Prophet systems.

tions Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The GRCS systems consist of seven to 12 aircraft, depending on the system, that normally fly operational missions in sets of two or three aircraft providing near real-time SIGINT and targeting to tactical commanders with emphasis on deep battle and follow-on forces attack support. The chief, Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C, AISR) manages the GRCS program and provides support and modernization for the four fielded systems. Key features include integrated communications intelligence (COMINT) and electronic intelligence (ELINT) reporting, enhanced signal classification and recognition, near real-time direction finding, precision emitter location and an advanced integrated cockpit. Key capabilities include integrated signals exploitation, enhanced signal classification and recognition, fast direction finding, precision emitter location and advanced integrated avionics. Interoperable data links provide microwave connectivity between the aircraft and the integrated processing facility (IPF). GRCS systems 1, 2 and 4 have a remote relay capability allowing the deployment of a much reduced footprint in the area of operations (AO). GRCS system 2, if required, can directly link back from the aircraft through a satellite to the IPF in sanctuary. Ground processing is performed in the IPF. SIGINT reporting is accomplished via the joint tactical terminal and other available ground communication paths. Preplanned product improvements include upward and downward frequency extension, computer-assisted online sensor management, upgraded data links and the capability to exploit a wider range of signals. The GRCS systems are providing continuous support to the user on a daily basis. C, AISR provides significant modernization to the GRCS systems in the field to improve system performance, interoperability and transportability. The future will see continued improvements and modernization of the fielded GRCS systems and the development of the GRCS information node, which will provide a more mobile and capable ground station for the GRCS system while also providing interfaces to the tactical exploitation system (TES) and continental U.S. ground stations.

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The Prophet system (three-block acquisition approach: Blocks I, II and III) is the division, brigade combat team (BCT), Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT), and armored cavalry regiment (ACR) principal ground tactical signals intelligence (SIGINT) and electronic warfare (EW) system that has been designed to support the Army Vision, transformation and unit of action battlespace. Prophet detects, identifies and locates enemy electronic emitters and provides enhanced situational awareness and actionable 24-hour information for the warfighter throughout the division, ACR and BCT areas of operations. Prophet is made up of a vehicular SIGINT receiver mounted on a Humvee on the battlefield, plus a dismounted manpack SIGINT version for airborne insertion or early entry into the battlespace to support rapid reaction contingency and antiterrorist operations. Prophet Block I is already fielded to the active Army and several Army Reserve and National Guard military intelligence (MI) UAs. The Prophet is a tactical force multiplier that provides timely support to the Future Force brigade commander's scheme of maneuver. The TSP payload also provides a Future Force capability to the UA and provides timely and critical intelligence and situation awareness to support the brigade commander's fight. These two tactical SIGINT systems are responsive, rapidly deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable and sustainable. Prophet replaces the intelligence, electronic warfare (IEW) legacy systems and provides a smaller battlefield footprint, reduced airlift requirements, improved emplacement/displacement operations and higher reliability. The Prophet's modular design allows rapid system upgrades and technology insertion (TI) for a rapid or quick reaction ca-

pability (QRC) to support military contingency operations and special operational requirements worldwide. The initial six Prophet Block I systems were rolled out in June 2002, and underwent accelerated production, immediate technology insertion (upgrade) and fielding to provide vital and responsive support to all MI units deployed to support Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The Prophet after action reports indicated that the rapidly deployed Prophets provided valuable and timely support to the OEF/OIF military operations. The Block II/III Prophet is vehiclemounted on the heavy Humvee, with electronic attack (EA), is manportable and will also provide on-the-move (OTM) lines of bearing and reporting capabilities. This OTM capability is a first for tactical SIGINT operations at the brigade level and will provide on-demand actionable information (or force protection) to the commander. The multiple-block acquisition approach being followed by the Prophet has fielded 83 Block I systems to the active Army, ACRs and the SBCTs. In March 2003, General Dynamics Decision Systems received a contract to integrate the upgraded Prophet Block I to the Block II/III. The new configuration will also have improved longer-range communications, system netting, increased frequency range, modern emitter collection, plus an integrated electronic attack (jamming) capability to disrupt enemy communications.

Current Force Unattended Sensors

The uses of multiple mission sensor capabilities have proven to be significant factors in operations; however, managing these numerous sensors can be challenging. Efforts are ongoing in the development and enhancement of these capabili-

ties, specifically in networking unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and unattended battlefield sensors. The Family of Integrated Rapid Response Equipment (FIRRE) program reduces manpower requirements, enhances force protection capabilities and reduces casualties through the use of unmanned systems. It consists of a wide range of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) and associated unattended ground sensors (UGS) to counter terrorist actions in lieu of manned operations. FIRRE's near-term objective will be to provide an integrated network of unmanned systems and sensors to support the physical security of high-value areas of interest. The major parts of the system are the FIRRE radar system, the FIRRE surveillance system, the remotely monitored battlefield sensor system-II (REMBASS-II/BAIS) and a stand-alone ground surveillance radar (AN/PPS-5D). The FIRRE radar system (FRS) is composed of a surveillance radar (AN/PPS5D) mounted on a tactical amphibious ground support system (TAGS) UGV. The FIRRE surveillance system (FSS) is composed of an electro-optic/infrared/laser pointer sensor mounted on a TAGS UGV. The REMBASS-II/BAIS is the unattended ground sensors, and the AN/PPS-5D is ground surveillance detection radar. The overarching long-term goal is to develop a fully integrated, layered force protection system of systems for our forward deployed forces that is networked with the Future Force C4ISR systems architecture. The AN/PPS-5D Ground Surveillance Radar is manportable and capable of being used for force protection, fire support, intelligence operations, and cordon search and raid operations. It is currently being used for detecting and audio classifying personnel and wheeled and tracked vehicles. Dramatic improvements have been achieved in performance, reliability and maintainability while reducing size, weight and power consumption. The upgraded radar developed by the U.S. Army and Syracuse Research Corporation is a cost-effective alternative to replacement for the aging AN/PPS-5 systems. This upgrade completely replaces the existing electronics while retaining the antenna, tripod, azimuth drive and telescope assemblies. In addition, the upgrades provide the system with the capability of detecting vehicles at twice the range of previous versions while reducing possible detection by the enemy through frequency agility and significant reduction in power output. A rugged laptop computer enables operation up to 125m from the radar set. Targets are displayed graphically in the advanced monitoring display system (AMDS), which provides target data (range, bearing and UTM coordinates). The graphical user displays simplify radar operation and

minimize training requirements. The system can be easily integrated into multisensor systems and is capable of cueing optical sensors. AMDS is also used to monitor remotely monitored battlefield sensor system (REMBASS) unattended ground sensor activations. A future version of AMDS will interface to ASAS-L through the MASINT Tool Box. This will provide the warfighter with seamless dissemination of situational awareness intelligence between distant sites. The application will be capable of running stand-alone or in an ABCS environment. The AN/GSR-8 Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System-II (REMBASSII) is the only fully militarized UGS system

in the world that detects, classifies and provides direction of travel of targets. This worldwide deployable, all weather, day/ night, line-of-sight system provides early warning, surveillance and force protection capability in support of battlefield commanders in all types of terrain. It is half the weight and volume of its predecessor, IREMBASS, with equivalent classification, detection and low false-alarm performance. REMBASS-II systems are being fielded to Stryker brigade combat teams in support of ongoing intelligence, security, surveillance and force protection operations around the globe. This tamper-proof, ESM/ECM-resistant system is the lead-

