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ZiLOG Design Concepts

Z8 Application Ideas

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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Information Integrity

The information contained within this document has been verified according to the general principles of electrical and mechanical engineering. Any applicable source code illustrated in the document was either written by an authorized ZiLOG employee or licensed consultant. Permission to use these codes in any form, besides the intended application, must be approved through a license agreement between both parties. ZiLOG will not be responsible for any code(s) used beyond the intended application. Contact the local ZiLOG Sales Office to obtain necessary license agreements.

Document Disclaimer

© 2000 by ZiLOG, Inc. All rights reserved. Information in this publication concerning the devices, applications, or technology described is intended to suggest possible uses and may be superseded. ZiLOG, INC. DOES NOT ASSUME LIABILITY FOR OR PROVIDE A REPRESENTATION OF ACCURACY OF THE INFORMATION, DEVICES, OR TECHNOLOGY DESCRIBED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ZiLOG ALSO DOES NOT ASSUME LIABILITY FOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INFRINGEMENT RELATED IN ANY MANNER TO USE OF INFORMATION, DEVICES, OR TECHNOLOGY DESCRIBED HEREIN OR OTHERWISE. Except with the express written approval ZiLOG, use of information, devices, or technology as critical components of life support systems is not authorized. No licenses or other rights are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, by this document under any intellectual property rights.

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Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix OTP Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Automotive Rear Sonar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Automotive Speedometer, Odometer, and Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Autonomous Micro-Blimp Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Battery-Operated Door-Entry System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Crab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Desktop Fountain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 DCF77 Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Diagnostic Compressor Protector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Digital Dimmer Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Door Access Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Electrolytic Capacitor ESR Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Electronic Door Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Firearm Locking System (FLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Forecaster Intelligent Water Delivery Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Improved Linear Single-Slope ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Integrated Sailboat Electronic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Intelligent Guide for the Blind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Internet Email Reporting Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Lunar Telemetry Beacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Magic Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Modular Light Display Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Nasal Oscillatory Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 New Sensor Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Phone Dialer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Pocket Music Synthesizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Portable Individual Navigator (PIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Postal Shock Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 PWM Input/Output Interface Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Reaction Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Remote-Controlled Air Conditioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Remote-Control Antenna Positioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

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RF Dog Collar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Signature Recognition and Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Smart Phone Accessory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Smart Solar Water Heating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Smart Window with Fuzzy Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Solar Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Speedometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Stages Baby Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Sun Tracking to Optimize Solar Power Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Tandy Light Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Temperature Measuring Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Transmission Trainer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 UFO Flight Regulation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Vehicle Anti-Theft Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Windmill Commander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Wireless Accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

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List of Figures

Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. Figure 27. Figure 28. Figure 29. Figure 30. Figure 31. Figure 32. Figure 33. Automotive Rear Sonar Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Automotive Rear Sonar Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Automotive Velometer, Mileometer, and Tachometer Block Diagram 4 Automotive Velometer, Mileometer, and Tachometer Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Autonomous Micro-Blimp Controller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Autonomous Micro-Blimp Controller Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . 8 Battery-Operated Door-Entry System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Battery-Operated Door-Entry System Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . 11 The Crab Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The Crab Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Desktop Fountain Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Desktop Fountain Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 DCF77 Clock Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Diagnostic Compressor Protector Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Diagnostic Compressor Protector Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 23 Digital Dimmer Box Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Digital Dimmer Box Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Door Access Controller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Door Access Controller Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Electrolytic Capacitor ESR Meter Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 32 Electronic Door Control Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Firearm Locking System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Firearm Locking System Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Forecaster Intelligent Water Delivery Valve Schematic . . . . . . . . . . 39 Improved Linear Single Slope ADC Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Improved Linear Single Slope ADC Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . 42 Integrated Sailboat Electronic System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 44 Integrated Sailboat Electronic System Schematic Diagram . . . . . . 44 Intelligent Guide for the Blind Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Intelligent Guide for the Blind Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Internet Email Reporting Engine Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Internet Email Reporting Engine Software Block Diagram . . . . . . . 49 Internet Email Reporting Engine Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 50

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Figure 34. Figure 35. Figure 36. Figure 37. Figure 38. Figure 39. Figure 40. Figure 41. Figure 42. Figure 43. Figure 44. Figure 45. Figure 46. Figure 47. Figure 48. Figure 49. Figure 50. Figure 51. Figure 52. Figure 53. Figure 54. Figure 55. Figure 56. Figure 57. Figure 58. Figure 59. Figure 60. Figure 61. Figure 62. Figure 63. Figure 64. Figure 65. Figure 66. Figure 67. Figure 68.

Magic Dice Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Magic Dice Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Modular Light Display Panel Module Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Modular Light Display Panel Module Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . 59 Nasal Oscillatory Transducer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Nasal Oscillatory Transducer Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 New Sensor Technology Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 New Sensor Technology Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Phone Dialer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Phone Dialer Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Pocket Music Synthesizer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Pocket Music Synthesizer Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Portable Individual Navigator A/D Ratio Over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Portable Individual Navigator Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Postal Shock Recorder Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Postal Shock Recorder Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 PWM Input Output/Interface Module Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Reaction Tester Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Reaction Tester Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Remote-Control Air Conditioner Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Remote-Control Air Conditioner Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Remote Controlled Antenna Positioner Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 87 Hand-Held Remote Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Remote Controlled Antenna Positioner Schematic Diagram . . . . . . 88 RF Dog Collar Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Signature Recognition and Authentication Module Block Diagram . 91 Signature Recognition and Authentication Module Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Smart Phone Accessory Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Smart Phone Accessory Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Smart Solar Water Heating System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Smart Window with Fuzzy Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Smart Window with Fuzzy Control Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . 99 Solar Tracker Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Solar Tracker Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Speedometer Flow Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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Figure 69. Figure 70. Figure 71. Figure 72. Figure 73. Figure 74. Figure 75. Figure 76. Figure 77. Figure 78. Figure 79. Figure 80. Figure 81. Figure 82. Figure 83. Figure 84. Figure 85. Figure 86. Figure 87.

Speedometer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stages Baby Monitor Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stages Baby Monitor Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sun Tracking Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sun Tracking Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tandy Light Control Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tandy Light Control Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Measuring Device Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Measuring Device Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . Transmission Trainer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission Trainer Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UFO Flight Regulation System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UFO Flight Regulation System Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . Vehicle Anti-Theft Module Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vehicle Anti-Theft Module Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windmill Commander Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windmill Commander Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireless Accelerometer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireless Accelerometer Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105 107 108 110 111 113 114 116 117 119 120 122 123 125 125 127 128 130 131

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List of Tables

Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. OTP Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Sensor Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Firearm Sensor Input Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Graphics Display Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Serial Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

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Introduction

Are you driven to design the best? Co-sponsored with CMP Media, Inc., ZiLOGÕs 1999 ÒDriven to DesignÓ contest sought the most innovative and creative use of ZiLOGÕs award-winning Z8¨ or Z8Plus¨ OTP microcontroller. The 47 abstracts contained in this book offer the designer a launching pad from which to prompt ideas and develop designs incorporating the ZiLOG Z8 or Z8Plus microcontrollers. They range in scope from helping blind individuals navigate busy intersections to providing increased protection for the handling and delivery of fragile packages. Students and engineers from all over the world submitted the design concepts presented in this compendium. Each abstract includes block and schematic diagrams to help the designer comprehend the contestantsÕ visions of products that are viable in todayÕs connected world.

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ZiLOG OTP Selection Guide

ROM (KB) PACKAGE 0.5K DIP SOIC SSOP DIP SOIC DIP SOIC SSOP DIP SOIC SSOP 1K DIP PINS 18 18 20 18 OPERATING TEMPERATURE OSCILLATOR -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 0/70 Selectable ZiLOG PART NUMBER Z86E0208PEC1925 Z86E0208PSC1925 Z86E0208SEC1925 Z86E0208SSC1925 Z86E0208HEC1925 Z86E0208HSC1925 Z86E0308PSC Z86E0308SSC Z8E00010PEC Z8E00010PSC Z8E00010SEC Z8E00010SSC Z8E00010HEC Z8E00010HSC Z8PE002PZ010EC Z8PE002PZ010SC Z8PE002SZ010EC Z8PE002SZ010SC Z8PE002HZ010EC Z8PE002HZ010SC Z86E0412PEC Z86E0412PEC1903 Z86E0412PSC1866 Z86E0412PSC1903 Z86E0412SEC Z86E0412SEC1903 Z86E0412SSC1866 Z86E0412SSC1903 Z86E0412HEC1866 Z86E0412HSC1866 Z86E0612PSC Z86E0612SSC Z8E00110PEC Z8E00110PSC Z8E00110SEC Z8E00110SSC Z8E00110HEC Z8E00110HSC Z8PE003PZ010EC Z8PE003PZ010SC Z8PE003SZ010EC Z8PE003SZ010SC Z8PE003HZ010EC Z8PE003HZ010SC Z86E0812PEC Z86E0812PEC1903 Z86E0812PSC1866 Z86E0812PSC1903 Z86E0812SEC Z86E0812SEC1903 Z86E0812SSC1866 Z86E0812SSC1903 Z86E0812HEC1866 Z86E0812HSC1866 Z86E3116PEC Z86E3116PSC Z86E3116SEC Z86E3116SSC Z86E3116VEC Z86E3116VSC Z86E132PZ016EC1 Z86E132PZ016SC Z86E132SZ016EC1 Z86E132SZ016SC Z86E142PZ016EC1 Z86E142PZ016SC Z86E142FZ016EC Z86E142FZ016SC Z86E3016PEC Z86E3016PSC Z86E3016SEC Z86E3016SSC Z86E3016VEC Z86E3016VSC Z86E3312PSC Z86E3312SSC Z86E3312VSC Z86E1505PSC Z86E4016FEC Z86E4016FSC Z86E4016PEC Z86E4016PSC Z86E4016VEC Z86E4016VSC Z86E4312FSC Z86E4312PSC Z86E4312VSC Z86E8316PEC Z86E8316PSC Z86E8316SEC Z86E8316SSC Z86E8316VEC Z86E8316VSC VOLTAGE RANGE 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V PROGRAMMING ADAPTER Not Required Z86E0700ZDP Z86E0800ZDH Z86E0601ZDP 1 Timer + Timer Out 2 Comparators + WDT 61 RAM + 14 I/O + POR Z8Plus Core 1 Timer WDT + Reset Pin 32 RAM + 13 I/O Z86C03 EMULATOR/ ACCESS. KIT Z86CCP01ZEM** FEATURES 1 Timer + WDT 2 Comparators 61 RAM + 14 I/O + POR ROM EQUIV. Z86C02

Selectable

18 18 20 18 18 20 18

-40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70

XTAL

Selectable

SOIC

18

-40/105 0/70

SSOP DIP SOIC DIP SOIC SSOP DIP SOIC SSOP 2K DIP

20 18

-40/105 0/70

XTAL RC XTAL RC XTAL RC XTAL RC XTAL Selectable

4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.0V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.0V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.0V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V

Not Required Z86E0700ZDP Z8E00101ZDH Not Required Z86E0700ZDP Z8E00101ZDH Not Required

Z8ICE001ZEM

None

Z8Plus Core 3 Timers / PWM 1 Comparator + WDT 64 RAM + 14 I/O + POR

Z86CCP01ZEM**

2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 125 RAM + 14 I/O + POR

Z86C04

Z86E0700ZDP

Z86E0800ZDH Z86E0601ZDP 2 Timers + SPI + WDT 2 Comparators + 125 RAM Timer Out + 14 I/O + POR Z8Plus Core 3 Timers / PWM 1 Comparator + WDT Reset Pin 64 RAM + 13 I/O Z8Plus Core 3 Timers / PWM 1 Comparator + WDT Reset Pin 64 RAM + 14 I/O + POR Z86CCP01ZEM** 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 125 RAM + 14 I/O + POR Z86C08 Z86C06

18 18 20 18 18 20 18

-40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70

XTAL

Selectable

SOIC

18

-40/105 0/70

SSOP DIP SOIC PLCC 4K DIP SOIC DIP QFP DIP SOIC PLCC DIP SOIC PLCC DIP QFP DIP PLCC QFP DIP PLCC DIP SOIC PLCC

20 28 28 28 28 28 40 44 28 28 28 28

-40/105 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 0/70 0/70 0/70

XTAL RC XTAL RC XTAL RC XTAL RC XTAL Selectable

4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.0V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.0V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.0V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V

Not Required Z86E0700ZDP Z8E00101ZDH Not Required Z86E0700ZDP Z8E00101ZDH Not Required

Z8ICE001ZEM

None

Z86E0700ZDP

Z86E0800ZDH 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 3.0V - 5.5V Not Required Z86C3000ZAC Z86CCP01ZEM** and Z86CCP00ZAC 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 125 RAM + 24 I/O + POR Z86C31

Selectable

ZICSP000100ZDP ZICSP000300ZDS ZICSP000400ZDP ZICSP000600ZDF

Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86CCP01ZEM**

Selectable

Selectable

Selectable

4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V

Not Required Z86C3000ZAC

UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 237 RAM, 24 I/O + WDT + POR UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 236 RAM, 32 I/O + WDT + POR 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 237 RAM + 24 I/O + POR

Z86C34*** (16K ROM)

Z86C44**** (16K ROM)

Z86C30

40 44 40 44 44 40 44 28

0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 0/70

RC Selectable

4.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V

Z86E3400ZDP Z86E3400ZDS Z86E3400ZDV Z86E1500ZDP Z86E4001ZDF Not Required Z86E4001ZDV Z86E4400ZDF Z86E4400ZDP Z86E4400ZDV Z86E8300ZDP Z86E8300ZDS Z86E8300ZDV

Z86CCP01ZEM** and Z86CCP00ZAC Z86CCP01ZEM+ Z86CCP01ZEM** and Z86CCP00ZAC

Clock-free WDT Reset 237 RAM + 2 Comparators 2 Timers + 24 I/O + POR 1 Timer + WDT 188 RAM + 32 I/O 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 236 RAM + 32 I/O + POR

Z86C33

Z86K15/K16 (K16=5K ROM) Z86C40

Selectable

Z86CCP01ZEM**

-40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70

XTAL

4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V 4.5V - 5.5V 3.5V - 5.5V

Z86C8401ZEM

Clock-free WDT Reset 2 Timers + 2 Comparators 236 RAM + 32 I/O 8 Bit - 8 Channel A/D 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 237 RAM + 21 I/O + POR

Z86C43

Z86C83

AN004901-0900

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas xi

ROM (KB) PACKAGE PINS 8K DIP SOIC DIP 0/70 QFP DIP SOIC PLCC QFP DIP PLCC QFP DIP PLCC DIP SOIC DIP 0/70 QFP DIP SOIC PLCC QFP DIP PLCC QFP DIP PLCC QFP PDIP PLCC 32K DIP SOIC DIP 0/70 QFP QFP DIP PLCC PDIP PLCC 28 28 40 44 28 OPERATING TEMPERATURE OSCILLATOR -40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 -40/105 0/70 0/70 Selectable ZiLOG PART NUMBER 1 Z86E133PZ016EC Z86E133PZ016SC 1 Z86E133SZ016EC Z86E133SZ016SC 1 Z86E143PZ016EC Z86E143PZ016SC Z86E143FZ016EC Z86E143FZ016SC Z8673312PSC Z8673312SSC Z8673312VSC Z8674312FSC Z8674312PSC Z8674312VSC Z86E2112FSC Z86E2112PSC Z86E2112VSC 1 Z86E134PZ016EC Z86E134PZ016SC 1 Z86E134SZ016EC Z86E134SZ016SC 1 Z86E144PZ016EC Z86E144PZ016SC Z86E144FZ016EC Z86E144FZ016SC Z86E3412PSC Z86E3412SSC Z86E3412VSC Z86E4412FSC Z86E4412PSC Z86E4412VSC Z86E6116FSC Z86E6116PSC Z86E6116VSC Z86E7216FSC Z86E7216PSC Z86E7216VSC Z86E135PZ016EC

1

VOLTAGE RANGE 3.0V - 5.5V

PROGRAMMING ADAPTER ZICSP000100ZDP ZICSP000300ZDS ZICSP000400ZDP ZICSP000600ZDF

EMULATOR/ ACCESS. KIT Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86CCP01ZEM**

FEATURES UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 237 RAM, 24 I/O + WDT + POR UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 236 RAM 32 I/O + WDT + POR 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 237 RAM + 24 I/O + POR 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 236 RAM + 32 I/O + POR 2 Timers + UART + WDT 8 Open Drain Outputs 236 RAM + 32 I/O UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 237 RAM 24 I/O + WDT + POR UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 236 RAM, 32 I/O + WDT + POR 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 237 RAM + 24 I/O + POR 2 Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 236 RAM + 32 I/O + POR 2 Timers + UART 236 RAM + 32 I/O 2 Adv. Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 738 RAM +31 I/O UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 237 RAM, 24 I/O + WDT + POR UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 236 RAM, 32 I/O + WDT + POR 2 Timers + UART 236 RAM + 32 I/O

ROM EQUIV. Z86C34*** (16K ROM)

Selectable

Z86C44**** (16K ROM)

Selectable

16K

44 40 44 44 40 44 28 28 40 44 28

0/70

Selectable

0/70

XTAL

-40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 -40/105 0/70 0/70

Selectable

Z86E3400ZDP Z86E3400ZDS Z86E3400ZDV Z86E4400ZDF Z86E4400ZDP Z86E4400ZDV 4.5V - 5.5V Z86E2101ZDF Z86E2301ZDP Z86E2101ZDV 3.0V - 5.5V ZICSP000100ZDP ZICSP000300ZDS ZICSP000400ZDP ZICSP000600ZDF Z86E3400ZDP Z86E3400ZDS Z86E3400ZDV Z86E4400ZDF Z86E4400ZDP Z86E4400ZDV 4.5V - 5.5V Z86E2101ZDF Z86E2301ZDP Z86E2101ZDV Included With Emulator 3.5V - 5.5V

3.5V - 5.5V

Z86233

Z86243

Z86C1200ZEM

Z86C21

Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86CCP01ZEM** (Must be modified see website) or Z86C5000ZEM Z86C1200ZEM

Z86C34

Selectable

Z86C44

Selectable

Z86C34

44 40 44 44 40 44 44 40 44 28 28 40 44 44 40 44 40 44

0/70

Selectable

Z86C44

0/70

XTAL

Z86C61

0/70

Selectable

Z86L7103ZEM

Z86C72

-40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 -40/105 0/70 0/70

Selectable

3.0V - 5.5V

ZICSP000100ZDP ZICSP000300ZDS ZICSP000400ZDP ZICSP000600ZDF

Selectable

XTAL

Z86E135PZ016SC 1 Z86E135SZ016EC Z86E135SZ016SC 1 Z86E145PZ016EC Z86E145PZ016SC Z86E145FZ016EC Z86E145FZ016SC Z86E6316FSC Z86E6316PSC Z86E6316VSC Z86D7308PSC Z86D7308VSC

Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86C1200ZEM

Z86C35

Z86C45

4.5V - 5.5V

Z86E2101ZDF Z86E2301ZDP Z86E2101ZDV Included With Emulator

Z86C63

0/70

Selectable

2.0V - 3.6V

Z86L9800ZEM

2 Adv. Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 236 RAM + 31 I/O 2 Adv. Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 236 RAM + 23 I/O

Z86L87 (16K ROM) Z86L89 (24K ROM) Z86L73 (32K ROM) Z86L82 (4K ROM) Z86L85 (8K ROM) Z86L88 (16K ROM) Z86L81 (24K ROM) Z86L86 (32K ROM) Z86L990 (16K ROM)

PDIP SOIC

28 28

0/70

Selectable

Z86D8608PSC Z86D8608SSC

Included With Emulator

Z86L9800ZEM

SSOP PDIP

48 40

0/70

Selectable

Z86D990HZ008SC Z86D990PZ008SC

3.0V - 5.5V

TBD Included With Emulator

Z86L9900100ZEM

2 Adv. Timers + 1GPTimer WDT + 2 Comparators 4 Ch 8-bit ADC 489 RAM + 32 I/O 2 Adv. Timers + 1GPTimer WDT + 2 Comparators 4 Ch 8-bit ADC 489 RAM + 23 I/O

PDIP SOIC

28 28

0/70

Selectable

Z86D991PZ008SC Z86D991SZ008SC

Included With Emulator

Z86L991 (16K ROM)

64K

QFP PDIP PLCC DIP SOIC DIP 0/70 QFP

44 40 44 28 28 40 44

0/70

Selectable

-40/105 0/70 -40/105 0/70 -40/105 -40/105 0/70

Selectable

Z86E7316FSC Z86E7316PSC Z86E7316VSC 1 Z86E136PZ016EC Z86E136PZ016SC 1 Z86E136SZ016EC Z86E136SZ016SC 1 Z86E146PZ016EC Z86E146PZ016SC Z86E146FZ016EC Z86E146FZ016SC

4.5V - 5.5V

Included With Emulator

Z86L7103ZEM

3.0V - 5.5V

ZICSP000100ZDP ZICSP000300ZDS ZICSP000400ZDP ZICSP000600ZDF

Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR Z86C3600ZEM + ZLGICSP0100ZPR

Selectable

2 Adv. Timers + WDT 2 Comparators 236 RAM + 31 I/O UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 237 RAM 24 I/O + WDT + POR UART + 2 Comparators ICSP OTP Programming 2 Timers + 236 RAM, 32 I/O + WDT + POR

Z86C88 (16K ROM) Z86C36

Z86C46

1 Extended Temperature Device will be available in Q4 2000. * Selectable Oscillator means Crystal or RC can be chosen The Z86CCP01ZEM is rated at 12 MHz. For speed above 12 MHz, use the Z86C5000ZEM emulator. For Z86C06 SPI Emulation, use the Z86C5000ZEM ** *** ROM device has 16K internal Program Memory. **** ROM device has 16K internal Program Memory. External program & data memory access should start from 16K (address = 4000H) + The Z86CCP01ZEM is used only for programming the EPROM version, and the Z86K1500ZEM is used only for emulation of this part. ++ The Z86CCP01ZEM is used only for programming the EPROM version, and the Z86U1800ZEM is used only for emulation of this pa

DESCRIPTION OF Z8 ADAPTERS Z86CCP00ZAC: 28 / 40-Pin DIP Accessory Kit Z86CCP01Z Z86C3000ZAC: 28-Pin SOIC/PLCC Accessory Kit for Z86C Z86E0601ZDP: 18-Pin SOIC to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z86E0700ZDP: 18-Pin SOIC to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z86E0800ZDH: 20-Pin SSOP to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z86E1500ZDP: 40-Pin DIP Adapter ZLGICSP0100ZPICSP Programmer for Z8 MUZE Family ZICSP000100ZD 28-Pin DIP Programming Adapter for ICSP ZICSP000300ZD 28-Pin SOIC Programming Adapter for ICS Z86E2101ZDF: Z86E2101ZDV: Z86E3400ZDP: Z86E3400ZDS: Z86E3400ZDV: Z86E4400ZDF: Z86E4400ZDP: ZICSP000400ZDP: ZICSP000600ZDF: 44-Pin QFP to 40-Pin DIP Adapter Z86C4001ZDV: 44-Pin PLCC to 40-Pin DIP Adapter Z86E4001ZDV: 28-Pin DIP to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z86E8300ZDP: 28-Pin SOIC to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z86E8300ZDS: 28-Pin PLCC to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z86E8300ZDV: 44-Pin QFP to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z8E00101ZDH: 40-Pin DIP to 18-Pin DIP Adapter Z8PE0030000ZDP: 40-Pin DIP Programming Adapter for ICSP Programmer QFP Programming Adapter for ICSP Programmer 44-Pin PLCC to 40-Pin DIP Adapter 44-Pin PLCC to 40-Pin DIP Adapter 28-Pin DIP to 28-Pin DIP Adapter 28-Pin SOIC to 28-Pin DIP Adapter 28-Pin PLCC to 28-Pin DIP Adapter 20-Pin SSOP to 18-Pin DIP (Z8ICE) Adapter Z8ICE000ZEM & Z8ICE010ZEM Upgrade Kit

AN004901-0900

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 1

Automotive Rear Sonar

Submitted by: R. Hugo Vieira Neto and Francisco Eugenio Mauro Abstract The Automotive Rear Sonar is intended for automotive use. It is simple, effective, and inexpensive. Designed with a ZiLOG Z8 OTP microcontroller, this device measures the distance between the vehicle and any obstacle when in reverse gear. The driver is informed when a collision is about to occur. The sonar utilizes a pair of ultrasonic transducers to send and receive 40-kHz wave bursts. The goal is to measure the time of flight of the ultrasonic burst if an echo occurs. A Z86E08 microcontroller running at 8 MHz acts as the system control block. Some of the Z86E08s key features are:

¥ ¥ ¥

Short instruction execution times (generation of the 40-kHz ultrasonic signal by software) Onboard analog comparators (making ultrasonic detection simple and inexpensive) Onboard counter/timers with prescalers (making ultrasonic wave time-of-flight easy to measure)

Ultrasonic waves are strongly attenuated along their propagation in the air. That makes their detection quite difficult as distance increases. In order to achieve feasible detection, the transmitter is given as much power as possible, and the receiver circuit is furnished enough sensitivity to detect small-echo signals. The transmitter driver is responsible for the excitation of the ultrasonic transmitter. For maximum output power, an H-bridge amplifier configuration is used to drive the transducer that is controlled by a pair of I/O pins of the Z8 port P2. One of the Z8Õs onboard analog comparators implements the receiver detector. To adequately bias the comparator inputs, a resistive network is connected to the Z8 port P3, which features a sensitivity adjustment for the output amplitude of the receiver transducer. Another transmitter driver circuit is implemented on another pair of I/O pins on port P2. A receiver detector is implemented using the other available analog comparator input on port P3. The resulting pair of ultrasonic transmitters and receivers is mechanically mounted on the left and right sides of the carÕs rear bumper for more safety.

