Read A Cheat Sheet for APA Documentation and General Format text version

Running head: APA GUIDE

1

A Classroom Guide for Using APA Documentation and Manuscript Format [Title of the paper] Carol Schuck [Writer's Name] Ivy Tech Community College [Writer's school name]

This is a sample title page in APA format. Current (2010) examples from APA show only three items centered on the title page. A running head appears at the left margin on the title page with the page number at the right margin. The running head is repeated on each page of the paper but without the designation "Running head." Ask your professor for requirements before creating your title page.

APA GUIDE A Classroom Guide for APA Documentation and Format (center and bold major headings) General Format Guidelines (second-level headings begin at the margin and are bold)

2

In American Psychological Association (APA) format, each document has one-inch margins all-around. Each document has a title page; every page has a header; the entire document, including the title page, is double-spaced; and all pages, including the references page, are numbered. Information included on the title page is at the professor's discretion, as is the use of headings and subheadings. If in doubt, ask your professor. The header with a page number should be created in the Header and Footer function of word processing software so that the header appears in the top half-inch of the page and so that the pages are consecutively numbered. Do NOT try to type in the header information on the page itself; let the word processing software create and maintain the header and page number. Any and all sources of information used in creating an essay, term paper, or report must be accounted for and the authors given credit for their work or their comments. Not all sources are listed on the references page in APA format; but all sources must be documented. The complete information about each replicable source is included only once in any document ­ at the end on a separate, numbered page titled Reference (if only one is used) or References (if more than one is used). Only the replicable sources that have been referenced in the text can be listed on the references page. Conversely, all replicable sources that have been referenced in the text must be listed on the references page. The sections below explain how to document different types of sources in APA--nonreplicable and replicable sources.

APA GUIDE Interviews and Correspondence ­ Non-Replicable Sources

3

In APA format personal interviews, e-mails, telephone conversations, and other personal correspondence, including surveys, are not considered replicable sources because the reader would never obtain the exact results/answers/quotes. Consequently, non-replicable sources are not listed on the page of references at the end of a document. Non-replicable sources, however, are always cited in the text. Example: Mr. Edwards, the owner, commented that he knows some areas of the restaurant, and perhaps the menu variety, need work (personal interview, June 3, 2009). See the textbook for other examples. Information should be documented whether it is directly quoted or not. You must give credit for ideas, studies, and any other work taken from outside sources--sources outside yourself--including information found on the Internet. Generally, the in-text citation is placed so that the meaning of the sentence is not disrupted. For non-replicable sources, placing the citation at the end of the sentence is a good idea; see the example above. Spell out the names of all months; use the specific date every time. The period for the entire sentence is placed after the internal (in-text) citation, even with a direct quotation. Surveys ­ Non-Replicable Sources Surveys are discussed in the text of a paper, but they are not listed on the references page because they are not considered replicable sources. In the introduction to your paper, describe how many and who were surveyed ­ for example 15 diners, 25 parents, 10 employees. Then throughout the document, just refer to the survey results. Example: Seven of fifteen customers surveyed agreed that on weekends parking close to the restaurant is difficult. If the total is fewer than 100, do not use percentages; use the numbers 10 out of 15, 12 out of 25, etc. If seeing the survey is important to the reader, include a blank copy of the survey as an attachment. Any

APA GUIDE

4

attachments are the last pages of a report. If survey respondents will be referred to by name, they must be treated as interviews. Otherwise, no in-text citations are needed for survey results. Replicable Sources and Documentation Format In APA documentation format, only replicable sources are listed on the references page at the end of the document. Replicable sources are those sources that anyone can find and in which anyone will read/hear the same thing you did. Replicable sources are all printed sources, including Internet materials; videotapes and audio recordings, including music CDs; works of art, and items of software. In-text citations for all replicable sources use the authors' last names and the year of publication--for example (Rappaport, 2007). If an author is not named, a word or two from the article title should be used with the year because the reference will begin with the article title-- for example (Hill's Social Security, 2006). If no publication date is given, both the reference and the in-text citation should reflect that--(Concord Coalition, n.d.). If the material is directly quoted from a hard-copy print source, a page number is required (Tomkiel, 2004, p. 21). For sources retrieved from the Internet or from electronic databases, a page number is not required in the citation because the actual page number is unknown; and because printers are configured differently, varying numbers of pages will print on different printers. You should use a paragraph number in place of the page number--for example (Update, 2005, para. 2). In the in-text citation, separate the author's name from the year with a comma and one space; separate the page number from the year with a comma and one space; enclose the citation in parentheses: "Many people confuse SSI with Social Security" (Tomkiel, 2004, p. 21). If the author's name is used as part of the sentence, place the year in parentheses directly after the name: Stanley Tomkiel (2004) explained the difference between SSI and Social Security. If