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Right, the REMBASS II system.

Below, the REMBASS II unattended ground sensor with the AN/PPS-5D ground surveillance radar.

ing U.S. Army remotely controlled, unattended ground sensor system. OmniSense is a system of unattended ground sensors (UGS) that provides allweather, 24-hour, area surveillance, force protection and remote intrusion detection to support the battlefield commander. OmniSense provides target classification, recognition, identification and target location, direction and speed. OmniSense consists of an activity detection unit (seismicacoustic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors), an imager and a handheld programmer monitor. The Unattended Transient Acoustic Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) System (UTAMS) is an acoustic sensor consisting of sensor stations linked via radio to a base station. In its current configuration, UTAMS detects and locates any loud event such as mortar or rocket firings, munitions impacts and other explosive events. UTAMS is a classic sound ranging system but it uses advanced processing techniques to quickly

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and independently locate the source of fire. The signal processer uses statistics from the signal content to identify the source weapon type. The system concept is for three to five acoustic arrays to be set up in a roughly equilateral configuration several hundred meters from each other. Each array detects an event and determines the line of bearing from the array to the launch site. The lines of bearing are transmitted via a radio link to a central point where the results are combined to establish the location of the firing point. UTAMS is used to locate sources of hostile artillery, mortars and rockets. Presently there are operational UTAMS sites, and an operational needs statement (ONS) has been revalidated for additional systems. The Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) is a deployed, quick reaction capability that was designed to meet the urgent surveillance needs of the warfighter. The system is composed of a tethered aerostat equipped with a high-resolution electrooptic/infrared (EO/IR) payload that pro-

vides a cue to slew capability. PTDS is integrated with existing IR and radar sensors that cue the aerostat camera to provide near real-time "eyes on target." PTDS uses the interbrigade communication system (IBCS), which provides the communication backbone and networking capabilities of the system. It will be integrated into the persistent surveillance and dissemination system-of-systems (PSDS2). Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Payloads are essential in many areas of operation and have proven to be key combat multipliers in military operations. In support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), the AN/APY-8 Lynx I radar was installed in deployed I-Gnat unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) to augment EO/IR payload capabilities. Three Lynx I radars were installed in three I-Gnat UAVs. The Lynx I is a multi-function radar that operates in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) modes. SAR modes consist of a spotlight mode and two strip-map modes. High-resolution SAR and GMTI data is processed on board and is data-linked to a ground station for exploitation. The data obtained can be used for coherent change detection (CCD) and amplitude change detection (ACD), both post-processing capabilities. CCD provides the ability to discern extremely small changes in scenery over time. Lynx I/I-Gnat systems completed more than 2,000 hours of operation supporting OIF. The Lynx I deployment has showcased potential FCS capabilities that will be available in the AN/DPY-1 Lynx II SAR/GMTI. The AN/DPY-1 Lynx II is also a multifunction SAR/GMTI radar that will have the same performance as the Lynx I, but in a smaller, lighter package. High-resolution SAR and GMTI data is processed on board a UAV and is data-linked to a ground station for exploitation. The Lynx II consists of a radar electronics assembly (REA) and an antenna/gimbal assembly. SAR modes operate in <0.3 m to 3.0 m resolution. In the GMTI mode, the radar detects moving targets at speeds of 10-70 kph and overlays their locations on a digital map. The Lynx II is slated for production in FY 2007 and is sized for operations on the FCS Class IV, ER/MP and Hunter UAVs. It will enhance survivability and improve situational awareness for the UA and brigade/division. The Airborne Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Minefield Detection System (ASTAMIDS) is being developed to fly on the Class IVa RQ-8B Firescout UAV. ASTAMIDS will combine both countermine and RSTA functions in one 75-pound turret so that retasking can be accomplished in flight without having to land and swap out payloads. ASTAMIDS sensors include a MWIR FLIR, a color EO camera, a multi-

spectral imager (MSI) that divides the visNIR band into four sub-bands, an 808 nm laser illuminator that provides night capability for the MSI sensor, and a lightweight laser designator that also has eyesafe rangefinding capability. The sensors will be housed in a gimbaled turret that has step-stare technology to allow rapid search of wide areas. The Firescout's on-board AiTR processor and integrated computer system and tactical data link to the ground station will work in conjunction with ASTAMIDS to allow highly autonomous operation. Areas of interest will be defined during mission planning for countermine operations. In RSTA mode, targets will be detected, recognized and tracked. The MSI capability will enhance ability to find targets at long range and under camouflage. Target location errors of less than 25m will allow effective engagement by JDAMS-type munitions. Laser designation of targets will support Hellfire engagements. EO/IR/LD payload will provide a gimbaled day/night capability to develop and display continuous, fully focused imagery to battlefield commanders. The payload must be capable of operating day and night, detect and recognize operationally meaningful targets at survivable standoff ranges, be capable of determining range to target, be capable of designating targets

for precision guided standoff weapons, provide target location coordinates and display continuous fully focused imagery to the battlefield commander. The ability to provide such a capability to the supported commander will greatly increase battlefield effectiveness. This payload will be capable of supporting autonomous preplanned operation, autotrack and be capable of instantaneous retasking throughout the mission. The payload will provide continuous zoom capabilities when in EO mode and multiple fields of view (FOV) when in IR mode, selectable by the mission payload operator (MPO). The EO/ IR/LD payload will be capable of onboard processing and transmission of near real-time imagery to the UAV ground control station (GCS) via a digital data link. MISAR is a miniaturized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor system that produces radar images in near-photographic quality in day and night conditions. The mini SAR sensor system consists of a Kaband millimeter-wave radar, a gimbalmounted antenna system, an interface through a data link to a real-time groundbased SAR processor, a data recording unit and a display unit. The mini SAR sensor system will provide increased situational awareness by providing high-resolution imagery to detect and recognize armored personnel carrier (APC)-sized targets and