AN004901-0900

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 2

A low-power voltage regulator IC supplies the 5 volts required by the Z8 from the vehicleÕs 12-volt battery. The carÕs reverse gear light circuit can also supply power, so that the sonar would he turned on when in reverse gear only. User feedback is performed visually by means of an LED and/or audibly by a piezoelectric buzzer.

Figure 1. Automotive Rear Sonar Block Diagram

Transmitter Driver

Obstacle System Control

Receiver Detector

User Feedback

AN004901-0900

D1 V1 G V0 1N4148 C3 100µF/ 25V R3 100k R6 100k R5 47K TX1 Q4 BC548B Q5 BC548B R4 47K Q1 BC548B 8.0000MHz C2 22pF 40kHz R8 15K Q6 BC548B R9 15K Q7 BC548B R7 150k 6 C1 22pF Q2 BC548B X1 Q3 BC548B C4 10µF/ 25V C5 100nF

+12V

+5V

+12V

+12V

+12V

+12V

From Reverse Gera Light Circuit

+5V

BZ1 Buzzer

U2

R2 R1 15K 7 XTAL1 XTAL2 11 P00 P01 P02 P23 P24 8 P31 P32 P33 P27 4 P26 3 P25 2 9 10 1 18 P22 17 P21 16 P20 15 12 13 1K LED1 LED

Figure 2. Automotive Rear Sonar Schematic Diagram

R10 150k

+5V

R11

R12

10K

10K

Sensitivity

RX1

P1 470R

40kHz

Z86E0812PSC

R13 C6 10µF

R14

10K

10K

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

AN004901-0900

3

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 4

Automotive Speedometer, Odometer, and Tachometer

Submitted by: Niu Zhiming Abstract The automotive speedometer, odometer, and tachometer can provide the velocity, mileage, and rotational speed of an automobile engine. The central controlling unit is a Z86E04 microcontroller. Air-Core (moving-magnet) meters are often favored over other movements as a result of their mechanical ruggedness. There are three basic pieces: a magnet and pointer attached to a freely-rotating axle, and two coils. Each coil is oriented at a right angle in respect to the other. The air-core meter is voltage-driven. According to the measuring values of the automotive velocity and the engine rotational speed, ports P24, P25, P26, and P27 generate four PWM drive signals. The only moving part is the axle assembly. The magnet aligns itself with the vector sum of the H field of each coil and extra magnetic fields, where H is the magnetic field strength vector.

Figure 3. Automotive Velometer, Mileometer, and Tachometer Block Diagram

Axle Pointer

Magnet

Sine Coil Cosine Coil

AN004901-0900

VBAT R29 R28 VCC VCC

R34 VDD N1 14 D1 VCC R29 3 + 1 U3:A 4 N7 C6 R23 C7 R27 + 7 U3:B R10 R7 9 VDD R3 R11 R13 E3 C4 N5 R14 R8 VDD 13 R15 R4 R17 C5 E4 R18 N6 + E6

+ +

R5

Mileometer L5

VCC 2 3 R20 S1 N2 Alarm of engine supertachometer 2 Ð 1 V1 Vin GND Vout 3 2 R31 N8

+

U1:A R1 E1 18 P23 17 P22 16 P21 15 P20 13 R26 VCC R24 5 6 Ð R25 R21 R22 R19 R19 8

Ð

1

N1

+

L1

VCC

Sine Coil1 R6 6 5

+

5 1 P24 2 P25 3 P26 4 P27

R36

U1:B R2 E2 VDD C3 C2 C1

Ð

7

N2

+

8 P02 P31 9 P01 P32 10 P33 P00 6 U2 Z86E04 12 11 7

L2

VCC

VDD

Cosin Coil1

R36

U1:C R12 Signal from sensor of automotive velocity R9 10

Ð

8

N3

+

L3

VCC

Sine Coil2

R37 R16

U1:D 12

Ð

14

N4

+

L4

VCC

Signal from tachometer generator of engine

Cosin Coil2 V2 D2 R32 1 Vin

+

Figure 4. Automotive Velometer, Mileometer, and Tachometer Schematic Diagram

VBAT R33 (Varistor) E5 C6

Vout GND 2

3

VCC

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

AN004901-0900

5

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 6

Autonomous Micro-Blimp Controller

Submitted by: Vadim Konradi Abstract This project utilizes multiple autonomous mobile nodes to interact via an infrared energy communications medium, with basic homing behavior and message passing. The implementation is micro-blimps, which are small, compact, and weightand energy-efficient. Micro-blimps are generally one meter in length, with helium envelopes, pager-size motors driving propellers, IR transmitters, receivers, 3DOF-drive system. The small size and low weight of Z8 microcontrollers and batteries also contributes to overall energy savings. Consider a group of blimps, calmly buoyant near the ceiling like water beetles at the surface of the water. Suddenly, a prey object appears, drawing their attention. Each senses the infrared homing signal of the sender. They descend from the ceiling, each drawn to the sender, each recognizing and homing in on the signals emitted by each otherÕs tails. The senderÕs signal is extinguished, and the blimps coalesce into self-organizing trains and nose-to-tail circles, following each other as they drift lazily back to the ceiling to perform again later. U1 is a Z8 OTP from the General-Purpose Z8 Microcontroller family. Port 0 drives the propeller motors and addresses the bumper-switch matrix columns. Port 1 drives the resistor-summing junction, establishing the demodulation. Port 2 in open-drain mode selects mixer/demodulator channels, reads configuration switches to select operational modes, and addresses bumper-switch matrix rows. Port 3 inputs connect to the comparator system, measuring the mixer/demodulator output. Timer system outputs connect to Port 3, generating both modulated and reference carrier signals. U2 operational amplifiers implement IR bandpass amplifiers. The U3 CMOS switch forms a mixer/demodulator. S1 sets options and S2ÐS5 are collision bumpers.

AN004901-0900

One Blimp System

Z86E7316VSC Wake-up mechanism IR LED and driver

Other Blimps and Beacons

Software

High-level behavior algorithm

Signals affect and direct other blimps

Data extraction task Timer subsystem

Demodulation and detection task Comparator subsystem Mixer/ Demodulator

Figure 5. Autonomous Micro-Blimp Controller Block Diagram

Following behavior feedback control task

Multiplexer Received signal amplifiers

Motor drive task

Another blimp affects and signals this one

Directional IR phototransistors Port Pin Drivers Blimp propeller drive system

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

AN004901-0900

Z86E7316VSC

7

3-Axis IR Receivers and Preamps VCC_3V VCC_3V R1 20k C1 3 + 1 LM324 11 R2 100k 2 U2A 1µF Q1 Photo NPN 8 IR Transmitter VCC_3V R12 10 VCC_3V

VCC_3V

6 5 4 VCC_3V VCC_3V R13 2k_0805

BT1 3.6V Lithium Visual LED Indicator

+

C2 1000µF 6.3V

S1 SW DIP-3

VCC_3V

1 2 3

R30 1M

R15 100k

R31 1M

U1

9 P23

VCC VCC_3V VCC_3V R3 1k

R17 100k

24 VDD24 23 VDD23

D1 HSMSC650 D2 HSDL4220

CMOS Switch Synchronous Demodulator

10 P24 Motor NO1 M1

C3 5 + 7 LM324 11 R9 100k U2B 8 R4 20k

37 VIS OUT P37 38 IR OUT P36 36 MOD REF P35 TP1 3 2 COM1 1 IN1 R5 20k NO2 14 15 COM2 16 IN2 R6 20k NO3 11 10 COM3 9 IN3 R8 20k NO4 6 7 COM4 8 IN4 Q4 2N2222A

U3

R19 100k

14 P25 Motor

1µF 6

40 P00 41 P01 M2 Motor M3

R10 1k Q2 Photo NPN

S2

S3

ROW6 15 P26 P27

44 P02 5 P03

3-Axis Drive Motors

S4

S5

R7 200k

ROW7 16 17 P04 18 P05 P34 P20 6 7 P21 8 P22

VCC_3V VCC_3V 8 10 + 11 LM324 9 U2C 8

+ C4

6.3µF

COL7 22 P07 COL8 19 P08 32 CARRIER

XTAL1 26 XTAL1

R22 10k R23 10k C5 1µF Q3 Photo NPN R24 10k R25 10k R26 10k R27 10k R28 10k R29 10k R11 20k

13 V+ 12 VL 5 GND 4 V-

Figure 6. Autonomous Micro-Blimp Controller Schematic Diagram

MAX4602

1

3

XTAL2 27 XTAL2 39

Y1 8MHz

2

R14 R16 1k 100k

S6 1 VSS1 2 VSS2 34 VSS34

PREF1 29 P31 30 P32 31 P33 35 /RESET 12 R//RL

Resistor summing junction to set demodulator detection threshold.

42 P10 43 P11 3 P12 4 P13 20 P14 21 P15 25 P16 26 P17 13 R/W 33 /AS 11 /DS

Z86E7316VSC

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

AN004901-0900

8

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 9

Battery-Operated Door-Entry System

Submitted by: Steve Price Abstract The purpose of this Z8Plus-based system is to improve the security of an existing door. This simple low-cost entry system utilizes the Dallas Semiconductor D51990A iButton technology in addition to or instead of a conventional mechanical key. A battery system is preferred to eliminate complex wiring to the door. The Z8Plus microcontroller is ideally suited to battery applications, due to its low quiescent current, which is typically 250nA in STOP mode. The Z8Plus is brought out of STOP mode by pressing the wake-up switch SW. This switch is an integral part of the iButton receptacle. The Z8Plus checks the battery voltage using a single on-chip comparator. The Z8Plus then looks for the presence of an iButton in the receptacle PL1. If an iButton is detected, then its 6byte serial code is read via PB1 using a 1-wire power/data protocol. iButton codes for up to 20 users can be stored in the EEPROM. The received code is checked against the table of stored codes in the EEPROM. If the correct code is found, the solenoid/actuator is activated for a short defined period that allows the door to be opened. The hi-color LED is green during this state. A flashing green warning indicates that battery voltage is low. At the end of this period, the peripherals are turned off and the Z8Plus returns to STOP mode. Should the unit fail due to exhausted batteries, a provision exists to bring an emergency power terminal PL2 out to the front panel. A 9-volt battery can be connected between the power terminal and earth ground of the iButton receptacle, while a valid iButton is read. When the door is opened, the batteries can be replaced. A method of resetting the Z8Plus may also be required. A predefined Master iButton places this system into LEARN mode. All user-button codes stored in the EEPROM are erased. The operator touches each new iButton within 10 seconds of each other, storing the new user-button codes into the system. The hi-color LED provides user feedback. Monitoring of the battery supply rail is achieved using the on-chip comparator. A 5volt reference is fed into one input of the comparator, while the other input monitors the battery rail via the potential divider R4 and R5. For the potential divider to function, the software must write a 0 to PB2. The resistor values provide a battery voltage of 6.5V that produces a 5-volt output from the potential divider. After the measurement, the software turns PB2 into an input that stops the current from flowing through the potential divider, thereby conserving current. The solenoid must be chosen for the application, in addition to the values of the transistor TR1 and base resistor R8.

AN004901-0900

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 10

Figure 7. Battery-Operated Door-Entry System Block Diagram

9V Allkaline Battery Pack

Battery Low Dectect 2

5V LDO Regulator

Solenoid Actuator

Dallas DS1990A i Button i Button Reader 1

1 2 Bi-Color Red/Green LED 1

Z8Plus MCU

P80 (Stop Mode Recovery) 4

Microswitch

1

Serial EEPROM

AN004901-0900

+5V

93LC46

IC2 +5V 1 C3 100NF 2 CLK DI DO VSS 5 C4 100NF 3 14 4 CS 8 VCC C1 22PF IC1 4 00MHZ 17 16 XTAL2 PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 R7 470R TR1 LED1 RED 12V R5 GRN ZD2 54K 100K R6 IN4001 6 R8 D6 L1 7 8 9 10 11 /RST PB0 PB1 PB2 PB3 PB4 12 VCC 13 PA0 XTAL1 C2 22PF

R1 100K 100K 1N4148

R2

R3

D1

50K

C4 7UF 5 18 1 2 3 4 R4

i BUTTON RECEPTACLE

PL1

Z8E001

VSS 15 +5V

SOLENOID

180K ZD1 6V8

Figure 8. Battery-Operated Door-Entry System Schematic Diagram

WAKE-UP

D2 1N5817 D3 1N5817 D4 1N5817 D5 SV 6 x 1.5V AA BATTERIES C5 100UF 1N5817 C6 100NF 1 IC3

BI-COLOUR LED

C9 100NF C10 100UF

EMERGENCY 9V POWER

PL2

+5V

LP2950

2

3 C7 100NF C8 100UF

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

AN004901-0900

11

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 12

The Crab

Submitted by: Andreas Voigt Abstract The Crab is an autonomous robot, featuring a low-cost design, and powered by three AA batteries, with motion provided by DC motors. Obstacle detection and bump switches are incorporated into the design. Speed and distance is monitored to facilitate vectored motion patterns that offer the ability to collect and move small objects. The robot features an LED, speaker, and wireless communication possibilities with other forms of life. Floor sensors are added to avoid accidental falls. Infrared reflection sensors have proven their reliability. One standard for DC motor drive is an H-bridge, which is controlled by the PWM. Counting index holes in wheels allows the Crab to compute speed and distance. Wireless communication is implemented via a standard TV remote- control receiver chip and 40-kHz pulses from the infrared LEDs (IRLEDs). The Z86E31 was chosen because it is powerful and easy to use, and for its lowcost development using a ZiLOG CCP emulator and ZDS. Programming this chip in assembler language is easy. To keep costs as low as possible, one design rule is to use software to emulate hardware. Transmit IRLEDs are placed on the bottom left and right in front of the Crab to produce floor sensors. Two IRLEDs look forward to detect obstacles. The mouth can capture small objects and hold them in place, as long as no backward motion is performed. One IRLED and a phototransistor monitor the operation of the mouth, forming a photointerrupter with an IRLED at the back, operating together as a beacon. The IR receiver chip is placed above the mouth. This chip is used for communication and as detector for 40-kHz pulses, generated by the IRLEDs and reflected by any object, even the floor, and also detecting TV remote controls and other crabs. The phototransistors to the front monitor ambient light. The top layer of the software consists of the mood model, the behavior layer below. Both are state-machines, and the action layer, the one executing motion or sound commands, is based upon the subsumption architecture, introduced by Professor Rodney Brooks. Transitions can be triggered, for example, depending on perception changes or elapsed time. The prototype exhibits all kinds of moods, and demands attention from time to time. It gets hungry (for light) and may get very depressed if not provided enough stimuli or attention. The Crab may even demonstrate suicidal actionsÑfor example, jumping off the desk on purpose.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 13

Figure 9. The Crab Block Diagram

Left ambient light sensor Front IRLEDs Right ambient light sensor

Mouth interrupter

Floor IRLED left

Wheel index sensors

Floor IRLED right

124 millimeters

Beacon IRLED 88 millimeters

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100K

1 2

2 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 MOT2 100nF 1 MOT1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

1

2

1 1 00

2

100K

2

10R 10·R 10R 10R

Index L

1

100K

1

2

2

P20 P21 P22 P23

IC1

1K 1K 1K 1K

~

2

Index R

1 BAT2 +

2 1

100K 3 1 3 2 50pF 1 2 2

P24 P25 P26 P27 2 2 BAT1 +

2 1

19 P00 20 P01 21 P02 23 P03 4 P04 5 P05 6 P06 7 P07 C8 1 2 + 100µF C7 1 2

1 osc1 BAT3

2

2 2

Mouth

Figure 10. The Crab Schematic Diagram

1 1 1 2 osc2

2

1

100nF

2

IR1 SFH506 1

Floor L

1

P30 P31 P32 P33 P34 P35 P36 P37

18 11 12 13 14 15 17 16

2

Floor R GND 22

Z86E31

~

2

1

2

Front L

1

2

Front R

1 2 2 100K 1 1 2 2 1 1 Rightbump 100nF 1 100nF 2 2 Floor left 2 Floor right 2 Mouth 2 Index l 2 Index r 2 Green 2 Front l 2 Beacon 2 Front r 1 Leftbump 2 2 100nF 1 Back Piezo 2 1 2 1 1 100K 1K 1 1 2 1K 2 2 1K 1 1 2 1K 1 1 2 1K 1 1 2 1K 1 1 2 1K 1 1 2 1K 1 1 2 1K 1 1 2 1K 1 1

2

1K

1

1

2

100R

2

1

C1 10nF

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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14

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 15

Desktop Fountain

Submitted by: Don Deschane Abstract This project is a desktop-size pulsed water fountain with multiple jets. Each jet operates by quickly boiling a small amount of water at the bottom of a tube. The gas bubble created pushes the water in the tube a few inches up into the air. The same concept is used in coffee percolators and ink jet print heads. In this case, the largest jet is no more than 1mm in diameter. A Z8 microcontroller controls and monitors each jet individually, and causes an array of jets to pulse in various patterns and rhythms. Some jets point directly upwards, causing a splatter effect, while others are aimed at an angle, causing tubes or bubbles of water to fly up and follow a hyperbolic trajectory on the way back down into the fountain. Different incarnations of the product feature different numbers, sizes, and arrangement of jets and other options, such as underwater illumination and buttons to select patterns. The heart of the fountain is the jet boiler, one per jet. The bottom surface contains a resistor, which heats up when power is applied. Water enters from the sides in one or more small tubes and exits primarily through the larger top opening when a steam bubble forms on the heaters. The microcontroller monitors the temperature of the heater in real time to determine when the bubble forms, and subsequently turns off the heater. Each heating cycle begins with a cool temperature. When power is applied, the heater temperature increases gradually as the water warms, then quickly as the water boils and stops absorbing the heat. Power is turned off and as new water enters the chamber, the heaterÕs temperature drops. The heater temperature is measured using the Z8Õs A/D converter. The resistance varies with temperature. These changes are measured via the Z8 A/D converter connected to the jetÕs power drive sensor. Each jet should fire in a fraction of a second, but with different size jets, the heating time probably is not consistent, so the Z8 firmware must schedule the start of heating properly so that each bubble forms at the correct time (especially important for simultaneous firings). This system can he fine-tuned using real-time operating information, which also compensates for variations in ambient water temperature, heater effectiveness, and power-supply voltage from unit to unit, over time. Monitoring the jets can also detect when the fountain runs out of water, clogs up, or gets knocked over. If a heater heats up too quickly or fails to cool, the fountain shuts down.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 16

Figure 11. Desktop Fountain Block Diagram

GSC Jet0 - Repeat for each jet Power Driver OUT Jet Heater SENSE

+

Z8 Microcontroller

7 more jets

Power/Status LED

Note: Other versions may support more jets with additional MUX circuits and/or larger Z8.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 17

Figure 12. Desktop Fountain Schematic Diagram

Power Supply

120VAC +12 +5 GND +12 (regulated) +5 (regulated) +12

heater (JET0) 16MHz +5

Z86C83

XTAL1 P00 ACC P01 JET1 AC1 P02 JET2 AC2 drive sense

OSC

Unlisted pins are unconnected

P03 JET3 AC3 P04 JET4

¥· ¥· · ·

Duplicate jet driver for each jet heater. Actual component values and driver design depends on size and power requirements of each jet.

THIS VERSION SUPPORTS 8 JETS

+5

VCC AVCC GND AGND

AC4 P05 JET5 AC5 P06 JET6 AC6 P34 JET7

P36

AC7

470

LED· ON = ON · 0FF = OFF · FLASH = FAULT

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 18

DCF77 Clock

Submitted by: Andreas Richter Abstract This project describes a stand-alone clock. The clock uses a ZiLOG Z86E08, controlled by the DCF77 Time Radio Signal, which is used in Germany. The clock provides time functions to the exact second, and date functions (day, month, and year). The display consists of a 6 x 7-segment LED display with a common cathode. By using the Z86E08, the hardware is reduced to a 74HC138 demultiplexer, resistors, and a DCF77 receiver (Conrad Electronics 64 1138). The software performs the display multiplexing, decodes the DCF77 signal, and generates a stand-alone clock. The clock is synchronized by the DCF77 signal.

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7-Segment Displays Common Kathode

A F B G E D P C

P G F E D C B A K K K +5V K K K

8x100 Ohm

Figure 13. DCF77 Clock Schematic Diagram

Z86E08

/Q0 /Q1 /Q2 /Q3 /Q4 /Q5 /Q7 GND Vcc /Q6 P2.4 P2.3 P2.2 A0 A1 A2 /E1 /E2 E3 P2.1 P2.0 GND P0.2 P0.1 P0.0 P3.3 4.7k +5V +5V P2.5 P2.6 P2.7 Vcc XTAL2 XTAL1 P3.1 P3.2

+5V

12MHz

2x47p

+5V 10k Date/Time

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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DCF77-Signal

74HCT138

19

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 20

Diagnostic Compressor Protector

Submitted by: Mark E. Miller Abstract The majority of Heating, Ventilating, and Cooling (HVAC) system failures occur over a period of time. When a compressor fails to operate, it is usually after continuous operation while incurring a system fault. The product presented in this design is an early-warning device that monitors key parameters. It also functions as a compressor protector that inhibits operation in potentially damaging conditions such as electrical brown-outs, overheating, and overpressure. Using this device results in savings for the homeowner (minor repairs cost less than replacing a compressor), minimizes diagnostic time for the service person (diagnostic codes are output to several places), and reduces warranty returns to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The control is a low-cost design that performs an anti-short cycle (ASC) function and diagnostics. The anti-short cycle operation is accomplished by monitoring when the compressor is being requested to run. After a run cycle completes, it is inhibited from running for 3Ð5 minutes, thereby allowing the pressure in the system to equalize before the run cycle starts again. As a diagnostic device, the control monitors the voltage, temperature, pressure, and vibration of a compressorÕs operation. A low threshold is established for each parameter to alert the owner that service is required prior to a catastrophic failure. A high threshold, also monitored, diagnoses fault conditions. The most damaging system failures occur when more than one parameter goes out of range (an example would be high pressure and high temperature). Using triangulation of the fault parameters to lock out compressor operation reduces misdiagnosis and false lockouts. The ZiLOG Z86C04/Z86C08 and Z86C03/Z86C06 microcontrollers lend themselves well to this design. The comparator inputs are invaluable for the analog inputs and are required for accurate thresholds. The programmable timer is also a key feature that is useful for some of the time-related thresholds. The ZiLOG pinout compatibility permits a single layout that can be populated in several ways, such as a low-cost minimum-protection device (Z86C03), an optional serial port for data logging/external interface (Z86C06), and added algorithms for extended compressor life (Z86C04/Z86C08).

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 21

Table 2. Sensor Inputs Input Name 24VAC Control Voltage Low Threshold High Threshold The control voltage drops The control voltage is below 16VAC below 18VAC and above 16VAC Comments Monitors voltage to keep from operation during brownouts, eliminates contact chatter The pressure switch The pressure switch Used to evaluate overpressure conditions cycles more than twice cycles more than five during six hours of run times during six hours of resulting from improper refrigerant charge or flow time run time 250¼F is the maximum Exceeding the threshold 120¼F is the minimum discharge temperature; discharge temperature; is early warning; duration time below the threshold time above threshold and frequency determine determines severity determines severity severity A low-level threshold is Duration and frequency Ignored during startup set to monitor vibrations exceeding 10G is used and shut down periods exceeding 10G for high threshold

Pressure Switch

Compressor Discharge Temperature

Vibration Sensor

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Clamp Thermistor to discharge line of Compressor Vibration Sensor Attach to top of compressor using large Hose Clamp

100K Thermistor

240/24VAC Transformer

FAULT LIGHT TEST RESET VIBRATION SENSOR CD4052

SERIAL PORT

240VAC Primary side of Transformer 24VAC Secondary side

DISCHARGE THRMISTOR Z86E04/8 COMMON 24 VAC INPUT T7N PRESSURE SWITCH CONTACTOR ALARM

Optional Serial Data Port for Future Expansion ie, RS485, display, RF transmitter, Modem, etc.