APA GUIDE

5

a page number is required when the author's name is used in the sentence, place the page number in parentheses at the end of the quoted material: Stanley Tomkiel (2004) explained that SSI "provides payments for the aged and the disabled" (p. 21). The period for the entire sentence is always placed outside the citation, as shown in these examples. Notice the use of past tense when referring to source material; APA requires the use of past tense. As stated earlier, the complete information about each replicable source is included only once in any document ­ at the end on a separate, numbered page titled Reference (if only one is used) or References (if more than one is used). Only the replicable sources that have been referenced in the text can be listed on the references page. Conversely, all replicable sources that have been referenced in the text must be listed on the references page. Each reference should include the following information about the source; information is included in this order: Author(s). (third-level headings are indented, bold and followed by a period) For a

person, use the last name followed by a comma, first initial followed by a period, and middle initial followed by a period. List all authors, and list them in the order they are listed on the source; list all authors last-name-first; separate authors with commas; add & (an ampersand) between the next-to-last and last names in the list. Examples: Daniel J. Reschly becomes Reschly, D. J. on the references page.

Daniel J. Reschly and Tracy G. Myers become Reschly, D. J., & Myers, T. G. on the references page. Daniel J. Reschly, Tracy G. Myers and Christine R. Hartel become Reschly, D. J., Myers, T. G., & Hartel, C. R. on the references page.

APA GUIDE

6

If an Internet site does not name an individual as author, use the site-organization's full name as the author. See the Concord Coalition example. If no author or organization can be named, begin with the article title. See the "Hill's Social Security Ad Insults Intelligence" example. Date. The date reflects actual publication date, posting date to a website, or

updating of a website. Depending on the completeness of the date, put the year alone (2005); or the year and a month (2005, February); or the year and a season (2005, Summer); or the year, month and day (2005, November 15)--always in parentheses. The year is always first. Use one space after the author's name and before the left-hand parenthesis of the date. Put a period and one space after the right-hand parenthesis. Examples: August 2005 becomes (2005, August). on the references page.

August 12, 2005 becomes (2005, August 12). on the references page. Fall 2004 becomes (2004, Fall). on the references page. Authors and date look like this: Manish, S., & Patterson, J. (2007, February).

If printed material such as a pamphlet, brochure, or Internet material does not include any date at all, use n.d. for no date in the parentheses (n.d.). See the Concord Coalition example. Titles. Use the article, section, or chapter title followed by a period. Only the

first word of a title is capitalized unless a word in the title is a proper name. The first word of a subtitle is also capitalized. Article/chapter titles are NOT enclosed in quotation marks in the references. Titles are capitalized and enclosed in quotation marks in the text of a document. Place the book, journal, magazine, or newspaper title after the article or chapter title. Capitalize only the first and proper words of a book title; but capitalize all the major words of a

APA GUIDE

7

journal, magazine, or newspaper title because their names are proper names. Underline the book, journal, magazine, or newspaper title, or italicize it. If a source such as a pamphlet or government publication has only one title, or if an entire book is being referenced, capitalize only the first and proper words; then underline or italicize the title. End with a period. NOTE: Be consistent with underlining or italicizing. Volume. Place the volume number or edition number for a book in parentheses after

the book title, and put a period outside the right-hand parenthesis. Do not underline or italicize the volume or edition number. Example: The Social Security benefits handbook (4th ed.)

Place the volume number for a journal or magazine after the journal or magazine title. Underline or italicize the volume number of a journal or magazine, along with the title, and put a comma before and after the volume number. Do NOT use the word volume, or any abbreviation ­ just the number itself. Example: Benefits Quarterly, 23, Pages. Use page numbers for all articles, sections, or chapters in journals,

magazines, newspapers, reports, or books. The abbreviations p. and pp. are used for news publications with a year-month-day type of date, which also typically do not have volume numbers, and for specific book chapters or sections. If the article was retrieved from a database, include the original starting page number if given. Put a period after the page number(s). Examples: Tomkiel, S. A., III. (2004). Chapter 2: Eligibility requirements. In The Social Security benefits handbook (4th ed.) (pp. 19-54). Naperville, IL: Sphinx Publishing. (This is a chapter in a book; the single chapter is being referenced, not the entire book; the book is beyond the first edition; both chapter and book were written by the same author; the word In means that this is part of a book.)