objectively classify and identify APC-sized targets during periods of adverse weather or through battlefield obscurants. Its capabilities will benefit the warfighter by providing near real-time intelligence through wide area surveillance with an all-weather capability that is not currently available on the battlefield. These components can be used in various configurations to adapt to individual UAV payload and mission requirements. The Persistent Surveillance and Dissemination System-of-Systems (PSDS2) is a system-of-systems to provide persistent surveillance and rapid dissemination of actionable intelligence. Its purpose is to catch enemy activity in a timelier manner by having sensors cue other sensors and disseminate target location and description data to the appropriate response elements. PSDS2 integrates numerous sensor inputs (video, radar, etc.) on to a terrain model allowing the commander to see enemy actions in perspective to sensor location and orientation. It improves reaction times from detection of activity through corroboration to dissemination of actionable information. Its centralized collection of imagery/sensor inputs provides unprecedented coordination of sensor information. PSDS2's persistence of collected imagery/information supports forensics capability in near real time and/or offline.

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Its shelterized concept supports quick relocation of assets and its flexible architecture allows for incorporation of additional interfaces/capabilities. PSDS2 is successfully supporting operations in Iraq.

Night-Vision Sensors

U.S. Army night-vision and sensor programs and activities include day/night, all-weather mobility and engagement sensors; all-weather imagery; passive and radar target acquisition sensors; artillery and mortar-locating radars; and advanced sensors for the Army's Future Force. These systems provide critical, on-the-ground, direct support to U.S. forces deployed in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). One key area is thermal sensors, which dramatically increases the lethality and survivability of U.S. Army soldiers. These sensors read the heat signature from distant objects, such as personnel or vehicles, day or night, penetrating smoke, fog and obscurants. The First-Generation Forward-Looking Infrared Systems (FLIR) are currently used in the pilotage and targeting thermal imaging systems in the AH-64A attack helicopter, M1A1 and M60 tanks, Bradley fighting vehicles and TOW and TOW II missile systems. The systems themselves are supported by thermal-imaging common modules, a series of subcomponents that perform the function of optical to electrical conversion, thus allowing the thermal battlefield to be converted into a visual image. The thermal-imaging common modules are made up of detector dewars, cryogenic coolers, light-emitting diode arrays, mechanical scanners, optical imagers and collimators, and electronic circuit cards. The Second-Generation Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) provides an integrated high-performance second-generation thermal sensor to the Army's premier groundbased battlefield platforms. The secondgeneration FLIR is a long-wavelength scanning system with advanced digital image processing. The detector for this assembly is the Army's standard advanced dewar assembly, type II, using a cryogenically cooled mercury cadmium telluride focal plane array. The program produces a common FLIR sensor (the B-kit), which is integrated into each specific platform application through the use of a unique Akit. The second-generation FLIR has been successfully integrated and tested in the Abrams M1A2 systems enhancement package (SEP) gunner's primary sight; the M1A2 SEP commander's independent thermal viewer; the M2A3 improved Bradley acquisition system; the M2A3 commander's independent viewer; and the long-range advanced scout surveillance system (LRAS3).

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Second-generation FLIRs are currently supporting operations in Iraq and Afghanistan in the Abrams SEP tank, Bradley A3, LRAS3 Scout Humvees, Stryker reconnaissance vehicle systems and in the family of AN/PAS-13 thermal weapon sights (heavy and light). The AN/VAS-5 Driver's Vision Enhancer (DVE) is a passive, uncooled thermal imaging system for drivers of combat and tactical wheeled vehicles. It allows continuous vehicle operations by day or night and in the presence of natural and man-made obscurants, such as smoke, fog and dust. The DVE's sensor module contains a second-generation thermal imager that provides standard analog video to a high-quality flat-panel display and control module (a militarized commercial active matrix liquid-crystal display). The DVE video imagery can also be distributed to other vehicle crew displays. The display provides an additional input port for display maps and digitized battlefield information. The DVE can easily be adapted to any current or future U.S. or NATO combat and/or tactical wheeled vehicles. There have been 5,690 DVE systems built and fielded in U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) vehicles. The USMC uses the DVE in their combat vehicles (M1, LAV and others); it enabled them to operate in sand storms during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The Army's Stryker brigade combat teams (SBCTs) have DVEs installed on all of their Stryker armored vehicles and on more than one-third of their tactical wheeled vehicles. Eight DVEs are also being installed on the Army's theater support vessel (TSV) as part of a sensor suite that provides navigation and security capabilities to the TSV. The DVEs will provide night, mounted, wide-area observation. Six DVE sensors provide 240 degrees of IR imagery to three displays in the pilot house of the vessel. The DVE will detect boats and swimmers at night. Two of the eight DVE sensors provide fore and aft views to one display at the navigator's station. The DVE is also capable of detecting obstacles in the water. The Long-Range Advanced Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3) provides the U.S. Army with real-time acquisition, target detection, recognition, identification and far-target location information. LRAS3 provides scout forces with a sensor system that operates outside the range of currently fielded threat direct fire and sensor systems. This long-range target acquisition capability will improve the survivability of the scout force and increases the lethality and force effectiveness of combat units. The LRAS3 sensor can be operated in both mounted and dismounted configurations, providing 24-hour and adverse weather target acquisition capability. The

system is composed of a second-generation horizontal technology integration (HTI) forward-looking infrared (FLIR) thermal imager, a day video camera, an eye-safe laser range finder, long-range common aperture reflective optics and a GPS interferometer subsystem. The LRAS3 design also includes a digital port, which allows it to interface with battlefield command and control. More than 400 LRAS3s have been built and fielded to Army units, mounted on scout Humvees and on Stryker reconnaissance vehicles. LRAS3 systems are supporting operations in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kosovo. LRAS3s were fielded to the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) just days before the start of OIF, yet they were recognized to be key enablers of the division's effectiveness.