Figure 14. Diagnostic Compressor Protector Block Diagram

May be mounted in outdoor unit or remote

Fault Light

Indorr Wall Thermostat Use Pressure Switch already present in system Y Request for Compressor 24VAC = ON Common = OFF High-Voltage Contacts High- Pressure Switch Audible Alarm

Fault Light

Control Line

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

Compressor Contactor Turns Compressor and Outdoor Fan ON/OFF

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22

+5VDC

1 1

+5VDC -24VDC

2 1 1 1

P8

Common

1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

24VAC

2 2

2

Serial Communications Port for Add-on Devices +5VDC P17:1

1

2

1 1 2 2 2 2

P16:1

P15:1

P13:1

CONN9M

CONN9M

CONN9M P12:1

D1

1 1

1

R 2k 2W +5VDC

1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

1

2

R7

2

2

Z1 5V D2 1N4007 +5VDC DO DI

1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

CONN9M

CONN9M

1

C4 .1µF 100V R R24 10K 1/4W

R8 10K 1/4W

+ C5 47µF 50V

C6 22µF 50V + C9 100µF 50V

P9 Logic Gnd CLK

1N4007

R22 1K 1/8W +5VDC PS M

R21 1K 1/8W

R23 1K 1/8W

PS

1

R16

2

Q3 MPSA58 K1 T70

1 2 1

2k 1/8W Ð24VDC D4 1N4007

2

P1

1 2 2 2 1 1

C1 .01µF 50V R26 100K 1/8W Data Out Data In Clock R25 100K 1/8W R15 100K 1/8W

P19 3/16

D7

1

Pressure Switch Sensor 24VAC

P14 100k 1/4W +5VDC

1 1 1 1

1

2

R1 +5VDC

1

Z4 5V 24VAC

VDD

1 2

1N4007 Logic Gnd Logic Gnd

R34 100K 1/8W

U1 Z86C04

1 P23

2

18

3 2

Q2 MPSA58

1

1

R9 R11 10K 1/8W

D3

2 2 1

C12 .1µF 100V

P4 160 1W

24VAC ÒYÓ From Wall Thermostat

2 1

R6 100K 1/8W

1 1

1

2

R5 1.5K 2W R10

2

3 2

Z3

2 1

D5 R4

2 2

Z5 5V U2

2

2

1

1

2K 1/8W

1

Q1 MPSA06

P5 100k 1/4W

1

20V

1N4007 100k 1/4W 1 R13

+5VDC

16 A 9 B 8 INH 13

1

P24 2 P25 3 P26 4 P27 5 VCC 6 XTAL2 7 XTAL1 8 P31 9 P32 17 P22 16 P21 15 P20 14 GND 13 P02 12 P01 11 P00 10 P33

1

Diagnostic LED

1

+5VDC R20

1 2

P3

Figure 15. Diagnostic Compressor Protector Schematic Diagram

Discharge Sensor 100k Thermistor

1

2

R14 3.01K 1/4W

2

R12 33.2K 1/4W

X 3

2 1

2k 1/8W D11

1 1

Y

VSS

1 2

R29 10K 1/8W

R17

2

3

12 14 15 11 1 5 2 4 X0 X1 X2 X3 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3

4052

1

2k 1/8W

Q4 MPSA58

2

P10

C11 33pF 50V

1

-24VDC

1

P11

R28

2 1 2

100k 1/8W

1

R30

2 1 2

1N4007 D9

100k 1/8W

1

P7 R19

2 1 2

R31

1N4007 D8 2 1 1N4007 D6

2

+5VDC

1 1

P6

1

100k 1/4W R18

2 1 2 1

100k 1/8W R32

Vibration Transducer Input 0-5V 100mV/G

R27

D12

2 1 2

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

AN004901-0900

100k 1/4W 26.1k 1/8W 1N4007

VSS

100k 1/8W

1N4007

External 24VDC Piezo Alarm

D10

Wall Thermostat Fault Light

P2

1

C3 .1µF 100V

1

C2 0.1µF 50V

2

Compressor Contactor

1

R3 300 7W

R2 100K 1/8W

R33 100K 1/8W Test Input P20 P21

23

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 24

Digital Dimmer Box

Submitted by: R. Hugo Vieira Neto and Francisco Eugenio Mauro Abstract The Digital Dimmer Box is intended for stage illumination in theaters. It is simple and inexpensive. Designed with a ZiLOG Z8 OTP microcontroller, the device is completely compatible with older analog dimmer boxes and supports 4400-Watt loads. In stage illumination, dimming of each incandescent lamp is controlled by an analog voltage (ranging from 0 to 10 volts) and is supplied by a remote console. To achieve linear perception, a dimmer box should exhibit a nonlinear response to the control voltage. Older dimmer boxes employ analog processing for the task of compensation. The digital approach uses a simple software look-up table concept to implement response compensation. As a result, a dedicated external analog circuit is not required. The system control block uses the Z86E08 microcontroller running at 12 MHz. Some of the Z86E08Õs key features are:

¥ ¥ ¥

Onboard counter/timers with prescalers (generation of phase-control signals) Onboard analog comparators (AC line zero-crossing detection and control voltage acquisition) ROM space (implementation of one or more look-up tables for visual response compensation)

To implement the A/D converter, an R-2R network is mounted on port P2. The output is used as the reference voltage (pin P33) for the Z8Õs onboard analog comparators on port P3. The analog control voltage is connected to the first analog comparator input (pin P31) and the A/D conversion is completed by software using a successive approximation technique. The counter/timer generates a time delay between the zero-crossing of the line voltage and the TRIACÕs triggering pulse. As a result, power is delivered to the load. At 12 MHz, it is possible to achieve delays from 0 to 8.33ms with the correct settings of the counter/timer prescaler, which corresponds to the phase-triggering range for an AC line frequency of 60Hz.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 25

Figure 16. Digital Dimmer Box Block Diagram

DIMMER BOX

A/D Converter

Control Voltage

Remote Console

System Control

ZeroCrossing Detector

AC Line (220V)

TRIAC

Load (4400W)

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CONTROL VOLTAGE (0-10V) +5V R1 20.0k X1 R2 R6 20.0k +5V 7 XTAL2 6 R8 20.0K R12 20.0K R15 20.0K R17 R19 10k D3 1N 4148 D4 1N 4148 20.0K R9 10.0K R13 10.0K R16 10.0K R18 10.0K R20 20.0K 78L05 1 V1 G U3 2 C4 10µF/ 25V V0 3 20.0K C5 100nF 10.0K +5V R22 R21 10.0K R23 LED1 R10 180R LED 6 4 2 R14 18k U1 1 Q1 11 P00 12 P01 13 P02 R11 330R R7 1k 20.0K C3 100nF U2 C1 22pF R4 C2 22pF D2 1N 4148 12.0000MHz 20.0K R5 10.0K 20.0K R3 D1 1N4148

LOAD1

Figure 17. Digital Dimmer Box Schematic Diagram

4400W

MAC 224A10 P1 S2 P2 S3 6+6V/100mA D6 1N 4007

T1

MOC 3020N S1 8 P31 9 P32 10 P33

AC LINE (220V)

P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26 P27

15 16 17 18 1 2 3 4

Z86E0812PSC

D5 1N 4007

C6 1000µF/ 25V

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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26

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 27

Door Access Controller

Submitted by: Suksaeng Kukanok Abstract The Z8 Door Access Controller (Z8DAC) screens an authorized person for access to a restricted area. The Z8 microcontroller is used as the main controller. This application uses most of the on-chip resources, such as program memory, register, I/O, timer and interrupts. The Z8DAC can be set up as a multiple Z8DAC configuration, using an RS-485 interface or one Z8DAC configuration using an RS-232 interface. The Z86E30 microcontroller configuration consists of a magnetic card reader, keyboard, LCD display, I2C EEPROM, I2C RTC, and an asynchronous bus and door control ports. When using the magnetic card reader, The Z8 looks up the card ID using the ID parameter in the EEPROM. The content of the parameter provides the time allowed for access and the access key code (if necessary). If the controller requires a key code, the user must key in the access code within 30 seconds. If the unauthorized code is tried more times than the maximum number allowed, a panic signal is generated on P27. After the Z8 determines that access is allowed, the door unlocks itself. When the door opens, the door sensor sends a signal to the controller and locks the door. The parameter and each authorized ID are downloaded to the target Z8DAC. The PC on the system can be connected online or offline. If it is an online connection, the PC monitors in real time. If the connection is offline, the PC monitors using a batch process.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 28

Figure 18. Door Access Controller Block Diagram

Host Controller and Monitor

RS485

Z8DAC#1

Z8DAC#2 Block diagram when connected with PC via RS485

Z8DAC#N

Host Controller and Monitor RS232

Z8DAC Block diagram when connected with PC via RS232 Key Pad LCD Display

12:00 > 123456

Serial Communication with PC

RTC I2C

Z8DAC Core

I2C RAM

PC Door Lock Control

Door Sensor

Door Control Alarm Functional block diagram

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U9 SC1601D

D1 BAT85 D2 1 8 B1 CR2016 2

U4

8

U3

8

C7 5-30P or Fix 15P 2% U2

1 VDD VDD WP SCL GND GND SDA

PCF8583 VCC VCC VCC NC LCD Connector VCC NC R1 10k U1 8 SCL Door Open 26 Beep WP B-ligh 2 Alarm Out P27 P30 C8 30p 9 XTAL2 1 3 JP5 TX 1 3 R8 1k 2 TX485 TX232 RX232 P33 XTAL1 P35 P36 P37 Z86E30 16 RS 17 E 15 DIR P34 14 TX 13 RCP P32 12 RDD RX 10 D3 Diode C9 30p R4 X1 12MHz Q2 BC327 3k9 22 VCC D4 Diode B-ligh R5 VCC 12 3k9 R18 10k VCC 1k R7 TX485 4 3 DIR 2 RX485 1 Tx DE /RE Rx

R

VDD

A0 6 SCL OSCI AD

DB4 A 14 K 12 DB5 8 DB5

WP 2 SCL SDA

VR1 10k 5 DB6 B_ligh 11 13 R9 10k P00 P01 P02 P03 P04 P05 P06 P07 18 RX 11 INT 2 RX485 JP4 7 6 CO3 5 CO2 4 CO1 23 DB7 21 DB6 20 DB5 R15 10k R16 10k R17 10k 10 DB4 R10 10k 9 10 DB7

7 WP OSCI 6

GND Vo Vo RW E 6 E RS 4 RS DB4 7 3 Gnd P5 Key Pad Connector Vcc 2 1 VCC P6 VCC

1 7 WP INT 7 1

AC

2 5 SDA 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

C2 C3 22/16 22/16 4 X2 32.768 KHz

A1 3

SCL

6 SCL

2

A1

GND

3

4

A2

SDA

5 SDA

3

A2

PCF8583

4

24LC256

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

DB6 DB7

BAT85

GND VCC Vo RS R/W E DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 Anode Cathode R1 R2 R3 R4 CO1 CO2 CO3

2

R2 10k 25 P21 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26 27 28 1 3

Q3 BC327

R3

LS1

3k9

Buzzer

12V

K1 P31

VDD

VCC

SDA P20

24

C5 22/16 C6 22/16 Gnd 3 Rxd 2 Txd 1 GND 15

Figure 19. Door Access Controller Schematic Diagram

RELAY 12V

GND

12V

U6 MAX232 16 1 V+ VCC C1+ 3 C1Ð C4 6 4 C2+ VÐ 5 22/16 C2Ð 11 14 To Ti T1 12 13 Ri Ro R1 10 7 To Ti T2 9 8 R2 Ri Ro

K2

R6

VCC U5 75176 8 VCC

D

VCC R11 10k A B 6 7 R12 10k GND 5

RELAY 12V

Q1 BC327

Gnd 3 A B D5 C313 D6 C313 2 1 2 1

12V

1 2 3 4 5 6

RCP RDD 3 2 1

RCP RDD GND +5 Magnetic Connector

1 2 3 4 5 6

D5 C313

R13 150

R14 100

S1 Door Sensor LS2

C1 1/250

K3

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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Solenoid Lock

Alarm Device

29

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 30

Electrolytic Capacitor ESR Meter

Submitted by: Bob Parker Abstract A major cause of electronic equipment failure is due to electrolytic capacitors developing excessive Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR). These capacitors may exhibit the characteristics of a normal capacitor, yet with a significant resistor in series. This design is for a digital meter that directly indicates the ESR of a capacitor. A Z86E04 microcontroller, supported by a relatively small amount of hardware, allows the following features to be easily and economically implemented:

¥ ¥ ¥ ¥

Power on/off and test lead resistance zeroing with a single push-button Three automatically-selected measurement ranges Low battery voltage warning Automatic power switch-off

When pressed, the push-button initially forces Q1 to switch on. When running, the microcontroller switches to Q2. When the button is pressed again, Q2 is detected on P26. If the firmware measures the low resistance of shorted test leads, it subtracts their measured value from all future ESR readings. However, if the firmware detects an open circuit, it switches off Q2 and consequently Q1, turning off the battery supply. A measurement begins when the microcontroller switches off the ramp-capacitor discharge transistor (Q11), allowing C10Õs voltage to increase linearly with time. One of the Z86E04 timers initiates a series of 8-µs pulses spaced 500µs apart, which drive either Q3, Q4, or Q5 to send current pulses of an amplitude dependent on the measurement range, through the capacitor under test. Between the pulses, Q6 is switched on to prevent the capacitor from accumulating a charge. The voltage pulses across the test capacitor, proportional to its ESR, are amplified and applied to the microcontrollerÕs P31 comparator. The firmware terminates this process when the voltage on C10 exceeds the amplified pulse amplitude. The total number of pulses is used to calculate and display the capacitorÕs ESR, after subtraction of the test lead resistance. Between measurement cycles, the microcontroller allows C10 time to charge to 2volts. If the battery voltage sample on its P32 comparator is below this 2volts, the firmware periodically flashes a b on the display as a Low-Battery warning.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 31

Display segment and decimal point data is sent serially from port 0 to a serial-toparallel shift register (IC3), driving the LED displays that are multiplexed at a 100-Hz rate determined by the Z86E04Õs second timer. This timer additionally controls the automatic switch-off period and all other system timing. This design takes advantage of all the Z86E04 analog comparators and timers to produce a simple but versatile capacitor ESR meter. The firmware occupies about 700 bytes of program memory, and runs effortlessly at a 3.58-MHz crystal frequency.

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+5V Regulator (IC1)

Power switch (Q1) IN 9.4µA R25 Batt. Voltage Sample 2V R26 P32 Power Switch Driver (Q2) P25 +5V P26 Q3 P22 P21 R6 0.5mA Capacitor discharge switch (Q6) P01 P24 + P00 P31 P23 DIGIT SELECT CLK DATA Parallel Segment Data R8 5mA R10 50mA P20 P31 P02 LATCH Serial-Parallel Shift Reg. (IC3) Ramp Cap Discharge Switch (Q11) Q4 Q5 Push button detect 100mS max + P27 Ramp gen. capacitor (C10) P33 VCC +5V Constant current source (Q9, 10) +5V OUT +5V

9V Battery

+

On/Off/ Zero Push Button

Q3, 4, 5 Current pulse switches

Figure 20. Electrolytic Capacitor ESR Meter Schematic Diagram

Test current pulses

ESR Pulse Amplifier Gain = +20 (Q7, 8) Not to Scale 8µS GND X1 X2

Capacitor under test

Amplitude proportional to capacitor ESR 3.58MHz 500µS

Ð

Display Circuitry

2V max

IC2 Z86E0408 OR Z86E0412

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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32

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 33

Electronic Door Control

Submitted by: Fernando Garcia Sedano Abstract Electronic door controls have been developed to control electrically-operated doors for railway toilets, especially for the handicapped. All commands received by the door control module are processed by the Z86E4016PEC microcontroller. The microcontroller also drives a ZiLOG Z853606VEC clock I/O (CIO). The CIO counts the encoder pulses and acts as a PWM generator. It uses two of three internal counter/timers. The Z86E40 software is used to modify the PWM-generated duty cycle and carrier frequency. Commands to and from the main toilet unit are sent via the octal D-latch U15 and D-latch U14. D-latch U17 implements the logic to satisfy the requirements of the Z8 timing signals and the Z84C15 intelligent peripheral controllerÕs (IPC) main control unit. The Z8 microcontroller uses an MG2-12 encoder to control door displacements, direction, and the opening and closing speeds. The electronic door control module has operated effectively on railway toilets in Spain since 1999.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 34

Figure 21. Electronic Door Control Block Diagram

MAIN CONTROL UNIT (Z84C15)

STATE

COMMANDS

OUTPUT BUFFER (74HCT373)

INPUT BUFFER (74HCT374)

Z8 MAIN CONTROLLER (Z86E40)

5 Vdc Z8

CIO COUNTER AND TIMER UNIT (Z8536)

5 Vdc CI0

INPUT ISOLATION BARRIER (4 X HCPL2211)

OUTPUT ISOLATION BARRIER (3 X HCPL2211)

FULL BRIDGE DRIVER (HIP4082)

72 Vdc

Encoder MG 2-12 (DUNKER)

H-Bridge (Full bridge)

E

M

Electric (DC) Motor GR 63x55 (DUNKER)

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 35

Firearm Locking System (FLS)

Submitted by: Phillip F. King Abstract The Firearm Locking System (FLS) is a firearm safety system designed to add an extra layer of protection to the keeping and use of guns. Using a Z8 microcontroller, the FLS can make a firearm available and ready to use quickly when required, while virtually eliminating the chances of an accidental or unauthorized discharge. FLS can be manufactured into new firearms or added as an after-market option by a qualified gunsmith. It works with any existing mechanically-fired weapon, including handguns, rifles, and shotguns of any caliber. At the heart of the system is a Z86E83 Z8 microcontroller, the brain behind the FLS. The controller gathers input from sensors on the firearm (See Table 3), and outputs a control signal to a mechanical solenoid that toggles the firearmÕs safety, typically by disengaging or blocking the firing pin or hammer. The software allows the user to define profiles of acceptable usage depending upon requirements. For example, a skeet-shooter might define an acceptable firing angle as anything above horizontal, while a handgun user who typically target shoots on an indoor range would allow a firing angle of only ±5 degrees off horizontal. Both users might also define a self-defense mode in which any firing angle is allowed.

Table 3. Firearm Sensor Input Functions Input Rocker Switch Access Code Input Hand-Grip Sensor Function Four rocker-toggle switches provide an eight-number input, and provides 8^N possible access codes for an Ndigit code. Senses pressure on the grip of the weapon that indicates it is being handled. Prevents accidental discharge when a weapon is dropped or transported. In self-defense mode, can also be used to determine, when a user has lost control of a firearm, to disable the weapon and prevent use by an assailant. Measures the current angle of the barrel. Prevents accidental discharge of a weapon being held in a rest or nonfiring position.

Inclinometer

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 36

Figure 22. Firearm Locking System Block Diagram

Inclinometer mounted in the axis of the barrel

1

Grip Switch indicating that the gun is being held Zilog Z8 OTP Microcontroller

3

5

7

2

4

6

8

Four dual-position switches for access code entry

Solenoid lock on firing pin and Indicator LED. (Non-energized default position is safety-engaged)

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VCC VCC is provided by a high-energy lithium cell

VCC

U2 U1 AVCC 12 27

1

Analog variable capacitance inclinometer with built-in sense-amplifier.

VCC

Inclinometer

V_inc

GND

2

28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 VCC P20 P21/AC1 P22/AC2 P23/AC3 P24/AC4 P25/AC5 P26/AC6 P27/AC7 P00 P01 P02 P03 P04 P05 P06 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Q2 MOSFET N /RESET 8 Y1 8MHz

Inclinometer Power Control GND AGND 26 (Recessed internal reset switch) S7 S8 VCC 8 7 S6 S5 S10 C2 22pF

13 14 15 16 17 18 P31 P32 P33 P34 P35 P36 C1 22pF 9 XTAL1 10 XTAL2

Figure 23. Firearm Locking System Schematic Diagram

ZiLOG Z86E83

11

S3 S4 S2

S1

Grip Switch-The Grip Switch also generates the event on Port 32 that brings the system out of Stop Mode when not in active use. Essentially, picking up the gun wakes up the FLS.

S9

6

5

4

3

2

1

R1 1K M1 Spring Balanced Solenoid (Mechanical interface to firing pin lock) VCC Q1 MOSFET N C3 .1µF C4 .1µF C5 .1µF C6 .1µF C7 .1µF 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

RP1A Resistor 8pack-1K

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 38

Forecaster Intelligent Water Delivery Valve

Submitted by: James Martin Abstract The Forecaster Intelligent Water Delivery Valve measures soil moisture and changes in air temperature and barometric pressure to prevent unnecessary watering before, during, or after natural rainfall. Simple analysis of three sensor readings over time determines whether to postpone water delivery in expectation of natural rainfall, or to skip to the next programmed cycle. The primary function of the Z8 microcontroller is timed actuation of an electric water valve. Timing may be relative or absoluteÑrelative timing is described herein for simplicity. User selection of watering schedule and duration can be set in a routine as simple as a relative start time (for example, hours from now) and duration (in ten-minute increments), and can be implemented with only two push-buttons. The sensors are used as follows:

¥

A simple moisture sensor reads true when water is present. This value effects a delay in valve actuation during or immediately after rainfall. Two other sensors utilize the available on-chip dual analog comparators. The first comparator is used to read the resistance of a temperature probe as part of a charging and discharging RC. An output pin is turned on, providing both a reference to the noninverting input to the comparator, and a charging voltage to the RC, which consists of a known capacitor and the resistance of the probe. An interrupt is generated when the RC is charged. The output pin can then be set Low. Another interrupt occurs when the RC is discharged (the time between interrupts can be used to calculate the resistance). The capacitance of the barometric pressure sensor can be determined in the same manner using the second comparator. A known resistance and the sensor capacitance together form the RC. The sensors can be polled in regular increments (for example, every 30 minutes). Absolute changes that exceed programmed limits trigger a delay if scheduled watering is about to occur.

¥

¥

This system allows regular watering to occur only in the absence of sufficient natural rainfall, and when rain is not expected to occur based on temperature and pressure changes.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 39

Figure 24. Forecaster Intelligent Water Delivery Valve Schematic

Valve

Z86

VCC I/O 5 GND Comparators I/O 4 Pressure Probe IRQ I/O 3 I/O 2 I/O 1 IRQ Programming Switches

Temperature Probe

H 2O Sensor

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 40

Improved Linear Single-Slope ADC

Submitted by: Li Gang Abstract A highly accurate linear single-slope ADC is achieved by using a linear integrator and two comparison units on a Z8 microcontroller. A MAX418 is a high-input-impedance, low-power-consuming and rail-rail operational amplifier. Combined with a resistor R4, a capacitor C1 and a diode 1N4148, it forms a linear integrator. At usual status, the P00 is set to one, and the output of the integrator is at a low level. To start the ADC conversion, set P00 to 0 to charge the integrator until its output increases. When the output of the integrator equals the voltage at P32, the comparison unit at P32 operates, allowing the timer to begin counting. The output of the integrator continues to increase. When it reaches the voltage level at P31, the comparison unit at P31 operates and the timer stops counting. As a result, the number in the timer displays the voltage difference between P31 and P32. This kind of single-slope ADC exhibits higher accuracy than either PWM Ramp ADC or RC Ramp ADC, due to a linear integrator, rather than an exponential one, and makes use of the middle range of its input-output characteristic curve. A MAX619 is used to convert 3volts to a stable 5volts. The MAX418 features two operational amplifiersÑone is used as a buffer, and the other is used to form a linear integrator as described above. The 2-point calibration is used instead of the conventional 1-point calibration. The calibration values are stored in an EEPROM (1C3, 24LC01), resulting in a great improvement in its measurement precision. The calibration is performed automatically. Insert the probe into the standard acid or alkali liquid, and press the calibration key K1. The microcontroller automatically determines that the measured calibration liquid is acid or alkali liquid. After the measurement value becomes stable, the Z8 stores the calibration results into 1C3 (24LC01) and the buzzer rings, indicating the calibration finished. For measurement, insert the probe into the liquid to be measured and press K2 to begin the measurement. If the differences among five successive measurement values are within a certain range, then the stable-measurement state is determined and the result is displayed on the LCD. The buzzer sounds, indicating that the measurement is completed. The final results are provided by linear interpretation with the two calibration points.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 41

Figure 25. Improved Linear Single Slope ADC Block Diagram

Z86C40

LCD Comparator PH Probe Buffer P31

Integrator

P33 Comparator

EEPROM

Vref

P32 Battery and Power Manager P00

Keys

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C7 0.22

C8 0.22

1 3 C5 10µF 6 7 3V Battery C6 0.047 C9 10µF

8

1 2 K4

8

IC2 MAX619

R1 10K

A1

P31 P21 BEEP C1 0.22 P20 + 1/2 MAX418 1/2 MAX418 + VCC

LCD

PH Probe

R2 10K

A2

P33 P22

VCC

C2 10µF P32 1N4148 P00 P25 R4 10K K1 P04 P05 XTAL1 12MHz XTAL2 GND K2 C3 27pF C4 27pF RESET R5 1K SDA P24 SC P23 WP

IC1 Z86C40

VCC

IC3 24LC01

VSS

Figure 26. Improved Linear Single Slope ADC Schematic Diagram

R3 1K

C10 10µF

K3

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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42

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 43

Integrated Sailboat Electronic System

Submitted by: David R. Sneitzer Abstract The Integrated Sailboat Electronics System (ISES), by taking advantage of the price and feature set of the microcontroller, is able to provide a low-cost instrument with a level of integration never before seen in the sailing community at any price. It integrates the information in Table 4 onto a low-cost monochrome-graphics display.

Table 4. Graphics Display Features Wind speed Wind direction Air temperature Water temperature Barometric pressure Depth Heal angle Heading Boat speed Distance Total/Elapsed Time Total/Elapsed Power (Voltage/Current)

ISES utilizes a state-of-the-art micromachined silicon ultrasonic transducer with a Z8 at the core of the sensor. By using two pairs of ultrasonic transducers, the x and y components of the wind can be measured. In order to determine the x component of the wind, the sensor pair aligned with the centerline of the boat is utilized. One of the transducers emits an ultrasonic pulse and Z8 reads the time delay until the pulse is received. For the same sensor pair, the roles are reversed. The time it takes for the sound to travel (propagate) through the air is dependent on air temperature and the speed the air is moving past the sensors. By computing the average of the two delays, the propagation time through still air is calculated by the Z8 and the virtual air temperature is calculated. The air temperature is used to make corrections for the velocity calculation. This same procedure is used by the Z8 to calculate the component of the wind. A dualaxis accelerometer is placed in the y,z plane to acquire the angle that the boat is heeled at. The Z8 applies the heel angle to the y component of the wind to create wind speed and direction. The Z8 is also used as an I/O and display processor.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 44

Figure 27. Integrated Sailboat Electronic System Block Diagram

10.1 mi 01:27 271 79 62

12.5 KTS 028¼

6.7 KTS

59 FT

air· lo:49¼ high:83¼ water·lo:59¼ high:63¼ baro· lo:29.1¼ high:31.1¼ wind· lo:1.3 avg:10 high:18.7

13.2 Volts 1.75 Amps 74 Amp hrs since last charge 56 Amp hrs estimated remain

5,023· Miles 1825· Hours 10.1·· Miles 1.4·· Hours

Figure 28. Integrated Sailboat Electronic System Schematic Diagram

10.1 mi 01:27

271

79 62

Boat speed sensor 2-axis Boat speed accelersensor ometer 2-axis Pressure accelersensor ometer Pressure Heading sensor

Mast mounted Z8, Ultrasonic sensors, Interface electronics 6.7 KTS

12.5 KTS 028¼

59 FT

Sensor analog interface Serial Com.