APA GUIDE

8

Hill's Social Security ad insults intelligence. (2006, October 6). Indianapolis Star, p. A12. (This is a news article with no named author.) Rappaport, A. M. (2007, First Quarter). Improving the financial status of elderly women: Issues in savings, pension plans and Social Security. Benefits Quarterly, 23, 34-46. (This is a journal article with an unusual publication date; the journal has a volume number.) Special. If the source is a special type of source ­ pamphlet, brochure,

recording/CD, film, editorial, software, or printed transcript of a radio/television broadcast ­ put that information in brackets. [Pamphlet]. Put a period after the right-hand bracket. For example, Chadwick, A., Eaton, S., & Ely, B. (2007, February 13). Credit without SSN. Day to Day (NPR). [Transcript]. (This is a transcript of a radio broadcast retrieved from a library database.) Publication. For books, pamphlets, or brochures--NOT for magazines, journals, or newspapers--name the city where the source was published. Then give a two-letter state abbreviation, and name the publisher. Separate the city and state with a comma; separate the state from the publisher with a colon. End with a period. If the publisher and author are the same, use Author in place of the publisher's name. The state abbreviation is NOT needed for these cities: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco. Examples: Tomkiel, S. A., III. (2004). The Social Security benefits handbook (4th ed.)

Naperville, IL: Sphinx Publishing. Benavie, A. (2003). Social Security under the gun: What every informed citizen needs to know about pension reform. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

APA GUIDE Retrieval. Any source retrieved directly from the Internet must include that

9

information in the reference. According to updates to the fifth edition of the Publication Manual, APA accepts the following for an Internet reference: Concord Coalition. (n.d.). Social Security. Issues. Retrieved March 22, 2007, from www.concordcoalition.org/issues/socsec In this example the Concord Coalition is the author because no person is named, but the Coalition is responsible for all information appearing on the site. Their website includes no information about posting dates or updates, so the designation (n.d.), meaning no date, is used. The article title Social Security precedes the section title Issues; their website is divided into sections, and each section contains specific articles with separate titles. The retrieval information includes the date on which the information was retrieved, and the URL includes the exact web address of the information being referenced. Word processing software underlines a website after it is typed and turns it blue; the underlining and color should be removed before printing. The in-text citation for this source would be (Concord, n.d.). For articles retrieved through electronic databases, the general formats are shown here and in the sample references. Textbook examples may be out of date ­ Use this general format: Author. (Date). Title of article. Title of Source, volume number, original page(s). As of 2009, the retrieval date and database name are no longer required in the reference; a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) should be used if provided. Examples: Conan, N., & Nuland, S. (2007, March 14). What are the secrets to aging Authors. (Date). Title of article. well? Talk of the Nation (NPR). [Transcript]. Title of the Source. [Special type of source]. Update: Social Security reform. (2005, February 18). Issues & Controversies. No author named; Title begins the reference. (Date). Title of Source

APA GUIDE

10

An important note about retrieval dates and URLs: The 2009 APA guidelines include significant changes in the use of retrieval dates and URLs in an effort to simplify reference format. The most important element of any reference, however, is always the answer to this question: Can your reader find the material you are referencing? Always be certain to include enough information so that any reader will be able to find the sources you are referencing. In general, a retrieval date is used for any information that is likely to change. This includes information taken directly from a website, blog, discussion list, etc. The retrieval date must be included if no publication or posting date is given. The retrieval date is no longer needed for information that is not likely to change. This includes journal, magazine, or news articles found in databases or chapters in or entire books online. In general, a URL is needed only for web-based sources: website-based information, especially when the website is divided into sections; articles available online only through personal subscription; online reference works such as encyclopedias and dictionaries. The database name is no longer needed in the reference; however, if a persistent link through a DOI is provided, the DOI should always be used at the end of the reference. General Format of the References Page The references page is double-spaced from top to bottom, just as the rest of the paper is double-spaced. The label References is centered; the page is numbered along with the rest of the paper. The first line of each entry may be indented; or the first line may be flush with the lefthand margin, and the second, etc., lines of the entry are indented. APA accepts both methods of indenting, but only one method may be used at a time. Ask your professor.