Aircraft Survivability Equipment (ASE)

The Advanced Threat Infrared Countermeasure (ATIRCM) is the U.S. Army program to develop, test, integrate and field defensive infrared (IR) countermeasures capabilities to existing, current-generation host platforms for more effective protection against a greater number of IRguided missile threats than afforded by currently fielded IR systems. The Army operational requirements concept for IR countermeasure systems is known as the suite of integrated infrared countermeasures (SIIRCM). It is an integrated warning and countermeasure system to enhance aircraft survivability against IR-guided threat missile systems. The core element of the SIIRCM concept is the ATIRCM common missile warning system (CMWS) program. The ATIRCM/CMWS, a subsystem to a host aircraft, is an integrated ultraviolet (UV) missile warning system with an IR lamp/laser jamming and improved countermeasure dispenser (ICMD). The CMWS also functions as a standalone system with the capability to detect missiles and provide audible and visual warnings to the pilot(s); and, when installed with the ICMD, it activates expendables to provide a degree of protection. ATIRCM/CMWS is the key IR survivability system for Future Force Army aircraft. The CMWS/ICMD is currently being fielded to both rotary and fixed wing aircraft. The A-kit is the modification hardware, wiring harness, cable and more that is necessary to install and interface with the ATIRCM/CMWS mission kit to each platform. The A-kit ensures the mission kit is functionally and physically operational on the host platform. The mission kit consists of the ATIRCM/ CMWS components, which perform missile detection, false alarm rejection and missile declaration functions. The electronic control unit (ECU) of the CMWS

sends a missile alert signal to on-board avionics and other aircraft survivability equipment (ASE), such as expendable flare dispensers. Threat missiles detected by the CMWS are passed to the ATIRCM for directed energy countermeasures. The Aircraft Survivability Equipment Trainer is designed to provide aviation with realistic force-on-force training. A new lightweight system is being evaluated to provide both UV and RF simulation against on-board ASE. The AN/AVR-2B Laser Detecting Set is a passive threat-warning system that alerts the aircrew that they are being targeted by threat forces using either laser ranging or guidance systems. The AVR-2B allows the aircrew to engage the threat or maneuver to break the targeting actions. These systems support the current to Future Force transition path of the Transformation Campaign Plan (TCP). The Radio Frequency Countermeasures (RFCM) counter the broad spectrum of threat search and fire-control radar systems used by hostile forces today. The Army's proposed path forward for RF ASE is a three-phased approach: Phase 1 is the upgrade of fielded APR-39A(V)1/4 radar signal detecting sets (RSDSs); Phase 2 is the development and acquisition of a digital radar warning receiver; and Phase 3 is the addition of jammers for selected platforms. The research and development ef-

fort associated with Phase 1 has been approved and is under way. Through modernization and reduced parts count, this APR-39A(V) upgrade will improve both performance and sustainability of a system employed on virtually every Army rotary-wing aircraft today. Increased memory reserve will allow for the insertion of several known software improvements and provide growth potential. Improved pilot-vehicle interfaces will increase situational awareness and facilitate integration with other onboard ASE systems, thus supporting the current to Future Force transition.

Radios & Communications Systems

The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Cluster 5 Army research, development, test and evaluation (RDTE) program will enable the Army to acquire and field a family of affordable, scaleable, high-capacity, interoperable radio sets based on a common JTRS software communications architecture (SCA). The JTRS is a key enabler of the Army and DoD transformation and will provide critical communications capabilities across the spectrum of operations in a joint environment. The Cluster 5 JTRS is a joint program encompassing specific requirements to support the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and the Special Operations Command (SOCOM).

A cost-plus-award fee (CPAF) contract was awarded to General Dynamics C4 Systems of Scottsdale, Ariz., in July 2004, to initiate the system design and development (SDD) phase. The development contract includes separately fixed priced options for low-rate initial production (LRIP). The JTRS Cluster 5 program satisfies the requirements for handheld, manpack and small form fit (SFF) applications, including support for Future Combat System/Future Force (FCS/FF) technical performance and integration. The embedded or small form factor versions of JTRS Cluster 5 will be used for joint service ground sensor networks, intelligent munitions, non-line-ofsight weapon systems and other platform applications. The Army has initiated Cluster 5 to support Army digitization and recapitalization for lower tactical requirements, as well as other services requirements. The Army supports the timely development and procurement of JTRS. This next-generation tactical radio will provide secure, multiband, multimode software-programmable digital radios for the electronic transport of emerging and anticipated warfighter command and control requirements. JTRS is key in implementing a mobile, flexible, on-the-move, networking infrastructure for passing voice, data and video to commanders operating in dispersed and dynamic environ-

ments. The Joint Program Executive Office (JPEO) is the lead for the development and the Army is the lead service for the production and fielding effort to integrate JTRS. The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Cluster 1 Army research, development, test and evaluation program will enable the Army to acquire and field a family of affordable, scaleable, high-capacity, interoperable radio sets based on a common JTRS software communications architecture (SCA). The JTRS is a key enabler of the Army and DoD transformation and will provide critical communications capabilities across the spectrum of operations in a joint environment. The Cluster 1 JTRS is a joint program encompassing the specific requirements of the U.S. Army ground vehicular and rotary-wing aircraft, U.S. Air Force Tactical Control Party (TACP) and U.S. Marine Corps platforms and will port the PM-certified waveforms. A cost-plus-award fee (CPAF) contract was awarded to the Boeing Company of Anaheim, Calif., in June 2002 to initiate the system design and development (SDD) phase. The contract also includes low-rate initial production (LRIP) options using a fixed-price incentive (FPI) contract with successive targets. The Army initiated Cluster 1 to support Army digitization and recapitalization for lower tactical requirements, as well as other services requirements. The program is now under the lead of the Joint Program Executive Officer (JPEO) JTRS and supports the timely development of JTRS. The Army continues to be the lead agency in the procurement of JTRS. This next-generation tactical radio will provide secure, multi-band, multimode software-programmable digital radios for the electronic transport of emerging and anticipated warfighter command and control requirements. JTRS is a key in implementing a mobile, flexible, on the move, networking infrastructure for passing voice, data, and video to commanders operating in dispersed and dynamic environments. The Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT) provides the joint warfighter with seamless, near real-time tactical intelligence, targeting and situational awareness information. It provides the critical data link to battle managers, intelligence centers, air defense, fire support and aviation nodes across all services. JTT allows Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and other agency users to exploit current intelligence broadcast networks, including the tactical reconnaissance intelligence exchange system, tactical information broadcast system, tactical related applications data dissemination system, tactical data information exchange system-B, secondary imagery dis314 ARMY I October 2005