Heading Voltage sensor Analog input interface

Voltage Current sensor

Current Temp. sensor Non-volatile memory Simple keyboard

Depth Temperature sensor

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 45

Intelligent Guide for the Blind

Submitted by: R. Sharath Kumar Abstract This self-contained, self-propelled, intelligent guide incorporates the ZiLOG Z86E31 microcontroller. Using ultrasonic and infrared transducers, the surroundings are scanned for complete, intricate detail, including pavement-surface deformations, puddles, and pits apart from general traffic. The microcontroller analyzes this information, determines the safest path, and controls a propulsion motor to manipulate and lead the handicapped safely through these obstacles. The guide further interacts with the individual via audio messages, informing of the surroundings and distance traveled. A chosen direction of travel is commanded via pushbutton keys. The microcontroller immediately repositions the scanners toward this direction. An indicator lamp pulses on/off, together with a beeper, to alert a person of any slow-moving traffic or obstruction. The guide can also be programmed to remember the direction traveled automatically when commanded. The direction commands include Straight Ahead, Turn Left, Turn Right, and Reverse Back, and are received from keys SW1ÐSW4. The stepper motor is controlled in half-steps for increased position control by the microcontroller. A pingpulse wave is emitted and transmitted through the air by the microcontroller through a 40-kHz ultrasonic transmitting transducer. The wave, reflected off objects in its path, is detected by the receiving transducer. The received echo is amplified, centered, and compared against a fixed reference voltage by an LM6132, and fed to the microcontroller. The microcontroller measures the timing of the wave from the instant it leaves the transmitter to the instant an echo is received (taking the Doppler effect into account) and calculates the distance. After the guide orients itself in the commanded direction, scanning continues in an oscillating mode. During this mode, the microcontroller continuously monitors the echo signals and maneuvers the movement accordingly. An infrared sensor is activated at the same time as the ultrasonic transceiver. This sensor scans the pavement surface ahead. Infrared transmitter D1A is pulsed on/ off at 1kHz, and the bounced signal is captured by D1B. The signal strength depends on the distance from the obstruction. This variable-strength signal is converted proportionally into pulses by the voltage-to-frequency converter, LM331. All information is updated to the individual via prerecorded messages. The sound chip is configured to operate in MESSAGE CUEING mode.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 46

Figure 29. Intelligent Guide for the Blind Block Diagram

Infra-red Receiver D1B Infra-red Transmitter D1A

LM331 Voltage to Frequency Converter

ULN2803 Stepper Motor Driver

M

7.5 Degree Stepper Motor

Roll-on Motor 1 Roll-on Motor 2

400 KHz Ultrasonic Transmitter

Z86E31 Micro Controller

RPM Pulses Input Beeper Lamp Indicator

400 KHz Ultrasonic Receiver

LM6132 OpAmp Amplifier and Comparator User Desired Direction Inputs ISO2590 Sound Chip

Speaker

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Ultrasonic Transmitter A1 A2 B1 B2 7.5 Degree Stepper Motor Q2 SL100 Q3 SL100 D5 1N4148 D4 1N4148 Beeper Vcc Vcc

R1 27k

+VE Stepper Motor Supply

Q1 2N2222A Decay adjust pot. Vcc Vcc ULN2803 9 4k7 C1 47nF D2 1N4148 C2 D3 100nF 1N4148

1 2 3 4

18 17 16 15

Vcc

Ultrasonic Receiver

Vcc

8 6 7

Vcc D6 1N4007 D7 1N4007 Q4 TIP31A M1 M2

8 16 18 15 16 17 14 11 9

R2 510

3 2

R3 510k R4 1k

Roll-on Motor Supply

7.328MHz XTAL 28 10

C3 20pF C4 20pF R8 R9 10k x 4 nos 1 R7 R6

RPM Pulses I/P

1 5

R5 1k2

4 2 3

Q5 TIP31A

Vcc = +5 Volts = Ground

Z86E31

R11 R12 R13 R14 Vcc R10 220

Figure 30. Intelligent Guide for the Blind Schematic Diagram

DIA Infra-red transmitter

19 20 21 23 24 4 5 6 7 1 23 24 25 28

Vcc

12 14 15

22

+ Ð Speaker

SW1 = Front SW2 - Back SW3 = Right SW4 = Left

SW1

SW2

SW3

SW4

Vcc

R15 4k7

1 6 3

R18 6k8

8

R17 3k3

C5 0.001µF

2 3 4 6 7 8 11 12 17 18 19 20 5 9 10 21 26 27

DIB Infra-red receiver

7 2 4

C6 330pF

R16 5k

5

13

16

R19 Vcc R19 R19 R19

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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47

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 48

Internet Email Reporting Engine

Submitted by: Michael W. Johnson Abstract The Internet Email Reporting Engine is a design that can he embedded inside a device to connect via a dial-up function to an Internet Service Provider, and send email reports to anywhere on the Internet. A ZiLOG Z02204 modem module provides the connection to the real world via a phone line. The Seiko iChip (S7600A) provides PPP and PAP authentication, and the Internet protocols IP, UDP, TCP, and ICMP. The ZiLOG Z8 controller receives commands from a serial connection and communicates to the Seiko iChip via an 8-bit parallel CPU interface to control the modem and the iChipÕs Internet functionality. The Z8 MCU also provides a higherlevel command and Internet functionality via software The software running on the ZiLOG Z8 CPU receives commands via a serial interface and processes them. Based on those commands, the Z8 performs dial-up and connects to the Internet, establishes an Internet connection to an ISP via the PPP protocol (authenticated with PAP), and opens a connection to a mail server. It then sends a message, and hangs up. Commands are sent to the engine via a serial port that is implemented as a software UART running at 2400bps on the Z8 controller. These commands are processed, the state of the email engine is updated, and a command status code is reported back through a software UART.

Table 5. Serial Commands sn sd du ms Set phone number Set DNS server IP sl sr Set login name Connect to email server Hang up sp ps Set password Set SRC email address Print message to email body

Set recipient email address ss

Dial-up and connect to ISP cs Message send hu

Each command is a parameter string that terminates with a return and a line feed. The software responds to each command using a return code that terminates with a return and a line feed. Once a connection is made to the Internet, sending email is as simple as configuring an email server to connect, choosing a recipient, and sending text as the body of the email.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 49

Figure 31. Internet Email Reporting Engine Block Diagram

DB9 Optional RS232C Level Converter/DB9 DCE iface Power Supply 5 X 2 Header

CMOS/TTL Serial Interface Header

7Ð15 VDC

ZiLOG Z86E3116 CPU

Seiko iChip Internet Data Pump (S7600A)

ZiLOG Z02400 Modem Module

RJ-11 Phone Jack

Figure 32. Internet Email Reporting Engine Software Block Diagram

Software UART

Command Processor

SMTP API Setup/ Config PPP Check

Dialer

Socket API

Seiko CPU Interface

Clock/Divider

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Optional RS232-C Interface Seiko iChip Internet Data Pump

U2

DB9 Serial (DCE)

+3.3V

Z02400

+5V

+5V

Modem Module

+3.3V

D0 D1 D2 /DTR /DCD D3 D4 RSRX D5 RSTX

FB1

J2-1 J2-2 J2-3 J2-4 J2-5

1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5

C9 .1 C10 .1 1 2 3 4 RJ11 Jack

FB2

U5

RXD TXD D6 CRXD

J1-1 J1-2 J1-3 J1-4 J1-5 J1-6 J1-7 J1-8 J1-9

Vcc Gnd DTR N/C DCD TTP MUTE N/C AOUT RING N/C N/C RXD TXD

RSRX

Zilog Modem Module

CTXD BUSYX

+ +

TXD /DTR /DCD RXD

13 8 11 10 1 3

RSTX D7

R1 IN R2 IN T1 IN T2 IN C1+ C1Ð C10 .1µF

R1 OUT R2 OUT T1 OUT T2 OUT C2+ C2Ð

12 9 14 7 4 5

C10 .1µF

MAX232E

WR

+3.3V

INT

Power Supply

Power Connector 2 1 + 1 U2 78L05 3 + 2

C3 50µF

+5V +

C13.1µF

RD CS RS

VÐ (pin 6 MAX232)

+5V R1 200

+3.3V

+

C12 .1µF

V+ (pin 2 MAX232) xtest 7-15 Vdc

2

xpar_in3 xpar_in4 xpar_in5 xpar_in6 xpar_in7 vdd1 xpar_out1 xpar_out2 xpar_out3 xpar_out4 xpar_out5 xpar_out6 xpar_out7 xtxd xrtsj xdtrj xdcd xrxd xri xdsrj xtcsj

V in +5V GND C4 10µF D1 3.3V Zener

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5

48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26

xsd0 xsd1 xsd2 xsd3 xsd4 xsd5 vdd2 xscan_ctl xsd6 xscan_en N/C xsd7 xsys_busyj xsys_int2 xsys_int1 xsys_intctrl xsys_writej xsys_psx vss2 xsys_readj xsys_c86 xsys_cs xsys_rs +

C5 1µF

CMOS/TTL Serial Interface Header

vss1 xresetj xclock

RESET XCLK

5x2 Header Seiko S7600A

4 1 3

CRXD

Figure 33. Internet Email Reporting Engine Schematic Diagram

CTXD

1 3 5 7 9

2 4 6 8 10

+5V

Zilog Z8 CPU Clock Divider (/32)

U3

RS CS RD WR BUSYX D3 SYSCLK D2 D1 D0 CTXD

Decoupling Caps

+5V +3.3V

U1 CLR CLK

SYSCLK

D4

C5 0.1µF

C6 0.1µF

C7 0.1µF

C8 0.1µF

C9 0.1µF

D5

+5V

D6

D7

11 10

XCLK

X1

SYSCLK

7.3728 MHz

CRXD

INT

C1 27pF Zilog Z86E3116

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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C2 27pF

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

P25 P26 P27 P04 P05 P06 P07 Vcc XTAL2 XTAL1 P31 P32 P33 P34 HC4040

P24 P23 P22 P21 P20 P03 Vss P02 P01 P00 P30 P36 P37 P35

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15

QA QB QC QD QE QF QG QH QI QJ QK QL

9 7 6 5 3 2 4 13 12 14 15 1

50

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 51

Lunar Telemetry Beacon

Submitted by: Russell McMahon Abstract The Lunar Telemetry Beacon (LTB) is a small Z8 microcontroller-controlled telemetry system and radio transmitter. It is intended for deployment on the lunar surface to subsequently return temperature, seismic, and location information to Earth. No receiver is incorporated in the LTB, due to severe design constraints. Consequently, all decisions must be made on a preprogrammed basis. Key demands on the overall system include the ability to survive impact velocities of over 300kph and decelerations of 1000g, to return data to Earth using a selfcontained aerial and transmitter, and to survive in an ambient temperature range of Ð180¼ to +130¼ Celsius (with the transmitter not operating at extreme temperatures). Key demands on the Z8 microcontroller include:

¥ ¥ ¥ ¥

Control of initial deployment from the main payload Control of the physical orientation of the LTB after landing Control of a transmitter to return data to Earth Thermal management of the electronic core to maximize the prospect of surviving the lunar nights (2 weeks at Ð180¼ Celsius)

Because of severe mass, and therefore battery restrictions, the unit operates intermittently, with a decreasing duty cycle over time. Mechanical survivability is enhanced by the use of surface-mount construction, housing in a custom-fitted mechanically-compliant pressure shroud, encapsulation of the whole system in a homogeneous medium, and subsequent mounting in an external matrix-medium that ensures controlled deceleration over the maximum available distance. The LTBÕs initial objective is met if it transmits successfully from the lunar surface for a period of a few Earth days. Over this period, transmissions are relatively frequent. Long term operation (weeks to years) requires surviving the low temperatures of lunar nights. Lunar night survivability is targeted by use of a superinsulated core for the key electronics and the provision of very low levels of electrical heating under system control. Battery systems utilize two versions of lithium chemistry due to their potential tolerance of the extreme thermal conditions and high energy densities. Thionyl Chloride batteries (800 Watt-hr/kg) are used for core stay-awake electronics (due to their good energy density) and lithium-sulfur

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 52

dioxide batteries (300 Watt-hr/kg) for transmitter power (with a somewhat lower energy density but better high-current performance). The key technical objectives are:

¥ ¥ ¥

Survive landing Deploy aerial system successfully Return at least one successfully-received message

The above three objectives are listed together because, while each is a separate goal, all must result before success is achieved. The device must additionally be able to:

¥ ¥ ¥

Send transmission bursts increasingly less frequently throughout one lunar day (2 Earth weeks) Survive one lunar night (2 weeks at Ð180¼ Celsius) Send transmissions at regular infrequent intervals throughout the lunar day, and as many possible subsequent lunar days

Message data includes temperature and seismological observations and sponsor dictated content (not necessarily advertising per se). A failure to return some or all data would still be a reasonable success, provided actual transmissions continued to be received. All activities must be accomplished with a minimum of weight and power consumption. The Lunar Telemetry Beacon is designed to be as independent of the main spacecraft and main payload as possible while communicating with it prior to deployment. Communication with the core spacecraft control system is by way of a single bidirectional data serial circuit which interfaces with a bus interface in the spacecraft. Power can be provided to a stay-alive input on the LTB prior to launch to avoid utilizing the internal inaccessible and nonrechargeable batteries. However, this connection is used when the final stage of the countdown commences. A failed LTB prior to launch is not repaired; it is replaced in its entirety. After launch, the LTB does not function until lunar impact. It can communicate with the main spacecraft as required. Under strictly predefined conditions, a mission failure mode exists whereby the LTB can self-deploy, if it is obvious that the main mission has failed. The prospects are good for an LTB to survive a catastrophic explosive failure of the main craft upon reaching orbit. As lunar impact is imminent, the LTB arms itself.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 53

A combination of advice from the main craft and/or loss of communication at the appropriate time determine the approach and occurrence of lunar impact. On impact, the LTB is ejected horizontally from the main payload to prevent it from being trapped in the main debris. The small pyrotechnic charge for this activity is external to the LTB. While the LTB can technically initiate this action if the main craft should fail, it is unlikely that its command would be accepted if the main controller fails to initiate the release. Shortly after impact, and having come to rest, the LTB ascertains its survival, and attempts to determine its attitude using its onboard triple-axis accelerometer. In a preferred orientation, as encouraged by its weight distribution, the LTB deploys its main aerial using a pyrotechnic charge to trigger a release mechanism. The antenna is of spring construction with a deployed orientation normal to the body. It is a simple whip antenna that is mechanically wound around part of the outside body. A nonoptimum orientation of the LTB on the surface can be corrected by deploying a sequence of up to three other similar antennae, followed by the actual antenna. When the antenna is deployed (or if it cannot be), the LTB commences its transmission sequence. Transmissions are initially frequent, and decrease with time. During two-Earth-week lunar nights, temperatures fall below battery and transmitter safe operating limits. Under such circumstances, the LTB shuts down all activities except core activities, and attempts to maintain its core temperature at a minimum but safe level. With the return of lunar day, the LTB attempts to reestablish its transmissions. It is intended that the core continue to function after the transmitter fails. If the LTB determines that the transmitter has failed, it ceases transmission, except for occasional short retries.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 54

Magic Dice

Submitted by: Darren Ashby (www.chipcenter.com) Abstract The ZiLOG Z8PE001 microcontroller generates a display of six numbers, and the sound effects of rolling dice. The ZiLOG microcontroller also generates the random numbers rolled on the dice. The LEDs are multiplexed using only the ZiLOG microcontroller and the display components; no other ICs are required. The LEDs are positioned to represent the dots on a pair of dice. The dice displays are animated, rolling as real dice do. By controlling the brightness of each individual LED, (using the timer interrupt capabilities of the ZiLOG part), the user can achieve a visual effect to simulate rolling dice. The animation slowly comes to a stop at the final value of the dice. Each individual die may stop at different times, further enhancing the simulation. As the dice roll, sound effects simulate the bouncing action of a real die. At the end of the roll, additional sound effects are added as required for various final values. For example, a short victory song can play when a player has rolled double sixes. Such a scenario is fairly simple to create using the TOUT mode on the Z8PE001 to drive the piezoelectric buzzer. Four controls are provided to the user. Switch 1 causes only one of the dice to be rolled at a time. The first press rolls the first die, leaving the second die blank. The second press rolls the second die (the first roll is still displayed). The process then repeats. Switch 2 rolls both dice at once. Switch 3 is a reset button in case of problems. Switch 4 is a special toggle feature that causes the dice to be seven-sided, where numbers 1 though 7 are possible. Geometry makes it impossible to create an actual die with seven sides that offers an equal chance of any number occurring. Such is not the case with the Magic Dice board.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 55

Figure 34. Magic Dice Block Diagram

Reset

Z8Plus Microcontroller

LEDs are positioned to represent the dots on dice

7-sided switch

Roll one die at a time

Roll both dice together

Simple packaging design

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Connection to a VCC 4.5 VDC battery pack

VCC DICE1 G ND

VCC

VCC

R1 4.7K 3 3 2 4.7K 2N4403 Q1

DICE2

1 R2 2 2N4403 Q2

1

VCC

2PIN-900-SLDR-HD

R10

10K

SW1 LD1

PA1 PA3 PA5 PA1 PA3 PA5

PA0

PA4

PA0

PA4

Roll one die LD7 LD11

LD12

VCC

LD2

PA2 PA6 PA2

LD5

LD8

LD6

LD10

PA6

LD14

R11

10K

SW2

VCC

Figure 35. Magic Dice Schematic Diagram

Roll both dice LD3 U1 18 PB0 10MHz 15

VCC

LD9

LD4

LD13

C18 0.1µF VCC X1 VSS XTAL2 XTAL1 PA0

PA0

DICE1

14

BUZZER

1 PB1 PB2 PB4 PB3 /RST R6 11 33 10 R7

PA2 PA1

DICE2

2 16 4 17 13 12 33 R5 3 5 PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 R8

PA3

R10

10K

R12

RESET

SW3 1K C19 0.1µF

RESET

6 PA7 PA8 PA5 9 33 7 8

VCC

PB1 Piezo Buzzer R69

BUZZER

R14

10K

Z86E001

33 R9

PA4

SW4 33

PA5

470

Seven-sided dice switch 33

PA6

R3 33 R4

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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56

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 57

Modular Light Display Panel

Submitted by: Phillip King Abstract Each Modular Light Display Panel is made up of an 8x8 array of pixels. Each pixel contains 3 LEDs (red, green, and blue), which are controlled by a Z8 microcontroller. Panels provide a modular building block for expandable full-color LED displays. A single panel, running alone, can serve as electronic art, providing algorithmically-generated patterns of light and color. A linear array of panels becomes a full-color scrolling text and graphic display, such as a marquee, or an attractive enunciator panel. By connecting together a two-dimensional array of panels, users can construct large color displays. As a result, users can buy a small number of panels to start their display, and add panels as required. Every 8x8 panel contains a Z86E21 OTP microcontroller. 192 bytes of the Z8 onchip RAM form the image buffer containing the current state of the display. Three 64-byte arrays make up each color plane. The intensity of every LED is controlled using pulse-width modulation. At any given instant, an LED is either fully on or fully off, but by varying the duty cycle of on-time to off-time, the Z8 can vary the perceived intensity of every LED. The array can be built to allow strobing of one row of the panel at a time, or allow additional discrete latches to be used for a fully-static display (at slightly higher cost). In either case, the fully-digital control system can provide a seemingly analog variation in the color intensity of each pixel. The software control is offered by two pads. A periodic interrupt routine updates the state of the currently-driven row of the LED array, providing the appearance of varied intensity of every pixel. The mainline code modifies the image buffer as directed by serial communication with the control computer and those panels around it. Because every panel communicates with those around it, the array itself can perform simple image manipulations such as wipes and simple animations. The total bandwidth required is reduced within the array, because not every panel must receive a fully-updated state during every frame. When multiple panels are assembled to form larger displays, each panel communicates serially with the four around it. At power-on, each panel queries the four compass directions, and the top left panel becomes position (0,0). Every other panel determines its position successively from those above and to the left of it. When running, an external PC controlling the array can address every panel independently. The control PC coordinates the array, handling tasks such as scaling images to the available number of panels.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 58

Figure 36. Modular Light Display Panel Module Block Diagram

Serial Link to Upper and Left Panels

Row Latch (Blue)

ZiLOG Z8 Microcontroller

Row Latch (Blue)

3·- COLOR LED ARRAY

Serial Link to Lower and Right Panels

Row Latch (Blue)

Column Driver FETs

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(VCC is provided by an external power supply through the frame, or a back connector on the VCC stand-along panel.)

VCC 29 VCC P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26 P27 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Data0 Data0 Data0 Data0 Data0 Data0 Data0 Data0 Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3 Data4 Data5 Data6 Data7 3 4 7 8 13 14 17 18 2 5 6 9 12 15 16 19 ÐPixel Drive 10 ÐPixel Drive 11 ÐPixel Drive 12 ÐPixel Drive 13 ÐPixel Drive 14 ÐPixel Drive 15 ÐPixel Drive 16 ÐPixel Drive 17

Note: This design uses the minimal number of external latches to have any one column of the display energized at a time. More latches and one extra layer of latch clock decoder logic can be used for a higher-duty-cycle or fully-static display.

U1

U2

LATCH1 CLK LATCH2 CLK LATCH3 CLK

41 42 43 1 2 3 4 5

P00 P01 P02 P03 P04 P05 P06 P07

J1

Latch1 Clk 1 CC 11 CLK

74ACT374

COL SEL0 COL SEL1 COL SEL2 COL SEL3 COL SEL4 COL SEL5 COL SEL6 COL SEL7 P30 P31 P32 P33 P34 P35 P36 P37 33 26 40 16 15 38 27 32 UART in West in East in South in North Out West Out East Out UART Out

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17

XTAL2 XTAL1

30 31

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Inter-panel serial interconnection. (On-board UART is for primary North-South communication channel.)

U3

CON10

Y1 12MHz C1 22pF

RESET

34

Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3 Data4 Data5 Data6 Data7 3 4 7 8 13 14 17 18

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7

2 5 6 9 12 15 16 19

ÐPixel Drive 20 ÐPixel Drive 21 ÐPixel Drive 22 ÐPixel Drive 23 ÐPixel Drive 24 ÐPixel Drive 25 ÐPixel Drive 26 ÐPixel Drive 27

ZiLOG Z86E21

R/W DS AS R/RL 44 S1 (Recessed internal reset switch) C2 22pF 35 36 37

Latch2 Clk

1 CC 11 CLK

74ACT374

6 22 28 39

GND GND GND GND

Figure 37. Modular Light Display Panel Module Schematic Diagram

U4

Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3 Data4 Data5 Data6 Data7 3 4 7 8 13 14 17 18 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 2 5 6 9 12 15 16 19 ÐPixel Drive 30 ÐPixel Drive 31 ÐPixel Drive 32 ÐPixel Drive 33 ÐPixel Drive 34 ÐPixel Drive 35 ÐPixel Drive 36 ÐPixel Drive 37

Latch3 Clk VCC

1 CC 11 CLK

74ACT374

C4 .1µF C5 .1µF C6 .1µF C7 .1µF

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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C3 .1µF

59

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 60

Nasal Oscillatory Transducer

Submitted by: Sarah Brandenberger and Doug Keithley Abstract The Nasal Oscillatory Transducer (N.O.T.) is an electronic device that does not use drugs or chemicals. It acts as a nasal decongestant and uses a piezoelectric speaker, hooked up to the speaker of a frequency generator. Press the N.O.T. to the offending sinus area and press the start button. The N.O.T. immediately starts alleviating sinus congestion. For greater effectiveness, set the switch to HIGH-POWER mode and an LED illuminates. In five minutes, the N.O.T. stops making sounds, and turns itself off. By exciting the sinusÕ resonance frequencies, mucus becomes more fluid and is easily expelled. Various sinus cavities tend to resonate at frequencies within the audio range. Variances in individuals and even variances in sinus size within the same person dictate the requirement for exciting the sinus cavities at multiple frequencies. The N.O.T. sweeps through a range of frequencies. Through microphone feedback, the N.O.T. determines the specific resonant frequencies that are excited for a short duration. Because the resonant frequencies are dynamic (due to changing volumes), the sweep and excite process is repeated every 30 seconds for 5 minutes. Circuit Description:

¥

Power SupplyÑLM2937 was chosen because of low voltage drop-out. The unregulated 9 volts is supplied by a battery and powers the output the output driver directly. Output DriverÑsimple single transistor drives a 45-ohm speaker. Fidelity is not necessary. Reset circuitÑsimple RC time constant as specified by data sheet Variable Output VoltageÑthe Z8 timer is configured as PWM per data sheet and output on PB1. The signal is passed through an active 2nd order low-pass filter and is used as the reference on the analog comparator inside the Z8. Microphone feedbackÑan electric condenser microphone is AC-coupled to an active 2nd-order low-pass filter and peak detector. The output of the peak detector is fed into the analog comparator of the Z8. Z8Ñdirect drive of the LED indicator and the watch-dog timer prevents excessive on-time, a ceramic resonator provides acceptable timing, and a security bit protects firmware features from competitors. FirmwareÑprovides all timing using a 16-bit internal timer, algorithms for modulating the output driver pin to generate sounds out of speakers, and

¥ ¥ ¥

¥

¥

¥

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 61

monitoring resonance by comparing the peak microphone signal to the PWMgenerated reference.