APA GUIDE

11

All sources on the references page are alphabetized by authors. For an article which does not include the author's name, the entry should begin with the first word of the title in place of the author's name. Ignore A, An, and The. Begin with the first major word. Then alphabetize by that first major word. For example, "An Introduction to Social Security" becomes Introduction to Social Security. The date follows the article title in this case; the newspaper or news magazine title (underlined or italicized) follows the date, and the page numbers beginning with p. or pp. follow the newspaper or news magazine title. The whole thing ends with a period: Introduction to Social Security. (2005, March). EPI Issue Guide: Social Security, pp. 2-3. Sample references begin on the next page. Comments in bold type are added for instructional purposes only. The references always begin on a separate page that is numbered, double-spaced, and that includes the same header as the rest of the document. NO EXTRA SPACES are added to fill out the page. At the end of this document are these references as they would look on a references page. Hanging-indent format has been used in this set of examples; however, APA format also accommodates paragraph-indent format.

APA GUIDE

12

References (The references heading is centered but is NOT underlined, bold or in all capital letters.)

Public affairs article retrieved from CQ library; one author; title and subtitle given to the article.

Adams, R. (2005, April 4). A hydra-headed retirement crisis: Legislative analysis. CQWeekly, 63, 830.

Book with one author; book has title and subtitle; found in ebrary database.

Benavie, A. (2003). Social Security under the gun: What every informed citizen needs to know about pension reform. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Supreme Court decision; title is underlined because case has been decided; retrieved from CQ library.

Bowen v. Public Agencies Opposed to Social Security Entrapment, 477 U. S. 41 (1986).

Article in Opposing Viewpoints online; publication date is original date, but title has been changed for the book.

Bush, G. W. (2005, March 22). Diverting money into private accounts would strengthen Social Security. In A. C. Nakaya (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: America in the twenty-first century. Greenhaven Press.

Transcript of radio news broadcast; retrieved from LexisNexis database.

Chadwick, A., Eaton, S., & Ely, B. (2007, February 13). Credit without SSN. Day to Day (NPR). [Transcript].

Information from organization website; no author identified; no posting date; retrieval date is required.

Concord Coalition. (n.d.). Social Security. Issues. Retrieved March 22, 2007, from www.concordcoalition.org/issues/socsec

Article from CQ Researcher database; journal with volume number and page numbers.

Cooper, M. H. (2004, September 24). Social Security reform. The CQResearcher, 14, 781-804.

Hyphenated author name; two authors; journal number and page numbers given; retrieved from ProQuest database.

Eshbaugh-Soha, M., & Peake, J. S. (2006, December). New strategies in presidential policy appeals: Going local to reform Social Security. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 689705.

Newspaper article with no author named.

Hill's Social Security ad insults intelligence. (2006, October 6). Indianapolis Star, p. A12.

Article with four authors; published in professional journal; retrieved from PsycARTICLES database; DOI provided.

MacDonald-Wilson, K., Rogers, E. S., Ellison, M. L., & Lyass, A. (2003, November). A study of

APA GUIDE

13

the Social Security work incentives and their relation to perceived barriers to work among persons with psychiatric disability. Rehabilitation Psychology, 48, 301-309. DOI 10.1037/0090-5550.48.4.301

Article with two authors; article from peer-reviewed journal; retrieved from EBSCOhost database.

Manish, S., & Patterson, J. (2007, February). The misuse of Social Security disability income on drug and alcohol abuse. Southern Medical Journal, 100, 222-223.

Article from organization with acronym indicated; original date, but title changed for Opposing Viewpoints book.

National Organization for Women [NOW]. (1999, Winter). Privatization of Social Security harms women. In L. Egendorf (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: An aging population (pp. 3439). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.

Journal article with unusual publication date; article has title and subtitle; professional journal has volume number.

Rappaport, A. M. (2007, First Quarter). Improving the financial status of elderly women: Issues in savings, pension plans and Social Security. Benefits Quarterly, 23, 34-46.

Three editors compiled book published by national press; book found in ebrary database.

Reschly, D. J., Myers, T. G., & Hartel, C. R. (Eds.). (2002). Mental retardation: Determining eligibility for Social Security benefits. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Multiple authors for article in professional journal; article retrieved from Health and Wellness database.

Rosen, M. I., McMahon, T. J., Lin, H., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2006, February). Effects of Social Security payments on substance abuse in a homeless mentally ill cohort. Health Services Research, 41, 173.

Section of organization annual report available online; because the report is from a prior year the retrieval date is used in case the report has been removed from the website.

Smith, M. (2005). Letter from Marie Smith, AARP president 2004-2006. It's our time to empower: 2005 AARP annual report, p. 2. [Booklet]. Retrieved March 2, 2007, from www.aarp.org/articles/aboutaarp/2005aarpannualreport.pdf

Agency as author; section of report being referenced; article retrieved from SIRS database.