semination system and the evolving integrated broadcast service architecture. In addition to receiving intelligence data, the system's transmit capability allows for data-provider and/or relay functions. The JTT is available in various configurations, ranging from eight to 12 receive channels and zero to four transmit channels. The JTT can be integrated into systems on vehicles, aircraft, ships and fixed sites. Also, the smaller, lighter JTT briefcase (JTT-B) is a four-channel receiver variant and is available as a stand-alone system or can be integrated on various platforms. A contract was awarded in FY 1997 for 132 JTT/common integrated broadcast service modules with the option in FY 1998 for 95 JTTs and the option in FY 1999 for 85 standard JTTs with another 16 stand-alone briefcase variants. There was an option award in the fourth quarter of FY 2000 for an additional 43 JTT-Bs. JTT deliveries started in FY 2000. PEO, Command, Control and Communications, Tactical (C3T) also coordinates development and fielding of the radio products that form the heart of the Tactical Internet. The Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) provides data distribution and position/navigation services in near real time for the warfighter at brigade and below in support of the battlefield functional areas and the FBCB2 program. Manufactured by Raytheon Systems Company, the EPLRS system consists of a net control station and EPLRS user units that can be variously configured for manpack, vehicular or airborne platforms. The EPLRS net control station is undergoing a configuration and performance upgrade that converts the network management scheme from a centralized mode to a decentralized mode and increases the throughput capability. The new net control station is called the EPLRS net manager (ENM). The Near-Term Data Radio System (NTDRS) supports the upper portion of the Tactical Internet by providing the command-center-to-command-center data communications backbone for the Army's digitized division. The NTDR is the Army data communication backbone for platoon to brigade. It is one of the five major elements that will provide a seamless digital communication capability throughout the fighting force for the digital battlefield of the 21st century. The appliqué used with the NTDR will support battle command information requirements. The NTDR interface, with routing devices such as the Internet controller (INC) and tactical multinet gateway (TMG) and other devices, will support routing. It interfaces with other networks, such as SINCGARS, EPLRS and MSE TPN,

as well as mobile platforms, and interoperates with external command and control systems through routers. NTDR will satisfy the future digital radio (FDR) requirement. The NTDR system consists of a radio with ancillary support items, including antennas, an installation kit and a network management terminal, if required. NTDR is an information system that is the data transport communications system serving data terminals resident at brigade and below, but also has application at higher echelon units operating within the brigade area. The NTDR is a secret high system. It is capable of supporting a brigade community of computers and networks that communicate using the Internet protocol suite (IPS). The NTDRS uses ITT Industries' Mercury wideband network radio. By adapting commercial networking practices to military needs, the Mercury radios automatically organize and maintain the network for commanders while they are on the move. Features include modular design; open architecture; bandwidth on demand; expanded data, commercial and military protocols; rapid reprogrammable software; interoperability; network management; mobile networking; automatic network formation; GPS; and security systems protection. The AN/AYD-1 Personnel Locator System consists of the PRC-112 radio (General Dynamics Decision Systems), ARS-6 personnel locator (Cubic Corp.) and KY-913 program loader (General Dynamics Decision Systems). The ARS-6 sends out interrogation bursts during combat search-andrescue missions looking for PRC-112 radios. If the frequency and ID code of the ARS-6 burst is correct, the PRC-112 sends back a 0.4-second reply to the ARS-6 that provides range and steering information to the pilot. The PRC-112 uses unencrypted voice, beacon and transponder modes, but there is also a PRC-112A used by the "black world" that has built-in COMSEC. The AN/GRC-240 Have Quick (HQ) II UHF-AM Radio Set is an M998/M1038 Humvee vehicle-mounted radio system providing antijam electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) UHF-AM voice communications. The radio can operate on single-channel normal mode or in the frequency-hopping active mode. Transmitting output power is selectable at two, 10 or 30 watts. All U.S. armed forces have HQ capability. The AN/VRC-83 Radio Set is tunable in 25-kilohertz steps in the UHF band (225.000 to 399.975 megahertz [Mhz], equaling 7,000 UHF channels). The application of the VHF/UHF antenna relay kit permits VHF AM communications (116.000 MHz to 149.975 MHz, 1,360 VHF

channels). VHF operation is limited to single-channel, non-HQ communications. The operator can simultaneously monitor guard frequency 243.000 MHz while operating in single-channel or HQ mode. Certain applications require improved precise lightweight global positioning system receiver (PLGR) satellite reception; a PLGR remote antenna kit is available. The UHF frequency-hopping ability does not make the radio set secure. Secure VHF and UHF communications are accomplished via interfacing with the communications security TSEC/KY-57. Mounting hardware and all interconnecting cabling for operation with the KY-57, including power cable for HYP-57, are provided as components of installation kit MK2827/GRC-240. The method by which the radio set frequency-hops within the UHF band is determined by a multidigit code referred to as word of day (WOD). In combination with time of day and a valid network number, WOD determines the timing, duration and sequence of frequency changes. The radio set can be programmed with up to a maximum of six WODs, each having a unique date tag. The operator inputs an operational date that enables an individual WOD. The radio set will automatically switch to the next daily WOD at 0000Z hours, if

so programmed. The radio set gives ground-to-air command and control capability to Army division- and corps-level aviation brigades and special operations forces. The roles associated with this radio are close, rear and deep operations; air assault/security; countermobility; command and control; medical evacuation; air attack; and offensive air combat. The primary installation platforms are M998/M1038 Humvees. The AN/TRC-170 (V)2s and (V)3s Troposcatter Radio Terminals are air or ground transportable radio terminals. They provide secure digital long-haul radio trunking among major nodes of area common user system (ACUS) communications networks and interface with other ACUS systems, such as digital group multiplexers or various switching facilities. The terminals may be used in stand-alone applications as transmission links not associated with switching facilities. The terminals transmit and receive digital voice and other data over a nominal 150-mile path for the (V)2 radio and a nominal 100mile path for the (V)3 radio by means of troposcatter. Line-of-sight propagation may also be used in the 4.4-gigahertz to 5.0-gigahertz frequency range. The terminals provide for trunk group communications at switch se-

lectable bit rates of 128 to 4,608 kilobits per second, in addition to orderwire traffic. The AN/PRC-126 Radio Set is a shortrange, handheld tactical radio for use primarily at the squad and platoon levels. The AN/PRC-126 is a lightweight militarized transceiver that provides two-way voice communications. The radio covers the frequency range of 30 MHz to 87.975 MHz. Its nominal range for reliable communications over rolling, slightly wooded terrain is 3,000 meters. The radio is capable of interoperating with the AN/VRC-12, AN/PRC-77 and SINCGARS families of radios in the fixed frequency mode. The AN/PRC-126 enables small-unit leaders to control the activities of subordinate elements during operations. The AN/PRC126 is required equipment for Infantry, Ranger and Special Forces units. The AB-1386/U Quick-Erect Antenna Mast (QEAM) is designed to accommodate the AS-3166/GRC, AS-4292, AS-4225 and A30045068 VHF antennas and a wide range of other antennas in other frequency bands. The system is manportable and weighs less than 100 pounds. The largest item weighs less than 42 pounds. The QEAM can be erected in winds up to 25 mph, operate in winds of 60 mph and survive winds of 80 mph. It can be used in field mount configuration or installed on a Humvee, M577 or M1068.