Figure 38. Nasal Oscillatory Transducer Block Diagram

Power Supply (+9VDC unreg, +5VDC reg)

Clock Circuit (Ceramic Resonator)

POR RESET (RC+Diode for fast recovery) IRQ3

PA1

User I/O (High-power Switch and LED Indicator)

PB2/PA7

Input Sensor (Electret Microphone)

Z8Plus

PA0

Output Driver and Audio Transducer (Transistor & Speaker)

Filter (Active 2nd Order Lowpass and Peak Follower)

PB4 PB4

+ Ð

PWM

PB1

DAC (PWM through an active 2nd Order Lowpass Filter)

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Start Button S1 9VDC 9V R1 100k S2 LED1 Green/ Yellow C3 9VDC SPK1 22pF C4 VCC 22pF 2 LED DRV (PA1) SPKR DRV (PA0) 17 XTAL1 16 XTAL2 (PB0) NC NC NC NC NC R6 15k R7 15k NC 6 5 7 + LM2904N C14 0.1µF 5% 15 2nd Order Lowpass Filter 1 LM2904N C12 0.1µF 5% 5 RST C11 1µF 4 (PB4) AN IN 3 (PB3) REF IN (PA3) 10 (PA2) 11 (PA6) 7 (PA5) 8 (PA4) 9 18 PWM OUT (PB1) D1 1N914 1 Output Driver and Transducer 13 6 (PB2) IRQ3 (PA7) HIGH SW 12 45ohm R3 1.5k Q1 2N4401 Ceramic Resonator Circuit Layout is Critical VCC VCC C9 0.1µF C10 0.1µF R4 100k VCC X1 10MHz VCC High Power Select and Indicator Open for High Power R2 300 VCC 5V VCC VCC

C1

C2

B1 9V 3

500mA LDO 5V Regulator V1

1

VIN VOUT

+ + C2 GND C1 10µF 0.1µF 10V 2 LM2937

U1

14

9VDC C8 0.1µF

9VDC

9VDC

VCC

Figure 39. Nasal Oscillatory Transducer Schematic Diagram

C5 10µF 16V

C6 0.1µF

C7 0.1µF

R5 470k VSS C13 0.1µF 5% VCC R10 + 120k 3 2

ZILOG Z8E00110SEC

9VDC

R8 6.8k

MIC1

C15

R9

1µF

4.7k

Elec Condenser R12 47k R13 10k C18 0.1µF

C16 0.1µF VCC 5%

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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2nd Order Lowpass Filter and Peak Follower

62

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 63

New Sensor Technologies

Submitted by: James Champion Abstract The ZiLOG Z8 is ideal for use in applications where a small, minimal I/O processor is required. Incorporating different levels of capability in the same pin-out footprint makes the Z8 family an excellent choice where a series of increasingly feature-rich products are made with the same basic high-volume circuit design. Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted attention. The technology can be licensed from Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (LLNL) to develop a new series of products aimed at in-tankfluidlevel sensing, and fuel-level applications. However, unlike the cover of Popular Science, a full Radar on a Chip is a few years away. As with any emerging technology, the first products must be flexible (programmable), avoid the development-risk ASIC or custom chip (because the technology is still emerging), and yet be cost-effective. A ZiLOG OTP processor can perform some of the functions performed by discrete components in basic MIR Circuits, provide the required flexibility, and keep cost low on product design. The technology employs a method of Equivalent-Time Sampling, where many thousands of pulses are sent out, and the reflected response is built-up by adding up a single time-delayed sample from each reflected pulse to form a response signal at a lower frequency than the original. The outgoing pulses are sent at a Pulse Rate Frequency (PRF) of 4 MHz (the oscillator frequency used for the Z8). A simple reset pulse from the Z8 to start the sample time base initializes a sample delay circuit. The recovered sample signal for the fluid measuring probe features a maximum length of typically 20msec, determined by the rate the reset pulse is sent by the Z8. Given a PRF of 4MHz and a sample time base of 20 msec, 80,000 pulses are sampled to create the equivalent-time waveform. An example of a reset pulse and recovered waveform are shown as the top and bottom waveforms in Figure 40. This waveform is applied to the comparator circuit of the Z8. The Z8 timer measures the time from the reset pulse to the reflection to determine the fluid level. By using an OTP Z8, fuel tanks with unusual shapes can exhibit a level indication, compensated for the nonlinear volume response with a look-up table. Additionally, by using techniques outlined in US patent 5898308, contaminated fuel can be detected by measuring both the return pulse from the fluid level, and the return pulse from the probe end.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 64

A 100-Hz PWM signal generated by the Z8 is used to drive an indicator. The low power of the MIR circuits and the Z8 result in easy vehicle load-dump protection.

Figure 40. New Sensor Technology Waveform

1 1 2

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 65

Figure 41. New Sensor Technology Block Diagram

TRANSMIT SIGNAL

FIXED DELAY PRF

PULSE DRIVE

DIRECTIONAL NETWORK

COAXIAL PROBE

VARIABLE DELAY

SAMPLE SIGNAL

PULSE DRIVE

SAMPLE GATE

TANK

RAMP CIRCUIT RESET AMP

ZiLOG Z8

OSC

REF VCC PWM OPTION JUMPERS POWER MOSFET

12/24 V INPUT

LOAD DUMP PROTECTION

POWER REGULATOR

VCC OUT

TELEFLEX MICROPROCESSOR MIR FUEL LEVEL SENDER

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 66

Phone Dialer

Submitted by: Daniel Dina Abstract The Phone Dialer is a device that attaches to a telephone and monitors all activity from either the line or the phone. The line activity being monitored involves detecting several phone line conditions such as on-hook, off-hook, and ringing. The analog portion of the circuit detects these conditions and provides logic levels and wake-from-sleep-mode interrupts to the microcontroller. The phone activity being monitored starts when the Phone Dialer device either detects the handset being picked up, or if programmed accordingly, answers the phone. Should a customer pick up the phone and start dialing, the Phone Dialer receives all key presses and, based on the phone number dialed by the user, generates a new string that ultimately dials out on the line. This new string contains all the prefixes and codes necessary to utilize the lowest-cost carrier available to the user. Through proper filtering, all phone numbers entered by the user are blocked from reaching the line, thus preventing the an outgoing call. The Phone Dialer device ultimately dials the numbers, along with the proper prefixes and suffixes. The Phone Dialer device can also be programmed through the phone (by turning on the answer feature), or by picking up the phone and entering the program mode (by the use of a password). A simple example of operation for the device is as follows: 1. 2. A user picks up the phone. The circuit detects an off-hook condition and wakes up the Z8 microcontroller, enables the filter, and starts listening for a tone generated by the phone. The user dials a number. The firmware begins decoding the phone number being dialed, and makes decisions based on the area code and the prefixes, using programmed routing numbers. Based on all programmed variables, the device forms the complete string and dials the number.

3. 4.

5.

The Z86E08 device additionally helps to reduce part count by incorporating a built-in reset circuit. Its low sleep-mode current drain enables the shut-down operation of the circuit. The device analog circuitry (D4ÐD7) allows the Phone Dialer to be connected to any phone line regardless of polarity.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 67

Figure 42. Phone Dialer Block Diagram

Phone dialer device

Telephone

Phone Company

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3.3V +V 1 IN+ VDD St/GT 19 P21 P01 12 13 7 C5 12pF XTAL1 12MHz C4 12pF J1 R12 2.2k 8 9 10 6 18 P22 P02 XTAL1 XTAL2 P31 P23 P24 P25 17 16 15 14 P26 P32 P33 GND 9 R/W/WR DS/RD 14 RSO 3.3V +V V3 R16 2k 5 SDA SCL WP 6 3.3V +V 7 8 D5 1N4002 VCC GND R15 2k 11 /CS 10 12 P27 13 4 3 2 1 18 R17 374k 17 C10 100nF C2 .1µF 16 P20 P00 INÐ VCC 2 3 GS ESt D3 D2 D1 VREF VSS OSC1 4 5 6 7 OSC2 D0 IRQ/CP TONE 8 20 11 15

3.3V +V

3.3V +V

C7

R13

100nF

100k

R6

U2 U1

100k

XTAL2 3.5795MHz

Z86E08

C6

Figure 43. Phone Dialer Schematic Diagram

.1µF

R4 12k

MT88L89AE

3.3V Power Supply for uP and Memory 4 3 A2 A1 A0 2 1

Teleco Phone Jack J2 D6 1N4002 C8 10mF In Out Com

D4 1N4002

U4 LP2950CZ 3.3V +V

U3

24LC01/02B

D7 1N4002 Red Wire (tip)

L1 10mH Green Wire (ring) C1 47µF CNTRL3 R3 470k R4 12k G 1Meg 1Meg R11 G D Q3 F 2N7000 R7 CNTRL2 D1 Zener

R8 470k

J3 R10 100

Green Wire (ring)

R2 470k

Microprocessor sampling node

R9 470k D2 MMSZ5 V1T1 Q1A MPQ 3904 D3 MMSZ5 V1T1 C3 .1µF Q4 2N 3904

Customer phone jack

Red Wire (tip)

C9 .1µF Q2 2N7000 D F R1 1Meg uP CNTRL1 G

D Q5 F 2N7000

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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68

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 69

Pocket Music Synthesizer

Submitted by: Stan Sasaki Abstract The pocket music synthesizer is an instructional aid and motivational tool for elementary and middle school band and orchestra students and teachers. The synthesizer is loaded with a variety of scores, and the student can play back selected pieces and parts of any score. For example, the cello track can be removed, or just the flute track can be played. Tempo can be adjusted without affecting pitch, so that students can practice at home at their own pace. The student can jump to any location in a composition to repeatedly listen to and play along with challenging passages. This jump location corresponds to the sheet music measure number and call loop between measures. Other features include a metronome, instrument tuner, and scale transposer. Sound is output via an RF modulator played over any FM radio. The unit is similar in appearance and size to a TV remote with an LCD display. It can stand on-end on a music stand. For durability, the only connector is for battery charging. A Z86C96 microcontroller interprets the score and the various instrument wavetables stored in a single 1-Mbyte Flash memory chip. The Flash chip contains both program and data memory. The Z86C96 features a 64-KB external memory interface. An additional four I/O lines extend the data space range to 1Mbyte. A small complex programmable logic device (CPLD) manages the program/data memory segmentation; the CPLD also performs other I/O signal management. Each instrument track is stored in digital notation (for example, MIDI) where a note is encoded as instrument type, pitch, duration, and volume. For each note, the microcontroller reads the template note for that instrument out of the wavetable. The wavetable memory contains sound chunks of the actual instrument at selected points in its pitch range and with a prototype attack-sustain-decay envelope. The microcontroller adjusts for intermediate pitches by sample rate adjustment. The playback code is straightforward, because the wavetables are not compressedÑthe microcontroller simply reads and sums data arrays from memory. The composite digital audio signal is written to a D/A converter, and the analog signal drives an FM broadcast band modulator. The carrier is phase-locked to allow exact tuning, because receivers are now also synthesized. The Z86C96 scans the keypad for user commands and displays operating status in the LCD display. For example, the LCD displays the real-time measure number during playback. The microcontroller requires a crystal oscillator for pitch and modulator tuning accuracy. The score and wavetable flash memory is downloaded from a PC by the instructor at the beginning of a school year. For grade school, the entire yearÕs orchestration

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 70

can be stored, while middle-school applications require periodic updates due to the complexity and length of scores. The memory is loaded via an infrared link directly decoded by the Z86C96Õs UART port. The UART interface allows any PC serial port driving an infrared diode pod to load the memory. The synthesizers for an entire class can be loaded in parallel by pointing them all at the emitter; each unitÕs LCD display verifies download integrity.

Figure 44. Pocket Music Synthesizer Block Diagram

Keypad 4x4 matrix

4-char LCD display

IR detector (for download)

Z86C96 Microcontroller 20 MHz

Prog Mem (16 kbytes) Data Mem (1008 kbytes)

8-bit D/A converter

RF Modulator FM broadcast band PLL synthesized-monaural

1 MByte Flash Memory asymmetrically-blocked

+5V

DC-DC converter

2.4V rechargeable battery

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R3

VCC

U7

9 RST

U5 U9

VCC

2

VIN 19 R/RL SCLK X2 53 5

RST

1

U3

3

GND

VCC

MC34064 4X4 KEYPAD MATRIX

SCLK

C5

20MHz 6 X1

P07 P06 P05 P04 P03 P02 P01 P00 3 VCC 15 VCC 23 VCC 35 VCC C0 C2 C3 C4 C7 C8 C13 C15 24 25 26 27 28 29 31 32 r1 r2 r3 r4 c1 c2 c3 c4 12 16 RESET DQ0 DQ1 DQ2 DQ3 DQ4 DQ5 DQ6 DQ7 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 58

A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8

Y1

C6

10 GND 22 GND 30 GND 42 GND

U6

RP BY

P17 P16 P15 P14 P13 P12 P11 P10 WP WE OE CE 28 26 14 11 VCC AS DS R/W A19 A18 A17 A16 addr stb CLK OC 11 1 16 12 10 SCLK 43 IN0 1 IN1 44 IN2 2 IN3 AD7 AD6 AD5 AD4 AD3 AD2 AD1 AD0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4-DIGIT MUX'D LCD E28F800B5-B60 8 Mbit Flash

enable flash read flash write flash

13 14 4 1 2 68 64 65 P47 P46 P45 P44 P43 P42 P41 P40

41 42 43 44 45 46 37 38

AD7 AD6 AD5 AD4 AD3 AD2 AD1 AD0

A19 A18 A17 A16 A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 16 17 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 45 A18 A17 A16 A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 A-1

40 39 33 34 35 36 22 23 P57 P56 P55 P54 P53 P52 P51 P50 P27 P26 P25 P24 P23 P22 P21 P20 A0 A2 A5 A8 A11 A12 A13 A15 D0 D2 D7 D8 D11 D12 D13 D15 58 59 60 61 62 63 54 55 41 40 39 38 37 36 34 33 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12

74HC574 Addr latch

C0 P2HS DM

Figure 45. Pocket Music Synthesizer Schematic Diagram

C1 P37 P36 P35 P34 11 15

R7 R8 R9 R10 7 67 18 49 17 B8 16 B10 14 B13 13 B15 ser data load pll ser clk load dac 21 B0 20 B2 19 B3 18 B4 SCLK

47 P63 48 P62 57 P61 58 P60

U2

VCC

U1

P0DS P1DS

VCC

1 VDD 2 3 GND

OUT VCC

50 P33 21 P32 66 P31 8 P30

PZ5064-10A44 CPLD U8

1 VO 2 GND 3 VDD 6 SY 5 SCK 4 DIN

Z86C96 Microcontroller

low battery

PNA4602M Integrated IR demodulator AD5301 DAC

L1 + C1 R2 D2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

OSCI OSCO REFO FIN DIN ENB CLK DOUT

VDD OV OR PD VSS LD FV FR

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

VCC

MC145170 PLL synthesizer

C13 VCC D6 R17 C10 R15 VCC Q2 C9 R14 C8 VCC L4 C14 C3

J1 DC in

D4

R1

D3

R11 D1

U4

1 FB R16 VCC C7 R18 GND LBI REF LBO 3 OUT 4 LX 7 8 2 R19 PLL filter + C15

Q1 L3 D5 R12 C11 L2 C12 R13 C4 R6

R5

2-cell replaceable pak R4

trickle only

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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MAX1674 Boost converter

71

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 72

Portable Individual Navigator (PIN)

Submitted by: Leonard Lee Abstract A ZiLOG 16-MHz Z86E83 microcontroller serves as the controller for a small, selfcontained, belt-carried device that provides an individual with bearing and distance traveled on foot from an initial location. It can be used for individual navigation both indoors and outdoors. The device combines data from a solid-state magnetic compass sensor and an accelerometer-based stride sensor. The accelerometer is also used to compensate for mounting tilt. Iterative algorithms are used to compute the accumulated bearing/distance vector on the fixed-point microcontroller in an efficient way. A typical application might be an individual who is hiking. The portable navigator can also be used indoors to track the location of people wearing the device in a certain area. When the device is initialized, the wearer can wander freely on foot, both indoors and outdoors. When it is time to return home, the device displays the required compass bearing and distance in meters to the starting point or most recent waypoint. The design requires the sensing of voltage from several sensors. It also provides user input and display control; therefore, a microcontroller with a large number of I/O pins is required. It is possible to sense analog voltages using Z8 devices without analog-to-digital (A/D) converters (for example, measuring the charge time of an RC circuit connected to a comparator input). However, these methods require external circuitry and can be considered somewhat ad hoc measures. Consequently, the ZiLOG Z86E83 (OTP version) was chosen because it features an 8channel A/D converter and a relatively large number of I/O pins. These features permit the PIN to include minimal glue logic and external analog circuitry. Z86E83 software is the heart of the system and performs all functions, such as reading the sensors, converting the data into distance and bearing, and managing the user interface. The Z86E83 is configured to use a crystal oscillator clocked at 16 MHz to offer maximum code flexibility for the prototype software. To keep power supply design simple, an LM2930T-5.0 low drop-out linear voltage regulator is used to regulate the 6-V battery voltage (from two 3-volt lithium CR3032 coin batteries) down to 5volts. The efficiency of the linear regulator in this case is 5V Ö 6V = 83%, which is comparable to a switching supply, because the input-output differential is only 1V.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 73

Figure 46. Portable Individual Navigator A/D Ratio Over Time

Peaks due to footfalls

threshold for footfall detection

A/D reading from accel.

Stride correction based on time interval

Time

Increased tilt lowers average level (0 degree tilt = 098)

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20pF 16MHz 20pF +5V XTAL 9 28 AC0/P20 OUT + 6V Two CR3032 3V lithium coin cells in series IN AC1/P21 .1µF AVcc GND 2 27 Vcc 3 1 1 XTAL1 XTAL2 12 10 LM2930T-5.0, 5V low dropout regulator Dinsmore 1655 Halleffect compass sensor

+5V

6 5

4 3

1 2

+5V

Z86E8316PEC

8 Aout AC2/P22 P26 14 P32 P27 16 18 17 3 2.2k +5V Linear slider pot. 10k for scrolling control NC (spare outputs) 7 6 P25 10 Vin UCA0 4 NC 100k P35 +5V AC33/P23 10k P31 D AGND P06 P05 P04 P03 P02 P01 P00 1 26 2 4 P24 GND 11 Spare unused input 13 15 P33 P36 8 RESET P34 7 12 2 5 13 9 14

+5V

.22µF

Zilog

50k

11

ADXL105 accelerometer -AQC variant (ext. temp. range)

Figure 47. Portable Individual Navigator Schematic Diagram

Threshold for foot impacts

25

24

23

22

21

20

10k +5V 2 VCC VEE VSS LCD contrast 10k 1 3 6 4 5 14 13 12 11 E RS RW D7 D6 D5 D4

19

LCD 10 9 8 7 D3 D2 D1 D0

75 Degrees 1312·m

OPTREX DMC-16117N 16x1 LCD

FRONT SIDE Slider pot Pushbutton

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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Notes:· -· Magnetic north and true geographical north differ by the ·· magnetic declination - can be ignored for relative measurements. · -· A/D is used to digitize signals near DC only. Antialiasing filter ·· not needed. Sensors have limited bandwidth and this limits noise.·

74

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 75

Postal Shock Recorder

Submitted by Bryon Eckert Abstract The increased competition between shipping companies has brought lower costs for business and the consumer. Demand from these sectors has caused the speed with which packages are handled to become more important than care in their handling. The result has been increased breakage of fragile items. An inexpensive shock recorder can be very helpful in pinpointing the probable time of breakage by recording the amplitude of each shock, along with a time stamp in serial EEPROM. Low cost is the most important requirement. Light weight and small volume is also important, as it relates to cost of use. The heart of the shock recorder is the sensing element. Three sensors are used (one for each axis), each consisting of a ceramic magnet epoxied to the end of a metal strip. A shock causes the metal strip to vibrate and produce a time-varying magnetic field proportional to the amplitude of the shock. The magnetic field variation produces a voltage across a sensing coil. Balanced amplifiers minimize interference pick-up. AC coupling to the subsequent amplifier stages eliminates the requirement for DC offset adjustment. U3C provides lowimpedance virtual Ground, allowing single-supply operation while adding minimal additional power consumption. Each sensing amplifier feeds an inverting peak detector. The diodes are inside feedback loops to minimize temperature drift. All three amplifier outputs are connected across a single tantalum capacitor for charge storage. The Z86E04 usually runs in STANDBY mode, minimizing power consumption. When a shock is detected, the peak detector voltage rises above the level preset by R27 and R28, triggering IRQ3 (rising edge). The CPU wakes and starts the A/D conversion routine. Voltage readings are taken for several seconds, with the highest reading stored in EEPROM (8-bit value), together with a time stamp (24-bit value). A second comparator is used to monitor battery voltage. A low drop-out regulator provides a stable reference voltage and makes efficient use of a low-cost carbon-zinc 9-V battery. With LM324A operational amplifiers, the overall current consumption is about 5 mA, allowing up to 100 hours of operation. A 93LC66 EEPROM contains 512 bytes of memory, allowing up to 125 events to be stored (leaving room for the base date and time and a tracking number in BCD format). The user interface consists of a serial port and an alarm LED. The serial port is implemented in firmware, and can run at up to 38.4K baud for a 4-MHz crystal in low-EMI mode. The serial cable must be kept short (less than 6 feet), because the interface is not a RS-232-level interface. The base date and time is set through the serial port, and the EEPROM is read and erased through the

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 76

serial port. The alarm LED indicates that a shock threshold is exceeded, and/or the battery is low. PC-based software allows a user-friendly interface when the postal shock recorder is connected to a personal computer.

Figure 48. Postal Shock Recorder Block Diagram

Inductive Sensor (Magnet wire around iron nail)

Y X

Ceramic magnet Spring steel

Z

LM2951-5.0 ADC RAMP COMPARATORS Z86E04

LOW DROPOUT REGULATOR

X AXIS SHOCK SENSOR Y AXIS SHOCK SENSOR Z AXIS SHOCK SENSOR PEAK VALUE AMPLIFIER PEAK VALUE AMPLIFIER PEAK VALUE AMPLIFIER

BATTERY SAMPLE IN

BATT RAMP SENSOR

P01 CS P02 DATA IN P00 P32 DATA OUT CLOCK

93LC66

CHARGE STORAGE

TO IRQ3 COMPARATOR

SERIAL EPROM

LEVEL REFERENCE

P33

ALARM LED 1 MHZ CPU

RXD SERIAL DATA TXD INTERFACE

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+5V +5V C2 220 R6 1.8M R8 R7

2 Ð 1 3 + 11 4

R34 +5V

+ 0.01µF R3 1.0H

4 7 5 + 1 6 Ð

Spring Mounted Magnet U1B LM324AM 1.0M D1 C9 22pF C10 22pF C11 0.1µF X1 4MHz

C1 4.7µF 10V

AT STRIP CUT CRYSTAL U6 93LC66A

+5V

L1 Sensor C3 0.1µF 22k U2A MMBT914 LM324AM

R1

2 + 11

Ð

R2 U1A LM324AM R5 1.0M

4.7k

3

4.7k

R4 1.0M

1 CF 2 CK 3 BI 4 DO 8 VCC 7 NC 6 ORG 5 VSS 9 P32 8 P31 7 XTAL1 6 XTAL2 5 VCC 4 P27 3 P26 2 P25 1 P24

U5 Z86E04

+5V

C4 +5V 0.01µF R11 1.0H

13 Ð 14 12 + Ð 7 5 +

Spring Mounted Magnet

10 P33 11 P00 12 P01 13 P02 14 GND 15 P20 16 P21 17 P22 18 P23

L2 Sensor R15 1.8M U1D LM324AM R14

6

R9 R16 1.0M D2

D8 MMBT 914 R29

4.7k

9 8

Ð

C5 0.1µF 22k U2B MMBT914 LM324AM

9 Ð 8 10 +

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

22k D9 MMBT 914

R10

+

10

4.7k R13 1.0M R31 100k C6 +5V

12 + Ð 14 13

U1C LM324AM

R12 1.0M U2C LM324AM

J1 DB9M

R30 470 D7 LED +5V

Figure 49. Postal Shock Recorder Schematic Diagram

Spring Mounted Magnet 0.01µF R19 1.0H R26

4 7 5 + Ð 14 12 + 6 Ð

L3 Sensor

R17

R25 1.8M U3D LM324AM R24

13

R32 220k

U2D LM324AM R33 100k C12 0.1µF

ALARM

4.7k 1.0M D3

3 1

Ð

C7 0.1µF 22k U3D MMBT914 LM324AM

R18 U3A LM324AM R21 1.0M

2

U7 LM2931AM-5.0

4 3 2 1

SW1 SPDT +5V

4.7k

+ 11 R20 1.0M

5 NC NC 6 GND GND 7 GND GND 8 IN OUTPUT

10 Ð 8 9 +

R22

+

180k R23 100k

C8 4.7µF 10V

C13 0.1µF

+

C14 100µF 6.3V B1 9V

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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77

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 78

PWM Input/Output Interface Module

Submitted by: Fernando Garcia Sedano Abstract The PWM I/O interface module is designed to process pulse-width monitor (PWM) input and output signals, very often used on railroad vehicles to transport analog information on train lines (for example, brake demand). With a PWM signal, analog information is a function of duty-cycle index modulation. Usage of PWM signals to transport analog information is due to the very high electrical noise immunity. It is also easy to isolate a PWM signal from other voltages, due to the pseudodigital appearance, making these signals suitable to be demodulated using only digital circuits. The circuit receives three different PWM input signals with galvanic isolation at two different voltage levels (depending on R10 and R11 value). There are three input stages (U2, U3, and U4) with their corresponding overload protection (T6, R12, T7, R7, T8, and R8), and with EMC protection (D1, D2). The third PWM input channel (U4) feeds back the PWM output signal (24VPP maximum). The Z8 microcontroller is programmed to demodulate PWM input signals, to count the times where PWM input is at high and low levels, and to perform the corresponding division. Obtained values are loaded in the DPRAM. The Z8 is programmed to address external memory using Port 0 and Port 1 to send address and data lines. DPRAM works as a data buffer between the Z8 microcontroller and any other external microprocessor or microcontroller.