Social Security Administration. (2007, January). Retirement benefits. A Factsheeet from Social Security, pp. 1-16.

APA GUIDE

Item from online encyclopedia; no author named; URL is required.

14

Social Security. (2007). Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007, from http://encarta.msn.com

Author is Stanley Tomkiel, III; Jr., Sr., II, III, etc., included after initials; a single chapter in his book is being referenced.

Tomkiel, S. A., III. (2004). Chapter 2: Eligibility requirements. In The Social Security benefits handbook (4th ed.) (pp. 19-54). Naperville, IL: Sphinx Publishing.

Article/overview of issues from Issues and Controversies on File, online edition.

Update: Social Security reform. (2005, February 18). Issues & Controversies.

Authored information from an organization website; website is divided into sections with articles in each section; retrieval date is required for information that is likely to change or disappear from the website.

Wasow, B. (2004, November 15). Scare tactics: Why Social Security is not in crisis. Publications: The Social Security Network. Retrieved March 12, 2007, from www.socsec.org/publications

APA GUIDE References

15

Adams, R. (2005, April 4). A hydra-headed retirement crisis: Legislative analysis. CQWeekly, 63, 830. Benavie, A. (2003). Social Security under the gun: What every informed citizen needs to know about pension reform. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Bowen v. Public Agencies Opposed to Social Security Entrapment, 477 U. S. 41 (1986). Bush, G. W. (2005, March 22). Diverting money into private accounts would strengthen Social Security. In A. C. Nakaya (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: America in the twenty-first century. Greenhaven Press. Chadwick, A., Eaton, S., & Ely, B. (2007, February 13). Credit without SSN. Day to Day (NPR). [Transcript]. Concord Coalition. (n.d.). Social Security. Issues. Retrieved March 22, 2007, from www.concordcoalition.org/issues/socsec Cooper, M. H. (2004, September 24). Social Security reform. The CQResearcher, 14, 781-804. Eshbaugh-Soha, M., & Peake, J. S. (2006, December). New strategies in presidential policy appeals: Going local to reform Social Security. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 689705. Hill's Social Security ad insults intelligence. (2006, October 6). Indianapolis Star, p. A12. MacDonald-Wilson, K., Rogers, E. S., Ellison, M. L., & Lyass, A. (2003, November). A study of the Social Security work incentives and their relation to perceived barriers to work among persons with psychiatric disability. Rehabilitation Psychology, 48, 301-309. DOI 10.1037/0090-5550.48.4.301 Manish, S., & Patterson, J. (2007, February). The misuse of Social Security disability income on

APA GUIDE drug and alcohol abuse. Southern Medical Journal, 100, 222-223.

16

National Organization for Women [NOW]. (1999, Winter). Privatization of Social Security harms women. In L. Egendorf (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: An aging population (pp. 3439). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press. Rappaport, A. M. (2007, First Quarter). Improving the financial status of elderly women: Issues in savings, pension plans and Social Security. Benefits Quarterly, 23, 34-46. Reschly, D. J., Myers, T. G., & Hartel, C. R. (Eds.). (2002). Mental retardation: Determining eligibility for Social Security benefits. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Rosen, M. I., McMahon, T. J., Lin, H., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2006, February). Effects of Social Security payments on substance abuse in a homeless mentally ill cohort. Health Services Research, 41, 173. Smith, M. (2005). Letter from Marie Smith, AARP president 2004-2006. It's our time to empower: 2005 AARP annual report, p. 2. [Booklet]. Retrieved March 2, 2007, from www.aarp.org/articles/aboutaarp/2005aarpannualreport.pdf Social Security Administration. (2007, January). Retirement benefits. A Factsheeet from Social Security, pp. 1-16. Social Security. (2007). Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007, from http://encarta.msn.com Tomkiel, S. A., III. (2004). Chapter 2: Eligibility requirements. In The Social Security benefits handbook (4th ed.) (pp. 19-54). Naperville, IL: Sphinx Publishing. Update: Social Security reform. (2005, February 18). Issues & Controversies. Wasow, B. (2004, November 15). Scare tactics: Why Social Security is not in crisis. Publications: The Social Security Network. Retrieved March 12, 2007, from

APA GUIDE www.socsec.org/publications

17

Information

A Cheat Sheet for APA Documentation and General Format

17 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

1334956


Notice: fwrite(): send of 203 bytes failed with errno=104 Connection reset by peer in /home/readbag.com/web/sphinxapi.php on line 531