2006 ARMY Magazine Photo Contest

Sponsored by the Association of the U.S. Army

The Association of the U.S. Army is pleased to announce its eleventh ARMY Magazine photo contest. Amateur and professional photographers are invited to enter. The winning photographs will be published in ARMY Magazine, and the photographers will be awarded cash prizes. First prize is $500; second prize is $300; third prize is $200. Those who are awarded an honorable mention will each receive $100. Entry Rules: 1. Each photograph must have a U.S. Army-related subject and must have been taken on or after July 1, 2005. 2. Entries must not have been published elsewhere. Evidence of prior publication of any entry will disqualify it. 3. Each contestant is limited to three entries. 4. Entries may be black-and-white prints, color prints or color slides. Photographs must not be tinted or altered. 5. The minimum size for prints is 5x7 inches; the maximum is 8x10 inches (no mats or frames). 6. The smallest format for slides is 35mm, and slides must be in plastic or paper mounts. 7. A sheet of paper must be taped to the back of each entry with the following information: the photographer's name, Social Security number (for identification and tax purposes), address and telephone number, and caption information. 8. Entries must be mailed to: Editor in Chief, ARMY Magazine, 2425 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201-3385, ATTN: Photo Contest. 9. Entries must be postmarked by June 30, 2006. Letters notifying the winners will be mailed in September. 10. Entries will not be returned. 11. Employees of AUSA and their family members are not eligible. 12. Prize-winning photographs may be published in ARMY Magazine and other AUSA publications three times. 13. Photographic quality and subject matter will be the primary considerations in judging. For further information, contact Danielle Giovannelli, ARMY Magazine, 2425 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201; (703) 841-4300, ext. 204.

October 2005 I ARMY 315

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The AN/USC-28(V) Satellite Communications Set (Ground) is an advanced spread-spectrum modulation system that operates with defense satellite communications system (DSCS) terminals to provide jam-resistant satellite communication (SATCOM) network control and digital user communications. The AN/USC-28(V) can be configured to accommodate up to 15 user data channels. The equipment interfaces with the digital communications satellite subsystem in fixed terminals and is also installed in the transportable AN/GSC-49(V) terminals. A special airborne version of the AN/USC-28(V) is installed in the super high-frequency terminal aboard the National Airborne Operations Center, the E4B. The equipment operates with the Navy shipboard OM-55 spread-spectrum equipment. The AN/USC-28(V), by virtue of the jamming protection it affords, ensures the military utility of the DSCS. The AN/USC-28(V) modem was modified to mitigate the scintillation effects that would be caused by a high-altitude nuclear blast. The modification has backward capability so that the AN/USC-28(V) can operate in the normal mode or in the mitigated mode. The AN/TSC-85B&C and AN/TSC93B&C Tactical Satellite Communica316 ARMY I October 2005

tions Terminals are super high-frequency (SHF) systems that provide reliable multichannel satellite communications. The Cmodel terminal contains new modems and converters. All Army terminals have been upgraded to the C-model. Both terminals operate with an eightfoot-diameter antenna through the defense satellite communications system satellite network. The AN/TSC-85C also uses the 16-foot lightweight high-gain X-band antenna (LHGXA). The AN/TSC-93C provides 24 channels that can operate in a point-to-point mode or as a non-nodal terminal in a nodal network. The AN/TSC85C provides 48 channels that can also operate in a point-to-point mode or as a nodal terminal in a nodal network. In January 2003, HQDA directed a service life extension program (SLEP) be initiated for all Army TACSAT terminals and subsequently provided OPA funding in FY 2003-06 to upgrade all terminals with new enhanced tactical satellite signal processors (ETSSP); new high-voltage power supplies; new antenna LNA/feed tube; new replacement FM order wire system and a new signal entrance panel and patch panel. The SLEP will extend the life of the terminal to at least 2012 and will provide for a cascade of the terminals to reserve and guard units. SLEP terminals will be as-

signed as "D" models. Upgrades began in 2004 at the Army Signal School. The SLEP will also result in improvements in data throughput, satellite usage efficiency and interoperability. The AN/GSC-52(V) Satellite Communications Terminal is a high-capacity, medium-size, super high-frequency satellite communications terminal designed to operate in the DSCS satellite network. While not an Army system per se, the Army has been assigned the acquisition and sustainment mission for the equipment. The terminals are operated by the various services under the operational control of the Defense Information Systems Agency. The AN/GSC-52(V) modernization program upgrades aging electronics and provides a new control monitor alarm subsystem for all the DSCS terminals (including the AN/FSC-78 and AN/GSC-39). The AN/GSC-52 (V) includes a 38-foot OE-371/G antenna. The AN/PSN-13 Defense Advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver (DAGR) began fielding in November 2004. It is a handheld, pocket-stored Navstar GPS receiver, incorporating selective availability anti-spoofing module (SAASM), and supports military combat operations as well as military and civilian use for operations other than war. DAGR is the follow-on to the currently fielded AN/PSM-11 PLGR and provides an enhanced graphical user interface (GUI), decreased size and weight, and can acquire and provide continous "P" (Y) code tracking of the GPS L1 and L2 frequencies transmitted from all satellites in view. All Army vehicles and most major weapons systems will incorporate GPS; and while primarily intended for use in the handheld mode, DAGR is also suitable for installation and integration on a variety of host platforms and systems. DAGR provides ICD GPS-153 and NMEA 0183-compliant serial data interfaces for host platform integration. In addition, the ground-based GPS receiver application module (GB-GRAM) is also being fielded for installation and integration into host platforms when a handheld receiver is not required. The High-Capacity Communications Capability (HC3) is a joint above 2 GHz high-capacity communications capability for the joint tactical ground domain. It will provide secure ground-to-ground, groundto-airborne and ground-to-satellite communications for joint on-the-move and at-thehalt platforms and it will leverage future wideband space architecture in a single common architecture. The terminals will be multiband and network (IP) capable. The HC3 provides a robust platform to host the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Joint Program Office (JPO) developed SCAcompliant waveforms, which will enable