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+5Vdc External Train-line Interface

EMC Filter

+5Vdc filtered for internal power supply

PWM1 DB[7..0] P1 DAB[7..0] PWM3 P3 On/Off Control PWM2 74HC374 D_LATCH Input Isolation Barrier (3XHCPL2211)

PWM Input1 PWM2 Input2 PWM3 Input3

DPRAM I/O Data Bus Buffer 74HCT245

External BCU (Intel 80C196) Interface (Data, Address and Control Buses)

AB[12..1] IOWR\, IORD\ P0 4Kx8 P2 SEML\ CEL\ Address Logic 74HC139 AB[11..8]

DPRAM (IDT7314LA70JB) DB[7..0]

Isolated DCÐDC Converter 24V PWM Output

Z8 Microcontroller (Z86E40)

Figure 50. PWM Input Output/Interface Module Block Diagram

Output Isolation Barrier (1XHCPL3101) 24V

CER\

AB[14,13] IOBHE\, IOSEL\ DPRAM Address Logic (74HC139+79HC02)

SEMR\

6.4MHz

Main Crystal Oscillator (TCX0) (T67PZ12.8+ MC12083P)

PWM Output Frequency Selection (74HC4020+ 74HC151)

Frequency to Current Converter (LM231J)

Current Output

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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79

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 80

Reaction Tester

Submitted by: Martin Bass Abstract The Reaction Tester measures the reaction time of an automobile driver using repeated cycles of signaling, time measurement, data display, data transmission via serial interface (to a PC that performs evaluation over the entire runtime), and waiting randomly for the next signal. Power-on also performs a system check (display, lamps, buzzer, and serial interface) at this time. All system functionality is performed by software:

¥ ¥ ¥ ¥

LED-multiplex for 7-segment display and lamps Sound via buzzer Reading status of the contact switches Serial output

This device is built into a car simulator (a box containing seat, steering wheel, and two pedals) and uses contact switches to check for steering left, steering right, gas, and brake. A Z86E0812-1866 is the heart of this device, which is optimized for maximum integration and minimum parts count. The power supply is an AC/DC wall adapter that delivers an unregulated 9volts to 12volts at a 500-mA load. A capacitor and standard linear voltage regulator uses a diode in series to protect against a wrong connection and a ZORB diode for overvoltage protection. The multiplexed display consists of 3-digit drivers and the 74AC164 shift register; these components perform I/O expansion and power-sink driving for segment currents. Multiplexing drives three of the four LED lamps. The buzzer is driven by the controller port pin via a small electrolyte capacitor in series, and is controlled by software. The serial interface yields real RS-232 voltages (approximately +4V, +8V, and Ð9V under load) to be operable even on problematic PCs (for example, some laptops do not interpret 0V for the more negative voltage). If there is an immense cost problem, it can be easily downgraded to +5V/0V. To read the status of the contact switches, the Reaction Tester includes an interface consisting of pull-up resistors, capacitors for noise clamping, and input protection for the controller port. The oscillator is run by an 8-MHz quartz crystal.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 81

Figure 51. Reaction Tester Block Diagram

AC DC 9-12V

AC/DC Adaptor 500mA

J3

7 Seg. LED-Display Power

LED Lamps

LED-Driver

CPU Z86E0842-1866

Buzzer

RS-232 Converter Contact-Interface

J4

J2

10 MB

Tx GND Rx

Contact Switches

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 82

Figure 52. Reaction Tester Schematic Diagram

1N4148

J3

9-12Vdc 500mA

1N400R

7805

+

100n 1SKE18A 470µ 16V

+5V

+

IC3

22µ 1613

100W T1 T2 T3 T4 3x7 Seg. Disp. C.A., Red

7 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13

14

9

74 AC 164

IC2

8x68E

D 7 2 C 8

4xLED-Lamp

2E2 7E5 +5V 100n +5V

2 13 12 11 5 4 6 7

BC337-25 T5 2x22pF 3k3

QUARZ 8MHz P25

4

T6 8C556C

47k

P02

P01

P00

Vcc

Vss

C

P24 P23

1 18 17 3

P27

Z86E0812-1866

330 1k

9

P22 P20

15

P32 P33 P34

8

P21

16

P26

+

BUZZER 4µ7/10V

IC1

1N 4148 47µ/16V +5V 1N 4148

10

+

+5V +5V

4x100k

100k 4x4k7 4x100W

10k

2x 1N4148

J1

Tx GND Rx

C (MB)

J2

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 83

Remote-Controlled Air Conditioner

Submitted by: Shailendra S. Vengutlekar Abstract The Z86E30 controls an electronic air conditioner. Remote-controlled operations are available together with manual key operations. The remote range is 10 meters. There are two different sensing points for temperature control. A/D conversion uses two analog comparators. The A/D channels work simultaneously with PWM reference P33. Previous settings are restored when the unit is powered on. The electronic air conditioner uses two timers. INTR4 tracks the time of the On/Off timer control mode, stepper motor control pulses, SLEEP mode, day-mode time track, remote-control pulse count, and display refresh pulses. PWM generation for A/D conversion uses INTR5. The Remote-Controlled Air Conditioner features the following items:

¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥

Fuzzy temperature control Four modes of operation Three fan speeds Automatic fan speed Stepper motor control for split air conditioner 12-hour On/Off timer Selectable room temperature Air-swing On/Off control ZiLOG Z86E30 microcontroller

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 84

Figure 53. Remote-Control Air Conditioner Block Diagram

AIR CONDITIONER CONTROL

TEMIC TDSG5160, TLHX5405 ZILOG Z86E30 TURBO IC 24C02

REMOTE CONTROL

DISPLAY

AC MCU

IIC MEMORY

IR LED

TEMIC TSIL6400, TEMIC 1N4148

POWER SUPPLY AND RELAY CONTROL

LOW/HIGH VOLTAGE PROTECTION OPTIONAL

KBD AND DISPLAY CONTROL

IR RECEIVER

IR TRANSMITTER

ASP621

TI ULN2003, TI UA7805CKC, TI 74HCT374, TEMIC BYT41M DIODE

TEMIC 4N33

T174LS145

TEMIC TFMS5380

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VCC 2 P00 1 D10 Diode 1 D8 Diode 2 P33 P31 P32 2 2 D8 Diode D10 Diode D11 Diode 2 P30 1 1 1 2 XTALK2 XTALK1 P0Ð2 D18 Diode 390E R2 2 2 P0Ð1 390E R3 2 390E R4 2 22µF 25V TANTALUM VCC P0Ð3 3 COM COM 8 D A B C D E F G P 7 6 4 2 1 9 1 5 0 D A B C D E F G P 7 6 4 2 1 9 1 5 0 C10 1 2 D17 Diode 1 2 D16 Diode 1 2 1 C12 2 2200µF 25V 3 COM COM 8 390E R5 2 P0Ð4 390E R6 2 P0Ð5 390E R7 P0Ð0 P0Ð1 P0Ð2 P0Ð3 P0Ð4 P0Ð5 P0Ð6 2 390E P0Ð0 P0Ð1 P0Ð2 P0Ð3 P0Ð4 P0Ð5 P0Ð6 D14 Diode 1 2 D15 Diode 1 2 P0Ð6 2 1 P01 1 2 C6 0.1µF R1 P0Ð0 1 1 1 C14 4.7µF

XTALK1

1

X1

2

XTALK2

8MHz P24 P23 P02 1 P21 P03 1 VCC P04 1 P03

1 C2 47pF 2

1

U1

C3 2 47pF

U3 FND500

U4 FND500

AIR_SWING

P25 SDA P27 P04 P05 P06 P07

J5

P06 1

P02 P01 P00 P30 XTALK2 XTALK1 P31 P32 P33 P05 1

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 P24 P23 P22 P21 P20 P03 VSS P02 P01 P00 P30 P36 P37 P35 P25 P26 P27 P04 P05 P06 P07 VCC XTAL2 XTAL1 P31 P32 P33 P34 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

SOLVOL COMCON SCL HF LF MF AIR_SWING VCC

Z86E30 U2

1 100k MFR 1% 1 BUZ 2 1 0.1µF VCC Thermister1 C7 2 C5 0.1µF MPX VCC 15 A 14 B 13 C 12 D R14 2

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

VCC

CON8

BZ1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Too_warm S1 Too_cool S2 Fan_speed S3 Air_swing S4 Mode_sel S5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8

VCC

1 R12 10k D12 Diode 2 1 2

1 R13 10k 2

BUZ 1

BUZZER

74LS145

VCC On_timr_set S6 P32 P25 Off_timer S7 Set_temp S8 P27 On_off S9

D2 P31

FAN

J3

P0Ð2

2

1

L2

D3 P30

COOL

J2

2

R17 Remote 330E Sensor 1/4W 1 2 3 4

Figure 54. Remote-Control Air Conditioner Schematic Diagram

P0Ð3

2

1

D1 Diode 2 1

D13 Diode 2 1

D4 1 2 Thermister1: For sensing room temperature Thermister2: For sensing coil temperature 1 VCC 1 P21 C11 0.1µF P31 P32 R15 1 6.8k 2 1 R16 6.8k 2 C4 0.1µF COMCON P23 2 1 11 L1 C13 4.7µF Thermister2

DRY

P0Ð4

2

1

1 2 3 4

CON4 U6

L3

D5

SLEEP

CON4

P0Ð5 D7 P0Ð1 TIMER 2

2

1

SOLVOL LF MF HF Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 2 5 6 9 12 15 16 19

J6

VCC 1 2 3 4

1 RP1 R_Array 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

D6

HEAT

P0Ð6

2

1

P00 P01 P02 P03 P04 P05 P06 P07 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 OC CLK

3 4 7 8 13 14 17 18

VCC 1 2

C9 0.1µF

CON4 74HCT374

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8

1

1

R11 2k2 1 WP 2 A2 3 4 VSS 1 C1 2 0.1µF 2 1

R8 2k2

U5

SCL

1

R10 120E

2

2

2

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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SDA

1

R9 120E

8 VCC 7 N/C 6 SCL 5 SDA

PCB Size 150mm x 70mm Put separate GND and Power Track for Micon 2200µF cap (C10) should be near Power Supply Connector Horizontal holes for LEDs Mounting holes diameter 4.2mm

2

AT24C04 Memory

85

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 86

Remote-Control Antenna Positioner

Submitted by: R. Sharath Kumar Abstract Antennae, parabolic dishes, and other types of wireless signal-receiving devices are today a common essential necessity in almost every home, office, and military application. Owing to the present number of communication satellites, it is often necessary to precisely reorient an antenna to different positions. Generally, this procedure involves laborious cranking of mechanical gears while observing a calibration scale. A microcontrolled antenna-positioning device allows a user to align an antenna to the required elevation/azimuth precisely to the nearest degree by pushing a button on an infrared hand-held remote. The device consists of two modules: a controller and a hand-held infrared transmitter. The controller module based on the Z86E31 manages reception of coded commands from the hand-held remote. The Z86E31 decodes a command and drives the two motors to align the elevation/azimuth. The LCD display is updated to indicate the exact aligned position. Up to 20 positions can be preset on the system memory and recalled for alignment. Positive feedback is incorporated to ensure precision up to the nearest degree. Fault tolerance is embedded to avoid an erroneous command value from overdriving and damaging the antenna or the mast. The motion circuitry is biased-off and a beeper sounds along with the message Error: Out Of Range flashed on the LCD of each module. Encoded commands from the hand-held remote are received on the infrared receiver D1A and processed by the microcontroller. The beeper is pulsed On/Off to indicate a successful decode. The power transistors T5ÐT8 and T13ÐT16 are biased-on to drive the elevation and azimuth motors M1 and M2, respectively.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 87

Figure 55. Remote Controlled Antenna Positioner Block Diagram

LCD Module

Infra-red Receiver D1A

Z86E31 Microcontroller

Power Bridge Motor Driver

M

Azimuth Control Motor

M

Elevation Control Motor

Beeper

LM331 Voltage to Frequency Converter

LM331 Voltage to Frequency Converter

Elevation Feed Back

Azimuth Feed Back

Figure 56. Hand-Held Remote Block Diagram

LCD Module

Infra-red Transmitter D1B

Z86E02 Microcontroller

0 4

4X4 Keypad

1 5 9 P

2 6

3 7

8

CLR

C

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LCD Module

VCC RS CE 4 8 R1 4k7 11 VCC 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 1 3 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 RW VLC Infra-red receiver diode DIA VCC

VCC = 5 volts Motor Supply < 40VDC

Beeper D10 1N4148 R3

R2 4k7 POT 2N 2222A 16 10k Azimuth Motor Reverse Direction Control VCC Motor Supply +VE VCC

15 14 24 25 26 27 28 1 2 3

Z86E31

9 XTAL 7.328MHz 10 C1 20pF T5 TIP32A T4 SK100 T3 SL100 T6 TIP31A Azimuth Motor D4 D5 R5 10k M1 C2 20pF R4 10k D3 D2 1N4007 x4NOS T7 TIP32A T8 TIP31A T9 SK100

T2 SL100

R6 10k

4 5 6 7 VCC 22 12 13

R7 10k

T10 SL100

1 6 C3 0.001µF 3 R12 6k8 5 4 C4 330pF VCC R18 10k T4 SK100 T11 SL100 R13 3k3 R19 10k VCC 7 2 R11 5k R8 3k3

8

Azimuth Motor Forward Direction Control Elevation Motor Forward Direction Control Motor Supply +VE VCC

Figure 57. Remote Controlled Antenna Positioner Schematic Diagram

R9 4k7

LM331

Elevation Motor Reverse Direction Control

Coupled to R10 Azimuth Motor 10k for Feedback POT

T13 TIP32A T14 TIP31A

D7 D6 1N4007 x4NOS M1

T15 TIP32A T16 TIP31A Elevation Motor D9 D8 T17 SK100

R20 10k

1 6

8

R21 10k

T18 SL100

R14 4k7

LM331

3 7 2 5 4 R17 6k8

C5 0.001µF

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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R16 5k

Coupled to R15 Elevation Motor 10k for Feedback POT

C6 330pF

88

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 89

RF Dog Collar

Submitted by: John Kocurck Abstract Current electronic fencing relies on a wire that is buried around the perimeter of the area to be fenced. A signal is sent through the wire that activates a dog collar should a dog stray too close to the barrier. If the dog decides to chase a varmint, it triggers a beep (or shock) when it enters the area around the buried wire, and nothing more. Using the ZiLOG Z86E02 on both the transmitter and the receiver, a better system can be designed. This system addresses the weak points of the electronic fencing systems currently on the market. Each transmitter features a unique 64-bit number supplied by a Dallas Semiconductor DS-2401. That number, along with a control byte, is transmitted via a Convergent Inc. radio transmitter at approximately 2Kbps. Each transmission lasts for less than 50ms and is repeated every 250ms. The dog collar receives the packet and checks if the serial number is stored in its 128-bit serial EEPROM. If it checks out, the processor in the collar resets. If the collar does not receive a valid packet within 800ms, it enters ALARM mode and sounds the buzzer. As a result, the dog returns to the house. When the dog is back in range, the collar resets and turns off the buzzer. New transmitters can be added by bringing the collar into range and pressing the button on the transmitter. The transmitter then sends out a special control packet and serial number that the collar recognizes, and stores it into the EEPROM for future reference. This method allows the building of short-range jammers to deny certain areas and also small hand-held units for RF leashes. Because of the unique 64-bit serial number, neighbors using the same dog-control system do not extend the dogÕs range because of overlapping areas.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 90

Figure 58. RF Dog Collar Block Diagram

Z86E02

Convergent Inc. AF Transmitter

Convergent Inc. RF Transmitter

Z86E02

OS2401

+5

16 byte sent with EEPROM

SA 840IL

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 91

Signature Recognition and Authentication

Submitted by: James Doscher and Harvey Weinberg Abstract As more transactions are completed electronically, concerns about threats to data security increase. In particular, a user is required to be able to ensure that no one else can forge a signature or a password. There are new products on the market that attempt to solve this problem. For example, there are mouse devices that claim to be able to read fingerprints, and much development is occurring in the area of digital signature analysis. An alternative solution is a pen device that recognizes the unique characteristics of a signature to authenticate the user. Typical applications could be encryption, secure web transactions, receiving (signing for a UPS package), and controlled access to secure data. Existing systems, such as pen tablets, record the shape of a signature, but not necessarily the speed or emphasis (pen pressure) of the signature. By using a micromachined accelerometer to sense pen movement, an individualÕs distinctive signature motions can be recorded and compared against a stored copy. Recognition algorithms from speech processing are used to compare and correlate a personÕs signature. Prototype systems have already shown greater than 90% accuracy in recognition. At the heart of the system is a ZiLOG Z8 for recognition algorithms, and the Analog Devices ADXL202 dual-axis accelerometer. The Z8 fans the recognition algorithms, decodes the accelerometer signal, and administers power management for the accelerometer. The accelerometer measures pen movements in the X and Y-axis in the plan of the paper.

Figure 59. Signature Recognition and Authentication Module Block Diagram

ADXL202

Power Acceleration

Z86C06

Host Alarm Interface

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 92

Figure 60. Signature Recognition and Authentication Module Schematic Diagram ADXL202

Reset 120K VDD XOUT YOUT COM XFILT YFILT .1µF .1µF 4MHz +5V 47µF 47µF .47µF PWM OUTPUTS P35 P21 P20 GND

Z86C06

P22 P23 P24 Vcc Host Serial Interface

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 93

Smart Phone Accessory

Submitted by: Syed Naqvi Abstract The Smart Phone Accessory eliminates the hassle of dialing long strings of telephone numbers by employing predefined user-programmed keysets. The Z8 microcontroller offers many advantages toward this solution, by providing the required power, RAM, and ROM to perform the application. The Z8 features scalable software compatibility and a configurable I/O that offers great flexibility in the design. The Z8 is also relatively inexpensive. Caller ID offers unique usability to the party receiving the phone call. In most cases (depending on the service provider), the name and telephone number of the calling party is displayed. The receiving party can then keep a log of received calls for future use, or accept a choice of not answering the telephone call. On the other hand, most telephone companies offer the choice of an unlisted (unpublished) telephone number. However, if a person with an unlisted phone number makes a call, there is a possibility that his/her phone number will be displayed to other parties. The Caller ID feature can be disabled by dialing a predefined key sequence prior to calling. This step can be cumbersome and hard to remember on a regular basis. Another very popular and fast-growing telephone service is the 10-10 calling service. Customers can secure very competitive long distance rates by predialing 7 more digits plus the phone number. The Smart Phone Accessory automatically dials the numbers prior to each call. The Smart Phone Accessory is designed to work in series with the telephone handset. The product can use the telephone handset number pad, or it can display its own number pad. The predefined keys (for caller ID and long distance) are programmed into the product. The Smart Phone Accessory can be reprogrammed or removed from the phone line very easily, thus offering customers complete flexibility. The power for the complete circuit is derived from the telephone line.

Figure 61. Smart Phone Accessory Block Diagram

Smart Phone Accessory

PSTN

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 94

Figure 62. Smart Phone Accessory Schematic Diagram

To Handset Telephone Interface & Power Circuits

PSTN

Keyboard Interface

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

*

0 #

14 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Vcc1 PB0 PB1 PB2 PB3 PB4 RST XTAL2 XTAL1 PA0 PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 13 12 11 8 5 6 7 8 Touch Tone Generator Circuit

Z8E001

GND 15

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 95

Smart Solar Water Heating System

Submitted by: Eduardo Jose Manzini Abstract The goal of the Smart Solar Water Heating System is to control the heating of the water supply for a home. After power-up, the microcontroller checks the value in EEPROM of the target value for temperature, and turns the LED on. The microcontroller reads the boiler temperature sensor (BTS), the sun collector temperature sensor (SCTS), and turns on a corresponding LED. If the value of SCTS is higher than BTS, the water flow pump (WFP) is powered up to increase/speed the heating of the water by the sun until BTS becomes equal to SCTS. If both are lower than the target temperature, the microcontroller turns off the WFP and turns the electrical heater on and up to the required temperature. There are two control keys and five LEDs used for the required temperature. Each time a target temperature is selected, the microcontroller saves it in EEPROM. The required temperature is kept in case VAC is missing (110 ~227 failure). The other five LEDs (10 total) reflect the current temperature of the boiler.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 96

Figure 63. Smart Solar Water Heating System Block Diagram

Begin

or temperature? N

Y

Save valve target LED on. Turn off others.

Reads temperature sensor and lights the nearest LED red

*WFC pump = Water Flow Control Pump

T. boiler < T. sun collector?

T. target > T. boiler

N

Heater off VR

VR

OPTIONAL Battery System VR Vcc

Fill up pump or solenoid

Heater off

WFC pump off

Power Supply

*WFC pump on

Heater on

Vcc

Water flow control

Z86E31

VR 50¼C or 45¼C or 45¼C or Comp 1 VREF1 Vcc 40¼C or 40¼C or Temperator Boiler VREF2 Vcc Lower than 30¼C Lower than 30¼C Vss Vcc Current boiler temperature indicator Target temperature indicator Temperator Boiler Vcc Heater

35¼C or

35¼C or

EPROM

Increase the target temperature

Decrease the target temperature

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 97

Smart Window with Fuzzy Control

Submitted by: Tan Boon Lee Abstract Many homes in Southeast Asia contain sliding windows because of their lower cost. Most people open the windows when they are at home and close them during rains or when nobody is at home. The Smart Window with Fuzzy Control design features an automatic window controller using the Z8. The Z8 uses a formula implemented in fuzzy logic to control the opening of a single sliding window that is proportional to the temperature, force of wind, and intensity of rain. Port 2, pin 20 and pin 21 drive a 12-V DC motor via two relays. The motor features a current sense resistor (5R) connected to a comparator circuit to detect motor stall. The comparator circuit consists of a 100-ohm and 10-µF low-pass filter and a threshold detector implemented using LM339. The wind and rain detector features a similar circuit. Both charge a 10-µF capacitor until a certain voltage is exceeded to trigger the Z8. The trigger voltage can be adjusted via a 20-ohm variable resistor. The innovative feature of this design is the use of a single-slope ADC to read three switches and the temperature. The arrangement of the switchesÑopen, close, and autoÑpresent different voltages to P32. Different temperatures indicate different voltage outputs from the LM358 operational amplifier. The Z8 reads the temperature or the switch using the 74HC4006 analog switch. The single-slope ADC yields consistent readings. A timer measures the charging of the capacitor (pin 33). When pin 33 reaches the input voltage of either the switch or the temperature, an interrupt is issued. The timer values are inversely proportional to the input voltage, because the timer is a downcounter. The range of the timer can be divided into 50 divisions very accurately but only 5 are required for 10¼C above the minimum set by the 20-ohm variable resistor. Upon power-on reset, the Z8 reads the switches to check for AUTO mode. In AUTO mode, the position of the window away from the closed position is based on a weighted average of the temperature and wind. When rainy weather begins, the window shuts to a closed position. Manual positioning is possible in MANUAL mode. An LED indicates AUTO mode, and a buzzer sounds should the motor stall or the window is open during a rain.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 98

Figure 64. Smart Window with Fuzzy Control

Reflective strips for position sensor DC motor and gears Threaded Rails

Rain sensor

Limit switch Closed position The resistivity decreases when water ÔconnectsÕ the interdigit of the sensor.

Hidden Z8 board Switch box and LED

Smart Window with Fuzzy Control

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12V

1k

100R

12V Relay

Rain detector LED 12 DC Motor and Gears 1/4 LM339 1M On/Off For/Rev Motor Stall 5R 1k Open Vcc Rain Wind Position Sensor Closed Position Motor Stall 10k P24 P25 P26 P27 P23 P22 P21 P20 +

20k VR Buzzer

Vcc

10µF

1/4 LM339 Switch/Temp

ULN2003

Wind detector

20k VR

74HC 4066

10µF

1M

10k

Vcc XT1 Temp 10k VR 22pF 22pF P32: Switch/Temp 1/4 4066 XT2

Figure 65. Smart Window with Fuzzy Control Schematic Diagram

20k VR 10k +

10k

33k

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

+

Single-Slope ADC ADC discharge

-

10µF

+

-

Motor Stall 10k

2k2

P31 P32 P33 P02 ADC P01 Switches P00 Temp Vcc

+

3k9

Close Auto/ Manual

Z86E04

Switches

ADC discharge

1k8

3k9 Vcc 30k VR 10k 10k 20k VR

100k 0.1µF

-

+

t¼ 6.8K thermistor

10k 6k8 6k8

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99

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 100

Solar Tracker

Submitted by: David Ellis Abstract To achieve maximum efficiency from a solar device, the greatest possible amount of solar radiation must be collected. With a fixed angle, only a small portion of the available energy can be collected. The purpose of the solar tracker is to lock on to the location of the sun and to continually position the device to follow the path of the sun. The addition of a solar tracking device produces a smaller, more efficient photovoltaic system, allowing it to collect the greatest amount of energy over a longer period of time. The solar tracker uses four CdS (Cadmium Sulfide 0 photoconductive) cells, wired in series and mounted on opposite sides of a vertical blind. When these cells are pointed directly at a light source, typically the sun, they exhibit approximately the same resistance. The output of the amplifier is half the supply voltage. This voltage is converted by the Z8 microcontroller into digital data, and set equal to 128, or half of an 8-bit conversion. By comparing this digital value to 128, the direction of the light source can be determined. If the value is larger than 128, move the tracker to the left. If lower than 128, move the tracker to the right. Using two sensor setups allows the unit to control two axes and position itself directly at the brightest light source. At the same time, using relays or MOSFETs to drive a larger unit, the solar tracker can keep one or more devices pointing at the brightest source. U1A provides a virtual Ground. U1B and U1C provide a buffer for the sensors. R5 and R6 form the primary sensor. RV2 allows for adjustments for difference in the CdS cells. RV1 allows for adjustments to the overall gain of the amplifier, forming the X position sensor. R9, R10, RV3, and RV4 form the Y position sensor. The outputs of the sensors are fed to a 2-to-1 analog multiplexer made from a dualswitch ADG273 device. The output is fed to the comparator input of the Z8E001, which is set up as an A/D converter. Connectors P1 and P2 provide the control signals for the positioning motors, and are connected to a set of relays or H-bridge drivers.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 101

Figure 66. Solar Tracker Block Diagram

X Position Sensor

X Motor Drive

Processor

Y Position Sensor

Y Motor Drive

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1 +5V XÐPOSITION SENSOR 1 1 R14 100K 2 1 100K 1 L1 47uH 2 R13 2 D1 S1D 1 Ð 3 2 + 1 R3 2 TL084 (4=+5VA, 11=GND) 1 100K 2 RV1 3 2 100K R6 CdS U1B PROCESSOR CIRCUIT 1 2 R7 15K RV2 3 100K +5V R5 CdS

1

CENTER VOLTAGE REFERENCE

1

+ +

2 2 2

C2 10µF

1 1 R4 10K 1

2 2

R4 10K

+

C3 10µF

1 2

1

U1A

2 1

C1 100µF

Ð

3

1

2

Figure 67. Solar Tracker Schematic Diagram

2

R4 10K

+

TL084 (4=+5VA, 11=GND)

1 2 1 2 1 Ð 3 SW1 ADG723 + 2 7x7 mm 1 1 100K R10 CdS 1 100K 2 YÐPOSITION SENSOR RV3 3 GND TL084 (4++5VA, 11=GND) GND 2 2 GND R12 10K 1 R8 2 2 U1C 1K 1 1

C5 1µF C4 0.1µF

1 R11 15K U2 RV4 3 100K 8 7 6 5 1 R15 2 R9 CdS 1 S1 IN1 2 D1 D2 3 IN2 S2 4 VDD GND

1 2

C7 47pF

1 2

C6 47pF

+5V

+9V

C8 1 2

C9 1 2

18 1 PB1 PB0 17 2 PB2 XTAL1 16 3 PB3 XTAL2 15 4 PB4 VSS 14 5 RESET* VCC 13 6 PA7 PA0 12 7 PA8 PA1 11 8 PA5 PA2 10 9 PA4 PA3

1µF

100µF

+

Z8E001

2

3

2

1

C10 1 2

+Vout

GND

VR2 78ST105H

+Vin

0.01µF

P1

P2

+

GND

1 2

1 2

+

GND

POWER SUPPLY

Ð

TB3POS Y Motor

3

3

Ð

TB3POS X Motor

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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102

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 103

Speedometer

Submitted by: Mylnikov Pavel Abstract This speedometer design is intended for measuring the speed of a walking pedestrian. It can be worn on a waist-belt. The design uses a Z86C06 microcontroller because of its small size (18 pins) and speed (12MHz). The speedometer measures the difference in travel time of an ultrasonic signal from the speedometer to the ground and back. The signal consists of two short impulses with a short interval. When turning on the speedometer, the user must remain motionless for a few seconds so that the speedometer can define its height over ground. The height is defined using the following formula:

h = t x V ÷ 2

where:

h = height t = passage time of impulse v = velocity of sound in air (331 ms)

The speedometer is ready after the height is defined and the indicator light illuminates. During movement, the height changes are fixed automatically. The speedometer indicates horizontal speed only. Vertical movement can be approximated by linear functions. The speedometer indicates average speed over a period of a few seconds. The speedometer can indicate an individualÕs speed and travel distance. Indication of speed or length is switched using a button. A reset button clears the displayed travel distance.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 104

Figure 68. Speedometer Flow Diagram

Begin

A

Initialization

Save TC1 into Memory

Clear Way Length Counter (WLC)

Increase TC2 and TC3

B

No Clear Time Counters (TC1, TC2 and TC3) P31 = 1?

Yes Save TC2 and TC3 into Memory

Send First Impulse

Delay a Few Microseconds

Calculate new way Length and Velocity

Send Second Impulse

Add WLC with new way Length

Indicate or Send Results Yes P31 = 1?

A B

No

Increase TC1 and TC2

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 105

Figure 69. Speedometer Block Diagram Z86C06

1 XTAL1 P34 2

12MHz XTAL2 P31

3

4

5 Spd/len P25

P2

Unit

P26 Vcc 1,3 = Amplifier 2 = Ultrasonic Speaker 4 = Microphone 5 = Indicator

Reset

P27

Vcc

VCC

P33

R>10 k½

GND

Vcc

+

3V

-

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 106

Stages Baby Monitor

Submitted by: Joe Peck Abstract There are a wealth of baby monitors on the market today, all with one purpose in mind: to alert the parents of the slightest noise, regardless of the necessity of doing so. The Stages baby monitor empowers the parents to balance between parentsÕ necessity to hear their babyÕs every move and their necessity to get a good nightÕs sleep. The monitor can act as a traditional baby monitor, and broadcasts every little noise. Typically, parents only want to respond if the baby is awake or requires help, not if it rolls over and bumps a toy. The Stages monitor can be set to turn on for a fixed period of time if there is a particularly loud noise, or if a medium volume is sustained for a longer period. The sensitivity can be set by the parents to match their particular comfort level and environment. The monitor can also be set to help soothe the baby prior to actually turning the transmitter on. The monitor, upon detecting noise, can be set to play a short recording made by the parents if the noise exceeds the set level. If the noise continues or becomes significantly louder, the playback is stopped and the transmitter is turned on. A ZiLOG Z86E83 Z8 OTP is the core of the Stages baby monitor. Circuit Overview

¥ ¥ ¥

The On/Off Switch connects the 5-volt external power supply to the monitor. The mode switch is connected to digital input lines on the Z8. These lines are periodically sampled to set the operating mode appropriately. The Record switch is connected to another digital input. Holding the Record button causes the Z8 to record the audio from the microphone and write it to Flash memory. The sensitivity setting is controlled by a linear potentiometer and is connected to an ADC channel. The playback volume is controlled by a linear potentiometer and is connected to another ADC channel. The microphone is connected through a basic audio amplifier to another ADC channel. The Z8 uses this data differently depending upon the mode of operation. There are many transmitter circuits to choose from, depending upon required performance levels. This product uses a general transmitter black box.

¥ ¥ ¥

¥

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 107

¥ ¥

An audio amplifier connected to a PWM output drives the speaker. The PWM output is RC-filtered to create he audio output signal. The flash ROM uses a latched address scheme to reduce the number of pins required from the Z8.

Figure 70. Stages Baby Monitor Block Diagram

Power

On Stage

Off

1

2

3

Wireless Transmitter

Record

Playback Volume

Audio Amp

Z86E83

Low Sensitivity High

PWM Speaker

Low

High Audio Amp

Microphone

Flash Memory

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+5V

Z86E83

+5V Vcc AVcc Gnd AGnd +5V PWM Reset XTAL1 +5V XTAL2 P36 P26 Wireless Transmitter P27

Power Jack

Figure 71. Stages Baby Monitor Schematic Diagram

AC0 AC1 +5V AC2 P23 P35

P34

RD WR 7

Flash

+5V

Data . . Mode P31 P32 P25 Record P33 . P24 0 Dual 8-bit latch P00 Mode . . P06 0 15 . Address

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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Note: Minor components (bypass caps, etc.) are omitted from this schematic.

108

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 109

Sun Tracking to Optimize Solar Power Generation

Submitted by: Willy Tjanaka Abstract To gain optimal efficiency, and hence maximum solar power generation, solar cells must be positioned directly toward the sun. This project, incorporating a ZiLOG Z8E001 processor, offers a solution for tracking the location of the sun and moving the solar cell panel correspondingly. The solar panel attaches to a mechanical fixture that allows the solar panel to rotate vertically and horizontally. The 13 photosensors are arranged with equal spacing on top of a hemispherically-shaped housing. Each sensor is equipped with an optical filter to prevent the sensor from signal saturation. An A/D converter with a multiplexer samples the sensor signal and sends it to the Z8E001. The Z8E001 controls the vertical and horizontal rotational movement of the solar cell panel using the DC motors. Vertical and horizontal absolute encoders provide location feedback to the Z8. The Z8E00110PSC is the controller chosen for this application. The PWM output on port PB1 provides a control signal for the motors (M1 and M2). Because only one PWM output is available, glue logic is required to control M1 and M2 one at a time. A Low on PB0 selects the horizontal motor (M2). A High on PB0 selects the vertical motor (M1). B1 is an H-bridge-style motor driver that translates the PWM signal and direction signal to drive a DC motor. M1 and M2 are the DC motors used to rotate the solar cell panel vertically and horizontally, respectively. B2 and B3 are absolute position encoders to track the position of the solar panel. The outputs of B2 and B3 are connected to the controller through serial interfaces (ENC_CLK, ENC_HDATA, and ENC_VDATA). B5 controls the 13 photosensors arranged on a hemispherical housing. Optical filters are used to reduce the light intensity from the sun and prevent the sensors from saturating. The signal from each sensor is sampled sequentially by the A/D converter (B4). The ADC_SEL0 to ADC_SEL3 signals determine which A/D converter channel to sample. Data is transferred to the controller through a serial interface (ADC_CLK and ADC_DATA). The program scans the signals of all the photosensors (B5) using the A/D converter (B4). By knowing the location of each photosensor and comparing all the intensity values to each other, the program determines the location of the sun. The program computes the horizontal and vertical rotations required to move the solar panel. Next, the program selects the horizontal motor (M2) and generates the PWM signal to move the solar panel with the signal from B3 as feedback. Similarly, the solar panel is rotated vertically by driving the vertical motor (M1) and using B2 as position feedback.

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 110

Figure 72. Sun Tracking Block Diagram

Vertical Rotation DC Motor Absolute Position Encoder

Solar Cells

SUN

Horizontal Rotation DC Motor

Absolute Position Encoder

Motor Drivers

A/D Converter 13 Photosensors with Optical Filters arranged on a Hemispherical Housing

Z8E001

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+5V

2 1 5 4 6 + A B2 Absolute Encoder 1 Data Clock 2 U2C 74HCT02 10 13 9 M2 DC Motor + A 1 Data Clock 2 B3 Absolute Encoder Horizontal Rotation Motor and Position Encoder 12 3 M1 DC Motor

U2A 74HCT02 U2B 74HCT02 B1 H-Bridge Motor Driver

Vertical Rotation Motor and Position Encoder

+5V

C1 0.1µF

R2 1k 8 5 11 RST

R1 100k U2D 74HCT02

D1 1N4148

U1 Z8E00110PSC DIP-18 14 18 VCC PB0 1 PB1 2 PB2 15 3 VSS PB3 4 PB4 PWM SELECT PWM SIGNAL PWM VDIR PWM HDIR ENC CLK 1 V DIR 2 V PWM 3 H DIR 4 H PWM 8 VM+ 7 VMÐ 6 HM+ 5 HMÐ

+ C2

S1 SW PB

1µF

10MHz Y1 C4 15pF

PA0 PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 16 XTAL2 PA5 PA6 17 XTAL1 PA7

13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6

ENC HDATA ENC VDATA ADC DATA ADC CLK ADC SEL0 ADC SEL1 ADC SEL2 ADC SEL3

Figure 73. Sun Tracking Schematic Diagram

C3 15pF

P1 Power Conn

+5V

+5V

VCC

1

+ C5

C1 0.1µF 14 15 16 DOUT CLK

10µF

2

AIN1

1

1

SEL0 17 SEL1 18 SEL2 19 SEL3

2 AIN2 3 AIN3 4 AIN4 5 AIN5 6 AIN6 7 AIN7 8 AIN8 9 AIN9 10 AIN10 11 AIN11 12 AIN12 13 AIN13 B4 13 Channel A/D Converter

PS1 2 PS2 3 PS3 4 PS4 5 PS5 6 PS6 7 PS7 8 PS8 9 PS9 10 PS10 11 PS11 12 PS12 13 PS13 B5 13 Photosensors on a Hemisphere

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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Photo Sensors and an A/D Converter with an Input Multiplexer

111

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 112

Tandy Light Control

Submitted by: Jerry Heep Abstract The Tandy Corporate headquarters building is a two-tower complex located in downtown Fort Worth, Texas. There are over 1800 lamp sockets on the east and west tower shear walls. Designed to accomodate 40-watt lamps, the sockets are arranged in an array that is six across at the upper levels and pyramid down to 14 across at the third-floor level. A strip of lamps, six wide, is used to display public service messages, for example: United Way, Stock-Show, May Fest, and Think Best. Prior to 1998, adding or removing the light bulbs from the sockets created these messages. Due to the height above street level, window washers from a local company were hired to build messages. A better system was developed using Z8 OTPs. This system allows the building engineer to control these Tandy Center lights by computer. The system consists of a master computer, two custom light computers, and 420 lamp controller boards. Each controller board contains a Z86E08 OTP, and can control up to five lamps. Twelve boards are used on each floor of both towers. The master computer, a conventional PC, is located in the Tandy Center engineering office. This computer runs a Visual Basic program to allow message creation, editing, and downloading. The message is formed by using a predefined library of letters, or by clicking individual lamps on and off. Once the message design is complete, it is compiled and downloaded to the two light computers, which are located on the tenth floor of each tower. The download is accomplished with standard 1200 baud RS-232, using a very simple packet protocol. There is no hardware handshaking. There are slightly more than 50 branch circuits feeding the lamps in each tower. Each branch may contain 18 to 30 lamps. The light computer takes the lamp data downloaded from the master computer and converts it into lamp locations. The light computer signals individual lamp controllers using the AC power source as a medium. The controllers can display simple messages or can be programmed to display up to eight screens that are separated by up to 255 seconds of display time per screen. The Z8 knows 16 light commands.

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100 Feet Dual, Shielded Twisted Pair 1200 Baud, RS-232 Com1 Located in Building Engineer's Office Phase A Reference Phase A Reference Tower 2 Light Computer Com2

Master Computer 1100 Feet, Dual Shielded Twisted Pair 1200 Baud, RS-232

Tower 1 Light Computer

TANDY TOWER 1

Fifty Circuit Breakers Existing Wire Fifty-Four Solid-State Relays Three Phase Power Existing Wire Fifty-Four Circuit Breakers

Figure 74. Tandy Light Control Block Diagram

TANDY TOWER 2

Fifty Solid-State Relays

Existing Wire 19th Floor 30 Lamps Six Z8 Light Controllers Six Z8 Light Controllers Six Z8 Light Controllers Six Z8 Light Controllers

Existing Wire

Existing Wire 20th Floor 30 Lamps

Existing Wire

Six Z8 Light Controllers

19th Floor 30 Lamps

Six Z8 Light Controllers 18th Floor 18 Lamps EAST WALL WEST WALL 17th Floor 18 Lamps

18th Floor 18 Lamps

Six Z8 Light Controllers Six Z8 Light Controllers

18th Floor 18 Lamps

WEST WALL

Six Z8 Light Controllers

17th Floor 18 Lamps

17th Floor 18 Lamps

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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5th Floor 24 Lamps

Six Z8 Light Controllers

4th Floor 24 Lamps

Six Z8 Light Controllers

Six Z8 Light Controllers

3rd Floor 24 Lamps

EAST WALL

Same as West Wall

113

U1 LM78M05 POWER IN GND OUT 5.1k 2W R4 DATACLOCK R8 51k D6 1N5230 4.7V C4 .01 C3 .1 U3 5 VCC 5 VOLTS R9 100k R1 51k POWER R2 51k D3 1N750 4.7V DATACLOCK R10 100k R11 100k 51k D1 1N4740 10V + C1 1000 16 2 C2 .1 R3 10 VOLTS 1 3

HIDATANOT D4 1N4002

WHITE POWER C5 1000 16 DATANOT D5 + 1N4732 4.7V BLACK RELAYDRIVEPIN3 RELAYDRIVEPIN4 BLACK LAMPPWRPIN6 LAMPPWRPIN5 LAMPPWRPIN4 RELAYDRIVEPIN5 RELAYDRIVEPIN2 RELAYPWR

BLACK

760 25W Heatsink R6

4 3 2 1 18 17 16 15 P27 P26 P25 P24 P23 P22 P21 P20 8 P31 9 P32 10 P33 11 P00 12 P01 13 P02 GND XTAL1

Figure 75. Tandy Light Control Schematic Diagram

Z86E0812PSC

WHITE

R5

14

7 Y1 3.579545MHz C7 30P

LAMPPWRPIN3

RELAYDRIVEPIN6

LAMPPWRPIN2 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 BLACK RELAYPWR 3 3 1 BLACK RELAYPWR 4 4 4 3 1 2 4 3

XTAL2 6 C6 30P 4 R14 R13 2 R12 1 Cut resistors to code board

Heatsink 1.5K 10W

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1

2

114

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 115

Temperature Measuring Device

Submitted by: Hong Yu Qing Abstract The purpose of this Z8-based system is to measure temperature in a simple and precise way. A 9-volt battery powers the temperature-measuring device, eliminating the use of complex wiring. The Z8 features two analog comparators that measure absolute temperature. An IrDA encoder sends the measured value through an infrared LED. A notebook computer with an IrDA interface receives the IrDA serial-infrared data. The AD590 temperature sensors IC1 and IC2 generate a constant current that is proportional to absolute temperature. R1 and R2 determine the reference voltage VREF. The VREF is connected to the comparatorÕs inverting input (P3.3). Lines P2.5 and P2.6 are configured as outputs. In the beginning of every cycle, capacitor C1 is discharged through D1 by setting P2.5 to Low. When the Z86E04 timer turns on, P2.5 is set to High. C1 is charged with constant current. The constant current is produced by the IC1 temperature sensor and is proportional to the absolute temperature until the voltage reaches VREF. As the comparator interrupt takes place, the timer stops and P2.5 is set to Low and C1 starts discharging. The absolute temperature (t) equation is: T = C x VREF ÷ T where T is the time C1 takes to charge. The measured temperatures are encoded using a software IrDA encoder, according to Infrared Data Associated protocols. The encoded measured temperatures are sent via infrared LEDs D3 and D4. S1 and S2 select the communicating baud rate. The data sending cycle is selected by S3 and S4.

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Figure 76. Temperature Measuring Device Block Diagram

Temperature Sensor (I)

Z86E04 (1 KB 0TP)

Infrared LED

IRDA Encode Signal

Temperature Sensor (II)

Baud Rate Selector

Reference Voltage

Frequency Selector

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IC3 3

78L05

2 R3 104 D3 D4 9V BATTERY

1

470µ/10V

IC1 R2 P2.5 P2.6 D1 P3.1 R4 PA2.7 T S1 S2 S3 S4 P3.2 VREF P3.3 12M R1 XTAL1 GND 27Px2 PA2.3 PA2.2 XTAL2 PA2.1 PA2.0 D2 VCC

IC2

104

AD590 x2

C1

C2

Figure 77. Temperature Measuring Device Schematic Diagram

Z86E04

S1 OFF ON OFF ON ON 4800 ON 2400 OFF ON OFF 1200 ON OFF 600 OFF OFF OFF ON ON

S2

BAUD RATE

S3

S4

FREQUENCY 2 SECOND 1 SECOND 1/2 SECOND 1/4 SECOND

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117

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 118

Transmission Trainer

Submitted by: Robert Ashby Abstract The Transmission Trainer enables CDL (Commercial DriverÕs License) students to learn to shift the gears of large trucks in a classroom setting prior to actual highway experience driving a truck, where inexperience may potentially be hazardous on public roads. The Transmission Trainer consists of mock-up clutch, brake, and accelerator pedals. Mounted to the clutch is a momentary switch that closes when the clutch is activated. The brake and accelerator pedals include mounted potentiometers that reflect the position of the pedal. A transmission tower set next to the driver includes momentary switches that close as the user attempts to shift into any one of the six positions of the transmission. The tower also includes solenoids that, when activated, prevent the gear shift from going into position. A small motor with an offset weight attached to the gear shift provides the realistic vibration when shifting gears. A set of displays provides feedback of RPM, speed, incline of the road, and weight of the vehicle. The instructor can use a set of provided buttons to adjust the weight or incline while the driver experiences different situations and different responses of the vehicle to different situations. Reading of the accelerator and brake is accomplished using the time to charge a capacitor method of A/D conversion. A small speaker or piezoelectric buzzer provides the changing engine noise (using TOUT mode). The ZiLOG chip can easily figure the mathematics to provide the driver with a realistic situation in shifting that can take years to perfect in the real world of the highway. Factors that are taken into account are incline, weight of vehicle, road speed, and position of the accelerator pedal. The gears must be closely matched in order to complete the shift. The feedback of motor sound, RPM and speed gauges, and the vibration on the gear shift allows students to learn shifting techniques in a variety of situations without spending large amounts of time and money with an actual vehicle. It is ideal to be able to demonstrate this method in a classroom situation, which could save the driver and teaching institution thousands of dollars in time and money and prevent repairs on vehicles.

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CONSOLE ASSEMBLY Chair

Console Assembly

RPM Hi-Lo Switch INCLINE WEIGHT

MPH

Incline Up

Incline Down

Weight Up

Weight Down

Figure 78. Transmission Trainer Block Diagram

Pedal Assembly Transmission Tower

Sensing switched Accelerator Solenoids (extended)

Clutch

Brake

Clutch Switch

Slide Potentiometer

Slide Potentiometer

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119

SVDC

SVDC

RS1

1 C

SENSE0 SENSE1 SENSE2 SENSE3 SENSE4 SENSE5 HI/LO_SENSE CLUTCH WEIGHT_DOWN WEIGHT_UP INCLINE_DOWN INCLINE_UP

SVDC

RS2

1 C

R5 100k

D1 1N4148

R1

RESET

1k

SW1

C1 0.1µF

R R R R R R R R R

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R R R R R R R R R

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SW-CONTACT-.40 16MHZ

10K U1 Z86E40

SVDC

10K

15 XTAL1

3 SENSE0 SENSE1 CAP_DISCHARGE 1k 1k ACCELÐWIPER CAP_DISCHARGE SENSE2 SENSE3 SENSE4 SENSE5 HI/LO_SENSE CLUTCH 3 SOLENOID0 R10 CAP_DISCHARGE 1k 2 SOLENOID1 SOLENOID2 SOLENOID3 SOLENOID4 SOLENOID5 SVDC 3 CAP_CALIBRATE CAP_DISCHARGE INCLINE_DOWN WEIGHT_UP WEIGHT_DOWN ACCEL_READ BRAKE_READ SCL SDA SVDC 3 R7 ACCEL_READ SVDC R6 1k PB1 3 R4 2 1k PIEZO BUZZER R8 BRAKE_READ 1k 2 SVDC 3 1k 2 ACCELERATOR C2 1µF ACCEL_WIPER SPEAKER VIBRATOR CAP_CALIBRATE 2 1k R13 2 R15 CAP_DISCHARGE 1k ACCELÐWIPER 2 SVDC R9 2 R14 2 3

VCC

11

SVDC

ACCELERATOR

14 XTAL2

X1

1 RD/WR ZAS ZDS RESET 20 40 21 6 P05 7 P06 10 P07

P00 P01 P02 P03 P04

26 27 30 34 5

Q4 2N4401 1

Q8 2N4401 1

BRAKE 3

RESET

Figure 79. Transmission Trainer Schematic Diagram

SVDC

Q5 2N4401 1

Q9 2N4401 1

25

BRAKE ACCELERATOR

R2 5.63k 1%

P30 16 P31 17 P31 18 P33 19 22

CAP_CALIBRATE

28 P10 29 P11 32 P12 33 P13 8 P14 9 P15 12 P16 13 P17 P20

INCLINE_UP

SVDC 3

R3 10k 1%

P34

35

R11

P35 24 P36 23 P37 P25 31 GND

Q6 2N4401 1

CCW R12 10k CW

1k

Q7 2N4401 1

CCW BRAKE_WIPER R16 10k CW BRAKE C3 1µF

36 P21 37 P22 38 P23 39 P24 2 3 P26 4 P27

Q2 2N4401 1

ACCELÐWIPER

SPEAKER

Q1 2N4401 1

Q3 2N4401 1

BRAKEÐWIPER

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 121

UFO Flight Regulation System

Submitted by: Martin Gundel Abstract The heart of the UFO Flight Regulation System is a ZiLOG Z86E08 microcontroller. Because the receiver of this radio-control system is sensitive to electromagnetic interference, the Z8 operates in low-EMI mode with a clock frequency of 4MHz. The versatile interrupt capability of the Z8 makes it possible to measure the pulse width of the sensor and generate 4 PWM output signals to drive the motors. For sensing the inclination of an aircraft, a two-axis acceleration-sensor, the Analog Devices ADXL202, is employed. The output is a PWM signal with a pulse width between 2.5 to 7.5ms and a frequency of about 100Hz; making it possible for the UFO to accelerate at a rate of ±2g. If the sensor is at plane level, the output pulse is about 5ms long. An acceleration of 1g is equal to a pulse variation of 1.25ms. This variation corresponds to an inclination of 90 degrees. To measure an inclination of one degree, there must be a resolution of 13 microseconds or better. Timer 0 is clocked by 1 MHz, to achieve a better resolution. Two radio control channels move the UFO in the X and Y directions. Another channel determines the average speed of the motors for take-off and landing. The signals of the RC unit are also pulses, with a pulse width between 1 and 2 milliseconds. The necessary resolution to obtain a good regulation is 6 bits. The four motors are driven by four PWM output stages. The Z8 microcontroller software calculates the necessary impulse width for the motors to keep the UFO on a plane level. Depending on the RC signals, the motor speed is changed slightly to move the aircraft. The output PWM signals are generated under the control of Timer 1. A soft start for the motors is absolutely necessary. The PWM signal of the motors attains the same frequency, but are slightly shifted, to prevent high current peaks.