seamless integration into joint/services' tactical networks: Army warfighter information network-tactical (WIN-T), Navy FORCEnet, Marines tactical data network (TDN), AF ConstellationNet and others. The maximization of commonality of hardware and software will reduce cost and enhance interoperability. The HC3 development is synchronized with future SATCOM constellations and ground networks. The AN/TSC-156 Phoenix Super High Frequency (SHF) Terminal provides multiband capability in the SHF range and will operate over commercial and military SHF satellites. The terminal provides high capacity inter- and intra-theater range extension support at selected EAC and Corps signal units and will be the warfighter's primary means of reachback communication. The tri-band Phoenix terminal operates in the military X and commercial C and Ku-bands. The terminal is being upgraded to Ka-band capability to support wideband gapfiller satellite (WGS) interoperability. The Phoenix consists of an integrated assemblage of non-developmental items (NDIs), commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment and government-furnished equipment (GFE) and will embody the force projection attributes and highthroughput capacity consistent with the Army's migration to the Future Force. It

may interface with other strategic networks via standardized tactical entry points (STEP) or strategic assets. The Phoenix SHF terminal program provides a multiband super-high frequency terminal that will operate over commercial and military SHF satellites and includes an integrated ILS system, associated spares and support equipment. With the expanded capacity vehicle (ECV), the system has mounted C-130/C-17/C-5 roll-on/ roll-off capability. The Lightweight High-Gain X-Band Antenna (LHGXA) is an X-Band-only antenna, consisting of a 16-foot reflector mounted on a reinforced trailer. The efficient reflector design results in an RF gain which exceeds the gain of the 20-foot quick-reaction satellite antenna (QRSA). The LHGXA is designed to work with the GMF AN/TSC-85/93 B, C, D. It also interfaces with the Air Force and U.S. Marine Corps lightweight multiband satellite terminal (LMST), Trojan Spirit II and USC-60A. The lightweight design allows easy movement with a standard Humvee in lieu of the QRSA requirement of a 2.5-ton vehicle. It can be converted to tri-band operation and be used with the FTSAT to provide transit case hub capability, and can be used with the Air Force LMST system and the U.S. Marine Corps TSII system. The Lightweight Multiband Satellite

Terminal (LMST) is a tri-band super-high frequency terminal available in various trailer and transit case configurations. The terminal is contained on a single trailer or in transit case enclosures and operates full duplex over C-, X-, Ku- and Ka-bands (receive only). The terminal operates worldwide with any spacecraft of the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) II, DSCS III, North Atlantic Treaty Organizations (NATO) III, NATO IV, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT), Pan American Satellite Organization (PANAMSAT) and Domestic Satellite Organization (DOMSAT). The LMST terminal will interoperate with ground mobile forces (GMF) AN/TSC-85/93/94/100 terminals and DSCS gateways. LMST has roll-on/roll-off capability for transport on C-130, C-17 and C-5 type military aircraft. LMST trailer maximum configuration weight is 7,400 pounds and the transit case maximum configuration weight is 3,675 pounds. The current LMST program provides both trailer and transit case configurations of a tri-band super-high frequency (SHF) Terminal and associated support equipment. The terminal can be configured as either a hub, mini-hub or spoke operating full duplex in the SHF C-, X-, Ku- and Ka-

bands (receive only). The next variant of the LMST will take the U.S. Marine Corps mini-hub and mount it onto the bed of a Humvee. The Secure Enroute Communications Package-Improved (SECOMP-I) system is a standardized, secure, interoperable and integrated command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) information system to support force projection operations. The SECOMP-I system provides VHF/UHF line-of-sight (LOS) and UHF single-channel tactical satellite (SCTACSAT), beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) data and voice capabilities to the mission commander and staff while deploying to an area of operations (AO) aboard U.S. Air Force C-130 and C-17 aircraft. SECOMP-I also provides initial ground communications when landing in an AO. The SECOMP-I will provide a collaborative planning system (using the defense collaborative tool suite (DCTS)) for enroute mission planning and rehearsal (EMPR). The SECOMP-I data processing devices (DPDs) and related networking and communications infrastructure will also provide the power, communications and networking infrastructure for compatible and approved command and control applications. Communications security is established with COMSEC modules embedded in the radio systems installed in the SECOMP-I system and by the addition of NSA approved devices. The SECOMP-I can also be operated onboard the aircraft while the aircraft are parked on the ground in preparation for deployment. The SECOMP-I system provides UHF/ VHF voice and data operational capabilities using current DoD radios furnished by the gaining units, networked workstations and a communications manager/interface. The radio terminals will provide connectivity to up to three voice or data networks simultaneously. EMPR capability is provided by the system in the airborne C2 node, battalion/brigade and company configurations. This system also includes wideband communications for reachback communications to the joint task force headquarters or reach forward capability to the area of operations, and the flying local area network (FLAN). A server processor set (SPS) is contained within each SECOMP-I configuration to support office-like networking capability in both intra- and inter-aircraft environments. A ground terminal will provide for the compression/decompression of data for ground tactical operations centers (TOCs) not equipped with a SECOMP-I system. SECOMP-I is the Department of the Army, combatant command and joint staff enroute mission, planning and rehearsal system (EMPRS) to support forced and

318 ARMY I October 2005

early entry forces, Army transformation and digitization efforts. SECOMP-I provides a capability for Army commanders to exercise mission planning and rehearsal; receive and disseminate updated intelligence; conduct command and control of forces deploying aboard U.S. Air Force aircraft; and provide initial ground communications in the area of operations. The AN/PSQ-17 Communication Planning System (CPS) provides communications and management of MILSTAR EHF satellite resources at all echelons. It provides the capability for EHF network planning, EHF terminal image generation, resource monitoring, network operations and terminal support. It supports real-time mission planning and management of all EHF resources in support of joint-service EHF terminal deployment and resides within the Army's SYSCON environment to facilitate centralized planning and management functionality. CPS is the interim solution to the objective advanced EHF mission planning element (AMPE) transportable laptop computer. TITAN Systems Corp. provides system support and integration efforts for the MILSTAR communications planning toolintegrated (MCPT-I) and UFO/E communications support tool (UCST) EHF planning tool. The CPS is also commonly known as the MILSTAR communications planning toolintegrated (MCPT-I). It is a software application hosted on a COTS/GOTS laptop computer system, accredited for processing classified information. The system is currently operational and in use at echelons from Army Signal battalions up to the U.S. Space Command. The CPS is the EHF planning system available to perform network management and resource apportionment for MILSTAR satellite platforms. The Secure Mobile Anti-jam Reliable Tactical Terminal (SMART-T) will provide tactical users with secure, mobile, survivable, anti-jam, satellite communications in a Humvee configuration. This equipment will communicate/process data and voice communications at both low and medium extremely high frequency (EHF) data rates. SMART-T provides range extension to the Army's current and future line-of-sight tactical communication networks. SMARTT is being modified to communicate over the next-generation advanced EHF satellite. This upgrade will provide the joint warfighters with a four-fold increase in communications capability over the current SMART-T. The Deployable Ku-Band Earth Terminal (DKET) is an INTELSAT E2 designator capable of supporting 24 T1 data rate 4.6meter tracking antenna with 125 mph wind survivability redundant RF electronics and auto uplink power control. It is an