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Figure 80. UFO Flight Regulation System Block Diagram

2-Axis Acceleration Sensor

Radio Control Receiver

X

Y

CH1 CHAN1

CH2 CHAN2 CHAN3

CH3 IRQ2

Glue - Logic

XY SEL_XY

Lo Batt

LOBAT

P3.2

P2.7

P0.0

P0.1

P0.2

P3.1

P2.5

Push Button

P3.3

Z86E08 Microcontroller

P2.4 P2.6 P2.0 P2.1 P2.2 P2.3

LED Buzzer

Motor-Driver Stages

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CHAN1 1 3 1N4148 13

CR1 4MHz

RC-Channel DIR X D1 12 IC1A 4030 11 IRQ2 XTAL1

7

R1 2

C1 1nF

IC1A 4030

JP1 1 2 VCC CHAN2 XTAL2

C6 22pF C7 22pF 6

47K

MOT 1 MOT 2 MOT 3 MOT 4 BUZZER LOBAT LED SEL XY 15 16 17 18 1 2 3 4

P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26 P27

RC-Channel DIR Y 5 6 1N4148

CHAN1 CHAN2 CHAN3 11 P00 12 P01 13

R2 P33

C1 1nF

IC1B 4030 4

D2

IRQ2 XY B IN 8 P31 9 P32 10

JP2 1 2

47K

CHAN3 P02 8 9 1N4148

3 C1 1nF

RC-Channel SPEED IC1C 4030 10 VCC R4 47K

C8 100nF C9 22µF/10V 2

D3

Z86C08 IC4 LM78L05

VO VI GND

C10 220µF/16V 1

R3

JP3 1 2

47K

UBAT GND

C11 100nF

JP4 1 2

VCC 2 3 IC2A 4011 1 MOT 1 2 3 5 4 12 11 MOT 2 2 XY 1 3 13 8 10 SW1 B IN BZ1 VCC BUZZER VCC LED1 RED

C9 22µF/10V

IC5

SEL XY 1 Q2 IRF540

10

D4 BYTO8 MOTOR1 JP5 1 2 D5 Q3 IRF540 BYTO8

Figure 81. UFO Flight Regulation System Schematic Diagram

14 13 3 2 1 6 8 7 4

VDD XOUT 9 VDD YOUT ST VTP NC 11 NC Y_FILT 12 NC X_FILT COM 5 COM T2 6

C4 47nF C5 47nF

IC2B 4011 IC2D 4011

ADXL202

9 IC2C 4011

R5 1M2 SW Pushbutton B IN

MOTOR2 JP6 1 2 1 D6

MOT 3

2

UBAT

3

Q4 IRF540 BYTO8

MOTOR3 JP7 1 2 1 LOBAT MOT 4 LED 2 3 D7 Q5 IRF540 BYTO8

R6 1K

R7 10K

Q1 BC238

R8 470R

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

MOTOR4 JP8 1 2

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123

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 124

Vehicle Anti-Theft Module

Submitted by: James Doscher and Harvey Weinberg Abstract Traditional car alarms protect a vehicle from theft when a door is opened, a window is broken, or the ignition is disabled. These alarms cannot protect from being towed by a tow or flatbed truck, or the wheels from being stolen. These challenges can be solved by adding a tilt-sensing module to the alarm system. The tilt sensor must be able to resolve very small changes in the inclination of the car. It is possible to free the wheels of a sports car by lifting one end of the car as little as 1.5 degrees. The module must be intelligent enough to reject minor long-term changes in tilt due to settling suspension, melting snow, and (relatively) large short-term movement due to wind or passing trucks. The Z86C06 provides the system intelligence, while the tilt sensor is the ADXL202 dual-axis accelerometer from Analog Devices. Conventional liquid tilt sensors are inconvenient to use because of their fragility. In addition, the high resolution required in this application would necessitate a high-accuracy A/D converter (12bit or better) if using a liquid tilt sensor. The ADXL202 outputs a 14-bit accurate PWM signal that is proportional to the inclination. The PWM signal is read by the Z86C06 by using both timers simultaneously. One timer is used with the 6-bit prescaler, while the other timer counts at full speed. The concatenation of the two timers results in a 14-bit timer range. A software temperature-compensation method must be considered, because the tilt sensor grows in temperature sensitivity such that changes in temperature may appear to be changes in inclination. An intelligent algorithm can sample one set of tilt samples measured every half-second, and compare the result to the previous set of samples. If the rate of change of tilt (da/dt) does not fall within a specified window (for example, 0.0125 to 0.3 degrees per second), no alarm signal is issued. Because the temperature does not change significantly in 0.5 seconds, temperature drift is ignored. The windowing function also rejects false alarms due to minor long-term and large short-term tilt changes. Low power consumption (1mA average current) is required, because the alarm runs while the car is off. Because sampling only occurs twice per second, the Z86C06 is in STOP mode most of the time to conserve power. To reduce the power consumption even further, the Z86C06 cycles power to the ADXL202, turning it off between sample periods. Communication to the main alarm module occurs via the Z86C06 SPI interface.

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Figure 82. Vehicle Anti-Theft Module Block Diagram ADXL202

POWER ACCELERATION SPI ALARM INTERFACE

Z86C06

Figure 83. Vehicle Anti-Theft Module Schematic Diagram ADXL202

Rset 120K Vdd Xout Yout COM Xfilt Yfilt .47µF .47µF P35 P21 P20 GND P34 4MHz +5V 47µF 47µF .47µF

Z86C06

P22 P23 P24 Vcc SPI Serial Interface

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Windmill Commander

Submitted by: Nathan Novosel Abstract Using the Z8 OTP microcontroller to serve as a windmill commander to heat water to a comfortable temperature can extend the swimming season of many home pools. The Z8 microcontroller harnesses the maximum wind energy by controlling the windmill blade pitch and the alternator output current. The resistive load for heating can receive a wide range of electric current without constraint on frequency, voltage, or current levels. As a result, the load is the ideal type for a variable-speed alternator, driven by the wind. The Z8 microcontroller, the heart of the windmill commander, responds to control inputs, monitors system status, and controls the output power by both alternator control and windmill blade pitch control. Additionally, a battery charger function is included in the Z8 program to maintain battery power for periods of decreased wind activity. The Z8 microcontroller determines the speed of the alternator, and the output power by measuring the voltage across the load resistors. Using the flash A/D converter in the Z86E83, the instantaneous voltage drops across the load resistors can be measured. The output power can be determined by averaging over several AC cycles. The temperature is measured by utilizing two analog channels that receive a differential voltage from a thermistor in the pool water. The flash converter allows accurate differential measurements, because the high speed of the flash converter can minimize sampling time between channels. The required output temperature is set by push-button control, with one button serving to increment and the other to decrement the target temperature. A twodigit LED display shows the temperature setting for five seconds following pushbutton entry, and then returns to power-off state. The Z8 microcontroller is programmed to determine the state of the system, based on the alternator speed and output power. Using coefficients for the particular windmill hardware that are programmed into the OTP memory, the windmill commander can determine how to adapt to the particular conditions at any given moment. The commander controls the state of the system by varying the field current to the alternator by using pulse-width modulation (PWM) and a power MOS transistor. The field current directly controls the output current of the alternator that causes the mechanical load to the windmill to change proportionally. The windmill commander can adjust the blade pitch to adapt to both the load and the wind conditions as determined by the propeller speed (derived from the alternator frequency). The position of the blade pitch is determined by a potentiometer

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located in the drive actuator configured as a resistor divider to provide an analog voltage that corresponds to the pitch position. The power supply utilizes a 12-volt battery, and a battery charger function is built into the Z8 program to maintain battery voltage. The battery voltage is divided and measured by another channel of the Z8 A/D converter, and the microcontroller triggers an SCR to supply current to the battery via a ballast resistor.

Figure 84. Windmill Commander Block Diagram

Actuator Position Sensor Pitch Control Actuator

Propeller

Bidirectional Power Bridge Alternator

3-Phase Rectifier voltage & frequency measure Power Resistors PWM position measure Temperature Sensor temperature measure Z86E83 PWM

PWM Field Control

Battery Charger

battery voltage Battery POOL

Temperature Setpoint Display

Temperature Setpoint Input

Voltage Regulator

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X1 DC pitch control actuator Alternator

X2

Shaft position sensor

VCC 2.7K 2.7K

Propeller

M3

M4

20 9.1K

Z86C83

1µF 1K VCC X3 Z1 AC1 AC2 AC3 AC0 AVCC AGND

SCR1

D1 910

D2

D3

Heating elements

+

M2

Thermistor 25K 4.33 MHz 2.7K 2.7K 1µF 1µF

Ð

Figure 85. Windmill Commander Schematic Diagram

POOL

AC4 AC5 AC6 AC7 RESET XTAL1 XTAL2 M1

P06 P05 P04 P03 P02 P01 P00

VCC

VCC 22pF 22pF 1K 910 1µF

GND VCC P31 P32

P35 P36 P34 P33

1µF

2.7K 9.1K

2.7K Temperature adjust

7805

VCC 1µF 1µF A B C D LT BL LE a b c d e f g a b c d e f g com a b c d e f g com Temperature display 2.7K Q1 2.7K Q2

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas

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128

ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 129

Wireless Accelerometer

Submitted by: Mark Nelson Abstract One of the frustrations of playing video games is the tangle of wires connected from the computer to the controller. Another frustration is the wire length that limits the distance and freedom of playing the games. A solution to this problem is to use a ZiLOG Z8 microcontroller, Analog Devices accelerometer, and the Abacom transmitter-receiver pair for wireless operation. The accelerometer is the Analog Devices micromachined ADXL202, which is an A2G device used for measuring tilt in two axes, making it ideal for joystick applications. The output is pulse-width modulated and easily read by the microcontroller. The heart of this system is the ZiLOG Z86C06 microcontroller, which samples the accelerometer digital outputs and the states of six push-buttons. It stores the instantaneous values into a register where it is converted into serial format to be output to the transmitter section. The high clock frequency of the microcontroller enables the sampling to be fast enough to recreate the original PWM information from the accelerometer and push-buttons. Serial transmission at 9600 baud ensures that the operator does not notice any delay in the video. The Abacom XRT418 transmitter offers a maximum data rate of 10Kbps and operates at 418MHz. The serial data from the microcontroller is applied to the digital input and is transmitted to a matching receiver at the PC. Its range is 100 meters, suitable for use with very large monitors. The Abacom RCVR 418 receiver offers analog and digital outputs. Test results indicate that reconstruction of the input signal is very good. The design uses another Z8 microcontroller to translate the incoming serial stream into a digital output byte. The accelerometer bits are converted to current sources to drive the game port inputs. This design highlights the many functions and processing capabilities of the Z8 microcontroller. The Z8 collects PWM information, converts it to a standard serial stream, and recreates the original data states at a remote location. With further programming at the receiver, the Z8 can adapt to other game protocols.

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Figure 86. Wireless Accelerometer Block Diagram

6-bit input

ADXL202 Accelerometer

x y

Z8 CPU

Lynx Transmitter

Lynx Receiver

Z8 CPU

8-bit digital output

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ZiLOG Design Concepts Z8 Application Ideas 131

Figure 87. Wireless Accelerometer Schematic Diagram

VCC

Z86C06

13 14 x y 5 10 9 12 PWM Outputs 15 16 17 18 24 0.47µF 0.47µF 25 26 27 Digital Inputs 6 P2.0 P36 P2.1 P2.2 P2.3 P2.4 P2.5 P2.6 P2.7 X2 X1 7 5

VCC

3 2 13 5 Serial Out 1

TXM 418

4

XL202

125K 7

11

VCC 5 VCC 5 1 7 13

Z86C06

P2.0 P2.1 P2.2 P2.3 P2.4 P2.5 P2.6 P2.7 X1 7 15 16 17 18 24 25 26 27

RX 418

2 4

P36

Data Out

X2

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Index

Numerics

64-byte arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Analog Devices . . . . . . . . . 91, 121, 124, 129 analog inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 analog processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 analog voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 analog-to-digital converters . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 anti-short cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 area code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 ASC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 asynchronous bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 attack-sustain-decay envelope . . . . . . . . . 69 audio amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106-107 authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 91 auto mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 automatic window controller . . . . . . . . . . . 97 automobile driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 automobile engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Automotive Rear Sonar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Automotive Speedometer, Odometer, and Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Autonomous Micro-Blimp Controller . . . . . . 6 autonomous mobile nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 autonomous robot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 axle assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

A

A/D conversion . . . . . . . . . . . .24, 75, 83, 118 A/D converter 15, 24, 72, 100, 109, 124, 126, 127 Abacom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 absolute encoders, vertical and horizontal 109 absolute temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 AC coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 AC line frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 AC power source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91, 124, 129 dual-axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43, 91, 124 three-axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 accelerometer-based stride sensor . . . . . . .72 access key code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9, 127 ADC channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 ADC, single-slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40, 97 address scheme, latched . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 air conditioner, electronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 air temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Air-Core meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 aircraft inclination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 alarm mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 alarm system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 algorithmically-generated patterns . . . . . . .57 algorithms, iterative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 algorithms, recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 alternator output current . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 ambient light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 ambient temperature range . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 ambient water temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 amplitude, shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 analog circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66, 72 analog comparator . 1, 24, 31, 38, 60, 83, 115 analog control voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

B

ballast resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 barometric pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 batch process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 battery rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 battery voltage . . . . . . . . . . 9, 30, 72, 75, 127 Battery-Operated Door-Entry System . . . . . 9 bidirectional data serial circuit . . . . . . . . . . 52 black box, transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 boiler temperature sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 brake demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 bump switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 bumper-switch matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 bus interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

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C

Cadmium Sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 car alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 car simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 carrier frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 carrier signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 carrier, phase-locked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 cathode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 CDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 CdS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 ceramic magnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 charge time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 CIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 clock I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 code flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 color intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 color plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 command status code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Commercial DriverÕs License . . . . . . . . . .118 comparator circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 comparator input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20, 72 composite digital audio signal . . . . . . . . . . .69 Compressor Discharge Temperature . . . . .21 compressor protector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 configuration switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conrad Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 control voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21, 24 acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 controlled access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 controller port pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Convergent Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 core temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 counter/timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1, 24, 33 Crab, The . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 crystal oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69, 72 current sense resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

Dallas Semiconductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 89 data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 day-mode time track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 DC motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 109 DC offset adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 DCF77 Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 DCF77 receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 DCF77 Time Radio Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 decelerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 delay circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 demultiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Desktop Fountain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Diagnostic Compressor Protector . . . . . . . 20 dial-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 digital circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Digital Dimmer Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 digital input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 digital notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 digital signature analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 display control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 display refresh pulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 DOF-drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Door Access Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Doppler effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 downcounter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 DPRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 dual-axis accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 91 duty cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 51, 57 index modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

E

early-warning device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 EEPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 27, 40, 89, 95 serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 electric current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

D

D/A converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

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electrical brown-outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 electrical noise immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 electrolyte capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Electrolytic Capacitor ESR Meter . . . . . . . .30 electromagnetic interference . . . . . . . . . . .121 electronic air conditioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 electronic art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Electronic Door Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 electronic fencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 emitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 energy densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 engine noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 enunciator panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Equivalent Series Resistance . . . . . . . . . . .30 Equivalent-Time Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 equivalent-time waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 ESR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30­32 execution time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 external . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 external memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 extreme thermal conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

freely-rotating axle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 frequency generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 fuel tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 fuel-level applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 fuzzy logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

G

gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 galvanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 gear shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 glue logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 109

H

H field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 hand-held remote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 handset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66, 93 handshaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 H-bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 12, 100, 109 heel angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 helium envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 high energy densities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 high-power mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 homing behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 HVAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

F

fault conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Fault tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 feedback . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 9, 60, 86, 109, 118 loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 fingerprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Firearm Locking System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 firmware . . . . . . . . . . . .15, 30Ð31, 60, 66, 75 Flash memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 floor sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 FLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 fluid level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 fluid-level sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 fluid measuring probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 FM broadcast band modulator . . . . . . . . . .69 Forecaster Intelligent Water Delivery Valve 38 Fort Worth, Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112

I

I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 27, 43, 63, 93 expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 interface module, PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 signal management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 I2C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 iButton technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 iChip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Internet functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 ICMP protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 image buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

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impact velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Improved Linear Single-Slope ADC . . . . . .40 incandescent lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 inclination, aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Inclinometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Infrared Data Associated protocols . . . . . .115 infrared diode pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 infrared receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Infrared reflection sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 infrared sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 input protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 input voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 input-output differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 instrument tuner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Integrated Sailboat Electronic System . . . .43 Intelligent Guide for the Blind . . . . . . . . . . .45 intelligent peripheral controller . . . . . . . . . .33 Internet Email Reporting Engine . . . . . . . . .48 Internet functionality, iChip . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Internet Service Provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix inverting peak detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 IP protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 IPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 bandpass amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 receiver chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 IrDA encoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 IrDA interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 IRLEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 ISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 ISP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 iterative algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

Lawrence Livermore Laboratories . . . . . . . 63 lead resistance zeroing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Learn mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 LED . . . . . 2, 9, 12, 18, 31, 57, 60, 75, 76, 80, 95, 97, 126 LED, infrared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 light intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 line activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 linear integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 linear perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 linear potentiometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 linear voltage regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 80 lithium chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries . . . . . . . . . . 51 load-dump protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 look-up table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 63 low-EMI mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75, 121 low-pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 LTB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 lunar nights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 lunar surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Lunar Telemetry Beacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

M

Magic Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 magnet, moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 magnetic card reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 magnetic compass sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 magnetic field strength vector . . . . . . . . . . . 4 magnetic field variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 magnetic field, time-varying . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 manual mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 master computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 mechanical key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Message Cueing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 message passing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 metronome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 microphone feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Micropower Impulse Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 minimum-protection device . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 MIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 mixer/demodulator channels . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

J

joystick applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129

L

lamp controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 lamp sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 large color displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 latched address scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

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modem module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Modular Light Display Panel . . . . . . . . . . . .57 modulator tuning accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 moisture sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 MOSFETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 motion circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 motor stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 mounting tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18, 80

N

nasal decongestant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Nasal Oscillatory Transducer . . . . . . . . . . .60 natural rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 New Sensor Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 noise clamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 nonlinear response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 nonlinear volume response . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

O

Obstacle detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 octal D-latch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 odometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OEMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 off-hook condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 offset weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 on-chip RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 on-hook condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 open-drain mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 operational amplifier, rail-rail . . . . . . . . . . . .40 operational amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . .6, 40, 75 operational modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 optical filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 oscillator frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 OTP Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x output driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 output pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 overvoltage protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

P

PAP protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48, 66, 91 pavement-surface deformations . . . . . . . . 45 peak detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 inverting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 pen device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 pen movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 pen pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 pen tablets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 personal computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 phase-locked carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 phase-triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Phone Dialer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 photointerrupter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 photosensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 phototransistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 photovoltaic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 piezoelectric buzzer . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 54, 118 piezoelectric speaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 ping-pulse wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 pin-out compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 pitch range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Pocket Music Synthesizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Popular Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 port pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Portable Individual Navigator . . . . . . . . . . 72 positioning motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Postal Shock Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 potential divider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 potentiometer, linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52, 75, 124 management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 supply . . . . . . . . . . . 60, 72, 80, 106, 127 transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 power-sink driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 PPP protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 preprogrammed decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 prescaler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 24, 124 Pressure Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PRF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 program memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 31 program mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

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programmable timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1, 43 propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 propulsion motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 prototype software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Prototype systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 pseudodigital appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 pull-up resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 pulse count, remote-control . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Pulse Rate Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 pulse variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 pulsed water fountain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 pulse-width modulation . . . . . . . . . . . .57, 126 PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12, 60, 126, 129 drive signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 input channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 input signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Input/Output Interface Module . . . . . . .78 output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107, 109 output signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 output signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Ramp ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64, 78, 109, 124 PWM-generated reference . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 pyrotechnic charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

RC time constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Reaction Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 reaction time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 receiver detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Recognition algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 reference voltage . . . . . . . . . . 24, 45, 75, 115 refresh pulses, display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 relative timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 remote console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 remote range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Remote-Control Antenna Positioner . . . . . 86 remote-control pulse count . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Remote-Controlled Air Conditioner . . . . . . 83 reset circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60, 66 reset pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 resistive load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 resistor-summing junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 resonance frequencies, sinus . . . . . . . . . . 60 return code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 RF Dog Collar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Rocker Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 rolling dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 rotational movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 rotational speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 routing numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 RS-232 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 RS-485 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 run cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Q

quartz crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

S

sample rate adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 scale transposer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 SCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 SCTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 secure web transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 security bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 segmentation, program/data memory . . . . 69 Seiko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 seismological observations . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 sender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 sensing coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

R

R-2R network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Radar on a Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 radio transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 railroad vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 rain, intensity of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 ramp-capacitor discharge transistor . . . . . .30 random numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 RC circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 RC filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

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sensing element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1, 106 temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 sensor capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 serial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 serial communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 serial data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 serial interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48, 80, 109 serial port . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20, 48, 70, 75, 76 serial-to-parallel shift register . . . . . . . . . . .31 shift register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31, 80 shock amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 shock threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 shut-down operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 signal strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 signature analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Signature Recognition and Authentication .91 single . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 single-slope ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40, 97 single-supply operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 sinus congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 sleep-mode current drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 sliding windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 small-echo signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Smart Phone Accessory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Smart Solar Water Heating System . . . . . .95 Smart Window with Fuzzy Control . . . . . . .97 soil moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 solar cell panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 solar radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Solar Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9, 35, 118 sonar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1­2 sound effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 spacecraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 speedometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4, 103 stage illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Stages Baby Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 stand-alone clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 standby mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 stepper motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45, 83 STOP mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9, 124 stride sensor, accelerometer-based . . . . . .72

strobing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 subsumption architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 successive approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 sun collector temperature sensor . . . . . . . 95 Sun Tracking to Optimize Solar Power Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 system check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 system control block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 24

T

tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Tandy Corporate headquarters . . . . . . . . 112 Tandy Light Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 tantalum capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 TCP protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 telemetry system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 temperature control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 temperature drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75, 124 Temperature Measuring Device . . . . . . . 115 temperature-compensation method . . . . 124 test lead resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 test leads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Thermal management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 thermistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Thionyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 threshold detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 tilt-sensing module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 time functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 time measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 time stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 time track, day-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 timed actuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 timer control mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 timer values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 time-related thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 time-varying magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 TOUT mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 118 train lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 infrared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

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receiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 transmitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 ultrasonic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Transmission Trainer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 transmitter . . . . . . . . . 1, 6, 45, 52, 53, 89, 106 black box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 driver circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 infrared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6, 45, 86 radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51, 89 ultrasonic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 transmitter-receiver pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 triple-axis accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 TV remote- control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

voltage-to-frequency converter . . . . . . . . . 45 VREF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

W

wake-up switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 watch-dog timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 water flow pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 wave burst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 waveform, equivalent-time . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 wavetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 web transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 WFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 wind direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 wind speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 wind, force of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 windmill blade pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Windmill Commander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Wireless Accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 wireless communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

U

UART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48, 70 UDP protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 UFO Flight Regulation System . . . . . . . . .121 ultrasonic signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 ultrasonic transceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 ultrasonic transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1, 43 user input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

Z

Z02204 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Z84C15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Z86C03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Z86C04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Z86C06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 103, 124, 129 Z86C08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Z86C96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70 Z86E04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 30, 31, 75, 115 Z86E08 . . . . . . . . 1, 18, 24, 66, 80, 112, 121 Z86E21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Z86E30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 83 Z86E31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 45, 86 Z86E40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Z86E83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 72, 106, 126 Z8E001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Z8PE001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Z8Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ZDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 zero-crossing detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 ZiLOG CCP emulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

V

Variable Output Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 variable-speed alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 variable-strength signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 vectored motion patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Vehicle Anti-Theft Module . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 velocity calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Vibration Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 virtual air temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 virtual Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Visual Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 visual response compensation . . . . . . . . . .24 voltage drop-out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 voltage regulator IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 voltage regulator, linear . . . . . . . . . . . .72, 80

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ZORB diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

AN004901-0900

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