environmentally controlled shelter with redundant HVACs; a remote monitor and control system with pager notification; and redundant generators for critical components. A digital fiber-optic interface system (FOIS) connects to a user base-band up to 2 km. It has a commercial one-year warranty. DKET provides Ku-band satellite communications capable of supporting a variety of worldwide missions and is interoperable with all tri-band satellite terminals and teleport earth terminals in commercial bands. Setup/teardown time is three to five days. The Joint Network Terminal Communications (JNTC) consists of a 3.6-meter satellite antenna with satellite and baseband equipment housed in an enclosure mounted on a prime mover. The hub terminal is capable of supporting 24 T1 data rate circuits through the 3.6m tracking antenna with 125 mph wind survivability, redundant electronics remote monitor and control; auto uplink power control is contained in the environmentally controlled shelter. Both terminals are Ka-band upgradable. A commercial one-year warranty is provided. JNTC provides Ku-band satellite communications capable of supporting a variety of worldwide missions. It is interoperable with all tri-band and Ku-band (only) satellite terminals and teleport earth terminals. Setup/teardown time is 30 minutes for both the prime mover hub and STT trailer configurations. The Flyaway Tri-Band Satellite Terminal (FTSAT) is a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) nondevelopmental item (NDI) highly transportable tri-band transit case packaged satellite communications terminal capable of supporting a variety of worldwide missions. The FTSAT will operate with DSCS III, NATO III/IV, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, PANAMSAT and DOMSAT. The terminal modem will interoperate with the GMF MCIS (AN/TSC-85/ 93/94/100) and the DSCS gateway modems. Available in point-point, GMF spoke and GMF hub variants. Terminals are currently available under a five-year blanket purchase agreement awarded in March 2004. FTSAT provides X-, C- and Ku-band satellite communications that support a variety of worldwide missions; it is interoperable with all GMF, MCIS and DSCS gateway modems and baseband subsystems, local and remote operations in pointpoint, GMF spoke and GMF hub configurations. Setup/teardown time is 30 minutes. The National Guard Bureau Tri-Band HUB Terminal (NGB-THT) is a transitcased transportable flyaway satellite terminal capable of supporting C-, X- and Ku-band frequencies. The THT is capable of using the lightweight high-gain X-band

antenna (LHGXA), commercial 2.4-meter or 3.7-meter gigaSAT tracking antenna; supports FDMA and TDMA satellite network topologies; is ground mobile force (GMF) and joint network transformational communications (JNTC) interoperable; and includes remote monitor and control system. A commercial two-year warranty is provided. THT provides tri-band satellite communications capable of supporting a variety of worldwide missions and is interoperable with all tri-band satellite terminals and teleport earth terminals. Setup/teardown time is 30 minutes. The USARPAC Tri-Band Satellite Terminal (U-TST) is a Humvee (M1113) prime mover-mounted satellite terminal hub capable of supporting C-, X- and Kuband frequencies. The U-TST is capable of using the lightweight high-gain X-band antenna (LHGXA) tracking antenna and tows a tactical quiet generator (TQG), and supports ground mobile force (GMF) as well as C4ISR communications when operating with the single shelter switch baseband suite of equipment. An initial firm fixed-price (FFP) delivery order was awarded in March 2003 to Lockheed Martin as prime contractor with production subcontracted to L3 Communications Systems West. Future planned integration with the lightweight high-gain X-band antenna will provide higher bandwidth throughput. A planned upgrade includes a TDMA DAMA IP modem for interoperation with the joint network transformational com-

munications system currently being fielded to all Army divisions. U-TST provides tri-band satellite communications capable of supporting a variety of worldwide missions, interoperable with all tri-band satellite terminals and teleport earth terminals, with a setup/teardown time of 45 minutes. The Mobile Deployable Ku-Band Earth Terminal (DKET) is a commercial off-theshelf (COTS) nondevelopmental item (NDI) Ku-band prime mover-mounted satellite communications terminal capable of supporting a variety of worldwide missions. The DKET will operate with INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, PANAMSAT and DOMSAT. MDKETS provide high bandwidth inter/intra theater links over commercial satellites, appropriate for camp, base or station where heavy use of voice, data and video services is required. Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) is the Army's communications system for reliable, secure and seamless video, data, imagery and voice services that enables decisive combat actions. It will be focused on moving information in a manner that supports commanders, staffs, functional units and capabilities-based formations. It will be optimized for offensive and joint operations so that the theater combatant commander will have the capability to perform multiple missions simultaneously with campaign quality. The WIN-T system will establish an environment in which commanders at all echelons will have the ability to operate with virtual staffs and analytical centers

that are located at remote locations throughout the battlespace. As a key system supporting the Army's current and Future Force, WIN-T meets the pressing need for efficient battlefield bandwidth use, optimal data throughput, on-themove critical information exchange and rapid infrastructure modernization. WIN-T operates as the principal means to frame the tactical infosphere that encompasses both the unit of employment (UE) and unit of action (UA) areas of influence. The tactical infosphere will operate while mobile via its robust networking and will be able to pass relevant information for system of systems combined arms capabilities in all terrain and under all environmental conditions. Future Combat Systems (FCS), joint tactical radio system (JTRS), satellite terminals and other Department of Defense command, control, communications and computers and intelligence programs are relying on WIN-T for seamless integration into the DoD global information grid (GIG). WIN-T will be optimized for offensive and joint operations, while providing the theater combatant commander the capability to plan, prepare and execute multiple missions and tasks simultaneously using a mobile throughput feature. It will be a framework conforming to established standards and protocols for the network while interfacing with and/or replacing equipment in current forces. WIN-T outmodes mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) and tri-services tactical communications (TRI-TAC) capabilities.

`Once we lure the long knives into the rocks, the information superiority of our network-centric engagement grid will win the day for us.'

October 2005 I ARMY 319

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